United States Capitol rotunda: Wikis


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Rotunda viewed from behind the statue of George Washington

The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.. Located below the Capitol dome, is the tallest part of the Capitol and has been described as its "symbolic and physical heart."

The rotunda is surrounded by corridors connecting the House of Representatives and Senate sides of the Capitol. To the south of the rotunda is the semi-circular National Statuary Hall, which until 1857 was the House of Representatives chamber. The northeast of the Rotunda is the Old Senate Chamber, used by the Senate until 1859.

The Rotunda is 96 feet (29 m) in diameter and rises 180 feet 3 inches (54.94 m) to the canopy, and is visited by thousands of people each day. It is also used for ceremonial events authorized by concurrent resolution, including the lying in state of honored people.


Design and construction

Capitol dome

The doctor and architect William Thornton was the winner of the contest to design the Capitol in 1793. Thornton had first conceived the idea of a central rotunda. However, due to lack of funds or resources, oft-interrupted construction, and the British attack on Washington during the War of 1812, work on the rotunda did not begin until 1818. The rotunda was completed in 1824 under Architect of the Capitol Charles Bulfinch, as part of a series of new buildings and projects in preparation for the final visit of Marquis de Lafayette in 1824. The rotunda was designed in the neoclassical style and was intended to evoke the design of the Pantheon.

The sandstone rotunda walls rise 48 feet (15 m) above the floor; everything above this—the Capitol dome–was designed in 1854 by Thomas U. Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol. Walter had also designed the Capitol's north and south extensions. Work on the dome began in 1856, and in 1859, Walter redesigned the rotunda to consist of an inner and outer dome, with a canopy suspended between them that would be visible through an oculus at the top of the inner dome. In 1862, Walter asked painter Constantino Brumidi to design "a picture 65 feet (20 m) in diameter, painted in fresco, on the concave canopy over the eye of the New Dome of the U.S. Capitol." At this time, Brumidi may have added a watercolor canopy design over Walter's tentative 1859 sketch. The dome was being finished in the middle of the American Civil War and was constructed from fireproof cast iron. During the Civil War, the rotunda was used as a military hospital for Union soldiers. The dome was finally completed in 1866.

Apotheosis of Washington

The Apotheosis of Washington, as seen looking up from the rotunda

The Apotheosis of Washington (1865) is the very large fresco painted by Italian artist Constantino Brumidi in the dome of the rotunda. Brumidi, who worked for three years in the Vatican under Pope Gregory XVI and served several aristocrats as an artist for palaces and villas, including the prince Torlonia, before immigrating to the United States in 1852, spent much of the last 25 years of his life working in the Capitol. In addition to the Apotheosis of Washington he designed the Brumidi Corridors.

Frieze of American History

The "Frieze of American History" is painted to appear as a carved stone bas-relief frieze but is actually a trompe-l'œil fresco cycle depicting 19 scenes from American history. The "frieze" occupies a band immediately below the 36 windows. Brumidi designed the frieze and prepared a sketch in 1859 but did not begin painting until 1878. Brumidi painted seven and a half scenes. While working on "William Penn and the Indians," Brumidi fell off the scaffolding and held on to a rail for 15 minutes until he was rescued. He died a few months later in 1880. After Brumidi's death, Filippo Costaggini was commissioned to complete the eight and a half remaining scenes in Brumidi's sketches. He finished in 1889 and left a 31-foot (9 m) gap due to an error in Brumidi's original design. In 1951, Allyn Cox completed the frieze.

Except for the last three panels named by Allyn Cox, the scenes have no particular titles and many variant titles have been given. The names given here are the names used by the Architect of the Capitol, which uses the names that Brumidi used most frequently in his letters and that were used in Edward Clark and by newspaper articles. The 19 panels are:

Scene Description
America and History.jpg America and History

This is the first panel and the only allegorical one, portraying a personification of America, wearing a liberty cap, with spear and shield in the center, surrounded by other allegorical figures. To the right is an Indian maiden with a bow and arrows, representing the wild North American continent. At America's feet is a the female personification of History, with a stone tablet to record events. To the left of History is an eagle, perched on a fasces, the ancient Roman bundle of birch rods symbolizing authority. To the left of America is another eagle, carrying the olive branch of peace. To the center-left in the background is a man in same pose as the prospector at the end of "Discovery of Gold in California"; this is because Brumidi planned to have the scene connect with his planned last one.

