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United States Constitution
Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
Created September 17, 1787
Ratified June 21, 1788
Location National Archives
Authors Delegates of the Philadelphia Convention
Signers 39 of the 55 Philadelphia Convention delegates
Purpose National constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation
United States of America
Great Seal of the United States

This article is part of the series:
United States Constitution

Original text of the Constitution
Preamble
Articles of the Constitution
I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII
Amendments to the Constitution
Bill of Rights
I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X
Subsequent Amendments
XI · XII · XIII · XIV · XV
XVI · XVII · XVIII · XIX · XX
XXI · XXII · XXIII · XXIV · XXV
XXVI · XXVII

Other countries ·  Law Portal
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.The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States.^ A Roman Catholic Supreme Court Majority * http://www.supremecourtus.gov/ The Supreme Court of the United States * http://www.supremecourtus.gov/about/courtbuilding.pdf The Court Building start U.S. Supreme Court composition .
  • Ask A Word 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
  • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of the United States of America and the federal government of the United States.^ The United States is only federal territory.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Images, 0 Videos Federal government of the United States .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ America is a federation of states.
  • Deseret News | Constitutional primer 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.It provides the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, and to all people within the United States.^ State, United States, and citizen .
  • CITES BY TOPIC: United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The US federal government disregarded the constitution of the United States by doing this and not telling the people.
  • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Article Four describes the relationship between the states and the federal government.

.The Constitution defines the three main branches of government: a legislature, the bicameral Congress; an executive branch led by the President; and a judicial branch headed by the Supreme Court.^ The executive branch would be led by a president in charge of the government.
  • IMA Hero: Reading Program U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; .
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution | Free State Revolution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.freestaterevolution.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution - A Faithful Electronic Reproduction 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tysknews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC readyourconstitution.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution (narsil) 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.narsil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.leg.state.or.us/orcons/usconst.html 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sharon Preston - Wage & Hour Law -- The US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.sharonprestonlaw.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution | The Smoking Argus Daily | Investigating the Underbelly of Politics and Government 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC smargus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC home.surewest.net [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Resequenced United States Constitution at MROB 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mrob.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Of The United States Of America (1787-1865) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.csawardept.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Libertarian of Metropolitian Nashville and Davidson County Constitution for the united States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lewisdt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [This establishes the first of the three branches of the government, the Legislature.
  • The Constitution of the United States  Preamble 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC faculty.winthrop.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitution specifies the powers and duties of each branch.^ The Constitution specifies the powers and duties of each branch.

^ With this power comes a duty to uphold the Constitution.
  • Obama not eligible, US Constitution, Tenth Amendment, Bill of Rights, US Supreme Court, Federal Judges, State Judges, State Election Officials, Electoral College Electors, Philip J Berg lawsuit, Leo C Donofrio lawsuit, Citizen Wells facts and arguments « Citizen WE lls 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also provides for the office of Vice President , and specifies that the Vice President succeeds to the presidency if the President is removed, unable to discharge the powers and duties of office, dies while in office, or resigns.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitution reserves all unenumerated powers for the respective states and the people, thereby establishing the federal system of government.^ This is not the system that was established by the Framers, or that would be established by any sane supporter of government by the people.

^ [Amendment X] The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Powers reserved to the States and the people.

.The United States Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in each U.S. state in the name of "The People". The Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times; the first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.^ The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
  • IMA Hero: Reading Program U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][2]
.The United States Constitution is the shortest and oldest written constitution still in use by any nation in the world today.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional law United States.
  • United States Constitution Research Guide 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Constitution is the highest law in the United States.
  • The Constitution for Kids (4th-7th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.The Constitution has a central place in United States law and political culture.^ United States Constitution edit .
  • United States Constitution - The IT Law Wiki 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC itlaw.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional amendments -- United States.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.austincc.edu [Source type: Reference]

[4] The handwritten original document penned by Jacob Shallus is on display at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C.

Contents

History

Drafting and ratification requirements

.The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States of America.^ Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
  • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PREAMBLE We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
  • Constitution of the United States of America. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.fathermag.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce.^ In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Images, 0 Videos Annapolis Convention (1786) .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia to discuss improvements to the federal government.^ Federal or State government unless they were built with a permit.
  • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While, it defines the federal government's rule over the States.
  • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia to discuss improvements to the federal government .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

.After debate, the Congress of the Confederation endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787.[6] Twelve states, Rhode Island being the only exception, accepted this invitation and sent delegates to convene in May 1787.[6] The resolution calling the Convention specified that its purpose was to propose amendments to the Articles, but through discussion and debate it became clear by mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution.^ Only five states sent delegates to this convention at Annapolis, Maryland in 1786.
  • 82.03.03: The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The resolution calling the Convention specified that its purpose was to propose amendments to the Articles, but through discussion and debate it became clear by mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His ideas influenced those who proposed the Virginia Plan in the opening discussion of the Philadelphia Convention, held in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The Philadelphia Convention voted to keep the debates secret, so that the delegates could speak freely.^ Secrecy-the convention delegates agreed to keep the official proceedings of the convention secret.
  • 82.03.03: The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Philadelphia Convention voted to keep the debates secret, so that the delegates could speak freely.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The delegates to the Constitutional Convention knew they could not write laws for every possible situation.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

.They also decided to draft a new fundamental government design.^ They also decided to draft a new fundamental government design.

^ They also decided to draft a new fundamental government design, which eventually stipulated that only nine of the thirteen states would have to ratify for the new government to go into effect (for the participating states).
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fundamental Orders described a system of government for the new community, in writing.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Despite Article 13 of the Articles of Confederation stating that the union created under the Articles was "perpetual" and that any alteration must be "agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State,"[8] Article VII of the proposed constitution stipulated that only nine of the thirteen states would have to ratify for the new government to go into effect (for the participating states).^ Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitution of the United States .
  • Constitution of the United States Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams was only concerned with the seventeen states who had participated in the initial process under Article V of the Constitution.
  • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution, only Congress has the power to declare war.
  • Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied? 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.watchblog.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Current knowledge of the drafting and construction of the United States Constitution comes primarily from the diaries left by James Madison, who kept a complete record of the proceedings at the Constitutional Convention.^ Constitutional history -- United States.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.austincc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ United States Constitution edit .
  • United States Constitution - The IT Law Wiki 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC itlaw.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Naval Institute proceedings.
  • United States code annotated, Constitution of the United States annotated. Article 1, section 1 to article 1, section 8 cl.3, article 1, section 8 cl.4 to article 2 & article 3 to article 7. By West Publishing Company & Edward Thompson Company part 2 - Copyright Info 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[9]

Work of the Philadelphia Convention

.The Virginia Plan was the unofficial agenda for the Convention, and was drafted chiefly by James Madison, considered to be "The Father of the Constitution" for his major contributions.^ James Madison , "Father of the Constitution" and first author of the Bill of Rights .

^ James Madison is considered the "father" of the US Constitution.
  • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginian James Madison has been called the Father of the Constitution.
  • Constitutional Topic: The Constitutional Convention - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[9] It was weighted toward the interests of the larger states, and proposed among other points:
.An alternative proposal, William Paterson's New Jersey Plan, gave states equal weights and was supported by the smaller states.^ They were in support of the new plan of government.
  • 82.03.03: The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The smaller states supported the New Jersey Plan , which proposed that all the states would have an equal number of representatives.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 13 delegates from smaller states rallied around proposals offered by New Jersey delegate William Paterson.

[11] .Roger Sherman of Connecticut brokered The Great Compromise whereby the House would represent the people, a Senate would represent the states, and a president would be elected by electors.^ The people elect the Representative.
  • The Constitution for Kids (4th-7th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As in the United States today, the people would elect their representatives to govern.
  • Constitutional Topic: The Constitutional Convention - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each district elects one Representative to the House of Representatives.
  • Things That Are Not In the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.The contentious issue of slavery was too controversial to be resolved during the convention.^ The contentious issue of slavery was too controversial to be resolved during the convention.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison, called the Father of the Constitution, Franklin, then 81 years old, John Dickinson, and Roger Sherman, however, were especially skilled, tactful, and patient in resolving disputed issues during the 16 weeks the convention was in session.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The votes of the founders on selected issues at the Philadelphia convention and the votes during ratification are statistically related to measures of the founders and their constituents' interests.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Economic Interests and the Adoption of the United States Consitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC eh.net [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, the original Constitution contained four provisions tacitly allowing slavery to continue for the next 20 years.^ As a result, the original Constitution contained four provisions tacitly allowing slavery to continue for the next 20 years.

^ As a result of this provision, if we count the first ten amendments as virtually part of the original document, only nine amendments have been adopted in 185 years, and of these, excepting the amendments which ended slavery as the result of the Civil War, only the last three, passed in recent years partly through the relaxing influence of the world war, mark a serious departure from the basic principles of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the United States by James M. Beck - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/2) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally, the Framers were very careful about avoiding the words "slave" and "slavery" in the text of the Constitution.
  • Things That Are Not In the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Section 9 of Article I allowed the continued "importation" of such persons, Section 2 of Article IV prohibited the provision of assistance to escaping persons and required their return if successful and Section 2 of Article I defined other persons as "three-fifths" of a person for calculations of each state's official population for representation and federal taxation.^ No federal taxation that is not proportional to representation.

^ Section 9 of Article I allowed the continued "importation" of such persons, Section 2 of Article IV prohibited the provision of assistance to escaping persons and required their return if successful and Section 2 of Article I defined other persons as "three-fifths" of a person for calculations of each state's official population for representation and federal taxation.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 2 of Article Three of the United States Constitution outlines the jurisdiction of the federal courts of the United States: .
  • Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .Article V prohibited any amendments or legislation changing the provision regarding slave importation until 1808, thereby giving the States then existing 20 years to resolve this issue.^ Article V prohibited any amendments or legislation changing the provision regarding slave importation until 1808, thereby giving the States then existing 20 years to resolve this issue.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress hindered, until 1808, from prohiting importation of slaves .

^ A fter one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

.The failure to do so contributed to the Civil War.^ The failure to do so contributed to the Civil War .

^ The failure to do so was a contributing factor to the Civil War .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Democracy will fail in Iraq, and civil war will erupt in it failure.
  • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Ratification

Ratification of the Constitution
  Date State Votes
Yes No
1 December 7, 1787 Delaware 30 0
2 December 11, 1787 Pennsylvania 46 23
3 December 18, 1787 New Jersey 38 0
4 January 2, 1788 Georgia 26 0
5 January 9, 1788 Connecticut 128 40
6 February 6, 1788 Massachusetts 187 168
7 April 26, 1788 Maryland 63 11
8 May 23, 1788 South Carolina 149 73
9 June 21, 1788 New Hampshire 57 47
10 June 25, 1788 Virginia 89 79
11 July 26, 1788 New York 30 27
12 November 21, 1789 North Carolina 194 77
13 May 29, 1790 Rhode Island 34 32
.Contrary to the process for "alteration" set out in Article 13 of the Articles, Congress submitted the proposal to the states and set the terms for representation.^ Contrary to the process for "alteration" spelled out in Article 13 of the Articles , Congress submitted the proposal to the states and set the terms for representation.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Contrary to the process for “alteration” set out in Article 13 of the Articles , Congress submitted the proposal to the states and set the terms for representation.

^ In 1789, twelve proposed articles of amendment were submitted to the States.
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was completed, followed by a speech given by Benjamin Franklin, who urged unanimity, although the Convention decided that only nine states were needed to ratify.^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several of the State constitutions have followed the example.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and it was followed by Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1787.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Convention submitted the Constitution to the Congress of the Confederation, where it received approval according to Article 13 of the Articles of Confederation.^ Constitution and sent it to the Congress of the Confederation.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Convention submitted the Constitution to the Congress of the Confederation , where it received approval according to Article 13 of the Articles of Confederation .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.Once the Congress of the Confederation received word of New Hampshire's ratification, it set a timetable for the start of operations under the new Constitution, and on March 4, 1789, the government began operations.^ Once the Congress of the Confederation received word of New Hampshire's ratification, it set a timetable for the start of operations under the Constitution, and on March 4, 1789, the government under the Constitution began operations.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The full and final implementation of the Constitution was set for March 4, 1789.

^ Constitution and sent it to the Congress of the Confederation.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

Historical influences

.Several ideas in the Constitution were new, and a large number were drawn from the literature of Republicanism in the United States, the experiences of the 13 states, and the British experience with mixed government.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several of the State constitutions have followed the example.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These several governments had actually formed a new state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most important influence from the European continent was from Montesquieu, who emphasized the need to have balanced forces pushing against each other to prevent tyranny.^ The most important influence from the European continent was from Montesquieu , who emphasized the need to have balanced forces pushing against each other to prevent tyranny.

^ There are many who say that they are against tyranny but they do not want to speak openly or challenge the authority.
  • Chief Justice Gets Medal of Freedom « Pakistan Politics 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC pkpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Officers who make such decisions will need to notify the other officers in the most expedient manner possible.
  • Constitution | United States Pirate Party 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pirate-party.us [Source type: Original source]

.(This in itself reflects the influence of Polybius's 2nd century BC treatise on the checks and balances of the constitution of the Roman Republic.^ (This in itself reflects the influence of Polybius ' 2nd century BC treatise on the checks and balances of the constitution of the Roman Republic .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (This in itself reflects the influence of Polybius ’s 2nd century BC treatise on the checks and balances of the constitution of the Roman Republic .

^ The prevailing political philosophy of the framers of the Constitution would later be articulated as follows by Madison in The Federalist: It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices {checks and balances} should be necessary to control the abuses of government.

) .British political philosopher John Locke was a major influence, and the due process clause of the Constitution was partly based on common law stretching back to Magna Carta (1215).^ Common law doesn't require a constitution.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British political philosopher John Locke was a major influence, and the due process clause of the Constitution was partly based on common law stretching back to Magna Carta (1215).

^ Due process of law.
  • OK Constitution Articles 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.lsb.state.ok.us [Source type: Academic]

[10]

Influences on the Bill of Rights

.The United States Bill of Rights consists of the ten amendments added to the Constitution in 1791, as supporters of the constitution had promised critics during the debates of 1788.[15] The English Bill of Rights (1689) was an inspiration for the American Bill of Rights.^ The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment 4 (Ratified December 15, 1791) .
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both require jury trials, contain a right to keep and bear arms, prohibit excessive bail and forbid "cruel and unusual punishments." Many liberties protected by state constitutions and the Virginia Declaration of Rights were incorporated into the Bill of Rights.^ We affirm the original text of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

^ AMENDMENT II. Right to keep and bear arms.
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC readyourconstitution.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution (narsil) 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.narsil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.leg.state.or.us/orcons/usconst.html 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AFH LIBRARY - The Constitution of the United States of America. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.alkalizeforhealth.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ProQuest K-12 - The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.proquestk12.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tyranttamer.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Libertarian of Metropolitian Nashville and Davidson County Constitution for the united States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lewisdt.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.prou.net [Source type: Original source]

Articles of the Constitution

.The Constitution consists of a preamble, seven original articles, twenty-seven amendments, and a paragraph certifying its enactment by the constitutional convention.^ Paragraph 4 ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United .
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The arrangement is by article of the Constitution and by the amendments.
  • United States Constitution Research Guide 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Constitution consists of a preamble, seven original articles, twenty-seven amendments , and a paragraph certifying its enactment by the constitutional convention.

Preamble: Statement of purpose

.We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution of Japan, closely modeled on the United States, provides : .
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; .
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

—United States Constitution, Preamble

.The Preamble does not grant any particular authority to the federal government and it does not prohibit any particular authority.^ The Preamble does not grant any particular authority to the federal government and it does not prohibit any particular authority.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Previously, the federal government only had authority over Washington, D.C., and federal territories.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What rights does the Federal Government protect that the State government's don't?
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

.It establishes the fact that the federal government has no authority outside of what follows the preamble, as amended.^ The Preamble does not grant any particular authority to the federal government and it does not prohibit any particular authority.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The federal government was clearly established as a government of limited authority.

^ It establishes the fact that the federal government has no authority outside of what follows the preamble, as amended.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

."We the people", is one of the most-quoted sections of the Constitution.^ "We the people", is one of the most-quoted sections of the Constitution.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We the people”, is one of the most-quoted sections of the Constitution.

^ One of the most important guarantees of deliberation contained in the Constitution is its bicameralism requirement.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It was thought by the Federalists during this time that there was no need for a bill of rights as they thought that the preamble explained the people's rights.^ They are generally called the Bill of Rights.
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was thought by the Federalists during this time that there was no need for a bill of rights as they thought that the preamble spelled out the people's rights.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was thought by the Federalists during this time that there was no need for a bill of rights as they thought that the preamble explained the people’s rights.

