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United States Declaration of Independence
1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
Created June–July 1776
Ratified July 4, 1776
Location Engrossed copy: National Archives
Rough draft: Library of Congress
Authors Thomas Jefferson et al.
Signers 56 delegates to the Continental Congress
Purpose To announce and explain separation from Great Britain[1]
.The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.^ By 1783, there could be no question of the Independence of the American states.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

.Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the original draft of the Declaration of Independence.

^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The birthday of the United States of AmericaIndependence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress.^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States of America to 4 Jul 1776 .

^ The unanimous Declaration of the fifty united States of America .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.After finalizing the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms.^ Declaration of Independence: July 4, 1776 .
  • United States of America - Fun Facts, National Symbols, Photos, Visitor Info 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC awesomeamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would also remark, that the law of Virginia was made after the declaration of independence by Virginia, and also by Congress; and several years before the Confederation of the United States, which, although agreed to by Congress on the 15th of November, 1777, and assented to by ten states, in 1778, was only finally completed and ratified on the 1st of March, 1781.
  • The United States Supreme Court and The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This innovation introduces a distance between the French reader and the translated text and renders the Declaration of Independence all the more foreign to the French public.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

It was initially published as a printed broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. .The most famous version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is usually regarded as the Declaration of Independence, is on display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Although the wording of the Declaration was approved on July 4, the date of its actual signing is disputed by historians, most accepting a theory that it was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, and not on July 4 as is commonly believed.^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence (4 Jul 1776) .

^ The Declaration of Independence is generally regarded as one of the most famous documents in the history of the world.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. .The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing colonial grievances against King George III, and by asserting certain natural rights, including a right of revolution.^ Instead, we will begin with the grievances listed in the Declaration.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It lists twenty seven grievances by the King.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, the text of the Declaration was initially ignored after the American Revolution.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence, one of the great milestones in American history, shows the evolution of the text from the initial "fair copy" draft by Thomas Jefferson to the final text adopted by Congress on the morning of July 4, 1776.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This innovation introduces a distance between the French reader and the translated text and renders the Declaration of Independence all the more foreign to the French public.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Its stature grew over the years, particularly the second sentence, a sweeping statement of human rights:
.We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We affirm these truths to be self evident, That all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain indistinguishable rights, That among these are life, reproduction, liberty, knowledge, faith and the right to try and be happy.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.This sentence has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language"[2] and "the most potent and consequential words in American history".[3] The passage has often been used to promote the rights of marginalized groups, and came to represent for many people a moral standard for which the United States should strive.^ Most are English language, with a section in Russian.
  • Free E - Book Links by HEC National Digital Library Program 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.digitallibrary.edu.pk [Source type: Academic]

^ Most works are in English, but six other languages are also represented.
  • Free E - Book Links by HEC National Digital Library Program 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.digitallibrary.edu.pk [Source type: Academic]

^ To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; .
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States | Americana Phonic 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.americanaphonic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This view was greatly influenced by Abraham Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy,[4] and promoted the idea that the Declaration is a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who wrote the United States Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who were the allies of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Background

Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the Declaration, argued that Parliament was a foreign legislature that was unconstitutionally trying to extend its sovereignty into the colonies.
.Believe me, dear Sir: there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do.^ There was strong opposition to any break with Great Britain.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once.

^ The publisher introduced Neumann as an "orientalist" and historian of the British Empire in Asia, who had turned his attention to "the evolution of the transatlantic union as a model worth pursuing for our own fatherland."
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose; and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America.

Thomas Jefferson, November 29, 1775[5]

.By the time the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, the Thirteen Colonies and Great Britain had been at war for more than a year.^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence (4 Jul 1776) .

^ Signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

.Relations between the colonies and the mother country had been deteriorating since the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. The war had plunged the British government deep into debt, and so Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase tax revenue from the colonies.^ He also confirmed his Governments desire to maintain and strengthen relations with Serbia - an ally in two world wars.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Statute laws enacted since June 1, 1789 have been codified into the federal United States Code.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That it admittedly cannot account for billions of income tax revenue each year.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament believed that these acts, such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767, were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep the colonies in the British Empire.^ He was a member of the Stamp Act Congress in 1765.
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Leader in opposition to the Stamp Act (1765).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He led a group that publicly burned British stamps during the "Stamp Act" crisis.

[6]
Many colonists, however, had developed a different conception of the empire. Because the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them, despite some British claims of "virtual representation." This tax dispute was part of a larger divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution, the historic rights of Englishmen, and the extent of Parliament's authority in the colonies.[7] .The orthodox British view, dating from the Glorious Revolution of 1688, was that Parliament was the supreme authority throughout the empire, and so by definition anything Parliament did was constitutional.^ The colonists had to appeal to the laws of nature and of nature's God because the British Parliament declared the colonists to be outside the British constitution and denied the colonists the protection of the laws.
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where did the Congress find the authority in the Constitution to reconstitute any part of the united States as a corporation?
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A cover letter , dated in Philadelphia, July 6, 1776, was attached to the Declaration of Independence , [1] as it was sent to the British authorities, wherein John Hancock states: .
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[8] .In the colonies, however, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights, that no government—not even Parliament—could violate.^ A violation of one of the fundamental principles of that constitution in the Colonies, namely, the principle that recognizes the property of the people as their own, and which, therefore, regards all taxes for the support of government as gifts of the people through their representatives, and regards taxation without representation as subversive of free government, was the origin of our own revolution.
  • The United States Supreme Court and The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Parliament would retain authority over the regulation of imperial trade and the stationing of troops in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration should be understood however, not necessarily as a Philosophical Document, but also as a Constitutional Document with a Holy Purpose, that concerns the Fundamental authority of Government.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .After the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at all.^ Some have even questioned its validity.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin emphasized the loyalty of colonial America - its high regard for Parliament and the Empire - and the ease of control prior to the Stamp Act.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only did it urge the repeal of the Stamp Act, it denied the right of Parliament to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Anticipating the arrangement of the British Commonwealth,[11] by 1774 American writers such as Samuel Adams, James Wilson, and Thomas Jefferson were arguing that Parliament was the legislature of Great Britain only, and that the colonies, which had their own legislatures, were connected to the rest of the empire only through their allegiance to the Crown.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ "WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT States do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia moved, in the Second Continental Congress, that "these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain are and ought to be totally dissolved."
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Congress convenes

.The issue of Parliament's authority in the colonies became a crisis after Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774 to punish the Province of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party.^ However, Parliament would retain authority over the regulation of imperial trade and the stationing of troops in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sons of Liberty led the Boston Tea Party, the event rallied the revolutionary support in all thirteen colonies and perhaps was the incident that was the true spark for the Revolution.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Townshend duties on glass, paper, china, paint colors, and tea, were passed by Parliament in June, 1767.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many colonists saw the Coercive Acts as a violation of the British Constitution and thus a threat to the liberties of all of British America.^ The colonists had to appeal to the laws of nature and of nature's God because the British Parliament declared the colonists to be outside the British constitution and denied the colonists the protection of the laws.
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can also be reasonably proven that the Southern states, by virtue of their secession from the Union, also ceased to exist sine die , and that some state legislatures in the Northern bloc also adjourned sine die , and thus, all the states which were parties to creating the Constitution for the united States of America apparently ceased to exist.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The violations of our United States constitution by the current government include, while in all probability, not limited to the following.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1774, the First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia to coordinate a response.^ In August 1774, Mr. Lee was chosen as a delegate to the First Continental Congress just about to assemble at Philadelphia.

^ When the royal governor of Virginia dissolved the House of Burgesses in June, 1774, the members meeting unofficially afterwards adopted a resolution calling upon all the colonies to send delegates to Continental Congress to meet in Philadelphia in September.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams' journal and letters provide a picture of Philadelphia at peace in 1774 during the First Continental Congress and at the outset of war during the Second Continental Congress in 1775.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Congress organized a boycott of British goods and petitioned the king for repeal of the acts.^ In nearly every colony committees were organized which resorted, when it was deemed necessary, to such acts of violence as tarring and feathering to secure obedience to the regulations of the revolutionary Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Boycotts of British goods were initiated in response to the tax, much to the discomfort of commercial interests in London.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He supported the boycott of all British goods and avoidance of transactions that required the tax stamps.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.These measures were unsuccessful because King George III and the North ministry were determined not to retreat on the question of parliamentary supremacy.^ When the Declaration of Independence was served on King George III, he responded by imposing military law on what he considered still to be British colonies.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay 600,000 sterling to King George III, as reparations for the American Revolution.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He ridiculed the idea of personal loyalty to the King, of which so much had been made in American protests against the tyranny of Parliament, and called George III a royal "brute."
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

As the king wrote to Prime Minister Lord North in November 1774, "blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this country or independent".[13]
.Even after fighting in the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, most colonists still hoped for reconciliation with Great Britain.^ During the course of the Revolutionary War, four signers were captured by the British (George Walton, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Arthur Middleton, and Edward Rutledge) while fighting.
  • 5 Obscure Facts About the Declaration of Independence. – Neatorama 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Made the famous "midnight ride" to warn the patriots in Lexington and Concord of the coming British attack, and also warned John Hancock and Samuel Adams to flee in 1775.
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And, since the war must needs continue, expediency demanded that help be sought from the traditional enemies of Great Britain, particularly from France.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[14] .When the Second Continental Congress convened at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia in May 1775, some delegates hoped for eventual independence, but no one yet advocated declaring it.^ Delegate to the Continental Congress (1774-1777).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Member Continental Congress (1774-1775).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, just in time for the Second Continental Congress.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Although many colonists no longer believed that Parliament had any sovereignty over them, they still professed loyalty to King George, whom they hoped would intercede on their behalf.^ No, although his father would have loved it.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pitt believed that a bargain could be struck with the colonists by which they would agree to acknowledge the legislative supremacy of Parliament in return for the promise that Parliament would not construe its power to include the right to tax the colonies.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They signed that declaration of independence, although they knew that it would produce a long, terrible and bloody war.

.They were to be disappointed: in late 1775, the king rejected Congress's second petition, issued a Proclamation of Rebellion, and announced before Parliament on October 26 that he was even considering "friendly offers of foreign assistance" to suppress the rebellion.^ Read the Word of God(the 1611 King James version- NOT the modern versions, they are corrupt) before rejecting it!
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following this tradition, in July 1775 the Continental Congress issued its own Declaration Setting Forth the Causes and Necessity of Their Taking Up Arms.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1775 a royal proclamation declared that the King's American subjects were "engaged in open and avowed rebellion."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[16] .A pro-American minority in Parliament warned that the government was driving the colonists towards independence.^ Although he was an eloquent orator who guided this country towards independence, he was a critic of the U.S. Constsitution believing it gave too much power to the federal government.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]

Towards independence

.In January 1776, just as it became clear in the colonies that the king was not inclined to act as a conciliator, Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense was published.^ Then, the pamphlet "Common Sense" hit the streets in January, 1776.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense, after some revision by Franklin, was published in January, 1776.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Paine's Common Sense, published in January 1776, was sold by the thousands.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Paine, who had only recently arrived in the colonies from England, argued in favor of colonial independence, advocating republicanism as an alternative to monarchy and hereditary rule.^ Of the 117 men who signed the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, 1 in 3 had only several months of such schooling and only 1 in 4 attended college.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginia joined the parade of colonies favoring independence, and on June 7, Richard Henry Lee proposed a Resolution: "That these United Colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Braddock arrived with an army to fight the French and their Indian allies, but threatened to pack up and go back to England if he didn't get enough colonial support.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Common Sense introduced no new ideas,[20] and probably had little direct effect on Congress's thinking about independence; its importance was in stimulating public debate on a topic that few had previously dared to openly discuss.^ He lacks Common Sense and INTEGRITY, and makes letting your thoughts known to public official impossible.
  • RE-WRITTEN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rogerart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This innovation introduces a distance between the French reader and the translated text and renders the Declaration of Independence all the more foreign to the French public.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Not to find out new principles, or new arguments, never before thought of, not merely to say things which had never been said before; but to place before mankind the common sense of the subject .
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

[21] .Public support for separation from Great Britain steadily increased after the publication of Paine's enormously popular pamphlet.^ Public sentiment against Great Britain was running high.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Paine, a recent immigrant from England, aroused popular support for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He produced another pamphlet attacking the Proprietors and the frontiersmen, but failed to get popular support for a petition to the Crown seeking an end to the Proprietors' charter and the transformation of Pennsylvania into a Crown colony.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[22]
The Assembly Room in Philadelphia's Independence Hall, where the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
.Although some colonists still held out hope for reconciliation, developments in early 1776 further strengthened public support for independence.^ Although Franklin was in effective control over the Assembly, he was now definitely in the minority with respect to public support.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The story of the Declaration of Independence as a document can only be a part of the larger history, a history still unfolding, a "weight of meaning" constantly, challenged, strengthened, and redefined.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Privateering Resolution, passed in March 1776, allowed the colonists "to fit out armed vessels to cruize [sic] on the enemies of these United Colonies."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In February 1776, colonists learned of Parliament's passage of the Prohibitory Act, which established a blockade of American ports and declared American ships to be enemy vessels.^ The colonists had to appeal to the laws of nature and of nature's God because the British Parliament declared the colonists to be outside the British constitution and denied the colonists the protection of the laws.
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Privateering Resolution, passed in March 1776, allowed the colonists "to fit out armed vessels to cruize [sic] on the enemies of these United Colonies."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The copies made from Stone's copperplate established the clear visual image of the Declaration for generations of Americans.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.John Adams, a strong supporter of independence, believed that Parliament had effectively declared American independence before Congress had been able to.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams requested from Congress both a military buildup and support for new peace emissaries to be sent to France.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The painting features the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson (presenting the document) and Benjamin Franklin standing before John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Adams labeled the Prohibitory Act the "Act of Independency", calling it "a compleat Dismemberment of the British Empire".[23] Support for declaring independence grew even more when it was confirmed that King George had hired German mercenaries to use against his American subjects.^ However, the independence declaration was a unilateral act.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams signed the Declaration of Independence .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.Despite this growing popular support for independence, Congress lacked the clear authority to declare it.^ He was not appointed to the Continental Congress until November 1776, but was still allowed to place his signature on the Declaration of Independence.

^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the pressure of the popular masses enthusiastically demanding independence on the one hand and of the hardening British-Loyalist counterrevolution on the other Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson on 4th July 1776.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Delegates had been elected to Congress by thirteen different governments—which included extralegal conventions, ad hoc committees, and elected assemblies—and were bound by the instructions given to them.^ When the Continental Congress delegated power to the Committee of Five to write the declaration, was there already a body politic to author this document?
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 17th century, the Parliament had given colonial governors veto power over legislation by colonial assemblies, but had rejected a provision giving power of law to governors' instructions.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were still some delegates, however, including those bound by earlier instructions, who wished to pursue the path of reconciliation with Britain.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Regardless of their personal opinions, delegates could not vote to declare independence unless their instructions permitted such an action.^ This is at the heart of your personal Declaration of Independence.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His canon contains works such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, George Washington's Farewell Address, and Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address.
  • Chapter 3. 2.: Text Archives 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC webdoc.sub.gwdg.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Several colonies, in fact, expressly prohibited their delegates from taking any steps towards separation from Great Britain, while other delegations had instructions that were ambiguous on the issue.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ In 1776 , Congress took the final step toward declaring the colonies free and independent states by writing the Declaration of Independence (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were still some delegates, however, including those bound by earlier instructions, who wished to pursue the path of reconciliation with Britain.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[26] .As public sentiment for separation from Great Britain grew, advocates of independence sought to have the Congressional instructions revised.^ Public sentiment against Great Britain was running high.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, since the war must needs continue, expediency demanded that help be sought from the traditional enemies of Great Britain, particularly from France.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ B.   The Laws of Nature and of Nature's God Reliance upon the laws of nature and of nature's God was not a new position created as an expedient measure to justify independence from Great Britain.
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

.For Congress to declare independence, a majority of delegations would need authorization to vote for independence, and at least one colonial government would need to specifically instruct its delegation to propose a declaration of independence in Congress.^ If it was proposed too soon, it would be voted down.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He voted YES, and from that moment the United Colonies were declared Independent States!
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end, it was clear that only nine colonies would vote for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Between April and July 1776, a "complex political war"[27] was waged to bring this about.^ The third set of charges, numbers 23-27, assails the king's violence and cruelty in waging war against his American subjects.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most widely held misconceptions about the Declaration is that it was signed on July 4, 1776, by all the delegates in attendance.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Revolutionary War July 4 , 1776 September 3 , 1783 .
  • United States - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is United States? What is United States? Where is United States? Definition of United States. Meaning of United States. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

[28]

Revising instructions

.In the campaign to revise Congressional instructions, many Americans formally expressed their support for separation from Great Britain in what were effectively state and local declarations of independence, including more than ninety such declarations that were issued throughout the Thirteen Colonies from April to July 1776.[29] These "declarations" took a variety of forms.^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence (4 Jul 1776) .