Landing of Columbus.jpg Landing of Columbus

Christopher Columbus is depicting arriving in the Americas in the first of four scenes of the Spanish conquest. Columbus disembarks off a plank from the Santa María. His crew, armed with weapons, stays aboard; one crew member has a spyglass. Native Americans are portrayed greeting Columbus. Indian women and children are shown, along with native warriors to the right. The Columbus figure may have been based on Luigi Persico statue of Columbus, which was at the time of the painting the on the east central steps of the Capitol.

Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple.jpg Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple

This panel shows the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés entering an Aztec temple, being welcomed by Moctezuma II. At the beginning of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Moctezuma and the Aztecs honored Cortés as a god, believing that he was the returning god Quetzalcoatl. The Aztec sun stone and cult images are based on sketches drawn by Brumidi in Mexico City.

Pizarro Going to Peru.jpg Pizarro Going to Peru

Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro is depicted leading his horse through the jungle in search of El Dorado, the mythical land of gold, in this representation of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.

Burial of DeSoto.jpg Burial of DeSoto

This panel depict the burial of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in the Mississippi River after his death from a fever. De Soto has led the largest European expedition of both 15th and 16th centuries through the Southeast and Midwest searching for gold, silver, and other valuables.

Captain Smith and Pocahontas.jpg Captain Smith and Pocahontas

Pocahontas is portrayed saving Captain John Smith, one of the founders of Jamestown, Virginia, from being clubbed to death.

Landing of the Pilgrims.jpg Landing of the Pilgrims

Pilgrims led by William Brewster give thanks to God for their safe voyage in this scene depicting Plymouth Colony.

William Penn and the Indians.jpg William Penn and the Indians

Quaker leader and Province of Pennsylvania founder William Penn is depicted with Lenape (Delaware) Native Americans under the elm tree at Shackamaxon. This is the last panel on which Brumidi worked.

Colonization of New England.jpg Colonization of New England

This panel shows New England settlers busily logging, sawing, and using lumber to construct a building. This is the first scene painted entirely by Costaggini.

Oglethorpe and the Indians.jpg Oglethorpe and the Indians

James Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia Colony and first Georgia governor, is shown with the Muskogee (Creek) leaders in Savannah, Georgia. The Muskogee present Oglethorpe with a buffalo skin with an eagle in the center, a symbol of friendship and trust.

Battle of Lexington.jpg Battle of Lexington

This panel depicts the "shot heard 'round the world" at the Battle of Lexington, the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War. Major John Pitcairn is shown on horseback at center, with British Army or Royal Marines troops to the right and Lexington militiamen at left.

Declaration of Independence.jpg Declaration of Independence

Idealized depiction of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, authors of the Declaration of Independence, reading the declaration to celebrating colonists.

Surrender of Cornwallis.jpg Surrender of Cornwallis

Depiction of George Washington on horseback receiving the ceremonial sword of surrender from Charles O'Hara, who represented Lord Cornwallis after the final British defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. In reality, it is thought that Washington declined O'Hara's sword because according to the custom of the time it would only be proper for Washington to receive the sword from Cornwallis himself; Major General Benjamin Lincoln instead accepted the sword.

Death of Tecumseh.jpg Death of Tecumseh

This panel depicts the death of Shawnee chief and Indian Confederation leader Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada during the War of 1812 (partially an extension of Tecumseh's War).

American Army Entering the City of Mexico.jpg American Army Entering the City of Mexico.

U.S. Army troops led by Winfield Scott enter Mexico City after the fall of Mexico City, which ended the Mexican-American War with a decisive American victory. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which provided for the massive Mexican Cession of territory in what is now the Western United States.

Discovery of Gold in California.jpg Discovery of Gold in California

Prospectors dig and pan for gold with picks, shovels, and other tools in this depiction of the California Gold Rush. In the center, three men (one possibly representing John Sutter) examine a prospector's pan. This was the last scene designed by Brumidi and painted by Costaggini.

