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United States

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The United States Cabinet (usually referred to as the President's Cabinet or simplified as the Cabinet) is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. Its existence dates back to the first American President, George Washington, who appointed a Cabinet of four people (Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War Henry Knox; and Attorney General Edmund Randolph) to advise and assist him in his duties. Cabinet officers are nominated by the President and then presented to the United States Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they are sworn in and begin their duties. Aside from the Attorney General, and previously, the Postmaster General, they all receive the title Secretary.

Contents

Constitutional and legal basis

Confirmation requirement

Article Two, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution says that the President

"...shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments."

Other constitutional references

Article Two of the Constitution provides that the President can require "the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices."[1] The Constitution did not then establish the names (or list or limit the number) of Cabinet departments; those details were left to the Congress to determine.

Later, upon addition of the 25th Amendment to the Constitution, a provision was created allowing the Vice President and "a majority of the principal officers" of the executive branch departments to transmit a notice (to the Speaker of the House and the Senate President pro tempore) that the President is unfit for office. If the President contests this finding, the Congress is directed to settle the matter.

United States Cabinet nominees are chosen from a large pool of potential candidates. One of the few qualification restrictions is set out in the Ineligibility Clause of Article One of the Constitution: "no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office." Accordingly, a sitting member of the United States Congress must resign his or her seat to accept a Cabinet appointment. This clause also bars any member of Congress from holding an executive office that was created by law during his or her current term in Congress.

This constitutional separation between the executive and the legislative branches is the opposite of the British parliamentary cabinet system, where members of the Cabinet are required by convention to be sitting members of the legislature.

The Cabinet in federal law

There is no explicit definition of the term "Cabinet" in either the United States Code or the Code of Federal Regulations. However, there are occasional references to "cabinet-level officers" or "secretaries", which when viewed in context appear to refer to the heads of the "executive departments" as listed in 5 U.S.C. § 101.

Under 5 U.S.C. § 3110 federal officials are prohibited from appointing family members to certain governmental posts, including seats in the Cabinet. Passed in 1967, the law was a response to John F. Kennedy's appointment of Robert F. Kennedy to the post of Attorney General.

Precedence and succession

The Cabinet of Barack Obama meeting in the Cabinet Room

Order of precedence

During a meeting of the President's Cabinet, members are seated according to the order of precedence, with higher ranking officers sitting closer to the center of the table. Hence, the President and Vice President sit directly across from each other at the middle of the oval shaped table. Then, the Secretaries of State and Defense are seated directly to the right and left, respectively, of the President and the Secretary of Treasury and the Attorney General sit to right and left, respectively, of the Vice President. This alternation according to rank continues, with Cabinet-rank members (those not heading executive departments, the Vice President excluded) sitting at the very ends, farthest away from the President and Vice President.[citation needed]

Line of succession

The Cabinet is also important in the presidential line of succession, which determines an order in which Cabinet officers succeed to the office of the president following the death or resignation of the president. At the top of the order of succession are the Vice President, Speaker of the House and President pro tempore of the Senate, and Secretary of State. Because of this, it is common practice not to have the entire Cabinet in one location, even for ceremonial occasions like the State of the Union Address, where at least one Cabinet member does not attend. This person is the designated survivor, and he or she is held at a secure, undisclosed location, ready to take over if the President, Vice President, Speaker of the House, President pro tempore of the Senate, Secretary of State and the rest of the Cabinet are killed.

Cabinet and Cabinet-level officials

The Obama Cabinet.

The men and women listed below were nominated by President Barack Obama to form his initial Cabinet and were confirmed by the United States Senate on the date noted. An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor do White House staff positions like chief of staff or press secretary.

Secretary Gates was previously confirmed by the Senate (as President Bush's Secretary of Defense) and therefore did not need to be re-confirmed.