^ A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Some were formal, written instructions for Congressional delegations, such as the Halifax Resolves of April 12, with which North Carolina became the first colony to explicitly authorize its delegates to vote for independence.^ As early as April, 1776, the North Carolina delegates received instructions to work for independence.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The first group, consisting of charges 1-12, refers to such abuses of the king's executive power as suspending colonial laws, dissolving colonial legislatures, obstructing the administration of justice, and maintaining a standing army during peacetime.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonial patriots first stoked the fires of independence on the streets of Boston, and it's where abolitionists in the 19th century fought for an end to slavery.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Others were legislative acts that officially ended British rule in individual colonies, such as on May 4, when the Rhode Island legislature became the first to declare its independence from Great Britain.^ Rhode Island, May 29, 1790.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the independence declaration was a unilateral act.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Many "declarations" were resolutions adopted at town or county meetings that offered support for independence.^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of independence Diplomatic response UNSC Resolution 1244 Kosovo status process Standards for Kosovo .
  • Top40-Charts.com - 40 Top 20 & Top 40 Music Charts from 25 Countries 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.top40-charts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

A few came in the form of jury instructions, such as the statement issued on April 23, 1776, by Chief Justice William Henry Drayton of South Carolina: "the law of the land authorizes me to declare...that George the Third, King of Great Britain...has no authority over us, and we owe no obedience to him."[32] Most of these declarations are now obscure, having been overshadowed by the declaration approved by Congress on July 4.[33]
.
Some colonies held back from endorsing independence.
^ "But he held these views as a proud and loyal Englishman, one who sought to strengthen his majesty's empire rather than seek independence for the American colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Resistance was centered in the middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.^ New York abstained, but at least it could be said that there were no longer any colonies in opposition.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Maryland and Delaware along with Pennsylvania would remain proprietary colonies until the Revolution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Advocates of independence saw Pennsylvania as the key: if that colony could be converted to the pro-independence cause, it was believed that the others would follow.^ Pitt believed that a bargain could be struck with the colonists by which they would agree to acknowledge the legislative supremacy of Parliament in return for the promise that Parliament would not construe its power to include the right to tax the colonies.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin put it this way, "The colonies would have gladly born the little tax on tea, and other matters, had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money."
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British government could not respond officially to the Declaration for that "would be to recognise that equality and independence, to which subjects, persisting in revolt, cannot fail to pretend.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[34] .On May 1, however, opponents of independence retained control of the Pennsylvania Assembly in a special election that had focused on the question of independence.^ Franklin was badly beaten in the election, but his faction retained control of the Assembly.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His Government was convinced that the proposal of the United Nations special envoy for supervised independence that the Kosovo Assembly had embraced was the only way forward, he said.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The nineteenth-century approach to the Declaration of Independence was thus largely focused on the question of equality.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35] .In response, on May 10 Congress passed a resolution, which had been introduced by John Adams, calling on colonies without a "government sufficient to the exigencies of their affairs" to adopt new governments.^ Passed by Congress May 13, 1912.

^ A "Resolution for the Formation of Local Governments" was passed on May 10, 1776.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Papers 10: 451; John Adams to Benjamin Hichborn, May 29, 1776, Letters of Delegates 4: 96; Paine, Common Sense , pp.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

[36] .The resolution passed unanimously, and was even supported by Pennsylvania's John Dickinson, the leader of the anti-independence faction in Congress, who believed that it did not apply to his colony.^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the brilliant founding father, known as "America's Schoolmaster", who did not sign either the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution?
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Privateering Resolution, passed in March 1776, allowed the colonists "to fit out armed vessels to cruize [sic] on the enemies of these United Colonies."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[37]
This Day the Congress has passed the most important Resolution, that ever was taken in America.
John Adams, May 15, 1776[38]

May 15 preamble

.As was the custom, Congress appointed a committee to draft a preamble that would explain the purpose of the resolution.^ The committee then appointed Jefferson to draft a statement.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson wrote out a rough draft of the Declaration, which was carefully revised by the committee and presented to Congress for adoption.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.John Adams wrote the preamble, which stated that because King George had rejected reconciliation and was even hiring foreign mercenaries to use against the colonies, "it is necessary that the exercise of every kind of authority under the said crown should be totally suppressed".[39] Everyone understood that Adams's preamble was meant to encourage the overthrow of the governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland, which were still under proprietary governance.^ State Government CAN NOT use your disability against you!
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was still intent on pushing his petition to make Pennsylvania a Crown colony.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any acts against the rights of the people by use of government privilege will be punished under U.S. code title 18 Chapter 13 section 241 and 242, as well as any other applicable law.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Congress passed the preamble on May 15 after several days of debate, but four of the middle colonies voted against it, and the Maryland delegation walked out in protest.^ Passed by Congress May 13, 1912.

^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Adams regarded his May 15 preamble as effectively an American declaration of independence, although he knew that a formal declaration would still have to be made.^ Adams signed the Declaration of Independence .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They signed that declaration of independence, although they knew that it would produce a long, terrible and bloody war.

[42]

Lee's resolution and the final push

.On the same day that Congress passed Adams's radical preamble, the Virginia Convention set the stage for a formal Congressional declaration of independence.^ The first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence sets the stage for the whole Document, because it dramatically describes the struggle of the thirteen young colonies against the powerful Great Britain ---a struggle similar to that between David and Goliath.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 15, 1776, the Virginia Convention passed a resolution that "the delegates appointed to represent this colony in General Congress be instructed to propose to that respectable body to declare the United Colonies free and independent states."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The painting features the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson (presenting the document) and Benjamin Franklin standing before John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.On May 15, the Convention instructed Virginia's congressional delegation "to propose to that respectable body to declare the United Colonies free and independent States, absolved from all allegiance to, or dependence upon, the Crown or Parliament of Great Britain".[43] In accordance with those instructions, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia presented a three-part resolution to Congress on June 7. The motion, which was seconded by John Adams, called on Congress to declare independence, form foreign alliances, and prepare a plan of colonial confederation.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ United States Constitution, Article VI ] Were all 13 colonies present at the First Continental Congress?
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Father of John Quincy Adams, 6th president of the United States.
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

The part of the resolution relating to declaring independence read:
.Resolved, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia moved, in the Second Continental Congress, that "these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain are and ought to be totally dissolved."
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On that date in session in the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall), the Continental Congress heard Richard Henry Lee of Virginia read his resolution beginning: "Resolved: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.Lee's resolution met with resistance in the ensuing debate.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ The tone of the debate indicated that at the end of that time the Lee Resolution would be adopted.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Opponents of the resolution, while conceding that reconciliation with Great Britain was unlikely, argued that declaring independence was premature, and that securing foreign aid should take priority.^ The first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence sets the stage for the whole Document, because it dramatically describes the struggle of the thirteen young colonies against the powerful Great Britain ---a struggle similar to that between David and Goliath.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This innovation introduces a distance between the French reader and the translated text and renders the Declaration of Independence all the more foreign to the French public.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sep 1783 Independence recognized by Great Britain.

[45] .Advocates of the resolution countered that foreign governments would not intervene in an internal British struggle, and so a formal declaration of independence was needed before foreign aid was possible.^ The Declaration does not attack the British government, Isaacson points out.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DUMISANI KUMALO ( South Africa ) said that his Government had taken note of the unilateral declaration of independence by the Assembly of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of the Serbian Province of Kosovo.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This innovation introduces a distance between the French reader and the translated text and renders the Declaration of Independence all the more foreign to the French public.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All Congress needed to do, they insisted, was to "declare a fact which already exists".[46] Delegates from Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, and New York were still not yet authorized to vote for independence, however, and some of them threatened to leave Congress if the resolution were adopted.^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ However, on July 9th, the Congress of New York did endorse the Declaration.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

.Congress therefore voted on June 10 to postpone further discussion of Lee's resolution for three weeks.^ On May 10, Adams and Richard Henry Lee submitted a resolution "recommending that the individual colonies assume all powers of government."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's resolution passed on July 2 without any dissenting vote, thanks to the abstention of the Pennsylvania delegation.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[47] .Until then, Congress decided that a committee should prepare a document announcing and explaining independence in the event that Lee's resolution was approved when it was brought up again in July.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The painting features the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson (presenting the document) and Benjamin Franklin standing before John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Support for a Congressional declaration of independence was consolidated in the final weeks of June 1776. On June 14, the Connecticut Assembly instructed its delegates to propose independence, and the following day the legislatures of New Hampshire and Delaware authorized their delegates to declare independence.^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence (4 Jul 1776) .

^ Signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

[48] .In Pennsylvania, political struggles ended with the dissolution of the colonial assembly, and on June 18 a new Conference of Committees under Thomas McKean authorized Pennsylvania's delegates to declare independence.^ Then, on June 23, Pennsylvania opted for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Head of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence.
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[49] .On June 15, the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, which had been governing the province since January 1776, resolved that Royal Governor William Franklin was "an enemy to the liberties of this country" and had him arrested.^ Member Provincial Congress of New Jersey (1776).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ New Jersey opted for independence and ordered the arrest of its royal governor, who happened to be Benjamin Franklin's son William.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 15 Congress took over the troops gathered near Boston as the Continental Army, and assumed authority to direct the course of the war.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[50] .On June 21, they chose new delegates to Congress and empowered them to join in a declaration of independence.^ They contained no new translation of the Declaration of Independence.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And so they signed that brave declaration of independence.

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.Only Maryland and New York had yet to authorize independence.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ News of Independence had also reached Warsaw by September 11, though the Declaration itself was only briefly summarized there.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New York did not sign till the 15th, because it was not till the 9th, (five days after the general signature,) that their convention authorized them to do so.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.When the Continental Congress had adopted Adams's radical May 15 preamble, Maryland's delegates walked out and sent to the Maryland Convention for instructions.^ Delegate to the Continental Congress (1774-1777).
  • Party of 1776 - United States Founding Fathers 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.partyof1776.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Papers 10: 451; John Adams to Benjamin Hichborn, May 29, 1776, Letters of Delegates 4: 96; Paine, Common Sense , pp.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams was chosen by the legislature as one of the five delegates sent by the colony to the First Continental Congress that was called in response to the British action.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[52] .On May 20, the Maryland Convention rejected Adams's preamble, instructing its delegates to remain against independence, but Samuel Chase went to Maryland and, thanks to local resolutions in favor of independence, was able to get the Maryland Convention to change its mind on June 28.[53] Only the New York delegates were unable to get revised instructions.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 15, 1776, the Virginia Convention passed a resolution that "the delegates appointed to represent this colony in General Congress be instructed to propose to that respectable body to declare the United Colonies free and independent states."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Papers 10: 451; John Adams to Benjamin Hichborn, May 29, 1776, Letters of Delegates 4: 96; Paine, Common Sense , pp.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

.When Congress had been considering the resolution of independence on June 8, the New York Provincial Congress told the delegates to wait.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was one of four Pennsylvania delegates chosen fpr a diplomatic conference in Albany, New York.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] .But on June 30, the Provincial Congress evacuated New York as British forces approached, and would not convene again until July 10. This meant that New York's delegates would not be authorized to declare independence until after Congress had made its decision.^ However, on July 9th, the Congress of New York did endorse the Declaration.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 9 the action of Congress was officially approved by the New York Convention.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[55]

Draft and adoption

.While political maneuvering was setting the stage for an official declaration of independence, a document explaining the decision was being written.^ The Declaration Of Independence written in 1776, is an inspired Document.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In what year was the Declaration of Independence written?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same year the Declaration of Independence was written, what other document was drafted?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On June 11, 1776, Congress appointed a "Committee of Five", consisting of John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Robert R. Livingston of New York, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut, to draft a declaration.^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 10, 1776, the Continental Congress appointed a committee, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston to draft a Declaration of Independence.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The painting features the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson (presenting the document) and Benjamin Franklin standing before John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Because the committee left no minutes, there is some uncertainty about how the drafting process proceeded—accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are contradictory and not entirely reliable.^ To Adams there was no conflict in what they had done.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no Leap Year during John Adam's presidency!
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy had strongly supported extensive negotiations conducted last year and believed that no stone had been left unturned.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

[56] .What is certain is that the committee, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft.^ The discussion in Congress resulted in some alterations and deletions, but the basic document remained Jefferson's.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the first paragraph suggests that the following pages of the Document contain an interesting story.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was natural for Jefferson to be chosen to prepare the first draft.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[57] .Considering Congress's busy schedule, Jefferson probably had limited time for writing over the next seventeen days, and likely wrote the draft quickly.^ To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; .
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson wrote out a rough draft of the Declaration, which was carefully revised by the committee and presented to Congress for adoption.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Altogether Congress deleted 630 words from Jefferson's draft and added 146, producing a final text of 1,322 words (excluding the title).
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

[58] .He then consulted the others, made some changes, and then produced another copy incorporating these alterations.^ Given the changes made by Congress in some sections of the Declaration, it should be noted that the style of the preamble is distinctly Jeffersonian and was approved by Congress with only two minor changes in wording from Jefferson's fair copy as reported by the Committee of Five.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (If Jefferson did make a "fair copy," incorporating the changes made by Franklin and Adams, it has not been preserved.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most of these alterations are in Jefferson's own distinctive hand -- he later indicated the changes he believed to have been made by Adams and Franklin -- he opposed many of the revisions made to his original composition.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.The committee presented this copy to the Congress on June 28, 1776. The title of the document was "A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled."^ The unanimous Declaration of the fifty united States of America .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] Congress ordered that the draft "lie on the table".[60]
About 50 men, most of them seated, are in a large meeting room. Most are focused on the five men standing in the center of the room. The tallest of the five is laying a document on a table.
.
John Trumbull's famous painting is often identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration, but it actually shows the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress.
^ The painting is often mistakenly called the "Signing of the Declaration of Independence," but only shows the presentation of the draft.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The painting features the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson (presenting the document) and Benjamin Franklin standing before John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not till the 2d of July that the declaration itself was taken up, nor till the 4th that it was decided, and it was signed by every member present, except Mr. Dickinson.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[61]
.On Monday, July 1, having tabled the draft of the declaration, Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and resumed debate on Lee's resolution of independence.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ On this basis, the Declaration concludes in its fifth part that "these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States": this was what Congress had resolved on July 2, 1776, and, once Congress had restored these words to the final draft, this was what the Declaration declared.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Garry Wills demonstrates in Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence (1978), there are two Declarations of Independence the version drafted by Thomas Jefferson and that revised and adopted on July 4, 1776, by the Continental Congress sitting as a committee of the whole.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

[62] .John Dickinson made one last effort to delay the decision, arguing that Congress should not declare independence without first securing a foreign alliance and finalizing the Articles of Confederation.^ Declarations of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and other acts of Congress .
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At last we have carried our the Declaration of Independence.

^ EVERY ONE – Declare your independence again.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .John Adams gave a speech in reply to Dickinson, restating the case for an immediate declaration.^ There were moderates present, however, such as John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, and they not only prevented an immediate declaration of independence, but they also succeeded in inducing the delegates to appeal once more to the King for redress of grievances.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Other translators seem to have used the draft revised by John Adams, which read "A Declaration by the representatives," or else the copy that was submitted to Congress with the same title by the Committee of Five.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What power of the court did Chief Justice John Marshall declare in the case of Marbury v Madison?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a long day of speeches, a vote was taken.^ But when the formal vote was taken next day, every state save New York, whose provincial convention gave its assent a week later, was for independence.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.As always, each colony cast a single vote; the delegation for each colony—numbering two to seven members—voted amongst themselves to determine the colony's vote.^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Three southern colonies - Georgia and the Carolinas - freed their delegates to vote on the issue.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted against declaring independence.^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DUMISANI KUMALO ( South Africa ) said that his Government had taken note of the unilateral declaration of independence by the Assembly of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of the Serbian Province of Kosovo.
  • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He voted YES, and from that moment the United Colonies were declared Independent States!
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

.The New York delegation, lacking permission to vote for independence, abstained.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ New York abstained, but at least it could be said that there were no longer any colonies in opposition.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

.Delaware cast no vote because the delegation was split between Thomas McKean (who voted yes) and George Read (who voted no).^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas McKean joined Rodney and voted for approval making it "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen united states...".
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the later signers were Elbridge Gerry, Oliver Wolcott, Lewis Morris, Thomas McKean, and Matthew Thornton, who found that he had no room to sign with the other New Hampshire delegates.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining nine delegations voted in favor of independence, which meant that the resolution had been approved by the committee of the whole.^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The next step was for the resolution to be voted upon by the Congress itself.^ Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By failing to vote according to their knowledge of its contents, rather relying upon the emotional appeal of the title of a bill, Congress has failed to protect the rights of the citizenry.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Edward Rutledge of South Carolina, who was opposed to Lee's resolution but desirous of unanimity, moved that the vote be postponed until the following day.^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's resolution passed on July 2 without any dissenting vote, thanks to the abstention of the Pennsylvania delegation.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In response, Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge of South Carolina were sent to a conference on Staten Island.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.On July 2, South Carolina reversed its position and voted for independence.^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Carolina, May 23; New Hampshire, June 21; Virginia, June 25, and New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, Nov.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the Pennsylvania delegation, Dickinson and Robert Morris abstained, allowing the delegation to vote three-to-two in favor of independence.^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Dickinson and Robert Morris chose not to appear, the Pennsylvania delegation shifted to 3-2 in favor.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tie in the Delaware delegation was broken by the timely arrival of Caesar Rodney, who voted for independence.^ On the vote for independence the Pennsylvania delegation was equally divided for and against.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ George Read was opposed to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Caesar Rodney was in favor.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

.The New York delegation abstained once again, since they were still not authorized to vote for independence, although they would be allowed to do so by the New York Provincial Congress a week later.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But when the formal vote was taken next day, every state save New York, whose provincial convention gave its assent a week later, was for independence.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ New York abstained, but at least it could be said that there were no longer any colonies in opposition.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] .The resolution of independence had been adopted with twelve affirmative votes and one abstention.^ The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's resolution passed on July 2 without any dissenting vote, thanks to the abstention of the Pennsylvania delegation.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.With this, the colonies had officially severed political ties with Great Britain.^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ One by one, the Continental Congress continued to cut the colonies' ties to Britain.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Dutch commercial and financial ties to Great Britain were too important to be put at risk.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[66] .In a now-famous letter written to his wife on the following day, John Adams predicted that July 2 would become a great American holiday.^ In October 1775, John Adams wondered whether independent American ambassadors might not be rebuffed by foreign powers: "Would not our Proposals and Agents be treated with Contempt?"
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can thus know John Adams - and his wife, Abigail - better personally than any of the other founding fathers.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A crucial scene from the HBO mini-series, “John Adams.” This film should be watched by all Americans.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[67] .Adams thought that the vote for independence would be commemorated; he did not foresee that Americans—including himself—would instead celebrate Independence Day on the date that the announcement of that act was finalized.^ Concluding, Neumann reported that wherever American citizens are on the Fourth of July, they congregate to celebrate this blessed day and, he added, "all thinking mankind is .
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1775, John Adams wondered whether independent American ambassadors might not be rebuffed by foreign powers: "Would not our Proposals and Agents be treated with Contempt?"
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.After voting in favor of the resolution of independence, Congress turned its attention to the committee's draft of the declaration.^ That spring, the tide turned in favor of a formal declaration of independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson wrote out a rough draft of the Declaration, which was carefully revised by the committee and presented to Congress for adoption.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Over several days of debate, Congress made a few changes in wording and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade, changes that Jefferson resented.^ Others, including Jefferson, had traded slaves.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also removed was Jefferson's denunciation of the slave trade.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This immunization made it superfluous to censor or falsify single words or ideas in the text itself.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[69] .On July 4, 1776, the wording of the Declaration of Independence was approved and sent to the printer for publication.^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first striking difference between the original and the translations is to be found in the title, which appears in the French publications as having been translated, not from the engrossed and signed "Unanimous Declaration," but from the last version after it was revised by the Continental Congress; that version was sold as a broadside by the Philadelphia printer John Dunlap in July 1776 before the declaration was "unanimously" signed by the thirteen states.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Text

The Dunlap broadside was the first published version of the Declaration.
.The first sentence of the Declaration asserts as a matter of Natural law the ability of a people to assume political independence, and acknowledges that the grounds for such independence must be reasonable, and therefore explicable, and ought to be explained.^ The Declaration of Independence established that all people are sovereign under God's Natural Law.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They met in Philadelphia; and the resolution was moved by Lee or Virginia that the colonies ought to be independent states, and ought to dissolve their political connections with Great Britain.