[citation needed]

Article One: Legislative power

United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States


Other countries · Atlas
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.Article One describes the Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government.^ Main article: Article One of the United States Constitution See also: wikisource:Constitution of the United States of America#Article I Article One describes the Congress , the legislative branch of the federal government.

^ Article Four describes the relationship between the states and the federal government.

^ Article One establishes the legislative branch of government, U.S. Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Congress is a bicameral body consisting of two co-equal houses: the House of Representatives to represent the people, and the Senate to represent the States.^ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution for the United States of America 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution (narsil) 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.narsil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.leg.state.or.us/orcons/usconst.html 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.michiganopera.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ProQuest K-12 - The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.proquestk12.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each state gets a number of electors equal to the total number of senators and representatives it has....
  • WikiAnswers - US Constitution Questions including "How many justices are on the US Supreme Court" 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

.The article establishes the manner of election and the qualifications of members of each body.^ The article establishes the manner of election and the qualifications of members of each body.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Article establishes the manner of election and qualifications of members of each House.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Return Footnote 2 - Sections 1 to 7 of Article I define the composition of the Congress, the qualifications of its members, and the manner in which it will conduct its business.

.Representatives must be at least 25 years old, be a citizen of the United States for seven years, and live in the state they represent.^ Senators must be at least 30 years old, be a citizen for nine years, and live in the state they represent.

^ He or she shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month.
  • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives must be at least 25 years old, be a citizen of the United States for seven years, and live in the state they represent.

.Senators must be at least 30 years old, be a citizen for nine years, and live in the state they represent.^ Representatives need to be 25 years old (compared to 30 for senators), and 7 years a citizen (compared to 9 years for senators).
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives must be at least 25 years old, have been a citizen of the United States for seven years, and live in the state they represent.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He must be at least forty years of age.
  • FOXNews.com - Raw Data: Iraqi Constitution - U.S. & World 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article I, Section 1, reads, "All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America .
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The President shall commission all the officers of the United States.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]

.This provision gives Congress more than simply the responsibility to establish the rules governing its proceedings and for the punishment of its members; it places the power of the government primarily in Congress.^ Article I, Section 1, reads, “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.” This provision gives Congress more than simply the responsibility to establish the rules governing its proceedings and for the punishment of its members; it places the power of the government primarily in Congress.

^ This gives Congress more than simply the responsibility to establish the rules governing its proceedings and for the punishment of its members; it places the power of the government primarily in Congress.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]

.Article I Section 8 enumerates the legislative powers.^ There is a debate as to whether the powers listed in Article 1 Section 8 are a list of enumerated powers.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Limits on Legislative Power Section 10.
  • Constitution for the United States of America 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The specific powers of the president were enumerated in Article II, Sections 2 and 3.

The powers listed and all other powers are made the exclusive responsibility of the legislative branch:
.The Congress shall have power...^ See Internet Essays Congress Shall Not Have the Power and Racism in the Court ] .
  • U.S. Constitution 14th Amendment - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.14th-amendment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution for the United States of America 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Constitution (narsil) 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.narsil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Of The United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ron.dotson.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

.To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The President shall commission all the officers of the United States.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]

.Article I Section IX provides a list of eight specific limits on congressional power and Article I Section X limits the rights of the states.^ There is a debate as to whether the powers listed in Article 1 Section 8 are a list of enumerated powers.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article Four: States' powers and limits .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article I Section IX provides a list of eight specific limits on congressional power and Article I Section X limits the rights of the states.

.The United States Supreme Court has interpreted the Commerce Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause in Article One to allow Congress to enact legislation that is neither expressly listed in the enumerated power nor expressly denied in the limitations on Congress.^ Maryland United States Supreme Court ruling.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ T he Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States .
  • Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: Original source]

In McCulloch v. .Maryland (1819), the United States Supreme Court fell back on the strict construction of the necessary and proper clause to read that Congress had "[t]he foregoing powers and all other powers..."^ Maryland United States Supreme Court ruling.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States .
  • Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maryland (1819), the United States Supreme Court fell back on the strict construction of the necessary and proper clause to read that Congress had “[t]he foregoing powers and all other powers…” .

Article Two: Executive power

Section analysis
.Section 1 creates the presidency.^ Section 1 creates the presidency .

.The section states that the executive power is vested in a President.^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America .
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Obama not eligible, US Constitution, Tenth Amendment, Bill of Rights, US Supreme Court, Federal Judges, State Judges, State Election Officials, Electoral College Electors, Philip J Berg lawsuit, Leo C Donofrio lawsuit, Citizen Wells facts and arguments « Citizen WE lls 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Of The United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ron.dotson.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PRESIDENT , courts will not restrain execution of powers of.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Court Case Index 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.The presidential term is four years and the Vice President serves the identical term.^ The presidential term is four years and the Vice President serves the identical term.

^ Commentary: The Vice President serves as president of the Senate.
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1988, George H.W. Bush began his four-year term as President.
  • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

.This section originally set the method of electing the President and Vice President, but this method has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.^ Superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.
  • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Of The United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ron.dotson.net [Source type: Original source]

^ AMENDMENT XXV Section 4.1 Whenever the Vice-President and a majority of either the .
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Superseded by Section 3 of the 20th Amendment.
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Qualifications. .The President must be a natural born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.^ Whereas the Constitution of the USA states the qualifications of the President, a person must be a ''natural born Citizen'' of the United States; .
    • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The President must be a natural born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.

    ^ Natural born citizen .
    • Obama not eligible, US Constitution, Tenth Amendment, Bill of Rights, US Supreme Court, Federal Judges, State Judges, State Election Officials, Electoral College Electors, Philip J Berg lawsuit, Leo C Donofrio lawsuit, Citizen Wells facts and arguments « Citizen WE lls 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .An obsolete part of this clause provides that instead of being a natural born citizen, a person may be a citizen at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.^ This amendment declared that every person born or naturalized in the U.S. was a citizen.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These are the facts: The Constitution requires the president to be a natural born citizen.
    • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An obsolete part of this clause provides that instead of being a natural born citizen, a person may be a citizen at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.

    .The reason for this clause was to extend eligibility to Citizens of the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, regardless of their place of birth, who were born under the allegiance of a foreign sovereign before the founding of the United States.^ At the time of Obama's birth, he was a Kenyan citizen and under British rule.
    • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The reason for this clause was to extend eligibility to Citizens of the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, regardless of their place of birth, who were born under the allegiance of a foreign sovereign before the founding of the United States.

    ^ Who elects the President of the United States?
    • WikiAnswers - US Constitution Questions including "How many justices are on the US Supreme Court" 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Without this clause, no one would have been eligible to be president until thirty-five years after the founding of the United States.
  • Succession.^ Without this clause, no one would have been eligible to be president until thirty-five years after the founding of the United States.

    ^ Who elects the President of the United States?
    • WikiAnswers - US Constitution Questions including "How many justices are on the US Supreme Court" 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Who was the 16th President of the United States?
    • WikiAnswers - US Constitution Questions including "How many justices are on the US Supreme Court" 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Section 1 specifies that the Vice President succeeds to the presidency if the President is removed, unable to discharge the powers and duties of office, dies while in office, or resigns.^ In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
    • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.michiganopera.org [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution Of The United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ron.dotson.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
    • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice-President shall become President.
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Section 2 grants substantive powers to the president: .

    .The original text ("the same shall devolve") left it unclear whether this succession was intended to be on an acting basis (merely taking on the powers of the office) or permanent (assuming the Presidency itself).^ The original text ("the same shall devolve") leaves it unclear whether this succession was intended to be on an acting basis (merely taking on the powers of the office) or permanent (assuming the Presidency itself).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It also provides for the office of Vice President of the United States, and specifies that the Vice President succeeds to the presidency if the President is incapacitated, dies, or resigns, although whether this succession was on an acting or permanent basis was left unclear.
    • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The original text (”the same shall devolve”) left it unclear whether this succession was intended to be on an acting basis (merely taking on the powers of the office) or permanent (assuming the Presidency itself).

    .After the death of William Henry Harrison, John Tyler set the precedent that the succession was permanent; this practice was followed when later presidents died in office.^ John Tyler becomes president.
    • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ April 4 President Harrison dies after just 30 days in office.
    • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the death of William Henry Harrison , John Tyler set the precedent that the succession was permanent; this practice was followed when later presidents died in office.

    .Today the 25th Amendment states that the Vice President becomes President upon the death or disability of the President.
  • Pay.^ Today the 25th Amendment states that the Vice President becomes President upon the death or disability of the President.

    ^ However an amendment is proposed, it does not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions).
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After the death of William Henry Harrison , John Tyler set the precedent that the succession was permanent, and this was followed in practice; the 25th Amendment explicitly states that the Vice President becomes President in those cases.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The President receives "Compensation" for being the president, and this compensation may not be increased or decreased during the president's term in office.^ The President receives “Compensation” for being the president, and this compensation may not be increased or decreased during the president’s term in office.

    ^ Term of office of President .
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the term of the ordinary session, one meeting per month is reserved by priority to the questions of the Deputies and to the responses of the President of the Republic.
    • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .The president may not receive other compensation from either the United States or any of the individual states.
  • Oath of office.^ March 4 Abraham Lincoln takes office as President of the United States.
    • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Who elects the President of the United States?
    • WikiAnswers - US Constitution Questions including "How many justices are on the US Supreme Court" 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The President receives “Compensation” for being the president, and this compensation may not be increased or decreased during the president’s term in office.

    The final clause creates the presidential oath to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution.
Section 2 grants substantive powers to the president:
  • The president is the Commander in Chief of the armed forces, and of the state militias when these are called into federal service.
  • The president may require opinions of the principal officers of the federal government.
  • The president may grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment (i.e., the president cannot pardon himself or herself to escape impeachment by Congress).
Section 2 grants and limits the president's appointment powers:
.
  • The president may make treaties, with the advice and consent of the Senate, provided two-thirds of the Senators who are present agree.
  • With the advice and consent of the Senate, the President may appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not otherwise described in the Constitution.
  • Congress may give the power to appoint lower officers to the President alone, to the courts, or to the heads of departments.
  • The president may make any of these appointments during a congressional recess.^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America .
    • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Appointed civil officers, other than judges of the courts of record, may be removed at the pleasure of the power by which they shall have been appointed.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All other appropriations requiring a two thirds vote.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    Such a "recess appointment" expires at the end of the next session of Congress.
Section 3 opens by describing the president's relations with Congress:
  • The president reports on the state of the union.
  • The president may convene either house, or both houses, of Congress.
  • When the two houses of Congress cannot agree on the time of adjournment, the president may adjourn them to some future date.
Section 3 adds:
  • The president receives ambassadors.
  • The president sees that the laws are faithfully executed.
  • The president commissions all the offices of the federal government.
.Section 4 provides for removal of the president and other federal officers.^ Section 4 provides for removal of the president and other federal officers.

^ Impeachment is the power to remove federal officers.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Appointed civil officers, other than judges of the courts of record, may be removed at the pleasure of the power by which they shall have been appointed.
  • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

.The president is removed on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.^ Also, Article 2, Section 4: "all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

^ Article II, Section 4 reads: "The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors."

^ The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

Article Three: Judicial power

.Article Three describes the court system (the judicial branch), including the Supreme Court.^ Article Three: Judicial power .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Article Three of the United States Constitution See also: wikisource:Constitution of the United States of America#Article III Article Three describes the court system (the judicial branch ), including the Supreme Court .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article Three describes the court system (the judicial branch ), including the Supreme Court .

.The article requires that there be one court called the Supreme Court; Congress, at its discretion, can create lower courts, whose judgments and orders are reviewable by the Supreme Court.^ Review by supreme court.
  • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The article requires that there be one court called the Supreme Court; Congress, at its discretion, can create lower courts, whose judgments and orders are reviewable by the Supreme Court.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See also the article on the demographics of the Supreme Court .
  • Fummo.com - Supreme Court of the United States 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article Three also creates the right to trial by jury in all criminal cases, defines the crime of treason, and charges Congress with providing for a punishment for it.^ Trial by jury is guaranteed as provided in article one of this constitution.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The only crime defined is Treason.
  • CNN: No one has Standing to Enforce Constitution : Libertarian 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article Three of the United States Constitution provides, "[T]rial of all Crimes .
  • 256 F.3d 231 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC bulk.resource.org [Source type: Original source]

.This Article also sets the kinds of cases that may be heard by the federal judiciary, which cases the Supreme Court may hear first (called original jurisdiction), and that all other cases heard by the Supreme Court are by appeal under such regulations as the Congress shall make.^ The Supreme Court shall be more proactive.
  • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This case was heard and ultimately won before the Supreme Court.
  • The Constitution Will Never Enforce Itself 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Article Four: States' powers and limits

.Article Four describes the relationship between the states and the federal government and amongst the states.^ Article Four describes the relationship between the states and the federal government.

^ Article Four: States' powers and limits .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That alone will change the dynamics of the relationship between the States and the Federal Government.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, it requires states to give "full faith and credit" to the public acts, records, and court proceedings of the other states.^ For instance, it requires states to give " full faith and credit " to the public acts, records, and court proceedings of the other states.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 1: Full faith and credit - Wikipedia Section 1.
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Congress is permitted to regulate the manner in which proof of such acts, records, or proceedings may be admitted.^ Congress is permitted to regulate the manner in which proof of such acts, records, or proceedings may be admitted.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

^ Congress is permitted to regulate the manner in which proof of such acts, records or proceedings may be admitted.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.The "privileges and immunities" clause prohibits state governments from discriminating against citizens of other states in favor of resident citizens (e.g., having tougher penalties for residents of Ohio convicted of crimes within Michigan).^ The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Clause 1] The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES , of citizens defined.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Court Case Index 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.It also establishes extradition between the states, as well as laying down a legal basis for freedom of movement and travel amongst the states.^ It also establishes extradition between the states, as well as laying down a legal basis for freedom of movement and travel amongst the states.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today, this provision is sometimes taken for granted, especially by citizens who live near state borders; but in the days of the Articles of Confederation, crossing state lines was often a much more arduous and costly process.^ Today, this provision is sometimes taken for granted, especially by citizens who live near state borders; but in the days of the Articles of Confederation, crossing state lines was often a much more arduous (and costly) process.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLE IV ( Much of this article was taken word for word from the old Articles of Confederation) .
  • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, this provision is sometimes taken for granted, especially by citizens who live near state borders; but in the days of the Articles of Confederation , crossing state lines was often a much more arduous and costly process.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article Four also provides for the creation and admission of new states.^ Article Four: States’ powers and limits .

^ Create a new article Upload a new image .
  • Constitution class - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC memory-alpha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article Four also provides for the creation and admission of new states.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Territorial Clause gives Congress the power to make rules for disposing of federal property and governing non-state territories of the United States.^ The Territorial Clause gives Congress the power to make rules for disposing of federal property and governing non-state territories of the United States.

^ While, it defines the federal government's rule over the States.
  • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Territorial Clause gives Congress the power to make rules for disposing of Federal property and governing non-state territories of the United States.
  • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, the fourth section of Article Four requires the United States to guarantee to each state a republican form of government, and to protect the states from invasion and violence.^ In addition, Article IV of the Constitution guarantees to each state a republican form of government.

^ Finally, the fourth section of Article Four requires the United States to guarantee to each state a republican form of government , and to protect the states from invasion and violence.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article Four: States' powers and limits .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

Article Five: Amendments

An amendment may be ratified in three ways:
.
  • The new amendment may be approved by two-thirds of both houses of Congress, then sent to the states for approval.
  • Two-thirds of the state legislatures may apply to Congress for a constitutional convention to consider amendments, which are then sent to the states for approval.
  • Congress may require ratification by special convention.^ This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eightieth Congress on Mar.
    • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alternatively, the legislatures of two-thirds of the states may ask Congress to call a national convention to discuss and draft amendments.

    ^ The standard device, used for all amendments so far, is for both houses of Congress to pass by two-thirds vote a proposal, which they send to the states for ratification, either by state legislatures or by conventions within the states.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    The convention method has been used only once, to approve the 21st Amendment (repealing prohibition, 1933).
.Regardless of the method of proposing an amendment, final ratification requires approval by three-fourths of the states.^ The proposed amendment, which was not ratified by three-fourths of the States by June 30, 1982, is as follows: .
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Regardless of how the amendment is proposed, it must also be ratified by three-fourths of states.

^ Regardless of how the amendment is proposed, the amendment must be approved by three-fourths of states, a process called ratification.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today Article Five places only one limit on the amending power: no amendment may deprive a state of equal representation in the Senate without that state's consent.^ The 21st Amendment is the only one that employed state conventions for ratification.

^ Today Article Five places only one limit on the amending power: no amendment may deprive a state of equal representation in the Senate without that state’s consent.