Cabinet

Department Office Incumbent Image in Office since
Department of state.svg
Department of State
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg January 21, 2009
US-DeptOfTheTreasury-Seal.svg
Department of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner Timothy Geithner official portrait.jpg January 26, 2009
United States Department of Defense Seal.svg
Department of Defense
Secretary of Defense Robert Gates Robert Gates, official DoD photo portrait, 2006.jpg December 18, 2006
US-DeptOfJustice-Seal.svg
Department of Justice
Attorney General Eric Holder Eric Holder official portrait.jpg February 2, 2009
US-DeptOfTheInterior-Seal.svg
Department of the Interior
Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar Ken Salazar official DOI portrait crop.jpg January 21, 2009
US-DeptOfAgriculture-Seal2.svg
Department of Agriculture
Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack Tom Vilsack, official USDA photo portrait.jpg January 21, 2009
US-DeptOfCommerce-Seal.svg
Department of Commerce
Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke Gary Locke official portrait.jpg March 24, 2009
US-DeptOfLabor-Seal.svg
Department of Labor
Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis Hilda Solis official DOL portrait.jpg February 24, 2009
US-DeptOfHHS-Seal.svg
Department of Health and Human Services
Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius Kathleen Sebelius official portrait.jpg April 28, 2009
US-DeptOfHUD-Seal.svg
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan DonovanShaunLS.jpg January 26, 2009
US-DeptOfTransportation-Seal.svg
Department of Transportation
Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood Ray LaHood official DOT portrait.jpg January 22, 2009
US-DeptOfEnergy-Seal.svg
Department of Energy
Secretary of Energy Steven Chu Steven Chu official DOE portrait crop.jpg January 21, 2009
US-DeptOfEducation-Seal.svg
Department of Education
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan DuncanArne.jpg January 21, 2009
US-DeptOfVeteransAffairs-Seal.svg
Department of Veterans Affairs
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki Eric Shinseki official Veterans Affairs portrait.jpg January 21, 2009
US Department of Homeland Security Seal.svg
Department of Homeland Security
Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano Janet Napolitano official portrait.jpg January 21, 2009

Cabinet-level officers

Department Office Incumbent Image in Office since
US Vice President Seal.svg
Office of the Vice President
Vice President of the United States Joseph Biden Joe Biden official portrait crop.jpg January 20, 2009
US-WhiteHouse-Logo.svg
Executive Office of the President
White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel Rahm Emanuel, official photo portrait color.jpg January 20, 2009
US-OfficeOfManagementAndBudget-Seal.svg
Office of Management and Budget
Director of the Office of Management and Budget Peter Orszag Peter R Orszag CBO official picture.jpg January 20, 2009
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
United States Trade Representative Ron Kirk Ron Kirk official portrait.jpg March 18, 2009
Environmental Protection Agency logo.svg
Environmental Protection Agency
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Lisa P. Jackson Lisa P. Jackson official portrait.jpg January 22, 2009
Department of state.svg
United States Mission to the United Nations
Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice Susan Rice, official State Dept photo portrait, 2009.jpg January 22, 2009
Council of Economic Advisers.png
Council of Economic Advisers
Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers Christina Romer Christina Romer official portrait small.jpg January 28, 2009

Salary

Cabinet officials receive an amount of pay determined by Title 5 of the United States Code. Some cabinet-level officials, including the Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff have their salaries determined differently.

Former Cabinet departments

Renamed Cabinet offices

Executive officials no longer of Cabinet rank

Proposed Cabinet departments

  • U.S. Department of Commerce and Industry (proposed by business interests in the 1880s)
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture and Labor (proposed by members of U.S. Congress)
  • U.S. Department of Peace (proposed by Congressman Dennis Kucinich, Senator Matthew Neely, and other members of the U.S. Congress)[11]
  • U.S. Department of Public Welfare (proposed by President Warren Harding)
  • U.S. Department of Natural Resources (proposed by former President Herbert Hoover, the Eisenhower administration, President Richard Nixon and the GOP national platform in 1976)
  • U.S. Department of Social Welfare (proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt)
  • U.S. Department of Public Works (proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt)
  • U.S. Department of Conservation (proposed by Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes)
  • U.S. Department of Urban Affairs (proposed by President John F. Kennedy)
  • U.S. Department of Business and Labor (proposed by President Lyndon Johnson)
  • U.S. Department of Community Development (proposed by President Richard Nixon; to be chiefly concerned with infrastructure)
  • U.S. Department of Human Resources (proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a revised Department of Health, Education, and Welfare)
  • U.S. Department of Economic Development (proposed by President Richard Nixon; essentially a consolidation of the Departments of Commerce and Labor)
  • U.S. Department of Environmental Protection (proposed by Senator Arlen Specter)
  • U.S. Department of International Trade (proposed by the Heritage Foundation)
  • U.S. Department of Global Development (proposed by the Center for Global Development and others)
  • U.S. Department of Culture (proposed by Quincy Jones)[12]