^ The Declaration of Independence, written almost entirely by Jefferson, borrowed heavily from Locke's Second Essay of Government, and asserted in language already familiar the natural rights of men, including the right of revolution.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.^ The whole Declaration is premised upon the "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God."
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence established that all people are sovereign under God's Natural Law.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.The next section, the famous preamble, includes the ideas and ideals that were principles of the Declaration.^ The next section evidences that the challenge to secure unalienable property rights has been brought about by a failure to adhere to the Declaration of Independence in favor of European theories of property.
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is interesting, however, that the changes took place in those sections of the declaration where the Americans spoke as a particular people in declaring their principles and resolutions.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence is made up of five distinct parts: the introduction; the preamble; the body, which can be divided into two sections; and a conclusion.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.It is also an assertion of what is known as the "right of revolution": that is, people have certain rights, and when a government violates these rights, the people have the right to "alter or abolish" that government.^ Any form of Government becomes Destructive of these ends , it is in the right of the People to alter , or Abolish it and to institute new Government .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The German people had obviously been unable "to alter or abolish" their oppressive government.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers .
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70]
.We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers .
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.^ The Declaration of Independence Part One stated: “whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it and to institute a new Government…” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is to secure these rights unwritten social agreements are allowed by men, deriving the rights to govern from society, that whenever any form of so called Government becomes neglectful, manipulative, deceitful, co-opted or destructive.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; .
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.^ Toecutter Says: November 25th, 2009 at 4:06 pm “all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed….and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.” .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Establishes the right to separate from any form of government.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government and to provide new guards for their future security.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

The next section is a list of charges against King George which aim to demonstrate that he has violated the colonists' rights and is therefore unfit to be their ruler:
.Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.^ Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The second-to-last sentence of the preamble speaks of "the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government."
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.^ The actions in recent history of the government of these United States constitute repeated injuries to the citizenry and usurpations of the United States Constitution, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States and their Citizens.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.^ To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last sentence of the preamble, facts are "submitted to a candid world."
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

He has refused his .Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.^ HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such disolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large .Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.^ HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the work of death, desolation, and tyranny already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken .Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.^ He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive upon the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands; .
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.^ In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress, in the most humble terms; .
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
.Many Americans still felt a kinship with the people of Great Britain, and had appealed in vain to the prominent among them, as well as to Parliament, to convince the King to relax his more objectionable policies toward the colonies.^ He had never in his life laid eyes on a King or Queen, or the Foreign Minister of a great power, never set foot in a city of more than 30,000 people.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This had become increasingly urgent since the king had declared the colonists to be rebels in August 1775 and as the colonists then began their search for allies against Great Britain.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He warned that the imposition of internal taxes by Parliament was driving a wedge between the colonies and Great Britain, and might cause the colonies to question even the duties imposed on external trade, as well.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

The next section represents disappointment that these attempts had been unsuccessful.
.Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren.^ Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.^ We have warned him from time to time of attempts by his legislature to extend unwarrantable controls over us.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here.^ We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.^ We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have appealed to their native justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.^ They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.^ We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war - in peace, friends.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the final section, the signers assert that there exist conditions under which people must change their government, that the British have produced such conditions, and by necessity the colonies must throw off political ties with the British Crown and become independent states.^ Thus the Crown Colonies became the Crown States.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ His canon contains works such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, George Washington's Farewell Address, and Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address.
  • Chapter 3. 2.: Text Archives 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC webdoc.sub.gwdg.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The conclusion incorporates language from Lee's resolution of independence that had been passed on July 2.
.We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.^ Neither wholly naturalist nor exclusively positivist, it appealed to the "Laws of Nature, and of Nature's God" to empower the United States "to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do."
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We, therefore, the good People of these United States of America (and the World) must appeal to the Supreme Judge of the World for guidance, as the authority for our “New Declaration of Independence from global governance.” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the concluding (and conclusive) sentence of the Declaration puts it, the precise intention was to "levy war" and "contract alliances" against Great Britain.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.^ And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of the divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence , we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor .
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

Influences

Thomas Jefferson considered English political philosopher John Locke (1632–1704) to be one of "the three greatest men that have ever lived".[71]
.Historians have often sought to identify the sources that most influenced the words of the Declaration of Independence.^ Neumann's ten pages on the making and contents of the Declaration of Independence are the most detailed and best documented that had been published in Germany so far.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ THE Declaration of Independence is among the most heavily interpreted and fiercely discussed documents in modern history: among other secular texts only statutes and constitutions have generated greater amounts of commentary on comparable numbers of words.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.By Jefferson's own admission, the Declaration contained no original ideas, but was instead a statement of sentiments widely shared by supporters of the American Revolution.^ Constitutional law under the original Constitution for the American states is apparently enforced only as a matter of keeping the public peace under the provisions of General Orders No.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French critics of the American declaration and its translations observe rightly that the Jefferson text contained many repetitions and that the style of the French declaration was somewhat clearer.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ La Révolution américaine et l'Europe " (The American Revolution and Europe), Colloques internationaux du cnrs (Paris) (no.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

As he explained in 1825:
.Neither aiming at originality of principle or sentiment, nor yet copied from any particular and previous writing, it was intended to be an expression of the American mind, and to give to that expression the proper tone and spirit called for by the occasion.^ Two issues -- the American expression of a universal message and the particular event of the birth of a nation -- are those that most interest the authors of the present article.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[72]
.Jefferson's most immediate sources were two documents written in June 1776: his own draft of the preamble of the Constitution of Virginia, and George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.^ He also drew on the Virginia Declaration of Rights recently drafted by George Mason.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came a "Declaration of Rights," drawing from the Virginia "Declaration of Rights" written by George Mason, and from the Pennsylvania constitution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same year the Declaration of Independence was written, what other document was drafted?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ideas and phrases from both of these documents appear in the Declaration of Independence.^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Neumann's ten pages on the making and contents of the Declaration of Independence are the most detailed and best documented that had been published in Germany so far.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He helped draft and gain widespread public acceptance for both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] .They were in turn directly influenced by the 1689 English Declaration of Rights, which formally ended the reign of King James II.^ The authority for the American Constitution is based upon the Bible; the Magna Carta, signed in 1215 by King John; the Petition of Rights, granted by King Charles I in 1628; the English Bill of Rights, granted by William and Mary in 1689; the right of habeas corpus, granted by King Charles II, and the Articles of Confederation.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iselin turned "unalienable" into "rights they cannot pass on," when the English original would almost certainly have triggered the close and accurate unveräuberlich.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Read the Word of God(the 1611 King James version- NOT the modern versions, they are corrupt) before rejecting it!
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] .During the American Revolution, Jefferson and other Americans looked to the English Declaration of Rights as a model of how to end the reign of an unjust king.^ French critics of the American declaration and its translations observe rightly that the Jefferson text contained many repetitions and that the style of the French declaration was somewhat clearer.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence Part One stated: “whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it and to institute a new Government…” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To return the Declaration to its immediate international context reveals the Janus-faced nature of the American Revolution itself.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.English political theorist John Locke is usually cited as a primary influence on the Declaration.^ The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; its ideals of individual liberty had already been expressed by John Locke and the Continental philosophers.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The English pamphlet mentioned was John Lind, An Answer to the Declaration of Congress (London, 1776).
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

As historian Carl L. Becker wrote in 1922, "Most Americans had absorbed Locke's works as a kind of political gospel; and the Declaration, in its form, in its phraseology, follows closely certain sentences in Locke's second treatise on government."[76] The extent of Locke's influence on the American Revolution was questioned by some subsequent scholars, however, who emphasized the influence of republicanism rather than Locke's classical liberalism.[77] .Historian Garry Wills argued that Jefferson was influenced by the Scottish Enlightenment, particularly Francis Hutcheson, rather than Locke,[78] an interpretation that has been strongly criticized.^ That it has given undue, public legal influence to elected officials who promote their ideas through secret societies, rather than their respective branches of government.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Garry Wills, Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence (New York, 1978), 362.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[79] .The Scottish Declaration of Arbroath (1320) and the Dutch Act of Abjuration (1581) have also been offered as models for Jefferson's Declaration, but these arguments have been disputed.^ Though the Declaration has been called "the first national independence document in the world," that honor is perhaps better accorded to the Dutch Act of Abjuration, the Plakkaat van Verlatinge (1581), in which the leaders of the Dutch Revolt cast off their allegiance to the Spanish Habsburgs.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These aspects of the Declaration became the focus of the rapidly evolving argument over the theory of the legal recognition of states in this early positivist period.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Blaustein, Sigler, and Breede, eds., Independence Documents of the World, 2:733; "The Dutch Declaration of Independence" (July 26, 1581), Old South Leaflets, No.
  • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[80]

Signing

The signed, engrossed copy of the Declaration, now badly faded, is on display at the National Archives in Washington, DC.
.The date when the Declaration was signed has long been the subject of debate.^ The legality of a Declaration of Independence is often the subject of debate and unsurprisingly the previous government typically asserts that a Declaration of Independence is illegal.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Within a decade after the event, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams all wrote that the Declaration had been signed by Congress on July 4, 1776.[81] This seemed to be confirmed by the signed copy of the Declaration, which is dated July 4. Additional support was provided by the Journals of Congress, the official public record of the Continental Congress.^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what a committee of patriotic giants it was - Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams.
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also on July 5, a copy of the printed version of the approved Declaration was inserted into the "rough journal" of the Continental Congress for July 4.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.When the proceedings for 1776 were first published in 1777, the entry for July 4, 1776, stated that the Declaration was engrossed (carefully handwritten) and signed on that date.^ The first striking difference between the original and the translations is to be found in the title, which appears in the French publications as having been translated, not from the engrossed and signed "Unanimous Declaration," but from the last version after it was revised by the Continental Congress; that version was sold as a broadside by the Philadelphia printer John Dunlap in July 1776 before the declaration was "unanimously" signed by the thirteen states.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meyer dated the preface Berlin, August 12, 1919, the day after President Friedrich Ebert had signed Germany's first republican constitution.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[82]
.In 1796, signer Thomas McKean disputed that the Declaration had been signed on July 4, pointing out that some signers were not then present, including several who were not even elected to Congress until after that date.^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration does not attack the British government, Isaacson points out.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

[83] "[N]o person signed it on that day nor for many days after", he later wrote.[84] .Although Jefferson and Adams disagreed with McKean, his claim gained support when the Secret Journals of Congress were published in 1821.[85] The Secret Journals contained two previously unpublished entries about the Declaration.^ Adams requested from Congress both a military buildup and support for new peace emissaries to be sent to France.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 10, 1776, the Continental Congress appointed a committee, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston to draft a Declaration of Independence.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ None gave to "pursuit of happiness" the meaning of "property," although we know from the objection made by Lafayette to Jefferson, and from the French declarations, that "happiness" was in several instances transformed into "property."
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The entry for July 19 reads:
.
Resolved That the Declaration passed on the 4th be fairly engrossed on parchment with the title and stile of "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen united states of America" & that the same when engrossed be signed by every member of Congress.^ Both United States have the same Congress that rules in both nations.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The unanimous Declaration of the fifty united States of America .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[86]
The entry for August 2 stated:
.
The declaration of Independence being engrossed & compared at the table was signed by the Members.^ Adams signed the Declaration of Independence .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matlack set to work with pen, ink, parchment, and practiced hand, and finally, on August 2, the journal of the Continental Congress records that "The declaration of independence being engrossed and compared at the table was signed."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

[87]
.In 1884, historian Mellen Chamberlain argued that these entries indicated that the famous signed version of the Declaration had been created following the July 19 resolution, and had not been signed by Congress until August 2.[88] Historian John Hazelton confirmed in 1906 that many of the signers had not been present in Congress on July 4, that the fifty-six signers had never been together as a group, and that some delegates must have added their signatures even after August 2.[89] While it is possible that Congress signed a document on July 4 that has since been lost, historians do not think that this is likely.^ A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress."
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually 56 delegates signed, although all were not present on August 2.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When used in conjunction with one's signature, a stamp stating "Without Prejudice U.C.C. 1-207" is sufficient to indicate to the magistrate of any of our present Legislative Tribunals (called "courts") that the signer of the document has reserved his Common Law right.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[90]
.Although most historians have accepted the argument that the Declaration was not signed on July 4, and that the engrossed copy was not created until after July 19, legal historian Wilfred Ritz wrote in 1986 that "the historians and scholars are wrong".[91] Ritz argued that the engrossed copy of the Declaration was signed by Congress on July 4, as Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin had stated, and that it was implausible that all three men had been mistaken.^ The first striking difference between the original and the translations is to be found in the title, which appears in the French publications as having been translated, not from the engrossed and signed "Unanimous Declaration," but from the last version after it was revised by the Continental Congress; that version was sold as a broadside by the Philadelphia printer John Dunlap in July 1776 before the declaration was "unanimously" signed by the thirteen states.
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin, like Jefferson, had more faith in democracy than most of the other founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[92] Ritz believed that McKean's testimony was questionable,[93] and that historians had misinterpreted the July 19 resolution. .According to Ritz, this resolution did not call for a new document to be created, but rather for the existing one to be given a new title, which was necessary after New York had joined the other twelve states in declaring independence.^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EVERY ONE – Declare your independence again.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the spurious nature of the Mecklenburg County document, see Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 173 - 74.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Ritz argued that the phrase "signed by every member of Congress" in the July 19 resolution meant that delegates who had not signed the Declaration on the 4th were now required to do so.^ When the Continental Congress delegated power to the Committee of Five to write the declaration, was there already a body politic to author this document?
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That an authenticated copy of the Declaration of Independence, with the names of the Members of Congress subscribing the same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put on record.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the pressure of the popular masses enthusiastically demanding independence on the one hand and of the hardening British-Loyalist counterrevolution on the other Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson on 4th July 1776.
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[94]
.Ritz argued that about thirty-four delegates signed the Declaration on July 4, and that the others signed on or after August 2.[95] Historians who reject a July 4 signing maintain that most delegates signed on August 2, and that those eventual signers who were not present added their names later.^ In other words, did the declaration proceed from one potential nation, whose decision was endorsed by the writers and signers of the document, or did the document create the nation by the sole act of a proclamation?
  • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But neither Adams "nor any other delegate in Congress would have let the issue jeopardize a declaration of independence, however strong their feelings."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who signed this document, and those who fought for this document risked everything; Many men did give up their lives and fortunes as they pledged for freedom.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]

List of signers

Fifty-six delegates eventually signed the Declaration:
1. John Hancock (Massachusetts)
2. Josiah Bartlett
3. William Whipple
4. Matthew Thornton
5. Samuel Adams
6. John Adams
7. Robert Treat Paine
8. Elbridge Gerry
9. Stephen Hopkins
10. William Ellery
11. Roger Sherman
12. Samuel Huntington
13. William Williams
14. Oliver Wolcott
15. William Floyd
16. Philip Livingston
17. Francis Lewis
18. Lewis Morris
19. Richard Stockton
20. John Witherspoon
21. Francis Hopkinson
22. John Hart
23. Abraham Clark
24. Robert Morris
25. Benjamin Rush
26. Benjamin Franklin
27. John Morton
28. George Clymer
29. James Smith
30. George Taylor
31. James Wilson
32. George Ross
33. George Read
34. Caesar Rodney
35. Thomas McKean
36. Samuel Chase
37. William Paca
38. Thomas Stone
39. Charles Carroll of Carrollton
40. George Wythe
41. Richard Henry Lee
42. Thomas Jefferson
43. Benjamin Harrison
44. Thomas Nelson, Jr.
45. Francis Lightfoot Lee
46. Carter Braxton
47. William Hooper
48. Joseph Hewes
49. John Penn
50. Edward Rutledge
51. Thomas Heyward, Jr.
52. Thomas Lynch, Jr.
53. Arthur Middleton
54. Button Gwinnett
55. Lyman Hall
56. George Walton