Peace at the End of the Civil War.jpg Peace at the End of the Civil War

This scene, the first of Allyn Cox's three panels, depicts a Confederate soldier and a Union soldier shaking hands at the end of the American Civil War, symbolizing reconciliation and reunification. The cotton plant and the Northern pine tree symbolize the South and the North.

Naval Gun Crew in the Spanish-American War.jpg Naval Gun Crew in the Spanish-American War

A group of United States Navy sailors in a gun crew are depicted in a naval battle during the Spanish–American War. and the United States won a victory over Spain in the war. The 1898 Treaty of Paris provided for Cuba's independence from Spain and the American acquisition of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

The Birth of Aviation.jpg The Birth of Aviation.

This scene depicts the Wright brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903. The Wright Flyer is shown just off the ground, with Orville Wright in the plane and Wilbur Wright running alongside to steady the wing. To the left are Leonardo da Vinci, Samuel Pierpont Langley, and Octave Chanute, other aviation pioneers, holding models of earlier designs for the first flying machine. An eagle holds an olive branch in the bottom right.

Historical paintings

Eight niches in the rotunda hold large, framed historical paintings. All are oil-on-canvas and measure 12 by 18 feet (3.6 m by 5.5 m). Four of these are scenes from the American Revolution, painted by John Trumbull, who was commissioned by Congress to do the work in 1817. These are Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning his Commission. These were placed between 1819 and 1824. Between 1840 and 1855, four more paintings were added. These depicted the exploration and colonization of America and were all done by different artists. These paintings are Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn, Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, and Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir.

Declaration of Independence
Artist John Trumbull
Year 1819
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Declaration of Independence was the first painting that Trumbull completed for the rotunda. An iconic image and probably the most widely recognized of the paintings in the rotunda, the painting was commissioned in 1817, purchased in 1819 and placed in 1826.[1]

The painting depicts John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, and the principal author, Thomas Jefferson—members of the Committee of Five, which drafted the Declaration of Independence—presenting the declaration to the Second Continental Congress and President John Hancock in July 1776 at Independence Hall in Philadelphia.[2]

The painting is not completely historically accurate and is somewhat anachronistic. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 42 are represented; the rest are absent, possibly because they were not present at the adoption of the Declaration of Independence or had died by the time of Trumbull's painting. Four are included who did not sign the declaration but whom Trumbull found worthy also: George Clinton, Robert R. Livingston, Thomas Willing, and John Dickinson.[3] A reproduction of it appears on the United States two-dollar bill.[4]

Surrender of General Burgoyne
Artist John Trumbull
Year 1822
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Surrender of General Burgoyne was also commissioned in 1817, purchased in 1822, and placed in 1826. It depicts the surrender of British soldiers under General John Burgoyne after the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. This battle was a key victory for the Americans, prevented the division of New England, and secured French military assistance to the Americans.

The central figure, from the Continental Army, is General Horatio Gates, who refused to accept the traditional sword, of surrender, offered by Burgoyne. Instead, treating his former foe as a gentleman, General Gates invited General Burgoyne into his tent. The other Americans, shown to the right, are other officers serving in the Continental Army during the time.

Trumbull planned this outdoor scene to contrast with Declaration of Independence (above), displayed beside it on the wall of the U.S. Capitol rotunda.[5] Both paintings show large groups of people, but one is an indoor scene, while the other is an outdoor scene of similar perspective.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis
Artist John Trumbull
Year 1820
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis was also commissioned in 1817 but placed in 1820. It depicts the final surrender of the British after the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, in which a combined American-French force led by George Washington, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Comte de Rochambeau over British troops under Lord Cornwallis. The surrender led to the cessation of major Revolutionary War hostilities and British recognition of American independence in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.