^ The power of impeachment was given without limitation to the House of Representatives; and the power of trying impeachments was given equally without limitation to the Senate....
  • Blackwater PMC Criminal Cases [Archive] - Small Wars Council 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

The original Article V included other limits on the amending power regarding slavery and taxation; however, these limits expired in 1808.

Article Six: Federal power

Article Six establishes the Constitution, and the laws and treaties of the United States made according to it, to be the supreme law of the land, and that "the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the laws or constitutions of any state notwithstanding." It also validates national debt created under the Articles of Confederation and requires that all federal and state legislators, officers, and judges take oaths or affirmations to support the Constitution. .This means that the states' constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict, state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state.^ This means that the states’ constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict, state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state.

^ This means that the states' constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict, state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those rights in the Federal Bill of Rights are also in the state constitution Bill of Rights.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

Article Six also states "no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States."

Article Seven: Ratification

.Article Seven sets forth the requirements for ratification of the Constitution.^ Main article: Article Seven of the United States Constitution See also: wikisource:Constitution of the United States of America#Article VII Article Seven sets forth the requirements for ratification of the Constitution.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sheldensays.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Vetshome 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The provisions of this section shall in no way limit or impair the jurisdiction of the supreme court as set forth in section seven of this article.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitution would not take effect until at least nine states had ratified the Constitution in state conventions specially convened for that purpose, and it would only apply to those states that ratified it.^ Ratification was required by nine of the 13 states in order for the constitution to take effect.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The states ratified the Constitution as such: .
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] (See above Drafting and ratification requirements.)

Judicial review

.The way the Constitution is understood is influenced by court decisions, especially those of the Supreme Court.^ To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; .
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court ; .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

.These decisions are referred to as precedents.^ These decisions are referred to, collectively, as precedents .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These decisions are referred to as precedents .

^ Thinking and Reference/Study Skills: These skills include topics such as decision making, creativity, research and writing.
  • 87.03.08: The United States Constitution and Selected Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 1803 case Marbury v. .Madison, the Supreme Court established the doctrine of judicial review.^ In the early 1800s the Supreme Court established the principle of judicial review.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison , the Supreme Court established the doctrine of judicial review .

^ The power of judicial review, first assumed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Marbury v.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Judicial review is the power of the Court to examine federal legislation, executive agency rules and state laws, to decide their constitutionality, and to strike them down if found unconstitutional.^ Madison (1803) by creating a Supreme Court with the power of judicial review.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The judicial power is independent of the executive power and of the legislative power.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Judicial review is the power of the Court to examine federal legislation, executive agency rules and state laws, to decide their constitutionality , and to strike them down if found unconstitutional.

.Judicial review includes the power of the Court to explain the meaning of the Constitution as it applies to particular cases.^ The power of judicial review, first assumed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Marbury v.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison (1803) by creating a Supreme Court with the power of judicial review.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine also embraces the power of the Court to explain the meaning of various sections of the Constitution as they apply to particular cases brought before the Court.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.Over the years, Court decisions on issues ranging from governmental regulation of radio and television to the rights of the accused in criminal cases have changed the way many constitutional clauses are interpreted, without amendment to the actual text of the Constitution.^ Over the years, Court decisions on issues ranging from governmental regulation of radio and television to the rights of the accused in criminal cases have changed the way many constitutional clauses are interpreted, without amendment to the actual text of the Constitution.

^ Over the years, a series of Court decisions, on issues ranging from governmental regulation of radio and television to the rights of the accused in criminal cases, has had the effect of bringing up to date the thrust of constitutional law, with no substantive change in the Constitution itself.

^ This is regarded as the "rights of the accused" amendment, otherwise known as the Miranda rights after the Supreme Court case.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.Legislation passed to implement the Constitution, or to adapt those implementations to changing conditions, broadens and, in subtle ways, changes the meanings given to the words of the Constitution.^ Legislation passed to implement the Constitution, or to adapt those implementations to changing conditions, broadens and, in subtle ways, changes the meanings given to the words of the Constitution.

^ Legislation, passed to implement provisions of the Constitution or to adapt those implementations to changing conditions, also broadens and, in subtle ways, changes the meanings given to the words of the Constitution.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that the states’ constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict, state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state.

.Up to a point, the rules and regulations of the many federal executive agencies have a similar effect.^ Up to a point, the rules and regulations of the many federal executive agencies have a similar effect.

^ Up to a point, the rules and regulations of the many agencies of the federal government may have a similar effect.

^ Up to a point, the rules and regulations of the many agencies of the federal government have a similar effect.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.If an action of Congress or the agencies is challenged, however, it is the court system that ultimately decides whether these actions are permissible under the Constitution.^ If an action of Congress or the agencies is challenged, however, it is the court system that ultimately decides whether these actions are permissible under the Constitution.

^ If the actions of Congress or federal agencies are challenged as to their constitutionality, however, it is the court system that ultimately decides whether or not they are allowable under the Constitution.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The legal action today is just the latest is a series of challenges, some of which have gone as high as the U.S. Supreme Court, over the issue of Obama's status as a "natural-born citizen," a requirement set by the U.S. Constitution.
  • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amendments

.The framers of the Constitution were aware that changes would be necessary if the Constitution was to endure as the nation grew.^ See also: Amendments to the United States Constitution The authors of the Constitution were aware that changes would be necessary from time to time if the Constitution was to endure and cope with the effects of the anticipated growth of the nation.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My principal objection to the way the Bliley Amendment would work in practice is that the one thing that should be required before any constitutional changes take place is that as much deliberation as possible take place, over as long a period of time as is necessary.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution also authorizes a national convention, when two-thirds of the states petition Congress for such a convention, to propose amendments, which would also have to be ratified by three-quarters of the states.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, they were also conscious that such change should not be easy, lest it permit ill-conceived and hastily passed amendments.^ However, they were also conscious that such change should not be easy, lest it permit ill-conceived and hastily passed amendments .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I wonder if such legislation could be passed -- perhaps as an amendment to the upcoming Patriot Act renewal?
  • http://volokh.com/posts/1137741761.comments.html 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An amendment that passed in the face of such widespread congressional opposition would surely have this effect.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, they also wanted to ensure that a rigid requirement of unanimity would not block action desired by the vast majority of the population.^ Balancing this, they also wanted to ensure that an over-rigid requirement of unanimity would not block action desired by the vast majority of the population.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the same token, they wanted to ensure that a minority could not block action desired by most of the people.

^ Do you think that it is they who, after the war of the Balkan, would have been the real backers of these attacks and that these attacks are not separate from each other, that there is a link between Madrid and London?
  • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

.Their solution was a two-step process for proposing and ratifying new amendments.^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proposed Amendments not ratified .
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendments can be proposed one of two ways.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed then ratified.^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution may be amended in two ways.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Proposed Amendments not ratified .
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Amendments can be proposed one of two ways.^ Amendments can be proposed one of two ways.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, if two-thirds of the state legislatures demand one, Congress must call for a constitutional convention, which would have the power to propose amendments.

^ One third of either House can prevent Congress from proposing a constitutional amendment to the states for ratification.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.To date, all amendments, whether ratified or not, have been proposed by a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress.^ All other appropriations requiring a two thirds vote.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, this publication provides information on proposed amendments approved by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress but not ratified by three-fourths of the states.
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability."
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.Over 10,000 constitutional amendments have been introduced in Congress since 1789; during the last several decades, between 100 and 200 have been offered in a typical congressional year.^ Several bills were at last passed by Congress.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last 200 years, there have been 27 amendments to the Constitution, including the Bill of Rights.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional Amendment you, along with other members of Congress, have introduced.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these ideas never leave Congressional committee, and far fewer get proposed by the Congress for ratification.^ Most of these ideas never leave Congressional committee, and far fewer get proposed by the Congress for ratification.

^ The seven-year deadline for ratification of the proposed amendment was extended to June 30, 1982, by the 2d session of the Ninety-fifth Congress.
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One third of either House can prevent Congress from proposing a constitutional amendment to the states for ratification.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Alternatively, if two-thirds of the state legislatures demand one, Congress must call for a constitutional convention, which would have the power to propose amendments.^ The Congress, by a two-thirds vote in each house, may initiate an amendment.

^ One third of either House can prevent Congress from proposing a constitutional amendment to the states for ratification.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.As no such convention has been called, it is unclear how one would work in practice.^ As no such convention has been called, it is unclear how one would work in practice.

^ As you know, no such convention has ever been called.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This second method has never been used, and it is unclear exactly how, in practice, such a Constitutional Convention would work.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.In two instances—reapportionment in the 1960s and a balanced federal budget during the 1970s and 1980s—attempts to use this process have come extremely close to triggering a constitutional convention.^ In two instances—reapportionment in the 1960s and a balanced federal budget during the 1970s and 1980s—these attempts have come within just two state legislative "applications" of triggering that alternative method.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He played a leading role in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, where he helped design the checks and balances that operate among Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court.
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 45 States at one time or another have applied for a constitutional convention in language that does not expressly restrict the application to a convention for the ''sole'' or ''exclusive'' purpose of considering some limited range of proposals, such as a balanced budget amendment.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

The apportionment debate of the 1960s fell only one state short of the required number of states
.Regardless of how the amendment is proposed, it must also be ratified by three-fourths of states.^ You still have three-quarters of the States needing to ratify an amendment.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Thirty-three of these were proposed by Congress to the States, and 27 have been ratified.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposed amendment, which was not ratified by three-fourths of the States by June 30, 1982, is as follows: .
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Congress determines whether the state legislatures or special state conventions ratify the amendment.^ This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eightieth Congress on Mar.
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In repealing Prohibition, this was the only amendment that the states ratified by conventions rather than by legislatures.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ [This amendment was proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on March.
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 21st Amendment is the only one that employed state conventions for ratification.^ December 3 Illinois becomes the 21st state, but is not consulted regarding the pending 13th amendment.
  • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was therefore far from clear that the legislatures in all the ratifying states would have approved the amendment if it had been presented to them after the ratification extension.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are currently only a few proposals for amendments which have entered mainstream political debate.^ There are currently only a few proposals for amendments which have entered mainstream political debate.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ames, like Monroe, Adams and all the other political people of the time, concludes that only the original participants in the debates (17 States) were accountable to determine if there was a proper ratification or not.
  • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They argue that Americans become "Fourteenth Amendment citizens" only voluntarily--through entering into some sort of contract with the federal or state governments.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

.These include the Federal Marriage Amendment, the Balanced Budget Amendment, and the Flag Desecration Amendment.^ Virginia has a ''balanced'' budget, but it has a capital budget which the Federal Government doesn't have, so what is balanced in Virginia is not balanced in the Federal Government.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These include the Federal Marriage Amendment , the Balanced Budget Amendment , and the Flag Desecration Amendment .

^ As more and more legislatures endorsed the balanced budget amendment, pressure would be exerted on Congress to pass its own budget amendment or be forced to act on the states' version.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.All three proposals are supported primarily by conservatives, but failed during periods of Republican control of Congress to achieve the supermajorities necessary for submission to the states.^ All three proposals are supported primarily by conservatives, but failed during periods of Republican control of Congress to achieve the supermajorities necessary for submission to the states.

^ Thirty-three of these were proposed by Congress to the States, and 27 have been ratified.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However an amendment is proposed, it does not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions).
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As such, none of these is likely to be proposed under the current Congress, which is controlled by the more liberal Democratic Party.^ As such, none of these is likely to be proposed under the current Congress , which is controlled by the more liberal Democratic Party.

^ Toward a more democratic Congress?

^ As such none is likely to be proposed under the current Congress, which is controlled by the more liberal Democratic Party.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike amendments to most constitutions, amendments to the United States Constitution are appended to the body of the text without altering or removing what already exists, although nothing prevents a future amendment from doing so.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We affirm the original text of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

^ The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U. S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.venturatoday.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

Successful amendments

.The Constitution has twenty-seven amendments.^ The Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution is hereby repealed.

^ This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the constitution by the legislators of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission.

^ This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.'
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The first ten, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified simultaneously by 1791. The following seventeen were ratified separately over the next two centuries.^ The following seventeen were ratified separately.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights .

^ The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

The Bill of Rights (Amendments 1 to 10)

.It is commonly understood that originally the Bill of Rights was not intended to apply to the states; however, there is no such limit in the text itself, except where an amendment refers specifically to the federal government.^ We affirm the original text of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

^ What rights does the Federal Government protect that the State government's don't?
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We already have our rights protected by Federal Government abuse (Bill of Rights), and our rights protected from abuse by the states (state constitutions/Bill of Rights).
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

.One example is the First Amendment, which says only that "Congress shall make no law...", and under which some states in the early years of the nation officially established a religion.^ The 21st Amendment is the only one that employed state conventions for ratification.

^ State, the listing of which is established by the law.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ No one is above the law.
  • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A rule of inapplicability to the states remained until 1868, when the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that:
.No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.^ No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All persons are equal before the law and are equally entitled to its protection.

^ No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; [23] nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Supreme Court has interpreted this clause to extend most, but not all, parts of the Bill of Rights to the states.^ The Supreme Court has interpreted this clause to extend most, but not all, parts of the Bill of Rights to the states.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first ten amendments , commonly known as a group as the Bill of Rights, were all ratified at once.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain parts of the United States, was unconstitutional in that it deprived people of property, their slaves.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, the balance of state and federal power has remained a battle in the Supreme Court.^ But the Federal courts can get involved between the states.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, the balance of state and federal power has remained a battle in the Supreme Court.

^ The Supreme Court ruled that the power of the federal government was supreme over that of the states and that the states could not interfere.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The amendments that became the Bill of Rights were the last ten of the twelve amendments proposed in 1789. The second of the twelve proposed amendments, regarding the compensation of members of Congress, remained unratified until 1992, when the legislatures of enough states finally approved it; as a result, after pending for two centuries, it became the Twenty-seventh Amendment.^ The amendments that became the Bill of Rights were the last ten of the twelve amendments proposed in 1789.

^ The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eightieth Congress on Mar.
  • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The first of the twelve, which is still technically pending before the state legislatures for ratification, pertains to the apportionment of the United States House of Representatives after each decennial census.^ The United States made the first attacks.
  • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislature, by law, may provide in its discretion for an enumeration by state authorities of the inhabitants of the state, to be used for such purposes, in place of a federal census, when the return of a decennial federal census is delayed so that it is not available at the beginning of the regular session of the legislature in the second year after the year nineteen hundred thirty or after any tenth year therefrom, or if an apportionment of members of assembly and readjustment or alteration of senate districts is not made at or before such a session.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
  • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most recent state whose lawmakers are known to have ratified this proposal is Kentucky in 1792, during that commonwealth's first month of statehood.^ The most recent state whose lawmakers are known to have ratified this proposal is Kentucky in 1792, during that commonwealth’s first month of statehood.

^ The most recent state whose lawmakers are known to have ratified this proposal is Kentucky in 1792, during that commonwealth's first month of statehood.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratified · Proposed · Unsuccessful · Conventions to propose · State ratifying conventions .

.
  • First Amendment: addresses the rights of freedom of religion (prohibiting Congress from establishing a religion and protecting the right to free exercise of religion), freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and freedom of petition.
  • Second Amendment: guarantees the right of individuals to possess firearms.^ Citizen Amendment 20 Freedom of Speech .
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first guarantees freedom of worship, speech, and press; the right of peaceful assembly; and the right to petition the government to correct wrongs.

    ^ Freeing the presses : the First Amendment in action / edited by Timothy E. Cook.

    The most recent decision interpreting the Second Amendment is District of Columbia v. .Heller.
  • Third Amendment: prohibits the government from using private homes as quarters for soldiers during peacetime without the consent of the owners.^ The third provides that troops may not be quartered in private homes without the owner's consent.

    ^ Third Amendment : prohibits the government from using private homes as quarters for soldiers during peacetime without the consent of the owners.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [Amendment III] No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
    • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

    The only existing case law regarding this amendment is a lower court decision in the case of Engblom v. Carey.[17]
  • .
  • Fourth Amendment: guards against searches, arrests, and seizures of property without a specific warrant or a "probable cause" to believe a crime has been committed.^ Fourth Amendment : guards against searches, arrests, and seizures of property without a specific warrant or a “ probable cause ” to believe a crime has been committed.

    ^ The fourth guards against unreasonable searches, arrests, and seizures of property.

    ^ ARTICLE [IV.] The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
    • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Some rights to privacy have been inferred from this amendment and others by the Supreme Court.
  • Fifth Amendment: forbids trial for a major crime except after indictment by a grand jury; prohibits double jeopardy (repeated trials), except in certain very limited circumstances; forbids punishment without due process of law; and provides that an accused person may not be compelled to testify against himself (this is also known as "Taking the Fifth" or "Pleading the Fifth").^ Citizen Amendment 16 Double Jeopardy A person or company that has been tried for a crime in a Federal or State Court cannot be tried in any other court for that same crime.
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It prohibits repeated trials for the same offense, forbids punishment without due process of law, and provides that an accused person may not be compelled to testify against himself.