Signer details

.Of the approximately fifty delegates who are thought to have been present in Congress during the voting on independence in early July 1776,[97] eight never signed the Declaration: John Alsop, George Clinton, John Dickinson, Charles Humphreys, Robert R. Livingston, John Rogers, Thomas Willing, and Henry Wisner.^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams signed the Declaration of Independence .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98] .Clinton, Livingston, and Wisner were attending to duties away from Congress when the signing took place.^ In 1976, Congress took away any semblance of law or justice left within our court system.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Willing and Humphreys, who voted against the resolution of independence, were replaced in the Pennsylvania delegation before the August 2 signing.^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin led the key Pennsylvania delegation - John Dickinson abstaining - in casting Pennsylvania's vote for acceptance of the Declaration.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The immediate impact of the resolution on the people of Pennsylvania was "a dramatic turn in support of independence."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rogers had voted for the resolution of independence but was no longer a delegate on August 2. Alsop, who favored reconciliation with Great Britain, resigned rather than add his name to the document.^ He unsuccessfully favored a small executive council rather than a single president.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That it has given undue, public legal influence to elected officials who promote their ideas through secret societies, rather than their respective branches of government.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[99] Dickinson refused to sign, believing the Declaration premature, but remained in Congress. .Although George Read had voted against the resolution of independence, and Robert Morris had abstained, they both signed the Declaration.^ He helped draft and gain widespread public acceptance for both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They have failed utterly to enforce the balance of powers established by the Constitution and have aided both Congress and the Executive in their quest for power by ruling against the rights of the individual.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most famous signature on the engrossed copy is that of John Hancock, who, as President of Congress, presumably signed first.^ Who was the first president to be impeached?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who the first Republican President elected?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who was the first president under the Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .Hancock's large, flamboyant signature became iconic, and John Hancock emerged in the United States as an informal synonym for "signature".[101] Two future presidents, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, were among the signatories.^ Suddenly, Patrick Henry in Virginia and Sam Adams and John Hancock in Massachusetts rose into prominence, and groups formed to oppose the tax and threaten the tax collectors.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson, who arrived in France in 1784 - a far more suitable envoy to succeed Franklin in France than the rigidly Puritanical John Adams.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Jefferson had tagged Adams with being both mentally unsound and a monarchist, the two charges most commonly and unjustly made against him for the rest of his life."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Edward Rutledge (age 26) was the youngest signer, and Benjamin Franklin (age 70) was the oldest signer.^ And all this wit and wisdom provided material for Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac, which he began publishing in 1732, at the age of 26.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In response, Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge of South Carolina were sent to a conference on Staten Island.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The War Office, with Adams, Benjamin Harrison, Edward Rutledge, Roger Sherman and James Wilson, in essence had to run the war for Congress.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

John Hancock's now-iconic signature on the Declaration is nearly 5 inches (13 cm) long.[102]
.Some delegates, including Samuel Chase, were away on business when the Declaration was debated, but were back in Congress to sign on August 2. Other delegates were present when the Declaration was debated but added their names after August 2, including Elbridge Gerry, Lewis Morris, Oliver Wolcott, and Thomas McKean.^ By spring, Congress was back in Philadelphia - with only about 20 delegates in attendance.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ McCullough refers to accounts by other delegates to provide a picture of Adams' debating style.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the August 2 signing of the finished document, John Hancock, the president of the Congress, boldly signed first, remarking: "There must be no pulling different ways.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Richard Henry Lee and George Wythe were in Virginia during July and August, but returned to Congress and signed the Declaration probably in September and October, respectively.^ He also drew on the Virginia Declaration of Rights recently drafted by George Mason.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 10, Adams and Richard Henry Lee submitted a resolution "recommending that the individual colonies assume all powers of government."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[103]
.As new delegates joined the Congress, they were also allowed to sign.^ They have signed the unconstitutional acts of Congress into law.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They have repeatedly failed to curtail the unconstitutional acts of Congress, acting in concert with them to achieve greater authority over the sovereign than the Constitution allows for.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eight men signed the Declaration who did not takes seats in Congress until after July 4: Matthew Thornton, William Williams, Benjamin Rush, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, George Ross, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton.^ Now, Jefferson had joined men of social standing like James Otis and Benjamin Rush in publicly opposing the slave trade.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament had declared that anyone who "did not make an unconditional submission" of loyalty would be considered traitors - the punishment for which was hanging.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Because of a lack of space, Thornton was unable to sign next to the other New Hampshire delegates; he instead placed his signature at the end of the document, on the lower right.^ Ultimately, god was introduced into the document at its end with the phrase, "with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence" added to the delegates' "pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence Part One stated: “whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it and to institute a new Government…” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends [life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness], it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[105]
The first published version of the Declaration, the Dunlap broadside, did not list the signers. .The public did not learn who had signed the engrossed copy until January 18, 1777, when the Congress ordered that an "authenticated copy", including the names of the signers, be sent to each of the thirteen states.^ Adams apparently did not as yet know of the new negotiating instructions, but Adams' view of Franklin took a decidedly negative turn when he learned of Franklin's letter to Congress.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who did John Adams appoint to Chief Justice of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The correct United States Bill of Rights, including a archive "photo" of the original Bill of Rights as it was sent to the several states and ratified.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

[106] This copy, the Goddard Broadside, was the first to list the signers.[107]
.Various legends about the signing of the Declaration emerged years later, when the document had become an important national symbol.^ This will become more important later on.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The public stage that Jefferson said he abhorred, had made them in the public mind symbols of the emerging divisions in national politics.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In one famous story, John Hancock supposedly said that Congress, having signed the Declaration, must now "all hang together", and Benjamin Franklin replied: "Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."^ We all must band together on this one….
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin reputedly replied: "Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we will all hang separately."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must all hang together."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The quote did not appear in print until more than fifty years after Franklin's death.^ Franklin, like Jefferson, had more faith in democracy than most of the other founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin had traveled throughout the colonies, and was far more familiar with all the states than anyone else.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "[Franklin] was a practical experimenter more than systematic theorist.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[108]

Publication and reaction

.
Johannes Adam Simon Oertel's painting Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C., ca.
^ In the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay 600,000 sterling to King George III, as reparations for the American Revolution.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

1859, depicts citizens destroying a statue of King George after the Declaration was read in New York City on July 9, 1776.
.After Congress approved the final wording of the Declaration on July 4, a handwritten copy was sent a few blocks away to the printing shop of John Dunlap.^ In 1776 , Congress took the final step toward declaring the colonies free and independent states by writing the Declaration of Independence (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In what year did Congress take the final step in declaring the colonies free and independent states?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside Congress, July 4 2009 New Declaration of Independence .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through the night between 150 and 200 copies were made, now known as "Dunlap broadsides". Before long, the Declaration was read to audiences and reprinted in newspapers across the thirteen states.^ All law today is now construed, constructed and made up by the judge as it happens before your very eyes.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has been codified into what is now known as the Uniform Commercial Code, which system of law was made uniform throughout the fifty States through the cunning of the Congress of the UNITED STATES. .
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first official public reading of the document was by John Nixon in the yard of Independence Hall on July 8; public readings also took place on that day in Trenton, New Jersey, and Easton, Pennsylvania.^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Getting out of Philadelphia for the two day ride along the open roads of New Jersey proved an immediate tonic for Adams.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following years, in addition to his appointment as agent for Pennsylvania, he was appointed agent for Georgia and New Jersey and ultimately Massachusetts as well - in essence the ambassador for the American colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] A German translation of the Declaration was published in Philadelphia by July 9.[110]
.President of Congress John Hancock sent a broadside to General George Washington, instructing him to have it proclaimed "at the Head of the Army in the way you shall think it most proper".[111] Washington had the Declaration read to his troops in New York City on July 9, with the British forces not far away.^ Howe comfortably back in winter quarters in New York with his main force, Washington outmaneuvered Gen.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams was chosen by the legislature as one of the five delegates sent by the colony to the First Continental Congress that was called in response to the British action.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams requested from Congress both a military buildup and support for new peace emissaries to be sent to France.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Washington and Congress hoped the Declaration would inspire the soldiers, and encourage others to join the army.^ If he had asked for a Declaration of War against France at this time, Congress would have granted it.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with his support of another Virginian, George Washington, to command the Continental Army, Adams' support of Jefferson to draft the declaration would prove to be a great service to the American cause.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most shocking of these was the British Army's burning of the Capitol, the President's house, and other public buildings in Washington on August 24 and 25, 1814.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] After hearing the Declaration, crowds in many cities tore down and destroyed signs or statues representing royalty. .An equestrian statue of King George in New York City was pulled down and the lead used to make musket balls.^ At that same time, a British fleet of about 400 sail was arriving off New York City.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If his role in government was dull and unpromising, his time in New York City with Abigail was one of the most pleasant of their lives.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams got to cast another vote when the Senate divided over whether the Capital should be kept in New York City for another two years.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[112]
.British officials in North America sent copies of the Declaration to Great Britain.^ France, of course, was in the war for its own interests - to weaken the British Empire and open North America to its trade.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. gained little from the treaty except the removal of British troops on the western frontier, but it assured peace with Great Britain.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] .It was published in British newspapers beginning in mid-August; translations appeared in European newspapers soon after.^ James was soon a newspaper publisher as well as a printer, producing The Courant , the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was soon deriving significant income from his position and used his position to invigorate his American Philosophical Society and more efficiently share content among his newspaper publisher partners.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[114] .The North ministry did not give an official answer to the Declaration, but instead secretly commissioned pamphleteer John Lind to publish a response, which was entitled Answer to the Declaration of the American Congress.^ Instead, Congress made him one of the five men commissioned to negotiate peace with Britain, and gave William Temple an official appointment as secretary to the delegation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For dictatorship declaration in the form of Presidential Decision Directive 51, The Military Commissions Act of 2006, and the John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2007.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Articles of Confederation, finally adopted in 1781, did not give Congress the power to regulate commerce.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[115] .Thomas Hutchinson, the former royal governor of Massachusetts, also published a rebuttal.^ Gage was soon on his way to Massachusetts to replace governor Hutchinson and impose sanctions on the rebellious colony - not exactly what the petition had been designed to accomplish.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was that the Massachusetts Assembly petitioned for the removal of governor Hutchinson.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A member of Parliament had given him some letters sent between Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson and Parliament in which the governor, among other things, advised harsh measures - "an abridgement of what are called English liberties" - to subdue colonial unrest.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[116] These pamphlets challenged various aspects of the Declaration. .Hutchinson argued that the American Revolution was the work of a few conspirators who wanted independence from the outset, and who had finally achieved it by inducing otherwise loyal colonists to rebel.^ "Few Americans ever achieved so much of such value and consequence to their country in so little time."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish statesman Edmund Burke - who had been a strong friend of the American Revolution in Parliament - wrote scathingly of the French Revolution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Few Americans ever achieved so much of such value and consequence to their country in so little time.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[117] .Lind's pamphlet included an anonymous attack on the concept of natural rights written by Jeremy Bentham, an argument he would repeat during the French Revolution.^ The occasion was another Thomas Paine pamphlet - "The Rights of Man" - defending the French Revolution from the attack launched by Edmund Burke in "Reflections on the Revolution in France."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson drew on natural rights concepts and social contract concepts founded on the consent of the people.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .Both pamphlets asked how slave owners in Congress could proclaim that "all men are created equal" without then freeing their own slaves.^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We affirm these truths to be self evident, That all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain indistinguishable rights, That among these are life, reproduction, liberty, knowledge, faith and the right to try and be happy.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the year 2008 a new tyranny has arisen to destroy all the self-evident truths that proclaim: “…all men and women are created equal, and they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, which are: Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[119]

History of the documents

.Although the document signed by Congress and enshrined in the National Archives is usually regarded as the Declaration of Independence, historian Julian P. Boyd, editor of Jefferson's papers, argued that the Declaration of Independence, like Magna Carta, is not a single document.^ During the War of 1812 our national archives and many libraries and document repositories were burned and some of the evidence of the TONA disappeared.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In keeping with the original Declaration of Independence by the people of the nation in 1776, we will outline our specific grievances below.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.The version signed by Congress is, according to Boyd, "only the most notable of several copies legitimately entitled to be designated as official texts".[120] By Boyd's count there were five "official" versions of the Declaration, in addition to unofficial drafts and copies.^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, Congress made him one of the five men commissioned to negotiate peace with Britain, and gave William Temple an official appointment as secretary to the delegation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the August 2 signing of the finished document, John Hancock, the president of the Congress, boldly signed first, remarking: "There must be no pulling different ways.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Drafts and Fair Copy

.Jefferson preserved a four-page draft that late in life he called the "original Rough draught".[121] Known to historians as the Rough Draft, early students of the Declaration believed that this was a draft written alone by Jefferson and then presented to the Committee of Five.^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with his support of another Virginian, George Washington, to command the Continental Army, Adams' support of Jefferson to draft the declaration would prove to be a great service to the American cause.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A vote was put off until July 1, but a committee of five men was established to write the declaration.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Scholars now believe that the Rough Draft was not actually an "original Rough draught", but was instead a revised version completed by Jefferson after consultation with the Committee.^ All of the sudden we had two Constitutions, the original for show and the revision for actual use.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] .How many drafts Jefferson wrote prior to this one, and how much of the text was contributed by other committee members, is unknown.^ It would have the checks and balances of a two chamber legislature - one representative of the people and the other smaller one chosen by the members of the larger.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1947, Boyd discovered a fragment in Jefferson's handwriting that predates the Rough Draft. Known as the Composition Draft, this fragment is the earliest known version of the Declaration.[122]
.Jefferson showed the Rough Draft to Adams and Franklin, and perhaps other committee members,[121] who made a few more changes.^ The draft was edited first by Adams and then by Franklin, who made only a few changes.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin, like Jefferson, had more faith in democracy than most of the other founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin, for example, may have been responsible for changing Jefferson's original phrase "We hold these truths to be sacred and undeniable" to "We hold these truths to be self-evident".[123] Jefferson incorporated these changes into a copy that was submitted to Congress in the name of the Committee.^ Most dramatic, he substituted "self evident" for "sacred and undeniable" in the ringing phrase: "We hold these truths to be self evident."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We affirm these truths to be self evident, That all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain indistinguishable rights, That among these are life, reproduction, liberty, knowledge, faith and the right to try and be happy.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He quickly dashed Franklin's last hopes of changing Pennsylvania into a Crown colony.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Jefferson kept the Rough Draft and made additional notes on it as Congress revised the text. .He also made several copies of the Rough Draft without the changes made by Congress, which he sent to friends, including Richard Henry Lee and George Wythe, after July 4. At some point in the process, Adams also wrote out a copy.^ Adams, Lee, and George Wythe countered that the people were already way ahead of the Congress.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams was chosen by the legislature as one of the five delegates sent by the colony to the First Continental Congress that was called in response to the British action.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams requested from Congress both a military buildup and support for new peace emissaries to be sent to France.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[121]
The copy that was submitted to Congress by the Committee on June 28 is known as the Fair Copy. Presumably, the Fair Copy was marked up by secretary Charles Thomson while Congress debated and revised the text.[124] .This document was the one that Congress approved on July 4, making it what Boyd called the "official" copy of the Declaration.^ Adams was chosen by the legislature as one of the five delegates sent by the colony to the First Continental Congress that was called in response to the British action.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 5, the Congress agreed unanimously on one last conciliation effort - the "Olive Branch Petition."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, Congress made him one of the five men commissioned to negotiate peace with Britain, and gave William Temple an official appointment as secretary to the delegation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Fair Copy was sent to be printed under the title "A Declaration by the Representatives of the united states of america, in General Congress assembled". The Fair Copy has been lost, and was perhaps destroyed in the printing process,[125] or destroyed during the debates in accordance with Congress's secrecy rule.^ Both United States have the same Congress that rules in both nations.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The unanimous Declaration of the fifty united States of America .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As sovereigns, we were not under the jurisdiction of the United States of America, which incorporated in 1872.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[126]

Broadsides

The Goddard Broadside, the first printed version of the Declaration of Independence to include the names of the signers.
.The Declaration was first published as a broadside printed the night of July 4 by John Dunlap of Philadelphia.^ "On July 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the American colonies declared independence."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.John Hancock's eventually famous signature was not on this document; his name appeared in type under "Signed by Order and in Behalf of the Congress", with Thomson listed as a witness.^ At the August 2 signing of the finished document, John Hancock, the president of the Congress, boldly signed first, remarking: "There must be no pulling different ways.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress did not change the name of the document so they could claim to be reading from the Constitution.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

It is unknown exactly how many Dunlap broadsides were originally printed, but the number is estimated at about 200, of which 26[127] are known to survive. .One broadside was pasted into Congress's journal, making it what Boyd called the "second official version" of the Declaration.^ Adams' journal and letters provide a picture of Philadelphia at peace in 1774 during the First Continental Congress and at the outset of war during the Second Continental Congress in 1775.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[128] Boyd considered the engrossed copy to be the third official version, and the Goddard Broadside to be the fourth.