Lists of Cabinets

See also

References

  1. ^ Constitution of the United States, gpoaccess.gov
  2. ^ The office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs existed under the Articles of Confederation from October 20, 1781 to March 3, 1789, the day before the Constitution came into force.
  3. ^ Feberal Emergency Management Agency (1996-02-26). "President Clinton Raises FEMA Director to Cabinet Status". Press release. http://web.archive.org/web/19970116185236/www.fema.gov/home/NWZ96/cabinet.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  4. ^ Fowler, Daniel (2008-11-19). "Emergency Managers Make It Official: They Want FEMA Out of DHS". CQ Politics. http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?docID=hsnews-000002988269&cpage=1. Retrieved 2010-03-03. "During the Clinton administration, FEMA Administrator James Lee Witt met with the cabinet. His successor in the Bush administration, Joe M. Allbaugh, did not."  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5ny13zsIv)
  5. ^ Tenet, George (2007). At the Center of the Storm. London: HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN 0061147788. "Under President Clinton, I was a cabinet member - a legacy of John Deutch's requirement when he took the job as DCI - but my contacts with the president, while always interesting, were sporadic. I could see him as often as I wanted but was not on a regular schedule. Under President Bush, the DCI lost its Cabinet-level status." 
  6. ^ Schoenfeld, Gabriel (July/August 2007). "The CIA Follies (Cont'd.)". Commentary. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/the-cia-follies--cont-d--10897?page=all. Retrieved 2009-05-22. "Though he was to lose the cabinet rank he had enjoyed under Clinton, he came to enjoy “extraordinary access” to the new President, who made it plain that he wanted to be briefed every day." 
  7. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (1996-09-29). "C.I.A. Chief Charts His Own Course". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/29/us/cia-chief-charts-his-own-course.html?scp=5&sq=John%20M.%20Deutch%20cabinet%20rank&st=nyt&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-05-22. "It is no secret that Mr. Deutch initially turned down the intelligence position, and was rewarded for taking it by getting cabinet rank." 
  8. ^ Clinton, Bill (1993-07-01). "Remarks by the President and Lee Brown, Director of Office of National Drug Control Policy". White House. http://clinton6.nara.gov/1993/07/1993-07-01-presidents-remarks-at-swearing-in-of-lee-brown.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. "We are here today to install a uniquely qualified person to lead our nation's effort in the fight against illegal drugs and what they do to our children, to our streets, and to our communities. And to do it for the first time from a position sitting in the President's Cabinet." 
  9. ^ Cook, Dave (2009-03-11). "New drug czar gets lower rank, promise of higher visibility". Christan Science Monitor. http://features.csmonitor.com/politics/2009/03/11/new-drug-czar-gets-lower-rank-promise-of-higher-visibility/. Retrieved 2009-03-16. "For one thing, in the Obama administration the Drug Czar will not have Cabinet status, as the job did during George W. Bush’s administration." 
  10. ^ Staff reporter (2009-02-09). "Bipartisan leaders of the Senate Small Business Committee renewed their call for President Obama to elevate the SBA administrator to cabinet-level status". Business Research Services, Inc.. http://features.csmonitor.com/politics/2009/03/11/new-drug-czar-gets-lower-rank-promise-of-higher-visibility/. Retrieved 2009-05-22. "The SBA administrator held cabinet rank in the Clinton administration, but not under President Bush." 
  11. ^ "History of Legislation to Create a Dept. of Peace". http://www.thepeacealliance.org/content/view/54/130/. 
  12. ^ Clarke, Jr., John (2009-01-16). "Quincy Jones Lobbies Obama for Secretary of Culture Post". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/rockdaily/index.php/2009/01/16/quincy-jones-lobbies-obama-for-secretary-of-culture-post/. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 