    ^ Fifth Amendment : forbids trial for a major crime except after indictment by a grand jury ; prohibits double jeopardy (repeated trials), except in certain very limited circumstances; forbids punishment without due process of law; and provides that an accused person may not be compelled to testify against himself (this is also known as “ Taking the Fifth ” or “Pleading the Fifth”).

    .This is regarded as the "rights of the accused" amendment, otherwise known as the Miranda rights after the Supreme Court case.^ This is regarded as the “rights of the accused” amendment, otherwise known as the Miranda rights after the Supreme Court case.

    ^ Some rights to privacy have been inferred from this amendment and others by the Supreme Court.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is regarded as the "rights of the accused" amendment, otherwise known as the Miranda rights after the Supreme Court case.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It also prohibits government from taking private property for public use without "just compensation," the basis of eminent domain in the United States.
  • Sixth Amendment: guarantees a speedy public trial for criminal offenses.^ Slavery is prohibited in the United Mexican States.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It also prohibits government from taking private property for public use without “ just compensation ,” the basis of eminent domain in the United States.

    .It requires trial by a jury, guarantees the right to legal counsel for the accused, and guarantees that the accused may require witnesses to attend the trial and testify in the presence of the accused.^ It requires trial by an unbiased jury, guarantees the right to legal counsel for the accused, and provides that witnesses shall be compelled to attend the trial and testify in the presence of the accused.

    ^ In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
    • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In all criminal prosecutions, and in cases involving the life, or liberty of an individual the accused shall have a right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury; to be informed of the accusation against him, to have a copy of the same when demanded; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for his witnesses; and, to have the assistance of counsel.
    • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .It also guarantees the accused a right to know the charges against him.^ It also guarantees the accused a right to know the charges against him.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You know, our whole basic purpose is to protect the rights of individuals against whatever majority happens to rise to power at the moment.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As we now know, the War Between the States proved him right.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    The Sixth Amendment has several court cases associated with it, including Powell v. Alabama, United States v. Wong Kim Ark, Gideon v. Wainwright, and Crawford v. Washington. In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled that the fifth amendment prohibition on forced self-incrimination and the sixth amendment clause on right to counsel were to be made known to all persons placed under arrest, and these clauses have become known as the Miranda rights.
  • Seventh Amendment: assures trial by jury in civil cases.
  • Eighth Amendment: forbids excessive bail or fines, and cruel and unusual punishment.
  • Ninth Amendment: declares that the listing of individual rights in the Constitution and Bill of Rights is not meant to be comprehensive; and that the other rights not specifically mentioned are retained by the people.
  • Tenth Amendment: reserves to the states respectively, or to the people, any powers the Constitution did not delegate to the United States, nor prohibit the states from exercising.

Subsequent amendments (11 to 27)

.Amendments to the Constitution after the Bill of Rights cover many subjects.^ The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the Constitution, ratified in 1791.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rights are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, many argued for a Bill of Rights, and thus we have the 10 Amendments.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

.The majority of the seventeen later amendments stem from continued efforts to expand individual civil or political liberties, while a few are concerned with modifying the basic governmental structure drafted in Philadelphia in 1787. Although the United States Constitution has been amended 27 times, only 26 of the amendments are currently in effect because the twenty-first amendment supersedes the eighteenth.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each individual state has a version of the 2nd amendment in their constitution.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are currently only a few proposals for amendments which have entered mainstream political debate.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Eleventh Amendment (1795): Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts and under federal law.^ Citizen Amendment 18 Limited Resources .
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Article Four: States' powers and limits .
    • Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Article Four: States’ powers and limits .

    .(Full text)
  • Twelfth Amendment (1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the Electoral College cast separate ballots for president and vice president.^ Twelfth Amendment ( 1804 ) Changes the method of presidential elections.

    ^ The Electoral College must be maintained for selection of the President and Vice-President.
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twelfth Amendment (1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the Electoral College cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Thirteenth Amendment (1865): Abolishes slavery and authorizes Congress to enforce abolition.^ THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT , denounces all personal servitudes as well as slavery.
    • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Court Case Index 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our political officials commit treasonous acts by not enforcing this amendment, as we apparently gave them this power to do so back in 1865; to which I have not read where this amendment was repealed as yet.
    • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Fourteenth Amendment (1868): Defines a set of guarantees for United States citizenship; prohibits states from abridging citizens' privileges or immunities and rights to due process and the equal protection of the law; repeals the Three-fifths compromise; prohibits repudiation of the federal debt caused by the Civil War.^ Each state has a Bill of Rights which protect the same rights we have in the Federal Bill of Rights (sometimes the states have more protections).
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
    • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
    • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC student.ccbcmd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The federal government was in distress; many of the states were on the verge of civil war .
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Fifteenth Amendment (1870): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a qualification for voting.^ Citizen Amendment 14 Government Agencies .
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only the federal government, not the states, can determine who becomes a citizen.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The government created a new type of citizen, a FEDERAL United States citizen.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Sixteenth Amendment (1913): Authorizes unapportioned federal taxes on income.^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    ^ Full text ) Sixteenth Amendment (1913): Authorizes unapportioned federal taxes on income .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This amendment reversed that decision and authorized a tax on income.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Seventeenth Amendment (1913): Converts state election of senators to popular election.^ Full text ) Seventeenth Amendment (1913): Converts state election of senators to popular election.

    ^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    ^ The Seventeenth Amendment (providing for direct, popular election of U.S. Senators) took away from state governments their Constitutional role of indirect participation in the federal legislative process.

    .(Full text)
  • Eighteenth Amendment (1919): Prohibited the manufacturing, importing, and exporting of alcoholic beverages (see Prohibition in the United States).^ Eighteenth amendment (banning alcohol) .
    • CQ Press : Current Events In Context : Consitution Day - "Index to the Constitution of the United States" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cqpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Slavery is prohibited in the United Mexican States.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Permits states to prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment.^ Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment .

    ^ The Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times; the first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights .

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.

    .(Full text)
  • Nineteenth Amendment (1920): Prohibits the federal government and the states from forbidding any citizen to vote due to their sex.^ Citizen Amendment 14 Government Agencies .
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only the federal government, not the states, can determine who becomes a citizen.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The government created a new type of citizen, a FEDERAL United States citizen.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Twentieth Amendment (1933): Changes details of congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession.^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.

    ^ Full text ) Twentieth Amendment (1933): Changes details of congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession .

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.^ Twenty-first ( 1933 ) Repeals prohibition of alcohol.

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    .Permits states to prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages.^ Permits states to prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.portablepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In re Raher , 140 U.S. 545 (1891)—Congress can allow state regulation that the commerce clause, in absence of federal legislation, would prohibit, in this case the regulation of alcoholic beverages.
    • National Park Service: The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms.^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    ^ Twenty-second Amendment ( 1951 ) Limits president to two terms.

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-third Amendment (1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia.^ Full text ) Unratified amendments .

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-third Amendment (1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials.^ Twenty-fourth Amendment ( 1964 ) Limits poll tax.

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-fifth Amendment (1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice president.^ Full text ) Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-fifth Amendment (1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice president.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971): Prohibits the federal government and the states from forbidding any citizen of age 18 or greater to vote on account of their age.^ Citizen Amendment 14 Government Agencies .
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Twenty-sixth Amendment ( 1971 ) Right of eighteen-year-olds to vote.

    .(Full text)
  • Twenty-seventh Amendment (1992): Limits congressional pay raises.^ Full text ) Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Full text ) Twenty-seventh Amendment (1992): Limits congressional pay raises.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    (Full text)

Unratified amendments

Of the thirty-three amendments that have been proposed by Congress, six have failed ratification by the required three-quarters of the state legislatures, and four of those six are still technically pending before state lawmakers (see Coleman v. Miller). .Starting with the 18th Amendment, each proposed amendment has included a deadline for passage, except the 19th Amendment (women's voting) and the Child Labor Amendment, proposed in 1924 and still unratified.^ The 19th Amendment , which ensures women the right to vote, was proposed on June 4, 1919.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting with the 18th Amendment, each proposed amendment (except the 19th Amendment and the still-pending Child Labor Amendment of 1924 ) has specified a deadline for passage.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original 13th Amendment is not included in the vote.
  • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

The following are the unratified proposals:
.
  • The Congressional Apportionment Amendment, proposed by the 1st Congress on September 25, 1789, defined a formula for how many members there would be in the United States House of Representatives after each decennial census.^ September 1st, 2009 at 5:25 pm .
    • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ September 1st, 2009 at 3:25 pm .
    • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The 27th Amendment , which restricts raises in congressional pay, was proposed on September 25, 1789.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ratified by eleven states, the last being Kentucky in June 1792 during Kentucky's initial month of statehood, this amendment contains no expiration date for ratification.^ The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ratified by eleven states, the last being Kentucky in June 1792 during Kentucky’s initial month of statehood, this amendment contains no expiration date for ratification.

    ^ The most recent state whose lawmakers are known to have ratified this proposal is Kentucky in 1792, during that commonwealth's first month of statehood.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In principle it may yet be ratified, though as written it became moot when the population of the United States reached ten million.
  • The so-called missing thirteenth amendment, or "Titles of Nobility Amendment" (TONA), proposed by the 11th Congress on May 1, 1810, would have ended the citizenship of any American accepting "any Title of Nobility or Honour" from any foreign power.^ November 2 Phillip Reed, who proposed the TONA Amendment to Congress in 1810, dies.
    • TONA Research Committee - Chronology of Historic Events 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amendment-13.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We propose that these United States: .

    ^ No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Some maintain that the amendment was ratified by the legislatures of enough states, and that a conspiracy has suppressed it, but this has been thoroughly debunked.^ Some maintain that the amendment was actually ratified by the legislatures of enough states, and that a conspiracy has suppressed it, but this has been thoroughly debunked.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some maintain that the amendment was ratified by the legislatures of enough states, and that a conspiracy has suppressed it, but this has been thoroughly debunked.

    ^ There is some disagreement about the ability of a state to rescind an amendment ratification prior to full ratification.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [18] .Known to have been ratified by lawmakers in twelve states, the last in 1812, this amendment contains no expiration date for ratification.^ The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ratified by eleven states, the last being Kentucky in June 1792 during Kentucky’s initial month of statehood, this amendment contains no expiration date for ratification.

    ^ The proposed amendment contains no expiration date for ratification and may yet be ratified.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It may yet be ratified.
  • The Corwin Amendment, proposed by the 36th Congress on March 2, 1861, would have forbidden any attempt to subsequently amend the Constitution to empower the federal government to "abolish or interfere" with the "domestic institutions" of the states (a delicate way of referring to slavery).^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The proposed Amendment would then go to Congress, then it would go again back to the States again for ratification.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress is empowered to propose the method of ratification.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It was ratified by only Ohio and Maryland lawmakers before the outbreak of the Civil War.^ It was ratified by only Ohio and Maryland lawmakers before the outbreak of the Civil War .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    ^ The expansion of mechanized production in the United States began after the Civil War and peaked in the 1920s just before the Great Depression.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Christian G. Fritz, American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2008) at p.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Illinois lawmakers—sitting as a state constitutional convention at the time—likewise approved it, but that action is of questionable validity.^ Illinois lawmakers—sitting as a state constitutional convention at the time—likewise approved it, but that action is of questionable validity.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    ^ However an amendment is proposed, it does not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions).
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Adopted by Constitutional Convention of 1938 and approved by vote of the people November 8, 1938; further amended by vote of the people November 2, 1993.
    • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

    .The proposed amendment contains no expiration date for ratification and may yet be ratified.^ The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may yet be ratified.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The proposed amendment contains no expiration date for ratification and may yet be ratified.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    However, adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments after the Civil War likely means that the amendment would be ineffective if adopted.
  • A child labor amendment proposed by the 68th Congress on June 2, 1924. It provides, "The Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and prohibit the labor of persons under eighteen years of age." This amendment is highly unlikely to be ratified, since subsequent federal child labor laws have uniformly been upheld as a valid exercise of Congress's powers under the Commerce Clause.
Expired deadlines. .This category is separate from the other four unratified constitutional amendments.^ This category is separate from the other four unratified constitutional amendments.

^ Properly placed in a separate category from the other four constitutional amendments that Congress proposed to the states, but which not enough states have approved, are the following two offerings which—because of deadlines—are no longer subject to ratification.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ninth Amendment : declares that the listing of individual rights in the Constitution and Bill of Rights is not meant to be comprehensive; and that the other rights not specifically mentioned are retained by the people.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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.These two were not ratified by their deadlines and they have expired.^ These two were not ratified by their deadlines and they have expired.

^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These amendments remain intact today, as they were written two centuries ago.

  • The Equal Rights Amendment, or ERA, which reads in pertinent part "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Proposed by the 92nd Congress on March 22, 1972, it was ratified by the legislatures of 35 states, and expired on either March 22, 1979 or on June 30, 1982, depending upon one's point of view of a controversial three-year extension of the ratification deadline, which was passed by the 95th Congress in 1978. Of the 35 states ratifying it, four later rescinded their ratifications before the extended ratification period which began on March 23, 1979 and a fifth, while not going so far as to rescind its earlier ratification, adopted a resolution stipulating that its approval would not extend beyond March 22, 1979. There continues to be disagreement over whether such reversals are valid; no court has ruled on the question, including the Supreme Court. .A precedent against the validity of rescission was first established during the ratification process of the 14th Amendment when Ohio and New Jersey rescinded their earlier approvals, but yet were counted as ratifying states when the 14th Amendment was ultimately proclaimed part of the Constitution in 1868.
  • The District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment was proposed by the 95th Congress on August 22, 1978. Had this amendment been ratified, it would have granted to Washington, D.C. two Senators and at least one member of the House of Representatives as though the District of Columbia were a state.^ New Jersey's ratification was rescinded on Mar 24, 1868; Ohio rescinded its ratification on Jan 15, 1868 and ratified again on Mar 13, 2003.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amending the Constitution is a two-part process: amendments must be proposed and then they must be ratified.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification.
    • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ratified by the legislatures of only 16 states (out of the required 38), the proposed amendment expired on August 22, 1985.

Criticism of the Constitution

Several academics have criticized the Constitution for specific shortcomings. .University of Virginia professor Larry Sabato wants an amendment to organize primaries to prevent a "frontloaded calendar" long before the election to prevent a "race by states to the front of the primary pack" which subverts the national interest, in his view.^ University of Virginia professor Larry Sabato wants an amendment to organize primaries to prevent a “frontloaded calendar” long before the election to prevent a “race by states to the front of the primary pack” which subverts the national interest, in his view.

^ Their purpose is to protect the national interest of the United States, and indeed the interests of people throughout the Middle East and around the world.
  • Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied? 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.watchblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One third of either House can prevent Congress from proposing a constitutional amendment to the states for ratification.
  • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Sabato details more objections in his book A More Perfect Constitution.^ Sabato details more objections in his book A More Perfect Constitution .

^ New York Times book editor Robert Dahl reviews 2 new books on the Constitution: The GENIUS OF AMERICA by Eric Lane and Michael Oreskes, and another about Madison’s goals in A MORE PERFECT CONSTITUTION By Larry J. Sabato.

[19] Richard Labunski agrees with Sabato about the "incoherent organization of primaries and caucuses,"[20] and faults the Constitution for enabling presidents to continue unpopular wars,[20] for requiring presidents to be "natural born citizens",[20] for lifetime tenure for Supreme Court judges which "produces senior judges representing the views of past generations better than views of the current day."[20] He writes "If the 26 least populated states voted as a bloc, they would control the U.S. Senate with a total of just under 17% of the country’s population."[20]
University of Texas law professor Sanford Levinson also wonders whether it makes sense to give "Wyoming the same number of votes as California, which has roughly seventy times the population".[21] He thinks this imbalance causes a "steady redistribution of resources from large states to small states."[21] Levinson is critical of the electoral college since it allows the possibility of electing presidents who do not win the majority of votes.[21] .Three times in American history, presidents have been elected by the electoral college despite failing to win the popular vote: 1876 (Rutherford B. Hayes), 1888 (Benjamin Harrison) and 2000 (George W. Bush).^ Electors are now chosen by popular vote.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Popular vote, Electoral College vote at odds?” .

^ Three times in American history, presidents have been elected by the electoral college despite failing to win the popular vote: 1876 ( Rutherford B. Hayes ), 1888 ( Benjamin Harrison ) and 2000 ( George W. Bush ).