Engrossed copy

The copy of the Declaration that was signed by Congress is known as the engrossed or parchment copy. Whether first signed on July 4 or August 2, it was probably handwritten by clerk Timothy Matlack, and given the title of "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America".[129]
.Throughout the Revolutionary War, the engrossed copy was moved with the Continental Congress,[130] which relocated several times to avoid the British army.^ Adams was chosen by the legislature as one of the five delegates sent by the colony to the First Continental Congress that was called in response to the British action.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, just in time for the Second Continental Congress.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams' journal and letters provide a picture of Philadelphia at peace in 1774 during the First Continental Congress and at the outset of war during the Second Continental Congress in 1775.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1789, after creation of a new government under the United States Constitution, the engrossed Declaration was transferred to the custody of the secretary of state.^ The government of these United States has: .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who wrote the United States Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130] .The document was evacuated to Virginia when the British attacked Washington, D.C. during the War of 1812.^ One amazing aspect of the War of 1812 was the existence of a depression during wartime.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the War of 1812 our national archives and many libraries and document repositories were burned and some of the evidence of the TONA disappeared.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, General Washington commanded the armed forces seeking to win the independence of the 13 colonies from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130]
National Bureau of Standards preserving the engrossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1951.
.After the War of 1812, the symbolic stature of the Declaration steadily increased even though the engrossed copy's ink was noticeably fading.^ Even though the Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War in 1783, the simple fact of our existence threatened the monarchies where it hurts most: financially.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1820, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams commissioned printer William J. Stone to create an engraving essentially identical to the engrossed copy.^ Adams also appointed John Marshall to Chief Justice of the United States (G 378-379).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, Congress made him one of the five men commissioned to negotiate peace with Britain, and gave William Temple an official appointment as secretary to the delegation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He took nine-year-old Charles as well as John Quincy and two servants and a private secretary and tutor for the boys.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[130] Boyd called this copy the "fifth official version" of the Declaration. Stone's engraving was made using a wet-ink transfer process, where the surface of the document was moistened, and some of the original ink transferred to the surface of a copper plate, which was then etched so that copies could be run off the plate on a press. When Stone finished his engraving in 1823, Congress ordered 200 copies to be printed on parchment.[130] .Because of poor conservation of the engrossed copy through the 19th century, Stone's engraving, rather than the original, has become the basis of most modern reproductions.^ Franklin rejected the Puritan dogma that salvation was possible only through God's grace rather than through good works.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[131]
From 1841 to 1876, the engrossed copy was publicly exhibited at the Patent Office building in Washington, D.C. Exposed to sunlight and variable temperature and humidity, the document faded badly. .In 1876, it was sent to Independence Hall in Philadelphia for exhibit during the Centennial Exposition, which was held in honor of the Declaration's 100th anniversary, and then returned to Washington the next year.^ He is the man who is reading the Declaration of Independence in front of Independence Hall.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next year, Franklin campaigned on several fronts, but was repeatedly rebuffed by the Privy Council on every point except that of taxation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "On July 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the American colonies declared independence."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[130] In 1892, preparations were made for the engrossed copy to be exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, but the poor condition of the document led to the cancellation of those plans and the removal of the document from public exhibition.[130] The document was sealed between two plates of glass and placed in storage. .For nearly thirty years, it was exhibited only on rare occasions at the discretion of the secretary of state.^ No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[132]
The Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom in the National Archives building.
.In 1921, custody of the Declaration, along with the United States Constitution, was transferred from the State Department to the Library of Congress.^ The United States, by way of the Congress of the United States, has certain powers delegated by the Constitution.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Constitution, based on Common Law, the Republic of the Continental United States provides for legal cases: at Law, in Equity, and in Admiralty.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as a consequence do endorse and embrace full rebellion in accordance with the provisions of the United States Constitution, The Bill of Rights and the US Declaration of Independence against the agents, institutions and ideologies of the New World Order and its creator the illuminati.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

Funds were appropriated to preserve the documents in a public exhibit that opened in 1924.[133] After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the documents were moved for safekeeping to the United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox in Kentucky, where they were kept until 1944.[134]
.For many years, officials at the National Archives believed that they, rather than the Library of Congress, should have custody of the Declaration and the Constitution.^ The nation did indeed deeply appreciate his many arduous years of service.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They have led us to attack sovereign nations without a Congressional declaration of war in violation of the good faith of the citizens of this nation.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Downloadable forms for divorce and custody (paid) The Constitution of The United States Get cases emailed from the Massachusetts Law Library Services for free .
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The transfer finally took place in 1952, and the documents, along with the Bill of Rights, are now on permanent display at the National Archives in the "Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom". Although encased in helium, by the early 1980s the documents were threatened by further deterioration.^ If a document is listed without any links to electronic versions, it is only available in hardcopy right now.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After studying and considering the Bill Of Rights AGAIN, ..I see no clear reason why we couldn’t have pulled away from this government from the ”get go”, according to that document.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 9, 1832 The Second National Bank applied for a charter renewal 4 years early.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2001, using the latest in preservation technology, conservators treated the documents and re-encased them in encasements made of titanium and aluminum, filled with inert argon gas.[135] They were put on display again with the opening of the remodeled National Archives Rotunda in 2003.

Legacy

.Having served its original purpose in announcing the independence of the United States, the Declaration was initially neglected following the American Revolution.^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, therefore, the good People of these United States of America (and the World) must appeal to the Supreme Judge of the World for guidance, as the authority for our “New Declaration of Independence from global governance.” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as a consequence do endorse and embrace full rebellion in accordance with the provisions of the United States Constitution, The Bill of Rights and the US Declaration of Independence against the agents, institutions and ideologies of the New World Order and its creator the illuminati.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[136] .Early celebrations of Independence Day, like early histories of the Revolution, largely ignored the Declaration.^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Thus, July 4 is correctly celebrated as Independence Day.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is our New Declaration of Independence and our guiding light for days to come.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the act of declaring independence was considered important, the text announcing that act attracted little attention.^ Although publicly asserting that he would act only in concert with France, Franklin skillfully arranged direct negotiations with the British that were private and independent of the negotiations being conducted by France.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution U.S. Bill of Rights A little known but very IMPORTANT part of the Bill of Rights, The Preamble to the Bill of Rights with comments from Dr. Linda Thompson of American Justice Federation.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

[137] .The Declaration was rarely mentioned during the debates about the United States Constitution, and its language was not incorporated into that document.^ Who wrote the United States Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Constitution, based on Common Law, the Republic of the Continental United States provides for legal cases: at Law, in Equity, and in Admiralty.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as a consequence do endorse and embrace full rebellion in accordance with the provisions of the United States Constitution, The Bill of Rights and the US Declaration of Independence against the agents, institutions and ideologies of the New World Order and its creator the illuminati.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[138] .George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights was more influential, and its language was echoed in state constitutions and state bills of rights more often than Jefferson's words.^ He also drew on the Virginia Declaration of Rights recently drafted by George Mason.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came a "Declaration of Rights," drawing from the Virginia "Declaration of Rights" written by George Mason, and from the Pennsylvania constitution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin, like Jefferson, had more faith in democracy than most of the other founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[139] ."In none of these documents", wrote Pauline Maier, "is there any evidence whatsoever that the Declaration of Independence lived in men's minds as a classic statement of American political principles."^ Who wrote the Declaration of independence?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Declaration of Independence Part One stated: “whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it and to institute a new Government…” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "question of American independence and Dutch-American relations became a matter of political debate throughout the country."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]
.Although some leaders of the French Revolution admired the Declaration of Independence,[140] they were more interested in the new American state constitutions.^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For spying on the American people illegally with secret government programs and operations that directly violate the privacy and freedoms that are supposed to be protected by the United States Constitution.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, the citizens of the World, and in concert with the citizens of the United States of America, hereby declare our independence from those principalities set upon us by evil, be they individual, corporate, or political.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[141] .The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) borrowed language from George Mason and not Jefferson's Declaration, although Jefferson was in Paris at the time and was consulted during the drafting process.^ He also drew on the Virginia Declaration of Rights recently drafted by George Mason.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While pleasant towards each other during social encounters, Jefferson no longer consulted Adams on official business.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came a "Declaration of Rights," drawing from the Virginia "Declaration of Rights" written by George Mason, and from the Pennsylvania constitution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[142] .According to historian David Armitage, the United States Declaration of Independence did prove to be internationally influential, but not as a statement of human rights.^ He began publishing a long - much too long - a year long - series of essays in the Gazette of the United States on the weaknesses of human nature and the implications for republican government.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1776 , Congress took the final step toward declaring the colonies free and independent states by writing the Declaration of Independence (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somehow Scalia's statements seem like a long way from the Declaration of Independence in which Americans stood before the world as sovereigns invested with certain inalienable rights, including the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Armitage argued that the Declaration was the first in a new genre of declarations of independence that announced the creation of new states.^ The opening line of the treaty declared the United States "to be free, sovereign and independent."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All States of the Union adopted new legislatively created 'conditions' and 'codified' their laws under federal mandate.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way that a UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT can have jurisdiction over a Sovereign is if the latter volunteers to the jurisdiction or fails to declare his independence as a Sovereign.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Manifesto of the Province of Flanders (1790) was the first foreign derivation of the Declaration;[143] others include the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence (1811), the Liberian Declaration of Independence (1847), the declarations of secession by the Confederate States of America (1860–61), and the Vietnam Declaration of Independence (1945).^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He opened America's first embassy in a foreign state.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, therefore, the good People of these United States of America (and the World) must appeal to the Supreme Judge of the World for guidance, as the authority for our “New Declaration of Independence from global governance.” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

[144] .These declarations echoed the United States Declaration of Independence in announcing the independence of a new state, without necessarily endorsing the political philosophy of the original.^ The government of these United States has: .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where he can contract and do business without the intefereance of United States Corporation.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]

Revival of interest

.In the United States, interest in the Declaration was revived in the 1790s with the emergence of America's first political parties.^ The Creditor of the UNITED STATES designed invisible contracts to ensnare the sovereign people of America as subjects.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can also be reasonably proven that the Southern states, by virtue of their secession from the Union, also ceased to exist sine die , and that some state legislatures in the Northern bloc also adjourned sine die , and thus, all the states which were parties to creating the Constitution for the united States of America apparently ceased to exist.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it with the corrupt, treasonous corporation that is controlled by foreign agents from within and without, or is it with our constitutional Republic, the united States of America and her citizens?
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[146] .Throughout the 1780s, few Americans knew, or cared, who wrote the Declaration.^ Who wrote the Declaration of independence?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Irish statesman Edmund Burke - who had been a strong friend of the American Revolution in Parliament - wrote scathingly of the French Revolution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What American who believes in democracy could declare one candidate the winner and protect him from "irreparable harm" if a vote count showed him not to be the winner, after all?
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[147] .But in the next decade, Jeffersonian Republicans sought political advantage over their rival Federalists by promoting both the importance of the Declaration and Jefferson as its author.^ The Republicans and Jefferson pounced on him, claiming this minimum response amounted to a declaration of war against France.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[148] .Federalists responded by casting doubt on Jefferson's authorship or originality, and by emphasizing that independence was declared by the whole Congress, with Jefferson as just one member of the drafting committee.^ EVERY ONE – Declare your independence again.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He helped draft and gain widespread public acceptance for both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Federalists insisted that Congress's act of declaring independence, in which Federalist John Adams had played a major role, was more important than the document announcing that act.^ For more than eight years he would play his role to the hilt.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "More important than his specific ideas was his tone of moderation and conciliation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaacson notes that the concept of self evident truths derives more from Isaac Newton and Franklin's friend David Hume than from John Locke.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[149] .But this view, like the Federalist Party, would fade away, and before long the act of declaring independence would become synonymous with the document.^ Somehow Scalia's statements seem like a long way from the Declaration of Independence in which Americans stood before the world as sovereigns invested with certain inalienable rights, including the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.” Isaiah 64:6 .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just before and after the enactment of the Stamp Act taxes in 1765, Adams began writing anonymous essays on liberty and independence, and on the political rights of Englishmen.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.A less partisan appreciation for the Declaration emerged in the years following the War of 1812, thanks to a growing American nationalism and a renewed interest in the history of the Revolution.^ In January 9, 1832 The Second National Bank applied for a charter renewal 4 years early.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the War of 1812 our national archives and many libraries and document repositories were burned and some of the evidence of the TONA disappeared.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In April, 1794, war fever began to grip the nation as British ships began to press seamen off American merchant ships.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[150] In 1817, Congress commissioned John Trumbull's famous painting of the signers, which was exhibited to large crowds before being installed in the Capitol.[151] .The earliest commemorative printings of the Declaration also appeared at this time, offering many Americans their first view of the signed document.^ At first, all France would offer were secret loans and ports open to American merchant ships.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the August 2 signing of the finished document, John Hancock, the president of the Congress, boldly signed first, remarking: "There must be no pulling different ways.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the only one who signed all the founding documents - the Declaration of Independence, the treaty with France, the peace treaty with Britain, and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[152] .Collective biographies of the signers were first published in the 1820s,[153] giving birth to what Garry Wills called the "cult of the signers".[154] In the years that followed, many stories about the writing and signing of the document would be published for the first time.^ Franklin, as usual, thoroughly enjoyed his European friends and literary, scientific and intellectual acquaintances, many of whom would not survive the first few years of the French Revolution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "For the first time since the Albany Conference of 1754, leaders from different parts of America were galvanized into thinking as a collective unit."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "For the first time since the Albany Conference of 1754, leaders from different parts of America were galvanized into thinking as a collective unit.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.When interest in the Declaration was revived, the sections that were most important in 1776—the announcement of the independence of the United States and the grievances against King George—were no longer relevant.^ A New Declaration of Independence of the fifty united States of America and its territories.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governed of The United States of America must free and empower the only true, most important embodiment of the Republic - the Individual.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, therefore, the good People of these United States of America (and the World) must appeal to the Supreme Judge of the World for guidance, as the authority for our “New Declaration of Independence from global governance.” .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the second paragraph, with its talk of self-evident truths and unalienable rights, had lost none of its relevance.^ Isaacson notes that the concept of self evident truths derives more from Isaac Newton and Franklin's friend David Hume than from John Locke.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most dramatic, he substituted "self evident" for "sacred and undeniable" in the ringing phrase: "We hold these truths to be self evident."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[155] .Because the Constitution and the Bill of Rights lacked sweeping statements about rights and equality, advocates of marginalized groups turned to the Declaration for support.^ He immediately joined those advocating a Bill of Rights similar to that included in the Massachusetts constitution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fathers are Parents too - Parents and Children for Equality - Great resource on constitutional rights and suits.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came a "Declaration of Rights," drawing from the Virginia "Declaration of Rights" written by George Mason, and from the Pennsylvania constitution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[156] .Starting in the 1820s, variations of the Declaration were issued to proclaim the rights of workers, farmers, women, and others.^ But neither Adams "nor any other delegate in Congress would have let the issue jeopardize a declaration of independence, however strong their feelings."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither Adams "nor any other delegate in Congress would have let the issue jeopardize" the declaration.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have started with the Constitution of the United States, the U.S. Bill of Rights, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights portions of the constitutions of the individual States.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

[157] .In 1848, for example, the Seneca Falls Convention, a meeting of women's rights advocates, declared that "all men and women are created equal".[158] But the Declaration would have its most prominent influence on the debate over slavery.^ Equal rights for men and women - no exception!
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Slavery and the Declaration

.The contradiction between the claim that "all men are created equal" and the existence of American slavery attracted comment when the Declaration was first published.^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It stated that all men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature", English abolitionist Thomas Day wrote in a 1776 letter, "it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."[159] In the 19th century, the Declaration took on a special significance for the abolitionist movement. .Historian Bertram Wyatt-Brown wrote that "abolitionists tended to interpret the Declaration of Independence as a theological as well as a political document".[160] Abolitionist leaders Benjamin Lundy and William Lloyd Garrison adopted the "twin rocks" of "the Bible and the Declaration of Independence" as the basis for their philosophies.^ Who wrote the Declaration of independence?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is the only one who signed all the founding documents - the Declaration of Independence, the treaty with France, the peace treaty with Britain, and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

."As long as there remains a single copy of the Declaration of Independence, or of the Bible, in our land," wrote Garrison, "we will not despair."^ Who wrote the Declaration of independence?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The foundation of America is the supreme laws of the land, also known as the Constitution for the United States of America or the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of your independent Republic State, or your Claim of Right if you have one.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[161] .For radical abolitionists like Garrison, the most important part of the Declaration was its assertion of the right of revolution: Garrison called for the destruction of the government under the Constitution, and the creation of a new state dedicated to the principles of the Declaration.^ Sovereign people of the various states, created the state governments for the protection of their rights.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional law under the original Constitution for the American states is apparently enforced only as a matter of keeping the public peace under the provisions of General Orders No.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was agreed that an entirely new constitution providing a strong national government was needed.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[162]
.The controversial question of whether to add additional slave states to the United States coincided with the growing stature of the Declaration.^ The opening line of the treaty declared the United States "to be free, sovereign and independent."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way that a UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT can have jurisdiction over a Sovereign is if the latter volunteers to the jurisdiction or fails to declare his independence as a Sovereign.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The foundation of America is the supreme laws of the land, also known as the Constitution for the United States of America or the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of your independent Republic State, or your Claim of Right if you have one.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first major public debate about slavery and the Declaration took place during the Missouri controversy of 1819 to 1821.[163] Antislavery Congressmen argued that the language of the Declaration indicated that the Founding Fathers of the United States had been opposed to slavery in principle, and so new slave states should not be added to the country.^ Only Massachusetts had so far abolished slavery, but the vast majority of slaves were in Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Hanson served as the first President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adams was the first Vice President of the United States under the Constitution, and the second President of the United States under the Federalists party.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[164] Proslavery Congressmen, led by Senator Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina, argued that since the Declaration was not a part of the Constitution, it had no relevance to the question.[165]
.From this time forward, defenders of slavery, from John Randolph in the 1820s to John C. Calhoun in the 1840s, found it necessary to argue that the Declaration's assertion that "all men are created equal" was false, or at least that it did not apply to black people.^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In general, she had plain tastes, a willingness to work, and a desire to please her spouse," which could all have been said equally of Franklin at that time.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence established that all people are sovereign under God's Natural Law.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[166] .During the debate over the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1853, for example, Senator John Pettit of Indiana argued that "all men are created equal", rather than a "self-evident truth", was a "self-evident lie".[167] Opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, including Salmon P. Chase and Benjamin Wade, defended the Declaration and what they saw as its antislavery principles.^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaacson notes that the concept of self evident truths derives more from Isaac Newton and Franklin's friend David Hume than from John Locke.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[168]

Lincoln and the Declaration

.The Declaration's relationship to slavery was taken up in 1854 by Abraham Lincoln, a little-known former Congressman who idolized the Founding Fathers.^ Who is known as the Father of the Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a message to Congress December 3, 1861, Abraham Lincoln answered the banker's argument that the people could not be trusted with their constitutional power, the political and monetary system of free enterprise conceived by our Founding Fathers, by saying: .
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin is the founding father who "seems made of flesh and blood rather than of marble," Walter Isaacson explains in "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[169] .Lincoln thought that the Declaration of Independence expressed the highest principles of the American Revolution, and that the Founding Fathers had tolerated slavery with the expectation that it would ultimately wither away.^ His thoughts and writings on slavery would similarly fail to be reflected in his practices.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence for white people , meant death and slavery for everyone else!!!!
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other, Jefferson, disliked and distrusted the British, while seeing in France and the French Revolution the embodiment of the highest ideals of the American Revolution.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .For the United States to legitimize the expansion of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Act, thought Lincoln, was to repudiate the principles of the Revolution.^ In the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay 600,000 sterling to King George III, as reparations for the American Revolution.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the UNITED STATES was firmly lashed to the yoke, so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the people a yoke little better than slavery itself.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1933, immediately after Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office, his first act as President was to publicly declare the United States bank holiday.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