The scene here depicts the same event as the "Surrender of Cornwallis" panel of the "Frieze of American History." American General Benjamin Lincoln is portrayed at the center of the painting riding a white horse, with French officers on the left and Americans on the right, led by Washington on the brown horse. The British were represented by officers, but Lord Cornwallis himself was not present and was represented instead by Charles O'Hara. As noted above, Washington declined O'Hara's sword because according to the custom of the time it would only be proper from Washington to receive the sword from Cornwallis himself; Major Lincoln accepted the sword in Washington's place. Trumbull was proud of the fact that he had painted portraits of the French officers while in France and included a small self-portrait of himself under the American flag on the right side of the painting.[6]

General George Washington Resigning his
Artist John Trumbull
Year 1824
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

General George Washington Resigning his Commission was commissioned in 1817 and placed in 1824. It depicts George Washington addressing Congress to resign his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, on December 23, 1783.

The U.S. Congress, at the time, was meeting at the Maryland State House in Annapolis. This celebrated incident established a strong tradition of civilian control of the military in the United States and the rejection of military dictatorship in favor of liberal democracy.

Washington is depicted along with two aides-de-camp, as he addresses the president of the Congress. Also shown in the painting are Thomas Mifflin, Elbridge Gerry, and three future U.S. presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and James Madison. His wife, Martha Washington, and her three grandchildren, are shown watching from the gallery section (balcony area at right), although they were not in fact present at Washington's resignation.[7]

Landing of Columbus
Artist John Vanderlyn
Year 1847
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Landing of Columbus was commissioned in 1836/1837 and placed in 1847. Painted

by John Vanderlyn, it depicts Christopher Columbus landing in the West Indies, on San Salvador Island (Guanahani), on October 12, 1492.

In the foreground, Christopher Columbus raises the royal banner to claim the land for Spain, and he stands bareheaded with his hat at his feet in honor of the sanctity of the event. The captains of the ships Niña and Pinta follow, carrying the banner of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. The crew displays a range of emotions, and some search for gold in the sand. Nearby, natives watch from behind a tree at the right.[8]

Discovery of the Mississippi
Artist William H. Powell
Year 1847
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Discovery of the Mississippi was the last painting to be commissioned by Congress for the rotunda. William H. Powell was given the commission in 1847, and the painting was finally purchased in 1855. At the center of the canvas, Spanish navigator and conquistador Hernando de Soto is seen riding a white horse. De Soto is thought to have become the first European to see the Mississippi River in 1541.

The painting depicts de Soto and his troops approaching Native Americans in front of tepees, with a chief holding a peace pipe. The foreground is filled by weapons and soldiers to represent the devastating battle at Mauvila (or Mabila), in which de Soto suffered a Pyrrhic victory over Choctaws under Tuscaloosa. To the right, a monk prays as a large crucifix is set into the ground.[9]

Baptism of Pocahontas
Artist John Gadsby Chapman
Year 1840
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Baptism of Pocahontas was painted by John Gadsby Chapman, given the commission in 1837. The painting was placed in 1840. It depicts Pocahontas in white as she is baptized (under the name "Rebecca") by the Anglican priest Alexander Whiteaker in Jamestown, Virginia. This event is believed to have taken place in 1613 or 1614.

Pocahontas kneels, surrounded by family members, including her father, Chief Powhatan, and colonists. Her brother Nantequaus turns away from the ceremony. The baptism occurred before her marriage to Englishman John Rolfe who stands behind her. Their union is said to be the first recorded marriage between a European and a Native American. The scene symbolizes the belief of some Americans at the time that native tribes should accept Christianity and other European customs of the period.

Embarkation of the Pilgrims
Artist Robert W. Weir
Year 1844
Type Oil on canvas
Dimensions 365.76 cm × 548.64 cm (144.00 in × 216.00 in)
Location Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C.

Embarkation of the Pilgrims was also commissioned in 1837 and placed in 1844. Painted by Robert W. Weir, it depicts the Pilgrims on the deck of the ship Speedwell as they depart Delfshaven in South Holland on July 22, 1620. The Pilgrims traveled aboard the Speedwell to Southampton. There they met additional colonists and transferred to the Mayflower.