[22][23][24][25] .The current Constitution does not give the people a quick way to remove incompetent or ill presidents, in his view.^ The current Constitution does not give the people a quick way to remove incompetent or ill presidents, in his view.

^ The French Constitution gives the president the power to ask parliament to reconsider a bill.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was expressly drafted to protect people against potential abuses of the ill-received Constitution.
  • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Others have criticized the politically driven redistricting process popularly known as gerrymandering.^ Others have criticized the politically driven redistricting process popularly known as gerrymandering .

[26]
.Vanderbilt professor Dana D. Nelson believes the presidency has become too powerful.^ Vanderbilt professor Dana D. Nelson believes the presidency has become too powerful.

^ He believed the United States would become a world power - (Hyam Solomon Bio, Indopedia.org) .
  • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential Power to the People — Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch” .

.In her book, Bad for Democracy, she argues that all citizens seem to do, politically, is vote for president every four years, and not much else.^ In her book, Bad for Democracy , she argues that all citizens seem to do, politically, is vote for president every four years, and not much else.

^ The 26th Amendment , which ensures the vote to all citizens over the age of 18, was proposed on March 23, 1971.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every citizen shall be entitled to vote at every election for all officers elected by the people and upon all questions submitted to the vote of the people provided that such citizen is eighteen years of age or over and shall have been a resident of this state, and of the county, city, or village for thirty days next preceding an election.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

.Nelson criticizes excessive worship of the president or presidentialism and sees the office as essentially undemocratic.^ Nelson criticizes excessive worship of the president or presidentialism and sees the office as essentially undemocratic.

^ I see the greater problem as being one of John Q. Public buying into the glorification of the office of President.
  • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential Power to the People — Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch” .

[27]
Yale professor Robert A. Dahl sees a problem with an American tendency towards worship of the Constitution itself, and sees aspects of American governance which are "unusual and potentially undemocratic: the federal system, the bicameral legislature, judicial review, presidentialism, and the electoral college system."[28] Levinson and Labunski and others have called for a Second Constitutional Convention,[29] although professors like Dahl believe there is no real hope this might ever happen.[28]

Translations

The Constitution has been translated into many world languages:
.Professor James Chen has annotated the Spanish translation prepared by the U.S. State Department.^ Arabic [ 18 ] Chinese [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Dutch French [ 21 ] German [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Hungarian [ 24 ] Italian [ 25 ] Japanese [ 26 ] Korean [ 27 ] Portuguese [ 28 ] Russian [ 29 ] Slovak [ 30 ] Spanish [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] Swedish Thai Ukrainian [ 35 ] Professor James Chen has annotated the Spanish translation prepared by the U.S. State Department.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The inventory, prepared by State Department's Office of Protocol, catalogues all gifts given to top administration officials.
  • Democracy’s Revenge On The People (Free Pakistan Newsletter #97) | www.asinstitute.org 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC asinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "SSRN-The Constitution of the United States in Spanish: A Service for the American People (La Constitucion de los Estados Unidos en Espanol: Un Servicio para el Pueblo Americano) by James Ming Chen" .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .His notes focus on the problems and nuances of this translation.^ His notes focus on the problems and nuances of this translation.
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.Nguyen Canh Binh has translated the Constitution into Vietnamese.^ Nguyen Canh Binh has translated the Constitution into Vietnamese.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution has been translated into many world languages: .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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[52]
.The Bill of Rights has been translated into Hawaiian.^ There is a partial translation of the Bill of Rights into Esperanto.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill of Rights has been translated into Hawaiian.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ There is a partial translation of the Bill of Rights into Esperanto .

[53]
.There is a partial translation of the Bill of Rights into Esperanto.^ The Bill of Rights has been translated into Hawaiian.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ There is a partial translation of the Bill of Rights into Esperanto .

^ There is a partial translation of the Bill of Rights into Esperanto.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

[54]
.The Federal Judicial Center has links to other materials about the United States government and judicial system.^ Images, 0 Videos Federal government of the United States .
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While, it defines the federal government's rule over the States.
  • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government created a new type of citizen, a FEDERAL United States citizen.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] .The site has materials in 16 languages besides English, such as Indonesian, Malay, Serb, and Vietnamese.^ The site has materials in 16 languages besides English, such as Indonesian, Malay, Serb, and Vietnamese.
  • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

Original pages of the Constitution

See also

General

Related documents

Notes

  1. ^ a b WikiSource. "WikiSource: Constitution of the United States of America". http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  2. ^ Library of Congress. "Primary Documents in American History: The United States Constitution". http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Constitution Center". http://www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_ncc.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  4. ^ Casey (1974)
  5. ^ Christian G. Fritz, American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2008) at p. 131 [ISBN 978-0-521-88188-3 (noting that "Madison, along with other Americans clearly understood" the Articles of Confederation "to be the first federal Constitution.")
  6. ^ a b NARA. "National Archives Article on the Constitutional Convention". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  7. ^ a b National Archives and Records Administration. "National Archives Article on the Constitution". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  8. ^ WikiSource. "Articles of Confederation". http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  9. ^ a b NARA. "National Archives Article on James Madison". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  10. ^ a b c NARA. "National Archives Article on the Entire Constitutional Convention". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  11. ^ NARA. "National Archives Article on William Paterson". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  12. ^ NARA. "National Archives Article on Roger Sherman". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  13. ^ Section 2 of Article I provides in part: "Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states . . . by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons."
  14. ^ See South Carolina Declaration of Causes in Seccession (December 24, 1860), reprinted in Richard Hofstadter, Great Issues in American History. Volume II, Vintage Books (1958), p.76-7; Abraham Lincoln, Message to Congress (July 4, 1861) reprinted in Hofstadter, supra.
  15. ^ NARA. "National Archives Article on the Bill of Rights". http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters.html. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  16. ^ Lutz, Donald (1994). Toward a theory of constitutional amendment. 
  17. ^ "Findlaw.com". Caselaw.lp.findlaw.com. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment03/. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  18. ^ "The Missing Thirteenth Amendment". Thirdamendment.com. http://www.thirdamendment.com/missing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  19. ^ a b By Larry J. Sabato (September 26, 2007). "An amendment is needed to fix the primary mess". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/news/20070926/opcomwednesday.art.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Richard Labunski interviewed by Policy Today's Dan Schwartz (18 October 2007). "Time for a Second Constitutional Convention?". Policy Today. http://www.policytoday.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=258&Itemid=148. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  21. ^ a b c Reviewed by Robert Justin Lipkin (January, 2007). "OUR UNDEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION: WHERE THE CONSTITUTION GOES WRONG (AND HOW WE THE PEOPLE CAN CORRECT IT)". Widener University School of Law. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/levinson0107.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  22. ^ "Popular vote, Electoral College vote at odds?". USA Today. November 2008. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/benedetto/230.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  23. ^ Levinson, Sanford (2006). Our undemocratic constitution: where the constitution goes wrong (and how we the people can correct it). New York: .Oxford University Press.^ Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, c2007.

    ^ New York, Oxford University Press, 1965.

    ^ Oxford University Press.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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  25. ^ a b Nora Krug (reviewer) (March 23, 2008). "Radical Re-readings -- OUR UNDEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION Where the Constitution Goes Wrong (And How We the People Can Correct It) By Sanford Levinson". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/20/AR2008032003015.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  26. ^ Macedo, Stephen (August 11, 2008). "Toward a more democratic Congress? Our imperfect democratic constitution: the critics examined". Boston University Law Review (Boston University Law Review) 89: 609-628. http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AQ33mcnJC4pkJ%3Awww.bu.edu%2Flaw%2Fcentral%2Fjd%2Forganizations%2Fjournals%2Fbulr%2Fvolume89n2%2Fdocuments%2FMACEDO.pdf+%22our+undemocratic+constitution%22+critic%3F+review%3F&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  27. ^ interview by David Schimke (September-October 2008). "Presidential Power to the People -- Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch". Utne Reader. http://www.utne.com/2008-09-01/Politics/Presidential-Power-to-the-People.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  28. ^ a b Robert A. Dahl (Feb 11, 2002). "How Democratic Is the American Constitution?". Yale University Press. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=0300092180. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  29. ^ "Professor Stanford Levinson Proposes a New Constitutional Convention". Colorado Law -- Univ. of Colorado at Boulder. January 25, 2008. http://lawweb.colorado.edu/news/showArticle.jsp?id=434. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
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  33. ^ "Constitution of the United States (1787)". Usinfo.org. http://usinfo.org/zhtw/PUBS/BasicReadings/6.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  34. ^ "French translation of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). http://constitutioncenter.org/Images/constitution%20translations/French%20Constitution%208-19.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  35. ^ "German Constitution 8-19" (PDF). http://constitutioncenter.org/Images/constitution%20translations/German%20Constitution%208-19.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  36. ^ "Verfassung" (PDF). http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/gov/gov-constitutiond.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
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  41. ^ "Korean translation of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). http://constitutioncenter.org/Images/constitution%20translations/KOR-Constitution.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  42. ^ "Portuguese translation of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). http://constitutioncenter.org/Images/constitution%20translations/Port%20Constitution%208-19.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  43. ^ "Russian translation of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). http://constitutioncenter.org/Images/constitution%20translations/RU-Constitution.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  44. ^ http://slovakia.usembassy.gov/20090618_us_constitution_slovak.pdf
  45. ^ "Spanish translation of the U.S. Constitution". Cato.org. http://www.cato.org/pubs/constitution/constitution_en.html. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  46. ^ http://www.constitution.org/cons/usa_span.htm
  47. ^ a b "International Judicial Relations — Translated Material". Fjc.gov. http://www.fjc.gov/ijr/home.nsf/page/transl_mat#United. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
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  50. ^ http://kyiv.usembassy.gov/files/american_constitution_ukr.pdf
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References

Primary sources

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  • "The Avalon Project: Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention".^ You really should read The Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 by James Madison WILSON moved as an amendment to Resoln.
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    ^ "The Avalon Project: Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention" .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Avalon Project: Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention” .

    .The Avalon Project at Yale Law School.^ The Avalon Project at Yale Law School .
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    .http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/debates/debcont.htm.^ William Rawle's "A View of the Constitution of the United States of America" is online at this site: http://www.constitution.org/wr/rawle-00.htm .
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here is one example from Alien Nation http://www.thewatcherfiles.com/underground.htm .
    • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Last Modified: Wed, Aug 30 2000 7:00:00 am PDT http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/butowsky2/constitution2.htm .
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    .Retrieved 2008-01-20.
     
  • Bailyn, Bernard, ed.^ Retrieved on 2008-01-20 .
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    .The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification.^ The Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The debate over ratification continued into 1788 as Federalists and Anti-Federalists faced off over issues of states' rights, human liberties, and governmental authority.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We call attention to the following provisions of the Constitution: Article 3, Section 1: "The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour".

    .Part One: September 1787 to February 1788 (The Library of America, 1993) ISBN 0-940450-42-9
  • Bailyn, Bernard, ed.^ Part One: September 1787 to February 1788 ( The Library of America , 1993) ISBN 0-940450-42-9 Bailyn, Bernard, ed.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    ^ Therefore no one asked the American officials, for example, why no Iraqi took part in the events of 11 September!?
    • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bailyn, Bernard, ed.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    .The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification.^ The Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The debate over ratification continued into 1788 as Federalists and Anti-Federalists faced off over issues of states' rights, human liberties, and governmental authority.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We call attention to the following provisions of the Constitution: Article 3, Section 1: "The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour".

    .Part Two: January to August 1788 (The Library of America, 1993) ISBN 0-940450-64-X
  • Garvey, John H. ed.^ Part One: September 1787 to February 1788 ( The Library of America , 1993) ISBN 0-940450-42-9 Bailyn, Bernard, ed.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    ^ "John Kennedy's murder was a two-part conspiracy murder.
    • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America...
    • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Modern Constitutional Theory: A Reader 5th ed 2004; 820pp.
  • Kurland, Philip B. and Lerner, Ralph, eds.^ Modern Constitutional Theory: A Reader 5th ed 2004; 820pp.
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    ^ Kurland, Philip B. and Lerner, Ralph, eds.

    The Founders' Constitution. .The work consists of “extracts from the leading works of political theory, history, law, and constitutional argument on which the Framers and their contemporaries drew and which they themselves produced.” (Liberty Fund ISBN: 0-86597-279-6) The Online Edition is a joint venture of the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund.
  • Mason, Alpheus Thomas and Donald Grier Stephenson, ed.^ University of Chicago Press , 2002.
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    ^ Anastaplo, George, "Reflections on Constitutional Law" 2006 ISBN 0-8131-9156-4 Beard, Charles.
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    ^ The liberty of man consists solely in this, that he obeys the laws of nature, because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been imposed upon him externally by any foreign will whatsoever, human or divine, collective or individual ( God and the State , 1882) .
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Reference books

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  • Hall, Kermit, ed.^ Hall, Kermit, ed.
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    ^ VanBurkleo, Sandra F.; Hall, Kermit L.; and Kaczorowski, Robert J., eds.

    ^ Sheldon, Charles H. Essentials of Constitutional Law: The Supreme Court and the Fundamental Law (2001) 208 pp VanBurkleo, Sandra F.; Hall, Kermit L.; and Kaczorowski, Robert J., eds.
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  • Levy, Leonard W. et al., ed.^ United States Supreme Court docket no.
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    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lynn Stuter -- News With Views Can one surmise the Supreme Court ecstatic over the illegitimate ascendancy of Obama to the presidency of the United States, thus driving a stake through the heart of the United States Constitution?
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    Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. 5 vol; 1992; 3000 pp
  • US Law Dictionary

Secondary sources

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  • Amar, Akhil Reed (2005).^ Amar, Akhil Reed.

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    ^ The Bill of Rights [electronic resource] : creation and reconstruction / Akhil Reed Amar.

    ."In the Beginning". America's Constitution: A Biography.^ America's Constitution: A Biography .
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    ^ America’s Constitution: A Biography .

    .New York: Random House.^ (New York: Times Books/Random House, 1993; Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995); Gregory Casey.
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    ^ Article VIII, Articles of Confederation [2] Dilorenzo, Thomas Hamilton’s Curse Crown Publishing Group (Random House) New York, NY 2008 Pg.
    • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 1-4000-6262-4. 
  • Anastaplo, George, "Reflections on Constitutional Law" 2006 ISBN 0-8131-9156-4
  • Beard, Charles.^ Professor Lund teaches constitutional law and serves as Acting Associate Dean of Academic Affairs at the George Mason University School of Law.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Specifically, Mr. Gore argued that George Bush "has been breaking the law repeatedly and persistently," and that such actions might constitute an impeachable offense.
    • http://volokh.com/posts/1137741761.comments.html 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ISBN 1-4000-6262-4 .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States, 1913.
  • Richard R. Beeman, Stephen Botein, and Edward C., Carter, II, eds., Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1987);
  • Bernstein, Richard B. Are We to Be a Nation?^ Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
    • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Baton Rouge : Louisiana State University Press, c2005.

    .The Making of the Constitution
    (Harvard University Press, 1987);
  • Bernstein, Richard B. Amending America: If We Love the Constitution So Much, Why Do We Keep Trying to Change It? (New York: Times Books/Random House, 1993; Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995);
  • Gregory Casey.^ It was clear that without the consent of New York and Virginia, the Constitution would stand on shaky ground.

    ^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Page 48 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC     The net effect of these revisions is to make possible the passage of a constitutional amendment that is opposed by large majorities in each House.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ."The Supreme Court and Myth: An Empirical Investigation," Law & Society Review, Vol.^ Each of the several courts of common pleas may, with the approval of the Supreme Court, provide for the initiation of criminal proceedings therein by information filed in the manner provided by law.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the early 1800s the Supreme Court established the principle of judicial review.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Justices and judges shall not engage in any activity prohibited by law and shall not violate any canon of legal or judicial ethics prescribed by the Supreme Court.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    8, No. .3 (Spring, 1974), pp. 385–420
  • Cooley, Thomas, The General Principles of Constitutional Law in the United States of America, Third Edition, revised by Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, 1898.
  • Cooley, Thomas, A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations, Boston.^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ William Rawle's "A View of the Constitution of the United States of America" is online at this site: http://www.constitution.org/wr/rawle-00.htm .
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Story, Joseph, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume I , Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume II and Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume III , (3 vols., 1833), a work of profound learning which is still the standard treatise on the subject.

    .Little, Brown and Company, 1878.
  • Countryman, Edward, ed.^ Little, Brown and Company, 1878.