In his October 1854 Peoria speech, Lincoln said:
.
Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government."^ Reading the declaration makes me proud to be human that such words can be written by other men.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereign people of the various states, created the state governments for the protection of their rights.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He began publishing a long - much too long - a year long - series of essays in the Gazette of the United States on the weaknesses of human nature and the implications for republican government.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

... Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust. Let us repurify it. ... .Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.^ But neither Adams "nor any other delegate in Congress would have let the issue jeopardize a declaration of independence, however strong their feelings."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JJ Says: November 25th, 2009 at 1:43 pm RE-DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: PETITION TO PROTECT U.S. SOVEREIGNTY .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence Taking Back Your Liberty: Your Re-Declaration of Independence .
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

... If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving.[170]
.The meaning of the Declaration was a recurring topic in the famed debates between Lincoln and Stephen Douglas in 1858. Douglas argued that "all men are created equal" in the Declaration referred to white men only.^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It stated that all men were "equally free and independent" and had certain "natural, essential, and unalienable rights."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The purpose of the Declaration, he said, had simply been to justify the independence of the United States, and not to proclaim the equality of any "inferior or degraded race".[171] Lincoln, however, thought that the language of the Declaration was deliberately universal, setting a high moral standard for which the American republic should aspire.^ Under the Constitution, based on Common Law, the Republic of the Continental United States provides for legal cases: at Law, in Equity, and in Admiralty.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since 1933 you and all other Americans have been pledged for the debt of the UNITED STATES owed to international bankers, most of whom are foreign to our country.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1776 , Congress took the final step toward declaring the colonies free and independent states by writing the Declaration of Independence (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"I had thought the Declaration contemplated the progressive improvement in the condition of all men everywhere", he said.[172] According to Pauline Maier, Douglas's interpretation was more historically accurate, but Lincoln's view ultimately prevailed. "In Lincoln's hands", wrote Maier, "the Declaration of Independence became first and foremost a living document" with "a set of goals to be realized over time".[173]
.[T]here is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.^ Somehow Scalia's statements seem like a long way from the Declaration of Independence in which Americans stood before the world as sovereigns invested with certain inalienable rights, including the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deists rejected divine revelation, believing that "reason and study of nature" tell us all that can be known about our Creator.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After studying and considering the Bill Of Rights AGAIN, ..I see no clear reason why we couldn’t have pulled away from this government from the ”get go”, according to that document.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

I hold that he is as much entitled to these as the white man.
Abraham Lincoln, 1858[174]
.Like Daniel Webster, James Wilson, and Joseph Story before him, Lincoln argued that the Declaration of Independence was a founding document of the United States, and that this had important implications for interpreting the Constitution, which had been ratified more than a decade after the Declaration.^ Who wrote the United States Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "More important than his specific ideas was his tone of moderation and conciliation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–”I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[175] .Although the Constitution did not use the word "equality", Lincoln believed that the Declaration's "all men are created equal" remained a part of the nation's founding principles.^ Deists rejected divine revelation, believing that "reason and study of nature" tell us all that can be known about our Creator.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reading the declaration makes me proud to be human that such words can be written by other men.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[176] He famously expressed this belief in the opening sentence of his 1863 Gettysburg Address: "Four score and seven years ago [i.e. in .1776] our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."^ Deists rejected divine revelation, believing that "reason and study of nature" tell us all that can be known about our Creator.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BOND, the Brotherhood Organization of A New Destiny, is a national, nonprofit religious organization dedicated to “Rebuilding the Family By Rebuilding the Man”.
  • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

Lincoln's view of the Declaration as a moral guide to interpreting the Constitution became influential. ."For most people now," wrote Garry Wills in 1992, "the Declaration means what Lincoln told us it means, as a way of correcting the Constitution itself without overthrowing it."^ He wrote fearfully that a revolutionary government without checks and balances could become the plaything of "the most fiery spirits and flighty geniuses."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adams wrote fearfully that a revolutionary government without checks and balances could become the plaything of "the most fiery spirits and flighty geniuses."
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now that’s why congress is full of lawyers.LOL. But, the American people been away from the spirit(of our forefathers) for way too long.
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

[177] Admirers of Lincoln, such as Harry V. Jaffa, praised this development. .Critics of Lincoln, notably Willmoore Kendall and Mel Bradford, argued that Lincoln dangerously expanded the scope of the national government, and violated states' rights, by reading the Declaration into the Constitution.^ However, as the new century began, it was obvious that the nation - now prosperous, expanding and at peace - had never been in a better state.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was agreed that an entirely new constitution providing a strong national government was needed.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereign people of the various states, created the state governments for the protection of their rights.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[178]

In popular culture

.The adoption of the Declaration of Independence was dramatized in the 1969 Tony Award-winning musical play 1776, and the 1972 movie of the same name, as well as in the 2008 television miniseries John Adams.^ Adams signed the Declaration of Independence .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1776 , Congress took the final step toward declaring the colonies free and independent states by writing the Declaration of Independence (G 34).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The engrossed copy of the Declaration is central to the 2004 Hollywood film National Treasure, in which the main character steals the document because he believes it has secret clues to a treasure hidden by some of the Founding Fathers of the United States.^ Both United States have the same Congress that rules in both nations.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the conditions was that the United States permit the creditors to establish a new national bank.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The elected and appointed administrators of government United States government have been filing certified copies of all our birth certificates in the United States Department of Commerce as registered securities.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

The Declaration figures prominently in The Probability Broach, wherein the point of divergence rests in the addition of a single word to the document, causing it to state that governments "derive their just power from the unanimous consent of the governed". The Declaration also plays a major part in Honour Among Thieves, a novel by Jeffrey Archer where Saddam Hussein tries to steal the Declaration and publicly burn it on July 4.

Notes

  1. ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 5.
  2. ^ Lucas, "Justifying America", 85.
  3. ^ Ellis, American Creation, 55–56.
  4. ^ a b McPherson, Second American Revolution, 126.
  5. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 19.
  6. ^ Christie and Labaree, Empire or Independence, 31.
  7. ^ Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 162.
  8. ^ Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 200–02.
  9. ^ Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 180–82.
  10. ^ Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 241.
  11. ^ Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 224–25.
  12. ^ Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 241–42. The writings in question include Wilson's Considerations on the Authority of Parliament and Jefferson's A Summary View of the Rights of British America (both 1774), as well as Samuel Adams's 1768 Circular Letter.
  13. ^ Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 168; Ferling, Leap in the Dark, 123–24.
  14. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 13; Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 318.
  15. ^ Middlekauff, Glorious Cause, 318.
  16. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 25. The text of the 1775 king's speech is online, published by the American Memory project.
  17. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 25.
  18. ^ Rakove, Beginnings of National Politics, 88–90.
  19. ^ Christie and Labaree, Empire or Independence, 270; Maier, American Scripture, 31–32.
  20. ^ Jensen, Founding, 667.
  21. ^ Rakove, Beginnings of National Politics, 89; Maier, American Scripture, 33.
  22. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 33–34.
  23. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 209; Maier, American Scripture, 25–27.
  24. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 67.
  25. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 77.
  26. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 30.
  27. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 59.
  28. ^ Jensen, Founding, 671; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 78.
  29. ^ Pauline Maier, American Scripture, 48, and Appendix A, which lists the state and local declarations.
  30. ^ Jensen, Founding, 678–79.
  31. ^ Jensen, Founding, 679; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 92–93.
  32. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 69–72, quote on 72.
  33. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 48. The modern scholarly consensus is that the best-known and earliest of the local declarations, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, allegedly adopted in May 1775 (a full year before other local declarations), is most likely inauthentic; Maier, American Scripture, 174.
  34. ^ a b Jensen, Founding, 682.
  35. ^ Jensen, Founding, 683.
  36. ^ Jensen, Founding, 684; Maier, American Scripture, 37. For the full text of the May 10 resolve see the Journals of the Continental Congress.
  37. ^ Jensen, Founding, 684.
  38. ^ Burnett, Continental Congress, 159. The text of Adams's letter is online.
  39. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 37; Jensen, Founding, 684. For the full text of the May 15 preamble see the Journals of the Continental Congress.
  40. ^ Rakove, National Politics, 96; Jensen, Founding, 684; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 94.
  41. ^ Rakove, National Politics, 97; Jensen, Founding, 685.
  42. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 38.
  43. ^ Boyd, Evolution, 18; Maier, American Scripture, 63. The text of the May 15 Virginia resolution is online at Yale Law School's Avalon Project.
  44. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 41; Boyd, Evolution, 19.
  45. ^ Jensen, Founding, 689–90; Maier, American Scripture, 42.
  46. ^ Jensen, Founding, 689; Armitage, Global History, 33–34. The quote is from Jefferson's notes; Boyd, Papers of Jefferson, 1:311.
  47. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 42–43; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 106.
  48. ^ Jensen, Founding, 691–92.
  49. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 106–07; Jensen, Founding, 691.
  50. ^ Jensen, Founding, 692.
  51. ^ Jensen, Founding, 693.
  52. ^ Jensen, Founding, 694.
  53. ^ Jensen, Founding, 694–96; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 96; Maier, American Scripture, 68.
  54. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 118; Jensen, Founding, 698.
  55. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 119–20.
  56. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 97–105; Boyd, Evolution, 21.
  57. ^ Boyd, Evolution, 22.
  58. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 104.
  59. ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 4.
  60. ^ Jensen, Founding, 701.
  61. ^ Wills, Inventing America, 348.
  62. ^ Burnett, Continental Congress, 181.
  63. ^ Jensen, Founding, 699.
  64. ^ Burnett, Continental Congress, 182; Jensen, Founding, 700.
  65. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 45.
  66. ^ Boyd, Evolution, 19.
  67. ^ Jensen, Founding, 703–04.
  68. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 160–61.
  69. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 146–50.
  70. ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 9.
  71. ^ "The Three Greatest Men". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm033.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. "Jefferson identified Bacon, Locke, and Newton as "the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception". Their works in the physical and moral sciences were instrumental in Jefferson's education and world view." 
  72. ^ "TO HENRY LEE - Thomas Jefferson The Works, vol. 12 (Correspondence and Papers 1816-1826; 1905)". The Online Library of Liberty. May 8, 1825. http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=808&chapter=88496&layout=html&Itemid=27. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  73. ^ Malone, Jefferson the Virginian, 221; Maier, American Scripture, 125–26.
  74. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 126–28.
  75. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 53–57.
  76. ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 27.
  77. ^ A brief, online overview of the classical liberalism vs. republicanism debate is Alec Ewald, "The American Republic: 1760-1870" (2004).
  78. ^ Wills, Inventing America, especially chs. 11–13. Wills concludes (p. 315) that "the air of enlightened America was full of Hutcheson's politics, not Locke's."
  79. ^ Hamowy, "Jefferson and the Scottish Enlightenment", argues that Wills gets much wrong (p. 523), that the Declaration seems to be influenced by Hutcheson because Hutcheson was, like Jefferson, influenced by Locke (pp. 508–09), and that Jefferson often wrote of Locke's influence, but never mentioned Hutcheson in any of his writings (p. 514). See also Kenneth S. Lynn, "Falsifying Jefferson," Commentary 66 (Oct. 1978), 66–71.
  80. ^ Maier found no evidence that the Dutch Act of Abjuration served as a model for the Declaration and considers the argument "unpersuasive" (American Scripture, 264). Armitage discounts the influence of the Scottish and Dutch acts, and writes that neither was called "declarations of independence" until fairly recently (Global History, 42–44). For the argument in favor of the influence of the Dutch act, see Stephen E. Lucas, "The 'Plakkaat van Verlatinge': A Neglected Model for the American Declaration of Independence", in Rosemarijn Hofte and Johanna C. Kardux, eds., Connecting Cultures: The Netherlands in Five Centuries of Transatlantic Exchange (Amsterdam, 1994), 189–207.
  81. ^ Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 242–43.
  82. ^ Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 246; Burnett, Continental Congress, 192.
  83. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 299–302; Burnett, Continental Congress, 192.
  84. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 302.
  85. ^ Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 243–45.
  86. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 204, 208.
  87. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 204.
  88. ^ Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 245–46.
  89. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 208–19; Wills, Inventing America, 341.
  90. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 150; Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 242. Boyd (Papers of Jefferson, 1:306–08) believed that, despite historical consensus to the contrary, an informal signing on July 4, followed by a formal signing on August 2, was at least "plausible". Wills (Inventing America, 342–43) called Boyd's reasoning "farfetched", arguing that a July 4 signing "makes no sense".
  91. ^ Ritz, "Authentication", 179.
  92. ^ Ritz, "Authentication", 182.
  93. ^ Ritz, "Authentication", 198–200.
  94. ^ Ritz, "Authentication", 190–200.
  95. ^ Ritz, "Authentication", 194.
  96. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 208–19.
  97. ^ Friedenwald (Interpretation and Analysis, 143) says that 45 delegates can be confirmed present on July 4, and that another four might have been.
  98. ^ Friedenwald (Interpretation, 149) gives the number of non-signers as seven, not counting Dickinson, who absented himself for the final votes.
  99. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 525–26.
  100. ^ Hazelton, Declaration History, 209.
  101. ^ Merriam-Webster online; Dictionary.com.
  102. ^ Malone, Story of the Declaration, 90.
  103. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 148.
  104. ^ Friedenwald (Interpretation, 149) lists seven men; he does not include Charles Carroll of Carrollton, but although Carroll had been working as an emissary for Congress, he did not become an official member of the Maryland delegation until July 4, and did not take his seat as a delegate until July 18; Hazelton, Declaration History, 529, 587.
  105. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 150.
  106. ^ Warren, "Fourth of July Myths", 247; Hazelton, Declaration History, 284; Friedenwald, Interpretation, 137, where the date is misprinted as January 8, but correct on page 150.
  107. ^ Friedenwald, Interpretation, 137.
  108. ^ Malone, Story of the Declaration, 91.
  109. ^ a b Maier, American Scripture, 156.
  110. ^ Armitage, Global History, 72.
  111. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 155.
  112. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 156–57.
  113. ^ Armitage, Global History, 73.
  114. ^ Armitage, Global History, 70.
  115. ^ Armitage, Global History, 75.
  116. ^ Armitage, Global History, 74.
  117. ^ Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 155–56.
  118. ^ Armitage, Global History, 79–80.
  119. ^ Armitage, Global History, 76–77.
  120. ^ Boyd, "Lost Original", 439.
  121. ^ a b c d Boyd, "Lost Original", 446.
  122. ^ Boyd, Papers of Jefferson, 1:421. For more on the Composition Draft, see "Drafting the Documents" from the Library of Congress.
  123. ^ Becker, Declaration of Independence, 142 note 1. Boyd (Papers of Jefferson, 1:427–28) casts doubt on Becker's belief that the change was made by Franklin.
  124. ^ Boyd, "Lost Original", 449.
  125. ^ Boyd, "Lost Original", 448–50. Boyd argued that if a document was signed on July 4--which he thought unlikely--it would have been the Fair Copy, and probably would have been signed only by Hancock and Thomson.
  126. ^ Ritz, "From the Here", speculates that the Fair Copy was immediately sent to the printer so that copies could be made for each member of Congress to consult during the debate. All of these copies were then destroyed, theorizes Ritz, to preserve secrecy.
  127. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jcFZGF_TArNMHGexwmrexNNjrqyQD996E1K80
  128. ^ Boyd, "Lost Original", 452.
  129. ^ The engrossed copy of the Declaration renders the "u" in United States in small case, i.e. "united States", one of several variations in capitalization and punctuation that historians Boyd and Becker believed to be of no significance; Boyd, Evolution, 25–26. In his notes and Rough Draft, Jefferson capitalized variously as "United states" (Boyd, Papers of Jefferson, 1:315) and "United States" (ibid., 1:427).
  130. ^ a b c d e f g Gustafson, "Travels of the Charters of Freedom".
  131. ^ National Archives.
  132. ^ Malone, Story of the Declaration, 257.
  133. ^ "Charter of Liberties Finds a Home". New York Times Magazine: p. SM7. 1924-04-06. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F30E14F7355812738DDDAF0894DC405B848EF1D3. 
  134. ^ Malone, Story of the Declaration, 263.
  135. ^ National Archives Press Release
  136. ^ Armitage, Global History, 87–88; Maier, American Scripture, 162, 168–69.
  137. ^ McDonald, "Jefferson's Reputation", 178–79; Maier, American Scripture, 160.
  138. ^ Armitage, Global History, 92.
  139. ^ Armitage, Global History, 90; Maier, American Scripture, 165–67.
  140. ^ a b Maier, American Scripture, 167.
  141. ^ Armitage, Global History, 82.
  142. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 166–68.
  143. ^ Armitage, Global History, 113.
  144. ^ Armitage, Global History, 120–35.
  145. ^ Armitage, Global History, 104, 113.
  146. ^ McDonald, "Jefferson's Reputation", 172.
  147. ^ McDonald, "Jefferson's Reputation", 172, 179.
  148. ^ McDonald, "Jefferson's Reputation", 179; Maier, American Scripture, 168–71.
  149. ^ McDonald, "Jefferson's Reputation", 180–84; Maier, American Scripture, 171.
  150. ^ Detweiler, "Changing Reputation", 571–72; Maier, American Scripture, 175–78.
  151. ^ Detweiler, "Changing Reputation", 572; Maier, American Scripture, 175.
  152. ^ Detweiler, "Changing Reputation", 572; Maier, American Scripture, 175–76; Wills, Inventing America, 324. See also John C. Fitzpatrick, Spirit of the Revolution (Boston 1924).
  153. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 176.
  154. ^ Wills, Inventing America, 90.
  155. ^ Armitage, Global History, 93.
  156. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 196–97.
  157. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 197. See also Philip S. Foner, ed., We, the Other People: Alternative Declarations of Independence by Labor Groups, Farmers, Woman's Rights Advocates, Socialists, and Blacks, 1829–1975 (Urbana 1976).
  158. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 197; Armitage, Global History, 95.
  159. ^ Armitage, Global History, 77.
  160. ^ Wyatt-Brown, Lewis Tappan, 287.
  161. ^ Mayer, All on Fire, 53, 115.
  162. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 198–99.
  163. ^ Detweiler, "Congressional Debate", 598.
  164. ^ Detweiler, "Congressional Debate", 604.
  165. ^ Detweiler, "Congressional Debate", 605.
  166. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 199; Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 246.
  167. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 200.
  168. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 200–01.
  169. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 201–02.
  170. ^ McPherson, Second American Revolution, 126–27.
  171. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 204.
  172. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 204–05.
  173. ^ Maier, American Scripture, 207.
  174. ^ Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, 100.
  175. ^ Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, 129–31.
  176. ^ Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, 145.
  177. ^ Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, 147.
  178. ^ Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, 39, 145–46. See also Harry V. Jaffa, Crisis of the house divided (1959) and A new birth of freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the coming of the Civil War (2000); Willmoore Kendall and George W. Carey, The basic symbols of the American political tradition (1970); and M.E. Bradford, "The Heresy of Equality: A Reply to Harry Jaffa" (1976), reprinted in A better guide than reason (1979) and Modern Age, the first twenty-five years (1988).