The painting shows William Brewster, holding the Bible, and pastor John Robinson leading Governor Carver, William Bradford, Miles Standish, and their families in prayer. The rainbow, at the left side of the painting, symbolizes hope and divine protection.[10]



From the Statuary Hall Collection

Among the group of eleven statues currently encircling the rotunda against the wall at floor level are five from the National Statuary Hall collection:

These five presidents will remain in the rotunda indefinitely or until an act of Congress.


Martin Luther King, Jr.

The Martin Luther King, Jr. memorial

Martin Luther King, Jr., is to date the only African-American honored with a bust in the United States Capitol. The bust of his head and shoulders is 36 inches (91 cm) high and stands on a pyramidal Belgian black marble base that is 66 inches (168 cm) high. Martin Luther King is depicted in a contemplative and peaceful mood, looking slightly downward. His face is smoothly modeled, in contrast to the textures of his hair and of his jacket and tie. The pedestal was designed by the sculptor to follow the lines of the shoulders of the bust, creating a unified shape and enhancing the monumental effect.

On December 21, 1982, the Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 153, which directed the procurement of a marble bust "to serve to memorialize King's contributions on such matters as the historic legislation of the 1960s affecting civil rights and the right to vote." Senator Charles Mathias, Jr., Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Library, the congressional committee overseeing the procurement, said at the unveiling that "Martin Luther King takes his rightful place among the heroes of this nation."

Because the bust would be such an important and visible work of art, the Joint Committee on the Library decided to have a national competition to select a sculptor. The competition was conducted by the National Endowment for the Arts, using a panel selection process that the Endowment had successfully developed over the previous 20 years. Mrs. Coretta Scott King agreed to serve on the advisory committee and to advise the panel of "the salient qualities of Dr. King’s character and physical expression which the Panel should consider in evaluating the qualifications of the competitors."

In December 1984, the panel selected John Wilson of Boston, Massachusetts; Elizabeth Catlett of New York City and Mexico; and Zenos Frudakis of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as finalists in the competition. Each sculptor received a $500 grant to create a maquette (i.e., a model) for the panel to review before making its final decision. The Chairman of the Arts Endowment was proud to point out that "this was the first time that Arts Endowment was asked by Congress to prove the expertise of its peer review process, which specifies artistic excellence as its primary criterion to select an artist to create a work of art to be placed in the U.S. Capitol." After reviewing the maquettes at a special meeting on April 15, 1985, the committee selected John Wilson; the artist was awarded a $50,000 commission ($99 thousand in present-day terms[11]) to cast the model in bronze. The bust was unveiled in the Rotunda on January 16, 1986, the fifty-seventh anniversary of Dr. King’s birth, by Mrs. King, accompanied by their four children and Dr. King’s sister.[12]

Women's Suffrage Movement

The Portrait Monument (1920)

This group portrait monument is known formally as the Portrait Monument to Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony, pioneers of the women's suffrage movement in the United States. Their efforts led to the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. The work was sculpted by Adelaide Johnson (1859-1955) from an 16,000-pound (7,300 kg) block of marble in Carrara, Italy. The portraits are copies of the individual busts she carved for the Court of Honor of the Woman's Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. The detailed busts are surrounded by rough-hewn marble at the top of the sculpture.

The monument was presented to the Capitol as a gift from the women of the United States by the National Woman's Party and was accepted on behalf of Congress by the Joint Committee on the Library on February 10, 1921. The unveiling ceremony was held in the Rotunda on February 15, 1921, the 101st anniversary of the birth of Susan B. Anthony, and was attended by representatives of over 70 women's organizations. The Committee authorized the installation of the monument in the Crypt, where it remained on continuous display. In accordance with House Concurrent Resolution 216 (passed by Congress in September 1996) the sculpture was relocated to the Capitol rotunda in May 1997 displacing Rhode Island's statue of Roger Williams.

The monument consists of three parts, the 14,000-pound (6,400 kg) sculpture itself and two rectangular stone base slabs. The black Belgian marble base and the white Carrara marble base were donated by Adelaide Johnson in 1925. However, the black marble base arrived broken and was not replaced by the artist until 1929. In 1930 both pieces were installed, completing the artist's design. The total weight of the monument and its two bases is estimated to be 26,000 pounds.