    ^ Countryman, Edward, ed.
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    .What Did the Constitution Mean to Early Americans.Bedford/St.^ Did not everybody know that the North had set aside the Constitution, throttled our liberty and pulled the tail feathers out of the American eagle?
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    ^ What Did the Constitution Mean to Early Americans.
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    Martin's, 1999. xii + 169 pp. .online review ISBN 0-312-18262-7.
  • Edling, Max M. (2003).^ ISBN 0-312-18262-7 .
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    .A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State.^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
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    ^ They argue that Americans become "Fourteenth Amendment citizens" only voluntarily--through entering into some sort of contract with the federal or state governments.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cope 01-24-2009, 06:16 PM How did the 14th Amendment make constitutional state laws unconstitutional?
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    .Oxford University Press.^ Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, c2007.

    ^ New York, Oxford University Press, 1965.

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    ISBN 0-19-514870-3. 
  • Ely, James W., Jr. The Guardian of Every Other Right: A Constitutional History of Property Rights. .Oxford U. Press, 1992. 193 pp.
  • Fallon, Richard H. (2004).^ Fallon, Richard H. (2004).
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    .The Dynamic Constitution: An Introduction to American Constitutional Law.^ Kersch, Ken I. Constructing Civil Liberties: Discontinuities in the Development of American Constitutional Law .
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    ^ American Constitutional Law: Introductory Essays and Selected Cases (14th Edition) (2004) Tribe, Laurence H. American Constitutional Law (1999) Reference books .

    ^ American Constitutional Law: Introductory Essays and Selected Cases (14th Edition) (2004) Tribe, Laurence H. American Constitutional Law (1999) .
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    ^ Christian G. Fritz, American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2008) at p.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-521-84094-5. 
  • Finkelman, Paul.^ ISBN 0-521-84094-5 .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Slavery and the Founders: Race and Slavery in the Age of Jefferson (M.E. Sharpe, 1996);
  • Fritz, Christian G. American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2008) [ISBN 978-0-521-88188-3
  • Hoffer, Peter Charles.^ Pro-slavery men refrained from voting but the free state people ratified the proposed constitution.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Final freedom [electronic resource] : the Civil War, the abolition of slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment / Michael Vorenberg.

    ^ Not a war to defend slavery but a war to either participate in the violation of the Constitution of the United States or not.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The Law's Conscience: Equitable Constitutionalism in America.^ The Law's Conscience: Equitable Constitutionalism in America .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Law’s Conscience: Equitable Constitutionalism in America .

    .U. of North Carolina Press, 1990. 301 pp.
  • Irons, Peter.^ U. of North Carolina Press, 1990.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A People's History of the Supreme Court. 2000. 542 pp.
  • Kammen, Michael (1986).^ And given the difficulty in the Article V amendment procedures, there are serious difficulties in the people correcting those kinds of constitutional amendments that the Supreme Court, in effect, makes.
    • Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If they could get the current conservative majority on the Supreme Court to decide all future presidential elections as it did in 2000, I’ve got no doubt that they’d be OK with that.
    • Think Progress » Angry right boos John McCain for stating that Obama ‘respects the Constitution of the United States.’ 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

    ^ And once denied, a renewed application is truly a desperate measure the success of which heralds one of the rarest birds in Supreme Court history.
    • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A Machine that Would Go of Itself: The Constitution in American Culture.^ Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American Political Culture .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constitutionalism and American Culture: Writing the New Constitutional History .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Russia, and many other countries, would have changed for the better had Americans not been cajoled into adopting the Constitution and, as a result, not fallen under the control of avaricious despots.
    • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Alfred A. Knopf.^ New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-394-52905-7. 
  • Kelly, Alfred Hinsey; Harbison, Winfred Audif; Belz, Herman (1991).^ Kelly, Alfred Hinsey; Harbison, Winfred Audif; Belz, Herman (1991).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ISBN 0-394-52905-7 .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The American Constitution: its origins and development (7th ed.^ The American Constitution: its origins and development (7 th ed.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kersch, Ken I. Constructing Civil Liberties: Discontinuities in the Development of American Constitutional Law .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Richard R. Beeman, Stephen Botein, and Edward C., Carter, II, eds., Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1987); Bernstein, Richard B. Are We to Be a Nation?
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ). .New York: Norton & Co.^ On the other hand, in New York Times Co.
    • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Article I: Annotations pg. 41 of 58 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC caselaw.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Norton & Co.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fort Warren, New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1910., pp .
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-393-96119-2. 
  • Kersch, Ken I. Constructing Civil Liberties: Discontinuities in the Development of American Constitutional Law.^ The Dynamic Constitution: An Introduction to American Constitutional Law .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And by the way, no laws authorizing "civil forfeiture" or other related measures of tyranny have been struck down by the federal courts - Kenneth W. Royce ( Hologram of Liberty ) .
    • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Victory of law [electronic resource] : the Fourteenth amendment, the Civil War, and American literature, 1852-1867 / Deak Nabers.

    .Cambridge University Press, 2004. 392 pp.
  • Kyvig, David E. Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996);
  • Levin, Daniel Lessard.^ Adopted by Constitutional Convention of 1938 and approved by vote of the people November 8, 1938; amended by vote of the people November 7, 1995; November 6, 2001.
    • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Slavery and the Founders: Race and Slavery in the Age of Jefferson (M.E. Sharpe, 1996); Fritz, Christian G. American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2008) [ISBN 978-0-521-88188-3 Hoffer, Peter Charles.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Renumbered and amended by Constitutional Convention of 1938 and approved by vote of the people November 8, 1938; further amended by vote of the people November 4, 1958; November 7, 1995.
    • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

    .Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American Political Culture.^ Popular sovereignty is the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American Political Culture .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constitutionalism and American Culture: Writing the New Constitutional History .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .State U. of New York Press., 1999. 283 pp.
  • Licht, Robert A., ed.^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But two powerful and pivotal states, New York and Virginia , remained undecided, as did the two smaller states of North Carolina and Rhode Island .

    ^ (New York: Times Books/Random House, 1993; Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995); Gregory Casey.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    .The Framers and Fundamental Rights.^ The Framers and Fundamental Rights .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .American Enterprise Inst.^ American Enterprise Inst.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    Press, 1991. 194 pp.
  • Manley, John F. and Dolbeare, Kenneth M., ed (1987). .The Case Against the Constitution: From the Anti-Federalists to the Present.^ When the Constitution was finally adopted, the Anti-Federalists became "strict constructionists" and the Federalists "loose constructionists".
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One anti-federalist opinion tell us that the proposed constitution ought to be rejected because it is not a confederation of the States, but a government over individuals.
    • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was certainly the case for the Federalists who conceived the Constitution.
    • The Constitution Con - An Article by Michael Tsarion. Part Two of Weapons of Mass Destruction Found...The Con of the US Constitution...The British Control of America... 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taroscopes.com [Source type: Original source]

    M.E. Sharpe. .ISBN 0-87332-432-3. 
  • Marshall, Thurgood, "The Constitution: A Living Document," Howard Law Journal 1987: 623-28.
  • Paschal, George Washington, The Constitution of the United States Defined and Carefully Annotated Washington DC, 1868
  • Powell, H. Jefferson.^ The Congress of the United States, through enactment of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Public Law 93-288, has authorized the making of certain disaster relief grants.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ People who attack the Constitution as a document for oppression without saying anything about the oppression of the states make me suspicious.
    • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
    • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A Community Built on Words: The Constitution in History and Politics.^ A Community Built on Words: The Constitution in History and Politics .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .University of Chicago Press, 2002. 251 pp.
  • Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution.^ University Press of Kansas, 2002.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The work was a comprehensive reassessment of the meaning of the Constitution, based on examination of eighteenth-century usages of key political and legal concepts and terms.
    • Blackwater PMC Criminal Cases [Archive] - Small Wars Council 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ University of Chicago Press , 2002.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    Knopf, 1996. 455 pp.
  • Sandoz, Ellis. .A Government of Laws: Political Theory, Religion, and the American Founding.^ It has impacted politics, government policy and American working family living standards for decades.
    • The Democratic Party | PartyBuilder | U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC my.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Government of Laws: Political Theory, Religion, and the American Founding .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the Puritan element in the colonies found that this law practically established the Catholic religion in the new territory, its traditional feeling of intolerance revived.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Louisiana State U. Press, 1990. 259 pp.
  • Sheldon, Charles H. Essentials of Constitutional Law: The Supreme Court and the Fundamental Law (2001) 208 pp
  • Spalding, Matthew, & Forte, David F., eds.^ Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain parts of the United States, was unconstitutional in that it deprived people of property, their slaves.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Heritage Guide to the Constitution, Regnery Publishing, Washington, D.C., 2005. (A limited preview is available at Google Books.)
  • Story, Joseph, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States: Volume I, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States: Volume II and Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States: Volume III, (3 vols., 1833), a work of profound learning which is still the standard treatise on the subject.^ Story, Joseph, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume I , Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume II and Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States : Volume III , (3 vols., 1833), a work of profound learning which is still the standard treatise on the subject.

    ^ A limited preview is available at Google Books.

    ^ William Rawle's "A View of the Constitution of the United States of America" is online at this site: http://www.constitution.org/wr/rawle-00.htm .
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Story published a One Volume Abridgment the same year.
  • Story, Joseph, A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States, Boston, Marsh, Capen, Lyon & Webb, 1840.
  • VanBurkleo, Sandra F.; Hall, Kermit L.; and Kaczorowski, Robert J., eds.^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
    • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
    • Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.
    • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Constitutionalism and American Culture: Writing the New Constitutional History.^ Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American Political Culture .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constitutionalism and American Culture: Writing the New Constitutional History .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Primary Documents in American History: The United States Constitution" .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .University Press of Kansas, 2002. 464 pp.
  • Mazzone, Jason (2005).^ University Press of Kansas, 2002.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ University of Chicago Press , 2002.
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Durham, N.C. ; London : Duke University Press, 2002.

    ."The Creation of a Constitutional Culture".^ The Creation of a Constitutional Culture” .

    ^ The Creation of a Constitutional Culture ".
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Tulsa Law Review 40 (4): 671.^ Tulsa Law Review 40 (4): 671 .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=831927.
     
  • Smith, Jean Edward; Levine, Herbert M. (1988).^ Smith, Jean Edward (1989).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Papers.ssrn.com .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Smith, Jean Edward ; Levine, Herbert M. (1988).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Civil Liberties & Civil Rights Debated.^ [PW55] A major feature of most modern post-colonial constitutions if an extensive listing of the civil rights and liberties of citizens.
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The debate over ratification continued into 1788 as Federalists and Anti-Federalists faced off over issues of states' rights, human liberties, and governmental authority.
    • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Law Constitution Bill of Rights Civil liberties Federalism Separation of powers Law enforcement Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 
  • Smith, Jean Edward (1989).^ Smith, Jean Edward ; Levine, Herbert M. (1988).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1962] .

    ^ Smith, Jean Edward (1989).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Constitution and American Foreign Policy.^ "Such efforts are critical today, as policymakers have increasingly focused on the challenges that Cuba and Venezuela pose to American foreign policy," the statement said.
    • fufor's unregelmässige news 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC fufor.twoday.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American exceptionalism, the guiding if unspoken force of our foreign policy for most of our history, will be out, international cooperation i ...
    • MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.marchreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Constitution and American Foreign Policy .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company. 
  • White, G. Edward. .The Constitution and the New Deal.^ The Constitution and the New Deal .
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Library » Constitution Live! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.constitutionlive.com [Source type: Original source]

    Harvard University Press, 2000. 385 pp.
  • Wiecek, William M., "The Witch at the Christening: Slavery and the Constitution's Origins," Leonard W. Levy and Dennis J. Mahoney, eds., The Framing and Ratification of the Constitution (Macmillan, 1987), 178-84.
  • Willoughby, Westel Woodbury, Principles of the constitutional law of the United States New York, Baker, Voorhis & Company, 1912.

Further reading

.
  • Klos, Stanley L. (2004).^ Klos, Stanley L. (2004).
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    President Who? Forgotten Founders. .Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc..^ Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc..
    • United States Constitution | Navify — Multimedia Encyclopedia 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC navify.com [Source type: Original source]
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    p. 261. ISBN 0-9752627-5-0. 

External links

National Archives

Official U.S. government sources

.
This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-07-17, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.^ For related searches, see United States Constitution .
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^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Annotated Constitution by the Congressional Research Service of the U.S. Library of Congress (hyperlinked version published by Cornell University ) Audio reading of the Constitution in MP3 format provided by the University of Chicago Law School Mobile friendly version of the Constitution Listen to this article ( info/dl ) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-07-17, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.

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From Wikiquote

Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America
Page II of the United States Constitution
Page III of the United States Constitution
Page IV of the United States Constitution
.The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America.^ So we are told that, at the time Congress and the States were passing laws against abortion, they amended the Constitution to nullify all those laws.
  • U.S. Constitution 14th Amendment - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.14th-amendment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sandford, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise, which prohibited slavery in certain parts of the United States, was unconstitutional in that it deprived people of property, their slaves.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A Roman Catholic Supreme Court Majority * http://www.supremecourtus.gov/ The Supreme Court of the United States * http://www.supremecourtus.gov/about/courtbuilding.pdf The Court Building start U.S. Supreme Court composition .
  • Ask A Word 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was completed on September 17, 1787, with its adoption by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, PA, and was later ratified by special conventions in each state.^ The members of the Constitutional Convention signed the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • U.S. Constitution, The U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Convention Monday September 17th, 1787.
  • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.It created a federal union of sovereign states, and a federal government to operate that union.^ While, it defines the federal government's rule over the States.
  • Tom Mullen's Blog: The U.S. Constitution: The 18th Century Patriot Act 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC thomasmullen.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It created a federal union of sovereign states, and a federal government to operate that union.
  • Constitution of the United States of America - Wikisource 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government created a new type of citizen, a FEDERAL United States citizen.
  • The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies 11 September 2009 2:13 UTC www.ncaastrategies.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

See also

Quotes

.
  • We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.^ PREAMBLE We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
    • Impeachment, United States Constitution, American Government, Bill Of Rights 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.linecamp.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States of America. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.fathermag.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC highflyingflag.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jump to: navigation , search The Constitution of the United States of America Preamble We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
    • Constitution of the United States of America - dKosopedia 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have very deliberately titled this work "The Constitution for the United States" to re-iterate the wording of clause four of the "Preamble" ,i.e., "promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America" and to emphasize that this is a charter that "We the People" have given to the united States, and not that the States or the National Government has given to "We the People" .
    • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Preface and Preamble 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America .
    • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=529 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The President, Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors.
    • College Libertarians of Towson - Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wwwnew.towson.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All elected offices (Federal and State) shall have a vote for Someone Else.
    • Citizen Amendments to the United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.citizenamendments.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Article II, sec.^ ARTICLE II.--RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE. SEC. 1.
      • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

      .4
  • Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.^ Treason against the [United] Confederate States shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.
    • The Confederate States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.
    • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC biblescripture.net [Source type: Original source]
    • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Constitution - a knol by CFTC 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Upon this 220th Aniversary of the Constitution of the United States of America - Club Conspiracy Forums 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clubconspiracy.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.magnacartaplus.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Section 3 Treason   (1) Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or, in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.chanrobles.com [Source type: Original source]

    .No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on the confession in open court.^ No person shall after acquittal, be tried for the same offence.
    • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Commentary: No person can be convicted of treason against the United States unless he or she confesses in open court, or unless two witnesses testify that he or she has committed a treasonable act.
    • The Constitution of the United States, Annotated 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.chanrobles.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Century of Lawmaking: The Making of the US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.proconstitution.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States of America - dKosopedia 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Freedom Defined - The Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nccs.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States of America. 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.fathermag.com [Source type: Original source]
    • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.1america.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: The Constitution of the USA 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
    • Our Blessed Hope » The US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC ourblessedhope.podbean.com [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution for the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Century of Lawmaking: The Making of the US Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • FAN's Guide To Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.freedomactivist.net [Source type: Original source]
    • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: The Constitution of the USA 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the Confederate States of America- what was changed? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filibustercartoons.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.scottjameson.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Common Sense Americanism - The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.csamerican.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC discoverthomasjefferson.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Article III, sec.^ ARTICLE III.--OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS. SEC. 1.
      • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

      .3
  • This Constitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be Supreme Law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.^ United States Supreme Court decisions that are not constitutional ...
    • United States Supreme Court decisions that are not constitutional ... should be ignored by Congress and the President 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.thegreenpapers.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The charter of the United Nations has become the supreme law of the land and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution, or laws of any state notwithstanding."
    • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It also provided that acts of Congress and ratified treaties be "the supreme law of the States."