References

  • Armitage, David. The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-674-02282-9.
  • Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Enlarged edition. Originally published 1967. Harvard University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-674-44302-0.
  • Becker, Carl. The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas. .1922. Available online from The Online Library of Liberty and Google Book Search.^ Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics - a list of the classic books and other works on constitutional government, which we either include in our collection, or plan to add.
    • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

    Revised edition New York: Vintage Books, 1970. ISBN 0394700600.
  • Boyd, Julian P. The Declaration of Independence: The Evolution of the Text. Originally published 1945. Revised edition edited by Gerard W. Gawalt. University Press of New England, 1999. ISBN 0844409804.
  • Boyd, Julian P., ed. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 1. Princeton University Press, 1950.
  • Boyd, Julian P. "The Declaration of Independence: The Mystery of the Lost Original". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100, number 4 (October 1976), 438–67.
  • Burnett, Edward Cody. The Continental Congress. New York: Norton, 1941.
  • Christie, Ian R. and Benjamin W. Labaree. .Empire or Independence, 1760–1776: A British-American Dialogue on the Coming of the American Revolution.^ Their ports remained closed to American vessels, so that no products could be traded with the British Empire but in English ships.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "On July 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the American colonies declared independence."
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    ^ The British were certainly not going to make things easier for their errant colonies by opening their ports or the ports of their vast empire to American ships.
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    .New York: Norton, 1976.
  • Detweiler, Philip F. "Congressional Debate on Slavery and the Declaration of Independence, 1819–1821," American Historical Review 63 (April 1958): 598–616.
  • Detweiler, Philip F. "The Changing Reputation of the Declaration of Independence: The First Fifty Years."^ Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution U.S. Bill of Rights A little known but very IMPORTANT part of the Bill of Rights, The Preamble to the Bill of Rights with comments from Dr. Linda Thompson of American Justice Federation.
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    ^ The New Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence and Bill of Particulars Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence 2008 New Declaration of Independence Essays New Declaration of Independence The New Declaration of Independence New Declaration of Independence Declaration Of Independence 2008 Declaration of Independence and Affirmation of the Constitution From the Heart of a Patriot, in the Heart of Texas: A New Declaration of Independence Forget Van Jones, The Majority Of Americans Question 9/11 .
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    ^ The "question of American independence and Dutch-American relations became a matter of political debate throughout the country."
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    William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 19 (1962): 557–74.
  • Dumbauld, Edward. .The Declaration of Independence And What It Means Today. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950.
  • Ellis, Joseph.^ See, Ellis, Thomas Jefferson, "American Sphinx," segment on the Declaration of Independence.
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    ^ The Declaration of Independence, we would still have cotton pickers today and nothing would have changed.
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    American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies at the Founding of the Republic. .New York: Knopf, 2007. ISBN 9780307263698.
  • Ferling, John E. A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic.^ Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, Connecticut merchant Roger Sherman and New York lawyer Robert Livingston were also on the committee.
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    ^ The American Constitution created a new structure of government that was established on a much higher plane than either the parliamentary system or the confederation of states.
    • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0195159241.
  • Friedenwald, Herbert. The Declaration of Independence: An Interpretation and an Analysis. New York: Macmillan, 1904. Accessed via the Internet Archive.
  • Gustafson, Milton. "Travels of the Charters of Freedom". Prologue Magazine 34, no 4. (Winter 2002).
  • Hamowy, Ronald. ."Jefferson and the Scottish Enlightenment: A Critique of Garry Wills's Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence". William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 36 (October 1979), 503–23.
  • Hazelton, John H. The Declaration of Independence: Its History. Originally published 1906. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970. ISBN 0306719878. 1906 edition available on Google Book Search
  • Jensen, Merrill.^ New Jersey opted for independence and ordered the arrest of its royal governor, who happened to be Benjamin Franklin's son William.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
    • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, Connecticut merchant Roger Sherman and New York lawyer Robert Livingston were also on the committee.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution, 1763–1776. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
  • Maier, Pauline.^ In April, 1794, war fever began to grip the nation as British ships began to press seamen off American merchant ships.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ LETS SEE NOW , THE NWO’S HEADQUARTERS , A.K.A. THE UNITED NATIONS , IS LOCATED IN NEW YORK ???
    • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sovereignty, Revolution, Birth of a New Nation .
    • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

    .American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. New York: Knopf, 1997. ISBN 0679454926.
  • Malone, Dumas.^ Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution U.S. Bill of Rights A little known but very IMPORTANT part of the Bill of Rights, The Preamble to the Bill of Rights with comments from Dr. Linda Thompson of American Justice Federation.
    • Key Links and Resources For Key 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC clevelbootcamp.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The New Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence and Bill of Particulars Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence 2008 New Declaration of Independence Essays New Declaration of Independence The New Declaration of Independence New Declaration of Independence Declaration Of Independence 2008 Declaration of Independence and Affirmation of the Constitution From the Heart of a Patriot, in the Heart of Texas: A New Declaration of Independence Forget Van Jones, The Majority Of Americans Question 9/11 .
    • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States John Adams by David McCullough .
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    Jefferson the Virginian. Volume 1 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little Brown, 1948.
  • Malone, Dumas. The Story of the Declaration of Independence. .New York: Oxford University Press, 1975. A picture book with text by a leading Jefferson scholar.
  • Mayer, Henry.^ Jefferson and Aaron Burr - a New York politician - each had 73 electoral votes.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, Connecticut merchant Roger Sherman and New York lawyer Robert Livingston were also on the committee.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The others were Thomas Jefferson, who declined the assignment for personal reasons - Henry Laurens, who was captured at sea and imprisoned in the Tower of London - and New York lawyer John Jay.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN 0-312-18740-8.
  • McDonald, Robert M. S. "Thomas Jefferson's Changing Reputation as Author of the Declaration of Independence: The First Fifty Years." Journal of the Early Republic 19, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 169–95.
  • McPherson, James. .Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-19-505542-X.
  • Middlekauff, Robert.^ Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, Connecticut merchant Roger Sherman and New York lawyer Robert Livingston were also on the committee.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789.^ The French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Polish uprising (1794) were, in part, encouraged by the American Revolution.
    • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

    Revised and expanded edition. .New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Rakove, Jack N. The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. New York: Knopf, 1979. ISBN 0801828643
  • Ritz, Wilfred J. "The Authentication of the Engrossed Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776". Law and History Review 4, no.^ There is no law today except as fiction of copyrighted statutes, to be interpreted by 'judges' who construe and construct whatever they choose to have those statutes mean.
    • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
    • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The British could now begin separate negotiations with America by recognizing the U.S. as an independent political entity.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .1 (Spring 1986): 179–204.
  • Ritz, Wilfred J. "From the Here of Jefferson's Handwritten Rough Draft of the Declaration of Independence to the There of the Printed Dunlap Broadside".^ He helped draft and gain widespread public acceptance for both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (G 34).
    • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 116, no. 4 (October 1992): 499–512.
  • Warren, Charles. "Fourth of July Myths." The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, vol. 2, no. 3 (July 1945): 238–72.
  • Wills, Garry. .Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence.^ Remarkably, Adams and Jefferson died on the same day - on July 4, 1826 - exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See, Ellis, Thomas Jefferson, "American Sphinx," segment on the Declaration of Independence.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The foundation of America is the supreme laws of the land, also known as the Constitution for the United States of America or the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of your independent Republic State, or your Claim of Right if you have one.
    • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1978. ISBN 0385089767.
  • Wills, Garry.^ At that same time, a British fleet of about 400 sail was arriving off New York City.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If his role in government was dull and unpromising, his time in New York City with Abigail was one of the most pleasant of their lives.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Adams got to cast another vote when the Senate divided over whether the Capital should be kept in New York City for another two years.
    • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Rewrote America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992. ISBN 0-671-76956-1.
  • Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1969. ISBN 829501460.

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
.The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, announcing that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were no longer a part of the British Empire.^ On Independence Day, Americans celebrate the anniversary of publication of the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain in 1776.
  • Holidays: Independence Day in United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JULY 4th 2008 - A Declaration of Independence .
  • JULY 4th 2008 - A Declaration of Independence | 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thelangreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, and approved by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence.^ Declaration of Independence - Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence, full and formal declaration adopted July ...
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0101022.html 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ July 1-4 - Congress debated and revised the Declaration of Independence.
  • Declaration of Independence: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress) 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Quotes from the Declaration

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...
...And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
  • When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
    • The reference to "the laws of nature and of nature's God" appears to be borrowed from Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man, epistle iv, line 331: "Slave to no sect, who takes no private road, But looks through Nature up to Nature’s God"; Pope, in turn, may have borrowed it from a letter to Pope by Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke St. John, who praised the modesty of "[o]ne follows Nature and Nature’s God; that is, he follows God in his works and in his word".
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
    • An early draft of the Declaration of Independence (June or July 1776); John Adams altered inalienable to unalienable in the copy that was actually signed, believing this to be more correct. .An even earlier draft read: "We hold these truths to be sacred and undeniable; that all men are created equal and independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent and inalienable, among which are the preservation of life, and liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." (June 1776).^ Do we believe in the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?
      • Anchor Rising: The Declaration Of Independence & What It Means To Be An American Citizen 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.anchorrising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ If they are endowed with inalienable rights, that is final.
      • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
      • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

      .Compare: "All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights", Constitution of Massachusetts (1779).
  • We must therefore...hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.^ We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war - in peace, friends.
    • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By their nature as human beings, individuals have certain rights, which they hold equally with all other individuals.

    ^ All should have equal constitutional rights and duties for certain.
    • Who Signed the Declaration of Independence First? | NowPublic News Coverage 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nowpublic.com [Source type: General]

    • On the British
  • And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

Earlier drafts

.
  • He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in an other hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of INFIDEL powers, is the warfare of the CHRISTIAN king of Great Britain.^ King George III was denounced because He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.
    • Declaration of Independence (Text) 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.unet.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A few delegates were unwilling to acknowledge that slavery violated the "most sacred rights of life and liberty," and the passage was dropped for the sake of unanimity.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither."
    • 5 Obscure Facts About the Declaration of Independence. – Neatorama 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

    .Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce.^ Determined to keep open a market where men should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his veto for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce.
    • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Determined to keep open a market where Men should be bought and sold, he He has prostituted his has prostituted his negative Negative for Suppressing for suppressing every every legislative Attempt to legislative attempt to prohibit prohibit or to restrain an or to restrain this execrable execrable Commerce, commerce: and that this determined to keep open a assemblage of horrors might Market where Men should be want no fact of distinguished bought and sold, and that this dye, he is now exciting those assemblage of Horrors might very people to rise in arms want no Fact of distinguished among us, and to purchase Die.
    • Declaration Of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed against the LIBERTIES of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the LIVES of an other.^ Liberties of one People, with Crimes which he urges them to commit against the Lives of another.
    • Declaration Of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He had not, however, received apologies for crimes committed against his people.
    • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And that this assemblage of horror s might want no fact of distinguished caprice , he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he has also obtruded them, thus paying off former crime s committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.
    • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Known as the "anti-slavery clause", this section drafted by Thomas Jefferson was removed from the Declaration at the behest of representatives of Southern states.

Quotes about the Declaration

Alphabetized by editor
.
I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.
^ I am well aware of the toil, and blood, and treasure, that it will cost us to maintain this declaration, and support and defend those States.

^ I am well aware of the toil, and blood, and treasure, that it will cost us to maintain this declaration, and support and defend these states.
  • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alphabetized by editor I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory.^ Yet through all the gloom I see the rays of ravishing light and glory.

^ Yet, through all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and glory; I can see that the end is more than worth all the means, and that posterity will triumph.
  • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, through all the gloom, I can see the rays of ravishing light and glory.

~ John Adams
.
May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government.
^ John Adams May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May it be to the world, what I believe it will be (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government.

^ (That is what Jefferson meant in his 1826 letter by the blessings and security of self-government.

~ Thomas Jefferson
.
Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.
^ The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776.
  • Declaration of Ind 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lyitl.org [Source type: Original source]
  • HowStuffWorks "Declaration of Independence" 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence , and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ US Declaration of Independence 4 July 1776 .
  • US Declaration of Independence 4 July 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

... .If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving.^ If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once a national government has been re-established, it shall have its initial task be to ensure that all rights of the people are protected from the governments of the collective states making up the union.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

~ Abraham Lincoln
.
Our pride is based on a very simple premise, summed up in a declaration made over two hundred years ago: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
^ Do we believe in the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?
  • Anchor Rising: The Declaration Of Independence & What It Means To Be An American Citizen 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.anchorrising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they are endowed with inalienable rights, that is final.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is the true genius of America — a faith in simple dreams, an insistence on small miracles.^ That is the true genius of America — a faith in simple dreams, an insistence on small miracles.
  • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

~ .Barack Obama
  • I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.^ I am well aware of the toil, and blood, and treasure, that it will cost us to maintain this declaration, and support and defend these states.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alphabetized by editor I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Barack Obama I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory.
    I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means.^ I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means.

    ^ Yet through all the gloom I see the rays of ravishing light and glory.

    ^ Yet, through all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and glory; I can see that the end is more than worth all the means, and that posterity will triumph.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And that Posterity will triumph in that Days Transaction, even although We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not.^ And that Posterity will tryumph in that Days Transaction, even altho We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not.

    ^ And that Posterity will triumph in that Days Transaction, even although We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "If we and our posterity live always in the fear of God and shall respect His Commandments we may have the highest hopes of the future fortunes of our country.
    • United States of America - Fun Facts, National Symbols, Photos, Visitor Info 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC awesomeamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Adams, letter to Abigail Adams (1776-07-03), published in The Adams Papers : Adams Family Correspondence (2007) edited by Margaret A. Hogan.
  • Its constitution the glittering and sounding generalities of natural right which make up the Declaration of Independence.^ Authentic reproductions of the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Declaration of Independence are produced on ...

    ^ The letter from Samuel Adams to John Adams noted that: .

    ^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
    • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Rufus Choate, Letter to the Maine Whig Committee (1856).^ Rufus Choate , Letter to the Maine Whig Committee (1856).
      • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Six years earlier, Choate gave a lecture in Providence which was reviewed by Franklin J. Dickman in the Journal of December 14, 1849. Unless Choate used the words "glittering generalities", and Dickman made reference to them, it would seem as if Dickman must have the credit of originating the catchword.^ Unless Choate used the words "glittering generalities", and Dickman made reference to them, it would seem as if Dickman must have the credit of originating the catchword.
      • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I have chosen the words from above, not words I would actually use: ...
      • I Want to Find Some Poems that Actually Rhyme - Dogpile Web Search 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Six years earlier, Choate gave a lecture in Providence which was reviewed by Franklin J. Dickman in the Journal of December 14, 1849.
      • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .Dickman wrote: "We fear that the glittering generalities of the speaker have left an impression more delightful than permanent". Reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed.^ Franklin had traveled throughout the colonies, and was far more familiar with all the states than anyone else.
      • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Adams, too, wrote initially of his hopes for a good outcome, but he was more than a little skeptical.
      • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The French translation of the Declaration of Independence is clear, elegant in style, and generally more faithful to the English version than were the eighteenth-century ones.
      • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .(1919).
  • Here, in the first paragraph of the Declaration, is the assertion of the natural right of all to the ballot; for how can "the consent of the governed" be given, if the right to vote be denied?^ Here, in the first paragraph of the Declaration , is the assertion of the natural right of all to the ballot; for how can "the consent of the governed" be given, if the right to vote be denied?
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is the first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence.
    • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because governments exist to serve their citizens, the Declaration concludes that governments should always be accountable to the citizenry, deriving power entirely from their consent.
    • USA MARKS DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newsfirst.lk [Source type: Original source]

    • Susan B. Anthony, in her "Is It a Crime for a Citizen of the United States to Vote?" speech before her trial for voting (1873).
  • If all men are created equal, that is final. .If they are endowed with inalienable rights, that is final.^ If they are endowed with inalienable rights, that is final.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
    • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution - Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Legal Lad : The Declaration of Independence :: Quick and Dirty Tips ™ 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC legallad.quickanddirtytips.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
    • EV WORLD: My Declaration of Independence! 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evworld.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Declaration of Independence: Preamble 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Patriot 2: "A Celebration of Liberty": The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.patriotmusic.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]
    • A Call to Congress for a Second Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Emergent Chaos: The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.emergentchaos.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.secessionist.us [Source type: Original source]
    • Reading Of The Declaration Of Independence : NPR 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC herballure.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Declaration of Independence 2.0 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.adampieniazek.com [Source type: Original source]
    • JULY 4th 2008 - A Declaration of Independence | 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thelangreport.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Kick Them All Out Project - The Declaration Of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC kickthemallout.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Does the Declaration of Independence set a precedent for religion in government? - Under God in the Pledge - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC undergod.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator, with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
    • United States Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    .If governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, that is final.
  • We live in an age of science and abounding accumulation of material things.^ JULY 4th 2008 - A Declaration of Independence .
    • JULY 4th 2008 - A Declaration of Independence | 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thelangreport.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, .
    • Reading The Declaration Of Independence : NPR 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lives of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.