Further reading

  • Rudalevige, Andrew. "The President and the Cabinet", in Michael Nelson, ed., The Presidency and the Political System, 8th ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006).
  • Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet (three volumes). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2000. ISBN 0-87436-977-0. A history of the United States and Confederate States cabinets, their secretaries, and their departments.
  • Bennett, Anthony. 'The American President's Cabinet' Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1996. ISBN 0-333-60691-4. A study of the U S Cabinet from Kennedy to Clinton.

External links


Simple English

The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet") is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, and its existence dates back to the first American President (George Washington), who appointed a Cabinet of four people (Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson; Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War, Henry Knox; and Attorney General, Edmund Randolph) to advise and assist him in his duties. Cabinet officers are nominated by the President and then presented to the United States Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they are sworn in and begin their duties. Aside from the Attorney General, and previously, the Postmaster General, they all receive the title Secretary.

Current Cabinet

Department Office Incumbent Image in Office since
File:Department of
Department of State
Secretary of StateHillary Rodham ClintonFile:Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portraitJanuary 21, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of the Treasury
Secretary of the TreasuryTimothy GeithnerFile:Timothy GeithnerJanuary 26, 2009
File:United States Department of Defense
Department of Defense
Secretary of DefenseRobert GatesFile:Robert Gates, official DoD photo portrait,December 6, 2006
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Justice
Attorney GeneralEric HolderFile:Eric Holder officialFebruary 2, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of the Interior
Secretary of the InteriorKen SalazarFile:Ken Salazar official DOI portraitJanuary 21, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Agriculture
Secretary of AgricultureTom VilsackFile:Tom Vilsack, official USDA photoJanuary 21, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Commerce
Secretary of CommerceGary LockeFile:Gary Locke officialMarch 24, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Labor
Secretary of LaborHilda SolisFile:Hilda Solis official DOL February 24, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Health and Human Services
Secretary of Health and Human ServicesKathleen SebeliusFile:Kathleen Sebelius officialApril 28, 2009
[[File:|70px]]
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary of Housing and Urban DevelopmentShaun Donovan[[File:|85px]]January 26, 2009
[[File:|73px]]
Department of Transportation
Secretary of TransportationRay LaHoodFile:Ray LaHood officialJanuary 22, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Energy
Secretary of EnergySteven ChuFile:Steven Chu official DOE portrait January 21, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Education
Secretary of EducationArne Duncan[[File:|85px]] January 21, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Department of Veterans' Affairs
Secretary of Veterans' AffairsEric ShinsekiFile:Eric Shinseki official Veterans AffairsJanuary 21, 2009
File:US Department of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
Secretary of Homeland SecurityJanet NapolitanoFile:Janet Napolitano official January 21, 2009

Cabinet-level administration offices

Seven positions have cabinet-level rank, which allows these individuals to attend Cabinet meetings without being secretaries of executive departments:

Department Office Incumbent Image in Office since
File:US Vice President
Office of the Vice President
Vice President of the United StatesJoe BidenFile:Joe Biden official portraitJanuary 20, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Executive Office of the President
White House Chief of StaffRahm EmanuelFile:Rahm Emanuel, official photo portraitJanuary 20, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Office of Management and Budget
Director of the Office of Management and BudgetPeter OrszagFile:Peter R Orszag CBO officialJanuary 20, 2009
[[File:|75px]]
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
United States Trade RepresentativeRon KirkFile:Ron Kirk officialMarch 18, 2009
File:Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
Administrator of the Environmental Protection AgencyLisa P. JacksonFile:Lisa P. Jackson officialJanuary 22, 2009
File:Department of
United States Mission to the United Nations
Ambassador to the United NationsSusan Rice File:Susan Rice, official State Dept photo portrait, January 22, 2009
Council of Economic AdvisersChair of the Council of Economic AdvisorsChristina RomerFile:Christina Romer official portraitJanuary 28, 2009
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