    .
    • Article VI, sec.^ This oath is mandated by Article VI of the Constitution and its text is set by statute (5 U.S.C., Sec.
      • The Reality Check » US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.therealitycheck.org [Source type: Original source]

      2

The Bill of Rights

.
  • Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
  • A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.^ (Moved by Fisher Ames) Initial Senate version, SEP-3 "Congress shall make no law establishing religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."
    • The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Second Amendment : declares "a well regulated militia" as "necessary to the security of a free State", and as explanation for prohibiting infringement of "the right of the people to keep and bear arms."
    • United States Constitution - The IT Law Wiki 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC itlaw.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ State, the listing of which is established by the law.
    • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The right of the people to be secure...^ AMENDMENTS 1-10 (THE BILL OF RIGHTS ) (added in 1791) - Preserves the rights of the people.

    ^ Amendment IX [Reserved rights of people.
    • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0749825.html 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AMENDMENT IX Rights retained by people.
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.endtimesreport.com [Source type: Original source]

    against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause. .
  • Nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.^ US Constitution, 5th Amendment: " No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

    ^ Amendment V Rules of Grand Jury, Due Process, Just Compensation No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

    ^ No person shall be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
    • Resequenced United States Constitution at MROB 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mrob.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.^ The sixth guarantees a speedy public trial for criminal offenses.

    ^ By being shipped from New Orleans to Washington, D.C., Swartwout and Bollman were not being tried in the state and district where any overt act was alleged to have been committed, as required by the Constitution's Sixth Amendment: "In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right of a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law [....
    • Constitution, Law, and Politics in United States v. Aaron Burr 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.belcherfoundation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sixth Amendment guarantees a defendant in criminal proceedings, the right to a public and speedy trial, a fair jury, cross examination of witnesses, and an attorney.
    • IMA Hero: Reading Program U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.^ Amendment VII. TRIAL BY JURY In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

    ^ Trial by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof remain inviolate.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Amendment VII · Right of trial by jury .
    • We the People; US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.leftjustified.org [Source type: Original source]
    • We the People; US Constitution 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.^ The eighth amendment to the US Constitution reads as follows: ”Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” .
    • US Constitution « Conservative Posts 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC conservativeposts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AMENDMENT VIII Bail, fines and punishments.
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.endtimesreport.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
    • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
    • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • U.S. Constitution | Free State Revolution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.freestaterevolution.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution for the United States of America 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
    • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.cyonic-nemeton.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.taxtruth4u.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Constitution Of The United States | iCitizenForum 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC icitizenforum.com [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.nobleednews.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Sweeny Police | U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.sweenypolice.org [Source type: Original source]
    • We the People; US Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.leftjustified.org [Source type: Original source]
    • U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC readyourconstitution.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Rock The Moment | U.S. Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.rockthemoment.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States of America - dKosopedia 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
    • A Guy in New York: U.S. Constitution Archives 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC aguyinnewyork.com [Source type: Original source]
    • All Amendments to the United States Constitution 10 February 2010 11:49 UTC www1.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]


    •  
      Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum

       
      US Constitution - Scans, Amendements, Signers - A Stan Klos Website</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://famousamericans.net/washingtonquarter.net/usconstitution.info/constitution1/">famousamericans.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Sharon Preston - Wage & Hour Law -- The US Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sharonprestonlaw.com/constitution.html">www.sharonprestonlaw.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Reaffirm the Constitution of the United States Petition</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.petitiononline.com/endorse/">www.petitiononline.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>United States Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lib.auburn.edu/madd/docs/usconsti.html">www.lib.auburn.edu</a> [Source type: Original 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source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.magnacartaplus.org/usa-rights/index.htm">www.magnacartaplus.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>List of Amendments to the Constitution of the United States | Free Quiz Questions | Trivia Quiz Resources | Free Pub Quiz Questions | Trivia Quiz</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.paulsquiz.com/Trivia_Quiz_Resources/History/List_of_Amendments_to_the_Constitution_of_the_United_States/">www.paulsquiz.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__64" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="64"><ul> <li><em><a href="/Eighth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution">Eighth Amendment</a></em> (1791)</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li>All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>State wherein they reside.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NJDARM: Documentary Treasures, 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.njarchives.org/links/treasures/usconstitution/14thamend.html">www.njarchives.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Constitution of the United States Revised (first draft by Beck)</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://san.beck.org/BFA-USConstitutionRevised.html">san.beck.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the [pg.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NJDARM: Documentary Treasures, 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.njarchives.org/links/treasures/usconstitution/14thamend.html">www.njarchives.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__279" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="279">No State shall...</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.portablepublishing.com/pb/wp_fe474981/wp_fe474981.html">www.portablepublishing.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AFH LIBRARY - The Constitution of the United States of America.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alkalizeforhealth.net/LconstitutionUS.htm">www.alkalizeforhealth.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ourwoods.org/">www.ourwoods.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the <a name="citable__51" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="51">United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All persons are equal before the law and are equally entitled to its protection.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>United States Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.4lawschool.com/constitution/allaboutuscon.htm">www.4lawschool.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>US Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nobleednews.com/us_constitution.htm">www.nobleednews.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>United States Government - The Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://countrystudies.us/united-states/government-2.htm">countrystudies.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>American Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 September 2009 20:20 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americanconstitutionsociety.blogspot.com/2008/05/american-constitution.html">americanconstitutionsociety.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In Section 1, for example: No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Constitution for the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.halexandria.org/dward248.htm">www.halexandria.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <ul> <li><em><a href="/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution">Fourteenth Amendment</a></em>, sec. <a name="citable__264" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="264">1 (1868)</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li>The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged...</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The right of Citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitrude.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.surewest.net/becktell/words/constitution.html">home.surewest.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude [PW70] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://people.brandeis.edu/~woll/USConstitutioncomments.htm">people.brandeis.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>FindLaw Paragraph 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tcnbp.tripod.com/webguid.htm">tcnbp.tripod.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. <ul> <li><em><a href="/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution">Fifteenth Amendment</a></em>, sec. <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">1 (1870)</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li>The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged...</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The right of Citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitrude.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.surewest.net/becktell/words/constitution.html">home.surewest.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude [PW70] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://people.brandeis.edu/~woll/USConstitutioncomments.htm">people.brandeis.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html">www.usconstitution.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.senate.gov/civics/constitution_item/constitution.htm">www.senate.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendments.html">caselaw.lp.findlaw.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.terrella.com/home/the-united-states-constitution/">www.terrella.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution">www.worldalmanacforkids.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The United States Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/2339099/The-United-States-Constitution">www.scribd.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The United States Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.taxtruth4u.com/sapconst.html">www.taxtruth4u.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>U.S. Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dailyrepublican.com/constitution.html">www.dailyrepublican.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>US Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> 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      Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum

       
      US Constitution - Scans, Amendements, Signers - A Stan Klos Website</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://famousamericans.net/washingtonquarter.net/usconstitution.info/constitution1/">famousamericans.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Reaffirm the Constitution of the United States Petition</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.petitiononline.com/endorse/">www.petitiononline.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title> National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.constitutioncenter.org/ncc_edu_Text_of_the_Constitution.aspx">www.constitutioncenter.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>http://waforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://waforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution">waforkids.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The United States Constitution | The Smoking Argus Daily | Investigating the Underbelly of Politics and Government</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://smargus.com/about/the-united-states-constitution/">smargus.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=206382">www.history.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.kutztowndemocrats.org/constitution.html">www.kutztowndemocrats.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>FAN's Guide To Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freedomactivist.net/usconstitution.html">www.freedomactivist.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Constitution for the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.1215.org/lawnotes/lawnotes/constusa.htm">www.1215.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Amendments to the Constitution of the United States / Enmiendas a la Constituci�n de los Estados Unidos</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/USA/amendments.html">pdba.georgetown.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.endtimesreport.com/CONSTITUTION_OF_THE_UNITED_STATES.htm">www.endtimesreport.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>AFH LIBRARY - 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The Constitution of the United States</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.proquestk12.com/curr/homework/constitution.shtml">www.proquestk12.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title> portablepublishing.com - Kingery and The Constitution of the United States </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.portablepublishing.com/pb/wp_fe474981/wp_fe474981.html">www.portablepublishing.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ourwoods.org/">www.ourwoods.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>15 September 2009 7:07 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.prou.net/utilities/archive/usconsti.html">www.prou.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>http://www.constitutionalwarrior.com/dans-blog/73-constitution-of-the-united-states-of-america.html</c_title></em> <c_date>15 September 2009 7:07 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.constitutionalwarrior.com/dans-blog/73-constitution-of-the-united-states-of-america.html">www.constitutionalwarrior.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>15 September 2009 7:07 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://floridalawfirm.com/const.html">floridalawfirm.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>10 September 2009 20:20 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/html/conamt.html">www.gpoaccess.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> on account of sex. <ul> <li><em><a href="/Nineteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution">Nineteenth Amendment</a></em>, sec. 1 (1920)</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikiquote_About_the_United_States_Constitution">About the United States Constitution</span></h2> <a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143"><ul> <li>The people made the <strong class="selflink">Constitution</strong>, and the people can unmake it.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Stop Treasonous Democrats from Communizing America Now! (Video)</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2312042/posts">www.freerepublic.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Stop Treasonous Democrats from Communizing America Now! (Video)</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-bloggers/2312042/posts">www.freerepublic.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Franklin, a self-made man, believed in democracy and doubted the efficacy of the Constitution unless it was, like a pyramid, broad-based upon the will of the people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution of the United States by James M. Beck - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2)</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Constitution-of-the-United-States2.html">www.fullbooks.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>John Adams, 2nd President and signer of the Declaration of Independence warned: "Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Constitution Party Platform</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.constitutionparty.com/party_platform.php">www.constitutionparty.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> It is the creature of their own will, and lives only by their will. <ul> <li><a href="/John_Marshall" title="John Marshall">John Marshall</a>, <em>Cohens v. <a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102">Virginia</em>, 6 Wheaton (19 U.S.) 264, 389 (1821).</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li>We must never forget that it is a <em>constitution</em> we are expounding.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A struggle in the Virginia convention found Patrick Henry and James Monroe expounding their belief that the Constitution was undemocratic, and James Madison and John Marshall vigorously supporting ratification.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution">www.worldalmanacforkids.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>http://waforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://waforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-co205400a&article_id=682&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=U.S._Constitution">waforkids.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=206382">www.history.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Virginia , 6 Wheaton 264 (1821)—Asserts Supreme Court's sweeping and definitive interpretation of its right of appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the highest state courts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>National Park Service: The U.S. Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/butowsky2/constitution2.htm">www.nps.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Virginia, 19 U.S. 264, 423 (1821).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> What Is The U.S. Constitution? | Tenth Amendment Center</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tenthamendmentcenter.com/2009/12/21/what-is-the-u-s-constitution/">www.tenthamendmentcenter.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <ul> <li><a href="/John_Marshall" title="John Marshall">John Marshall</a>, <em><a href="/McCulloch_v._Maryland#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:McCulloch v. Maryland">McCulloch v. Maryland</a></em>, 17 U.S. (4 Wheaton) 316 (1819), 407.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikiquote_External_links">External links</span></h2> <div class="noprint" style="clear: right; border: solid #aaa 1px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; font-size: 90%; background: #f9f9f9; width: 250px; padding: 4px; spacing: 0px; text-align: left; float: right;"> <div style="float: left;"> <div class="floatnone"><img alt="Wikipedia" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/2/4/0315652806810763.png" width="50" height="57" /></div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 60px;"><a href="/Wikipedia" title="Wikipedia">Wikipedia</a> has an article about: <div style="margin-left: 10px;"><em><strong><a href="/United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:United States Constitution">United States Constitution</a></strong></em></div> </div> </div> <div class="noprint" style="clear: right; border: solid #aaa 1px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; font-size: 90%; background: #f9f9f9; width: 250px; padding: 4px; spacing: 0px; text-align: left; float: right;"> <div style="float: left;"> <div class="floatnone"><img alt="Wikisource" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/4/0/3/18692602304378102.png" width="50" height="53" /></div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 60px;"><a href="/Wikisource#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Wikisource">Wikisource</a> has original text related to: <div style="margin-left: 10px;"><em><strong><a href="/United_States_Constitution#wikisource" class="extiw" title="wikisource:United States Constitution">United States Constitution</a></strong></em></div> </div> </div> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.constitutioncenter.org" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The National Constitution Center</a> Philadelphia, PA</li> <li><a href="http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The National Archives Experience — Constitution of the United States</a></li> </ul> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikiquote_mw_normal_catlinks">Category: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Historical_documents" title="Category:Historical documents">Historical documents</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="wikisource"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="wikisource">Source material</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of January 22, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_wikis_fragments"> <div id="wikisource_contentSub">(Redirected to <a title="Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America" href="/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America">Constitution of the United States of America</a> article)</div> <div id="wikisource_bodyContent"> <h3 id="wikisource_siteSub">From Wikisource</h3> <table class="headertemplate" id="wikisource_headertemplate"> <tr> <td class="header_backlink"><span id="wikisource_headerprevious">←Constitutional documents</span></td> <td class="header_title"><strong><span id="wikisource_header_title_text">Constitution of the United States of America</span></strong><br /> <em><span id="wikisource_header_author_text"><a href="/Author:Federal_Convention_of_1787" title="Author:Federal Convention of 1787">the Federal Convention of 1787</a></span></em></td> <td class="header_forelink"><span id="wikisource_headernext"><a href="/United_States_Bill_of_Rights" title="United States Bill of Rights">The Bill of Rights</a>→</span></td> </tr> </table> <table class="header_notes"> <tr> <td><em><a name="citable__529" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="529">The <strong>United States Constitution</strong> is the supreme law of the United States of America.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="529"><a href="#citable__529"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. </c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2009/09/01/uss-constitution/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="529"><a href="#citable__529"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="529"><a href="#citable__529"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lynn Stuter -- News With Views Can one surmise the Supreme Court ecstatic over the illegitimate ascendancy of Obama to the presidency of the United States, thus driving a stake through the heart of the United States Constitution?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__602" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="602">It was completed on September 17, 1787, with its adoption by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was later ratified by special conventions in each state.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="602"><a href="#citable__602"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Pro-slavery men refrained from voting but the free state people ratified the proposed constitution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="602"><a href="#citable__602"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1788 the proposed Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states (nine), and on 4 March, 1789, the first Congress assembled under it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="602"><a href="#citable__602"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Amendments proposed in either manner become valid as parts of the Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths of them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__282" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="282">It created a federal union of sovereign states, and a federal government to operate that union.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The government created a new type of citizen, a FEDERAL United States citizen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They argue that Americans become "Fourteenth Amendment citizens" only voluntarily--through entering into some sort of contract with the federal or state governments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What rights does the Federal Government protect that the State government's don't?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__345" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="345">It replaced the less defined union that had existed under the <a href="/Articles_of_Confederation" title="Articles of Confederation">Articles of Confederation</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="345"><a href="#citable__345"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Though prepared soon after independence was declared, the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" were not adopted until 1781, when the war was nearly won.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="345"><a href="#citable__345"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A large Union force under General Rosecrans was stationed near Murfreesboro, Tennessee , where also was the Confederate General Bragg with a fine army.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="345"><a href="#citable__345"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But wasn't the method for ratification different under what they proposed than it had been under the Articles of Confederation, and that the whole—I mean, they had a whole new process.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju57226.000/hju57226_0.htm">commdocs.house.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__368" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="368">It took effect on March 4, 1789 and has served as a model for the constitutions of numerous other nations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="368"><a href="#citable__368"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1788 the proposed Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states (nine), and on 4 March, 1789, the first Congress assembled under it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="368"><a href="#citable__368"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Notwithstanding any provision of this or any other article of this constitution, the legislature may by law, which shall take effect without submission to the people: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The Constitution of the United States of America is the oldest written national constitution in use.</em> <dl> <dd>— <em>Excerpted from</em> <a href="/United_States_Constitution#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:United States Constitution">United States Constitution</a> <em>on <a href="/Main_Page#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Main Page">Wikipedia</a>, the free encyclopedia.</em></dd> </dl> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__244" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="244">The Constitution is the second of the three Charters of Freedom along with the <a href="/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence" title="United States Declaration of Independence">Declaration of Independence</a> and the <a href="/United_States_Bill_of_Rights" title="United States Bill of Rights">Bill of Rights</a>, with <a href="/Additional_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution" title="Additional amendments to the United States Constitution">later amendments</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Federal Constitution: The founders weren't even going to include an original Bill of Rights, as Congress was given no power to invade your privacy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shortly after independence was declared, the states were advised to prepare constitutions of government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Owing to the opposition to its adoption, especially in Virginia and New York, it was agreed by the friends of the Constitution that a bill of rights should be added to it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__80" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="80">This edition is taken from the <a href="http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">US House of Representatives web site</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also called the ''States' Initiative'', the resolution is sponsored by Representative Tom Bliley, one of our distinguished Virginians with us today, and it currently has eight House cosponsors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju57226.000/hju57226_0.htm">commdocs.house.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As soon as they got in office, the Obaminons tried to scrub this from the White House web site, but the info was already out there.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__216" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="216">Related documents: <a href="/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence" title="United States Declaration of Independence">Declaration of Independence</a>; <a href="/Articles_of_Confederation" title="Articles of Confederation">Articles of Confederation</a>; <strong class="selflink">Constitution</strong>; <a href="/United_States_Bill_of_Rights" title="United States Bill of Rights">Bill of Rights</a>; <a href="/Additional_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution" title="Additional amendments to the United States Constitution">other amendments</a> & <a href="/Unsuccessful_attempts_to_amend_the_United_States_Constitution" title="Unsuccessful attempts to amend the United States Constitution"> unsuccessful amendments</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States [electronic resource] : including selected appendices of historical documents relating to the duty of all who serve within the Department of Defense to honor and to uphold the law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Horizon Information Portal</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://library.maricopa.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?menu=search&aspect=search_keyword&npp=75&profile=gcc&ri=&index=.SW&term=United+States+Constitution&aspect=search_keyword">library.maricopa.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Defending the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence is NOT "radical", NOT "subversive", NOT any other pejorative term the pod-people who want to convince you it is.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. </c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2007/06/23/bush-claims-hes-not-part-of-the-executive-branch/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Under Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution, only Congress has the power to declare war.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied?</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/002916.html">www.watchblog.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> </td> </tr> </table> <div style="float:right; width: 130px; margin:0 0 1em 1em;"> <table id="wikisource_toc" class="toc"> <tr> <td> <div id="wikisource_toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> </div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Preamble"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Preamble</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Article_I"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Article I</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Section_1"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Section 1</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Section_2"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Section 2</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Section_3"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Section 3</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Section_4"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Section 4</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Section_5"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Section 5</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Section_6"><span class="tocnumber">2.6</span> <span class="toctext">Section 6</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Section_7"><span class="tocnumber">2.7</span> <span class="toctext">Section 7</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Section_8"><span class="tocnumber">2.8</span> <span class="toctext">Section 8</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Section_9"><span class="tocnumber">2.9</span> <span class="toctext">Section 9</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Section_10"><span class="tocnumber">2.10</span> <span class="toctext">Section 10</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Article_II"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Article II</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Section_1_2"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Section 1</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Section_2_2"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Section 2</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Section_3_2"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Section 3</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Section_4_2"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Section 4</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Article_III"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Article III</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Section_1_3"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Section 1</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Section_2_3"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Section 2</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Section_3_3"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Section 3</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a href="#Article_IV"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Article IV</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Section_1_4"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Section 1</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Section_2_4"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Section 2</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Section_3_4"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Section 3</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Section_4_3"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Section 4</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#Article_V"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Article V</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#Article_VI"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Article VI</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Article_VII"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Article VII</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#Signatures"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Signatures</span></a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> <script type="text/javascript"> //<![CDATA[ if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } //]]> </script> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/4/4/7/6382024236399831.jpg" width="180" height="218" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Page I</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/3/1/3/0887309454589040.jpg" width="180" height="219" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Page II</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/2/9/5/88093404039024082.jpg" width="180" height="218" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Page III</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/2/2/6/0417348257761663.jpg" width="180" height="218" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Page IV</div> </div> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Preamble">Preamble</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__360" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="360"><span style="font-size:2em;"><strong>We the People</strong></span> of the <a href="/United_States#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:United States">United States</a>, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="360"><a href="#citable__360"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="360"><a href="#citable__360"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Pre Amble-We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Constitution Will Never Enforce Itself</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.infowars.com/the-constitution-will-never-enforce-itself/">www.infowars.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="360"><a href="#citable__360"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Its stated purpose is "to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <ul> <li><a href="/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America/Preamble_Annotations" title="Constitution of the United States of America/Preamble Annotations"> /Preamble Annotations</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Article_I">Article I</span></h2> <table style="border:0 !important; background:none;"> <tr> <td> <div id="wikisource_ogg_player_1" style="width: 150px;"> <div><button onclick="if (typeof(wgOggPlayer) != 'undefined') wgOggPlayer.init(false, {"id": "ogg_player_1", "videoUrl": "http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/LibriVox_-_Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America_01.ogg", "width": 150, "height": 35, "length": 779, "offset": 0, "linkUrl": "/wiki/File:LibriVox_-_Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America_01.ogg", "isVideo": false});" style="width: 150px; text-align: center" title="Play sound"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/3/8/1/39236643910656056.png" width="22" height="22" alt="Play sound" /></button></div> </div> </td> <td>Listen to this text (<small>help | file info or download</small>)</td> </tr> </table> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_1">Section 1</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__350" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="350">All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a <a href="/Congress_of_the_United_States#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Congress of the United States">Congress of the United States</a>, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="350"><a href="#citable__350"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. </c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2007/06/23/bush-claims-hes-not-part-of-the-executive-branch/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="350"><a href="#citable__350"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The House of Representatives is merely a legislative body.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="350"><a href="#citable__350"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The legislative power of this state shall be vested in the senate and assembly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <ul> <li><a href="/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America/Article_I,_Section_I_Annotations" title="Constitution of the United States of America/Article I, Section I Annotations"> /Article I, Section I Annotations</a></li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_2">Section 2</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__348" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="348">The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="348"><a href="#citable__348"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In each county a district attorney shall be chosen by the electors once in every three or four years as the legislature shall direct.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="348"><a href="#citable__348"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Except in counties in the city of New York and except as authorized in section one of article nine of this constitution, registers in counties having registers shall be chosen by the electors of the respective counties once in every three years and whenever the occurring of vacancies shall require; the sheriff and the clerk of each county shall be chosen by the electors once in every three or four years as the legislature shall direct.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="348"><a href="#citable__348"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the legislature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public moneys or property for local or private purposes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="text-indent:3em;"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__276" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="276">No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="276"><a href="#citable__276"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant-governor, except a citizen of the United States, of the age of not less than thirty years, and who shall have been five years next preceding the election a resident of this state.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="276"><a href="#citable__276"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I'm just not a citizen of the FEDERAL United States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="276"><a href="#citable__276"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No person shall serve as a member of the legislature unless he or she is a citizen of the United States and has been a resident of the state of New York for five years, and, except as hereinafter otherwise prescribed, of the assembly or senate district for the twelve months immediately preceding his or her election; if elected a senator or member of assembly at the first election next ensuing after a readjustment or alteration of the senate or assembly districts becomes effective, a person, to be eligible to serve as such, must have been a resident of the county in which the senate or assembly district is contained for the twelve months immediately preceding his or her election.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> </div> <div style="text-indent:3em;"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__24" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="24">Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to the Southern theory, this act severed the relations of that state with the Union.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The person first appointed by the minority leader of the assembly shall have a three-year term.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The defense and protection of the state and of the United States is an obligation of all persons within the state.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__274" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="274">The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The person first appointed by the minority leader of the assembly shall have a three-year term.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wikipedia The government of the United States has been emphatically termed a government of laws and not of men.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The member first appointed by the minority leader of the assembly shall have a three-year term.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__582" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="582">The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of <a href="/New_Hampshire#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:New Hampshire">New Hampshire</a> shall be entitled to chuse three, <a href="/Massachusetts#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Massachusetts">Massachusetts</a> eight, <a href="/Rhode_Island#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Rhode Island">Rhode Island</a> and <a href="/Providence_Plantations#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Providence Plantations">Providence Plantations</a> one, <a href="/Connecticut#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Connecticut">Connecticut</a> five, <a href="/New_York#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:New York">New York</a> six, <a href="/New_Jersey#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:New Jersey">New Jersey</a> four, <a href="/Pensylvania#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Pensylvania">Pensylvania</a> eight, <a href="/Delaware#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Delaware">Delaware</a> one, <a href="/Maryland#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Maryland">Maryland</a> six, <a href="/Virginia#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Virginia">Virginia</a> ten, <a href="/North_Carolina#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:North Carolina">North Carolina</a> five, <a href="/South_Carolina#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:South Carolina">South Carolina</a> five, and <a href="/Georgia#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Georgia">Georgia</a> three.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="582"><a href="#citable__582"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It shall consist of at least one judge in each county outside the city of New York and such number of additional judges for such counties as may be provided by law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="582"><a href="#citable__582"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Within the city of New York it shall consist of such number of judges as may be provided by law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="582"><a href="#citable__582"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>New York State Constitution of 1777.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> </div> <div style="text-indent:3em;"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If an interim appointment to the court of appeals be made from among the justices of the supreme court or the appellate divisions thereof, that appointment shall not affect the justice's existing office, nor create a vacancy in the supreme court, or the appellate division thereof, unless such appointment is confirmed by the senate and the appointee shall assume such office.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All officers of every local government whose election or appointment is not provided for by this constitution shall be elected by the people of the local government, or of some division thereof, or appointed by such officers of the local government as may be provided by law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Neither the state nor any political subdivision thereof shall at any time be liable for the payment of any obligations issued by such a public corporation heretofore or hereafter created, nor may the legislature accept, authorize acceptance of or impose such liability upon the state or any political subdivision thereof; but the state or a political subdivision thereof may, if authorized by the legislature, acquire the properties of any such corporation and pay the indebtedness thereof.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> </div> <div style="text-indent:3em;"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__158" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="158">The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of <a href="/Impeachment#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Impeachment">Impeachment</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Except in the case of a transfer of functions under an alternative form of county government, a local government shall not have power to adopt local laws which impair the powers of any other local government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The assembly shall have the power of impeachment by a vote of a majority of all the members elected thereto.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All such boards and officers shall be appointed or elected in such manner, and upon the nomination of such representatives of said parties respectively, as the legislature may direct.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_3">Section 3</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__530" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="530">The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="530"><a href="#citable__530"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Senators are chosen for a term of six years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="530"><a href="#citable__530"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="530"><a href="#citable__530"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Maine was admitted as a free state, thus preserving in the United States Senate the balance between the two sections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__502" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="502">Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="502"><a href="#citable__502"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The members first appointed by the governor shall have respectively one, two, three and four year terms as the governor shall designate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="502"><a href="#citable__502"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In a physiographic view, however, the area of the United States may be divided into the Appalachian belt, the Cordilleras, and the central plains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="502"><a href="#citable__502"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The state shall be divided into eleven judicial districts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__523" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="523">The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="523"><a href="#citable__523"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If the senate rejects an appointment, a vacancy in the office shall occur sixty days after such rejection.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="523"><a href="#citable__523"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Senators are chosen for a term of six years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="523"><a href="#citable__523"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The governor may fill vacancies among such designated judges.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__311" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="311">No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="311"><a href="#citable__311"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Senators are chosen for a term of six years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="311"><a href="#citable__311"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant-governor, except a citizen of the United States, of the age of not less than thirty years, and who shall have been five years next preceding the election a resident of this state.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="311"><a href="#citable__311"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I'm just not a citizen of the FEDERAL United States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__308" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="308">The <a href="/Vice_President#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Vice President">Vice President</a> of the United States shall be <a href="/President_of_the_Senate#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:President of the Senate">President of the Senate</a>, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="308"><a href="#citable__308"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>President of the United States and his administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied?</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/002916.html">www.watchblog.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="308"><a href="#citable__308"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="308"><a href="#citable__308"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. </c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2009/09/01/uss-constitution/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a <a href="/President_pro_tempore_of_the_United_States_Senate#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:President pro tempore of the United States Senate">President pro tempore</a>, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>President of the United States and his administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied?</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/002916.html">www.watchblog.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Named after the Constitution of the United States of America by President George Washington, she is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. </c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2009/09/01/uss-constitution/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No member of the judicial nominating commission shall be eligible for appointment to judicial office in any court of the state during the member's period of service or within one year thereafter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__367" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="367">The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="367"><a href="#citable__367"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The assembly shall have the power of impeachment by a vote of a majority of all the members elected thereto.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="367"><a href="#citable__367"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He has power to grant reprieves and pardons for all offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; by and with the advice and consent of the Senate he has the power to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="367"><a href="#citable__367"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The judicial power is commensurate with the legislative, and extends to all cases, in law and equity, arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and the treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. <a name="citable__472" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="472">When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="472"><a href="#citable__472"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try the impeachment according to the evidence, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="472"><a href="#citable__472"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>President of the United States and his administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied?</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/002916.html">www.watchblog.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="472"><a href="#citable__472"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__600" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="600">Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="600"><a href="#citable__600"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Court for trial of impeachments; judgment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="600"><a href="#citable__600"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, or removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any public office of honor, trust, or profit under this state; but the party impeached shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="600"><a href="#citable__600"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No member of the commission shall hold any office in any political party.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_4">Section 4</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__140" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="140">The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of chusing Senators.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The legislature shall prescribe by law the manner by which the amount of any such exclusion shall be determined and such indebtedness shall not be excluded hereunder except in accordance with the determination so prescribed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Statutory state law is law enacted by the state legislature.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The legislature shall prescribe by law the qualifications for voting at any such election.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__411" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="411">The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="411"><a href="#citable__411"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The political year and legislative term shall begin on the first day of January; and the legislature shall, every year, assemble on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="411"><a href="#citable__411"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Bush claims he’s not part of the executive branch. </c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2007/06/23/bush-claims-hes-not-part-of-the-executive-branch/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="411"><a href="#citable__411"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And further, that the legislature of this State shall, at no time hereafter, institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_5">Section 5</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__262" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="262">Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The convention shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, choose its own officers, and be the judge of the election, returns and qualifications of its members.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The legislature shall prescribe by law the qualifications for voting at any such election.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The said city-wide courts shall consist of such number of judges as may be provided by law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__259" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="259">Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Remarkably, it allows for completely bypassing one House of Congress even in circumstances where the measure is opposed by just short of two-thirds of the other House.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju57226.000/hju57226_0.htm">commdocs.house.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>SCOTT. But the problem there is you need two-thirds of the Senate, so you have the Senate, you have the House, and you have the States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju57226.000/hju57226_0.htm">commdocs.house.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Under the Bliley Amendment, two-thirds in both Houses have to act affirmatively in order to stop the amendment from moving forward to ratification.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to Provide a Procedure by Which the States May Propose Constitutional Amendments</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju57226.000/hju57226_0.htm">commdocs.house.gov</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__44" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="44">Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For any speech or debate in either house of the legislature, the members shall not be questioned in any other place.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Each house of the legislature shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__375" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="375">Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="375"><a href="#citable__375"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="375"><a href="#citable__375"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No more than five justices shall sit in any case.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="375"><a href="#citable__375"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Together, when controlling that for which they are more suited than the other, both becomes stronger.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Think Progress » Protester holds up a copy of the ‘U.S.S. Constitution’ to prove that Congress can’t regulate health care. </c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/2009/09/01/uss-constitution/">thinkprogress.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_6">Section 6</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__208" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="208">The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, Article Three of the United States Constitution says the jurisdiction of federal courts includes cases arising under the Constitution, federal LAWS, and treaties.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Constitution of the United States of Lloyd Carr [Archive] - NCAA Football 10 & NCAA Basketball 10 at ncaaStrategies</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncaastrategies.com/utopia/archive/index.php/t-64837.html">www.ncaastrategies.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No member of the judicial nominating commission shall be eligible for appointment to judicial office in any court of the state during the member's period of service or within one year thereafter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Maine was admitted as a free state, thus preserving in the United States Senate the balance between the two sections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 1:01 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15156a.htm">www.newadvent.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__516" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="516">They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="516"><a href="#citable__516"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For any speech or debate in either house of the legislature, the members shall not be questioned in any other place.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="516"><a href="#citable__516"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They simply go to the €œSkIFF€ and get the whole story if they choose to read it all, which is very time consuming.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Republicans & Conservatives:: Bush lied?</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/002916.html">www.watchblog.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="516"><a href="#citable__516"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In this campaign the media actually cast off all pretenses of objectivity and admitted they are going to promote only liberal causes and candidates!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__597" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="597">No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="597"><a href="#citable__597"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Unsanitary conditions shall not be created or continued by any such public works.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="597"><a href="#citable__597"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No member of the legislature shall, during the time for which he or she was elected, receive any civil appointment from the governor, the governor and the senate, the legislature or from any city government, to an office which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="597"><a href="#citable__597"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Article 1, Section 6, says:      "No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MarchReport.com: Certifi-Gate</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 2:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.marchreport.com/Certifi-Gate.html">www.marchreport.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikisource_Section_7">Section 7</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__299" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="299">All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Any bill may originate in either house of the legislature, and all bills passed by one house may be amended by the other.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Bills may originate in either house; may be amended by the other] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bills may originate in either house; may be amended by the other.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New York State Constitution</c_title></em> <c_date>10 February 2010 11:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dos.state.ny.us/info/constitution.htm">www.dos.state.ny.us</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__285" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="285">Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="285"><a href="#citable__285"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>