From left to right the figures represent:

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902), president of the National Woman Suffrage Association from 1865 to 1893; author of the woman's bill of rights, which she read at the Seneca Falls, New York, convention in 1848; first to demand the vote for women,
  • Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906), abolitionist, temperance advocate, and later president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, who joined with Stanton in 1851 to promote woman suffrage; proposed the constitutional amendment passed many years after her death, and
  • Lucretia Mott (1793-1880), Quaker reformer and preacher, who worked for abolition, peace, and equality for women in jobs and education; organizer of the 1848 Seneca Falls, New York, convention, which launched the women's rights movement.[13]

Johnson left unfinished marble for the base of the statue, and rising up in a heap behind the three heads, to represent "the ongoing nature of the women’s movement"[14][15] This has been variously interpreted as representing future generations of women’s rights activists[16], the first woman president (when that occurs)[17] and “all past, present, and future women leaders”[18].

Other statuary and artifacts

This gold case, previously located in the Capitol rotunda, once held a copy of the Magna Carta

In addition to the National Statuary Hall Collection and the memorial statuary, there are a number of other pieces in the Rotunda. Next to the south entrance, opposite of the statue of George Washington, is a bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence. This piece of art, given by Uriah Phillips Levy, is the only work of art in the Capitol given by a private donor instead of a state or commissioned by Congress. At the west entrance, are marble statues of General Ulysses S. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln. The Lincoln statue was a commissioned by Congress and designed by Vinnie Ream. The statue of Grant was a gift to Congress by the Grand Army of the Republic. Located in the southwest portion of the Rotunda is a statue of Alexander Hamilton. Lastly, directly opposite of Hamilton is the Magna Carta Case, a gold case which held one of the versions of the Magna Carta when it was on loan to the United States for the Bicentennial celebration.

Lying in State and Honor

Ronald Reagan lying in state in the rotunda, 2004
James Garfield lying in state on the Lincoln Catafalque, 1881.

The main difference between lying in state and lying in honor is the designated color guard that keeps watch over the coffin. When lying in state, the military honor guard watches over the coffin; when lying in honor, the US Capitol Police honor guard watches over the coffin.

  • Americans lying in honor:
    • Officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson (1998), the two officers killed in the 1998 shooting incident. (Chestnut was the first African American ever to lie in honor in the Capitol.)
    • Civil rights icon Rosa Parks: the first woman and second African American to lie in honor in the Capitol (2005).


  1. ^ Declaration of Independence. Architect of the Capitol. [1]
  2. ^ Declaration of Independence. Architect of the Capitol. [2]
  3. ^ "The Declaration of Independence by John Trumbell." Americanrevolution.org. [3]
  4. ^ "Facts About $2 Notes." Bureau of Engraving and Printing, United States Department of the Treasury. [4]
  5. ^ Surrender of General Burgoyne
  6. ^ Surrender of Cornwallis
  7. ^ Washington's Resignation
  8. ^ Landing of Columbus
  9. ^ Discovery of the Mississippi
  10. ^ Embarkation of the Pilgrims
  11. ^ "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. http://www.minneapolisfed.org/community_education/teacher/calc/hist1800.cfm. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  
  12. ^ Martin Luther King, Jr
  13. ^ Women's Suffrage
  14. ^ Workman, Courtney (2001), “The Woman Movement: Memorial to Women’s Rights Leaders and the Perceived Images of the Women’s Movement”; In: Shackel, Paul A., Myth, Memory, and the Making of the American Landscape, University Press of Florida, pg 50.
  15. ^ Faragasso, Frank and Doug Stover (1997), Adelaide Johnson: A Marriage of Art and Politics; Placing Women in the Past, CRM, 20(3), pg 54.
  16. ^ Schwinn, Elizabeth, "Women's monument won't join the men's Statue at Capitol", San Francisco Chronicle (26 August 1995)
  17. ^ “Women’s Suffrage Statuary in Capitol building”
  18. ^ "Women of Achievement Hall" of the Liz Library"

Coordinates: 38°53′24″N 77°0′32.4″W / 38.89°N 77.009°W / 38.89; -77.009


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