    .These did not create the Declaration.^ These did not create our Declaration.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In other words, did the declaration proceed from one potential nation, whose decision was endorsed by the writers and signers of the document, or did the document create the nation by the sole act of a proclamation?
    • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lord North's ministry did, however, commission a rebuttal of the Declaration (from which these words came).
    • David Armitage | The Declaration of Independence and International Law | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.1 | The History Cooperative 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Our Declaration created them.^ These did not create our Declaration.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our Declaration created them.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The assertion that "all men are created equal" was of no practical use in effecting our separation from Great Britain; and it was placed in the Declaration, not for that, but for future use.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The things of the spirit come first.^ The things of the spirit come first.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Unless we cling to that, all of our material prosperity, overwhelming though it may appear, will turn to a barren scepter in our grasp.^ Unless we cling to that, all of our material prosperity, overwhelming though it may appear, will turn to a barren scepter in our grasp.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unless we cling to that, all material prosperity, ...will turn to a barren sceptre in our grasp.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ALL Material on Justice Junction is © Copyright 2000-2003 by Justice Junction and may not be used with the express permission of Justice Junction.
    • Justice Junction's Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.justicejunction.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If we are to maintain the great heritage bequeathed to us, we must be like minded as the Founders who created.^ If we are to maintain the great heritage bequeathed to us, we must be like minded as the Founders who created.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If we are to maintain the great heritage which has been bequeathed to us, we must be like-minded as the fathers who created it.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The institution he claimed harmed innocent Africans who he described as " fellow creatures created as ourselves and equally entitled to liberty and freedom by the great Law of Nature."

    .We must not sink into a pagan materialism.^ We must not sink into a pagan materialism.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We must cultivate the reverence which they had and for the things that are holy.^ We must cultivate the reverence which they had and for the things that are holy.
    • United States Declaration of Independence - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must cultivate the reverence which they had for the things that are holy.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We must follow the spiritual and moral leadership which they showed.^ We must follow the spiritual and moral leadership which they showed.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Before formal negotiations could begin, Franklin insisted that British negotiators must show that they had specific authority to negotiate with the United States.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We must keep replenished, that they may glow with a more compelling flame, the altar fires before which they worshipped.^ We must keep replenished, that they may glow with a more compelling flame, the altar fires before which they worshiped.
    • Melaleuca Freedom Celebration - The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.freedomcelebration.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Before formal negotiations could begin, Franklin insisted that British negotiators must show that they had specific authority to negotiate with the United States.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Speakers and orators commemorated the Altar of Freedom built by the Founding Fathers and the Hallowed Fire that they lighted upon it.
    • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • About the Declaration there is a finality that is exceedingly restful. It is often asserted that the world has made a great deal of progress since 1776 — that we have had new thoughts and new experiences which have given us a great advance of the people of that day and that we may therefore very well discard their conclusions for something more modern.^ Signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
    • Find A Grave - Signers of The US Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.findagrave.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That final draft was adopted July 4, 1776, and Independence Day has been the chief American patriotic holiday ever since.
    • Declaration of Independence: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Declaration of Independence What day was the Declaration of Independence really written?
    • United States Historical Documents - UEN 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: Reference]

    But, that reasoning cannot be applied to the great charter.
    • Calvin Coolidge, Foundations of the Republic; Speeches and Addresses (1926), p. .451.
  • No advance, no progress can be made beyond these propositions.^ Any idea of comparison was thus unthinkable, and no reference was ever made by these historians to the American founding texts.
    • JAH Roundtable 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC www.chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If anyone wishes to deny their truth or their soundness, the only direction in which he can proceed historically is not forward, but backward toward a time when there was no equality, no rights of the individual, no rule of the people.
    Those who wish to proceed in that direction cannot lay claim to progress.^ The signers were those individuals who happened to be Delegates to Congress at the time...
    • Religion of the Founding Fathers of America 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There was no absolute truth in the matter.
    • SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS IN EMERGENCY SESSION FOLLOWING KOSOVO�SDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, WITH MEMBERS SHARPLY DIVIDED ON ISSUE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no conspiracy to who rules the country.
    • EV WORLD: My Declaration of Independence! 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evworld.com [Source type: Original source]

    They are reactionary. .Their ideas are not more "modern," but more ancient than those of our Revolutionary ancestors.^ When the constituion was ratified we became a country in more than name only.This is why our first president was elected in 1789 not 1776.
    • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "More important than his specific ideas was his tone of moderation and conciliation.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Edition after edition came out, eventually totalling more than 100,000 copies, and a revolutionary spirit swept the colonies.
    • US Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.worldquest.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Calvin Coolidge, Foundations of the Republic; Speeches and Addresses (1926), p. 451
  • May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government.
    • Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Roger C. Weightman, on the decision for Independence made in 1776, and represented by the Declaration (24 June 1826)
  • Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." These principles cannot stand together. They are as opposite as God and Mammon; and whoever holds to the one must despise the other. ... Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust. Let us repurify it. ... .Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.^ I grew to understand that the same principles that worked so well in my psychiatry practice were the same principles taught by our founders and expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

    ^ In 1787 the Constitutional Convention also held its highly secret sessions in Independence Hall, in the same chamber in which the Declaration had been adopted.
    • National Park Service - Signers of the Declaration (Independence National Historic Park) 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
    • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

    ... .If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving.
    • Abraham Lincoln, in a speech in Peoria (16 October 1854), cited in Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (1991) by James McPherson, p.126-127.
  • "All men are created equal.^ Thats the sense in which all men are created equal, as the Declaration states.

    ^ The preamble contains the words "all men are created equal."
    • United States Historical Documents - UEN 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Many of them did just that to create a country in which "all men are created equal, .
    • North Carolina Signers Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness".
    This immortal statement was made in the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America in 1776. In a broader sense, this means: All the peoples on the Earth are equal from birth, all the peoples have a right to live, to be happy and to be free.

    The Declaration of the French Revolution made in 1791 on the Rights of Man and the Citizen also states: "All men are born free and with equal rights, and must always remain free and have equal rights."
    Those are undeniable truths.
  • Tonight, we gather to affirm the greatness of our nation — not because of the height of our skyscrapers, or the power of our military, or the size of our economy. .Our pride is based on a very simple premise, summed up in a declaration made over two hundred years ago: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
    • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It observed that all men "are created equal" meaning that we all get born with the abilities of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
    • The U.S. NOT founded upon Christianity 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC nobeliefs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
    • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

    .That is the true genius of America — a faith in simple dreams, an insistence on small miracles.
  • Today, on this day of possibility, we stand in the shadow of a lanky, raw-boned man with little formal education who once took the stage at Old Main and told the nation that if anyone did not believe the American principles of freedom and equality, that those principles were timeless and all-inclusive, they should go rip that page out of the Declaration of Independence.^ Go to the Declaration at the bottom of this page.

    ^ Declaration of Independence Such an absurd response to what should be a simple question.
    • Declaration of Independence | Facebook 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson, the man who authored the Declaration of Independence.
    • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Declaration of Independence - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

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Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

United States Declaration of Independence
by the United States of America in Congress Assembled
The .United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, announcing that the Thirteen Colonies then at war with Great Britain were no longer a part of the British Empire.^ DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 1776 .
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Incidentally, the date was July 2, 1776 - the date the declaration was " approved" by Congress .
  • Christian Drama | Drama Ministry - His Men Revealed Ministries | Michael J. Ernst 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hismenrevealed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE is a Document proclaiming the Independence of the thirteen British colonies in America, adopted by Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

.Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.^ Declaration of independence from the war in Vietnam.
  • Declaration of Trust and by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha' is of the United States - song, music - Copyright Info 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On July 2, two more delegations joined those voting for independence.
  • McCullough, John Adams, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration.
  • United States Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The birthday of the United States of America—Independence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was adopted by the Congress.^ United States of America to 4 Jul 1776 .

^ The unanimous Declaration of the fifty united States of America .
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Congress issued the Declaration in several forms.^ The fact that, in this case, independence took the form of a legislative resolution is probably what influenced the Continental Congress later to adopt independence in the similar form of a public declaration.
  • The Tribes and the States, Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sidis.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He practiced law in Newport, Rhode Island until he was elected to the Continental Congress of 1776, where he served on several committees and signed the Declaration of Independence.
  • Forgotten Founders -- Historical Documents and Coins of Freedom -- By: Stanley L. Klos -- Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC roi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Globalist has adapted the language of the original Declaration of Independence — written and adopted by the Continental Congress in 1776 — to muse upon a pressing contemporary issue.
  • The U.S. Declaration of (Energy) Independence by The Globalist - The Globalist 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first published version was a typeset broadside printed by John Dunlap, which only listed the names of John Hancock and Charles Thomson as signers.^ The first printing had included only the names John Hancock and Charles Thomson .
  • United States Declaration of Independence at AllExperts 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United States Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the constituion was ratified we became a country in more than name only.This is why our first president was elected in 1789 not 1776.
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His signature on the document was so bold that when people sign their names, they are said to have written their John Hancock.
  • Find A Grave - Signers of The US Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.findagrave.com [Source type: General]

.In 1777, Congress issued the Goddard Broadside, which listed all of the signers.^ Goddard's printing was the first to list all signatories.
  • United States Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He took an active part in the discussion that preceded the Declaration of Independence, of which he was one of the signers, and remained a member of congress till 1777.
  • Edward Rutledge 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC edwardrutledge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In every stage of many Oppressions We the People have Petitioned for a Redress of all issues with no avail from our Congress.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

What became the most famous version of the Declaration was a handwritten copy signed by the delegates, known as the engrossed version, which is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
Excerpted from United States Declaration of Independence on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
.The Dunlap Broadside, the Goddard Broadside, and Engrossed Declaration vary slightly.^ It turned out to be one of the 200 official copies from the first printing of the Declaration of Independence, called the Dunlap Broadsides [wiki].
  • 5 Obscure Facts About the Declaration of Independence. – Neatorama 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1776 as the Delegates returned home with their personal copies of the Dunlap Broadside each State decided on how to disseminate the Declaration of Independence to its citizens.

^ Concealed in the backing of the frame was an original Dunlap Broadside of the Declaration of Independence.

.What follows is the Declaration as it appears in the Dunlap Broadside.^ The following Declaration of Independence signatures appear in the order they occur on the actual document: .

^ It turned out to be one of the 200 official copies from the first printing of the Declaration of Independence, called the Dunlap Broadsides [wiki].
  • 5 Obscure Facts About the Declaration of Independence. – Neatorama 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1776 as the Delegates returned home with their personal copies of the Dunlap Broadside each State decided on how to disseminate the Declaration of Independence to its citizens.

.See also the Draft of the Declaration of Independence and United States Declaration of Independence (as it was written).^ On July 2, 1935, at the 115th Street Headquarters in New York City, HE specifically stated that the Declaration Of Independence declared the Independence of all the subjects of the United States Of America, and that it is for each one of us, individually.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America .

^ Scotrun "scotrun" (RALEIGH, NC United States) - See all my reviews .
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The Declaration of Independence is the first of the three Charters of Freedom along with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.^ First public reading of the Declaration of Independence .
  • Declaration of Independence - Thomas Jefferson (Library of Congress Exhibition) 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Their unwritten Constitution can be found in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Declaration of Independence : EDRIVERA.COM 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.edrivera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The handwritten copy signed by the delegates to the Congress is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. It is the first of the three Charters of Freedom along with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights .
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Declaration of Independence - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Related documents: Declaration of Independence; Articles of Confederation; Constitution; Bill of Rights; other amendments & unsuccessful amendments.^ What document replaced the Articles of Confederation?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will experience a quiz over the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.

^ The Constitution of the United States of America, with the Bill of Rights and all of the Amendments; The Declaration of Independence; and the Articles of Confederation 4.2 out of 5 stars ( 50 ) $4.95 .
  • Amazon.com: Declaration of Independence & Constitution (Know Your Government Series) (9780942008333): United States: Books 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Listen to this text (help | file info or download)
The Declaration of Independence was first published as a single-paged broadsheet known as the Dunlap broadside.
.In Congress, July 4, 1776.
A Declaration
By the Representatives of the
United states of America,
In general Congress assembled
.
^ On July 2, 1935, at the 115th Street Headquarters in New York City, HE specifically stated that the Declaration Of Independence declared the Independence of all the subjects of the United States Of America, and that it is for each one of us, individually.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 19 , 1776 , Congress ordered a copy be handwritten for the delegates to sign.
  • United States Declaration of Independence at AllExperts 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation.
  • Declaration of Causes of Secession 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC sunsite.utk.edu [Source type: Original source]

. When in the course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.^ The whole Declaration is premised upon the "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God."
  • The Declaration of Independence Affirms Unalienable Property Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lonang.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Independence established that all people are sovereign under God's Natural Law.
  • Taking Back Your Power: Your Re-declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
  • Declaration of Independence 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.apples4theteacher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness—-That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.^ He translated smoothly and precisely "these truths that are plausible in themselves" and "the people's right to alter or abolish."
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Founders of this Republic reverently honored those everlasting axioms which hold that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without measure, these truths remain as such and must, without end, remain as the foundation of a nation of free people.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed.^ Toecutter Says: November 25th, 2009 at 4:06 pm “all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed….and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.” .
  • Lest We Forget: The Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established, should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

.But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security.^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • US_Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.michiganmilitia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States of America Founding Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evenheat-kiln.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new guards for their future security .
  • Forbidden Secrets Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.asleepknowmore.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
  • Declaration of Independence 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.apples4theteacher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence: Preamble 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.secessionist.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Declaration of Independence? What is Declaration of Independence? Where is Declaration of Independence? Definition of Declaration of Independence. Meaning of Declaration of Independence. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.^ Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence: Preamble 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.secessionist.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Declaration of Independence - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.1america.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second-to-last sentence of the preamble speaks of "the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government."
  • W illi Paul Adams 19 September 2009 16:58 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The History of the Present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.^ The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states.

^ All ties with Great Britain are ended.
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]

.To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.^ To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States of America Founding Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evenheat-kiln.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence: Preamble 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Declaration of Independence? What is Declaration of Independence? Where is Declaration of Independence? Definition of Declaration of Independence. Meaning of Declaration of Independence. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To prove this [the king's tyranny], let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.1america.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.^ HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One or more Branches of our Government have refused to assent to laws, or have overturned laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • Forbidden Secrets Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.asleepknowmore.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • US_Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.michiganmilitia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States of America Founding Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evenheat-kiln.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.^ He, the bush Family, Millionaire Class Conspiracy, has forbidden the passing of laws of immediate and pressing importance to democracy.
  • RE-WRITTEN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rogerart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

^ He has forbid den his Governor s to pass Law s of immediate and pressing importance unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People; unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.^ He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature; a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature: a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large district s of people , unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature , a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.^ He has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Declaration of Independence - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his measures.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

.He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.^ He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Tribes and the States, Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sidis.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.^ He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise....
  • The Tribes and the States, Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sidis.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.^ He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • US_Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.michiganmilitia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "HE has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States ; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigner s; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration s hither , and raising the conditions of new Appropriation s of Land s.
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.^ "HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to laws establishing Judiciary Powers.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has obstructed the Admin istration of Justice , by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers .
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has obstructed the Administration of justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and Amount and Payment of their Salaries.^ He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their Substance.^ He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • US_Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.michiganmilitia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States of America Founding Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evenheat-kiln.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Consider, for example, grievance 10: "He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance."
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

.He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our Legislature.^ He has kept among us, in time of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent.
  • 'The Declaration Of Independence, the Textbook of Freedom.' 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fdipmm.libertynet.org [Source type: Original source]

.He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.^ He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.aacncclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  • US_Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.michiganmilitia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States of America Founding Documents 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evenheat-kiln.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

He has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:
For imposing taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule in these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
.For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Powers to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.^ For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.1america.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.^ Instead of protecting us he is fighting against us!
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.^ He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has "plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, .
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.He is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.^ HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
  • Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.1america.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.^ He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive upon the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands; .
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has constrained others, He has constrained our fellow taken captive on the high seas citizens taken Captive on the to bear arms against their high Seas, to bear arms country, to become the against their Country, to executioners of their friends become the executioners of and brethren, or to fall their friends and Brethren, or themselves by their hands: to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • Declaration Of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He has excited domestic Insurrections among us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.^ HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.In every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury.^ In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms.
  • RE-WRITTEN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rogerart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
  • RE-WRITTEN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rogerart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petition s have been answered only by repeated injury .
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.^ Defines character as a very important factor in the leadership of a free people.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People.
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nor have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren.^ Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British brethren.
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren.
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor have We been wanting in attention to our Brittish brethren.
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us.^ We have warned him from time to time of attempts by his legislature to extend unwarrantable controls over us.
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.congresscheck.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Velupillai Pirabaharan had petitioned, and warned the government time and again of attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over them.
  • Tamil Eelam & the US Declaration of Independence 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

.We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here.^ We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.apples4theteacher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SOTS: Declaration of Independence; U.S. Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence of thefe United Statef of America | Top of the Ticket | Los Angeles Times 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC latimesblogs.latimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.^ We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.
  • Tamil Eelam & the US Declaration of Independence 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution - Declaration of Independence - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity; and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
  • Declaration of Independence, History, United States Declarationof Independence, US Declaration of Independence and Documents of AmericanIndependence, Founding Documents and US History, Historic Freedom, FoundingFreedom Founders Documents on American Freedoms history, Bill of Rights,Constitution, State Military, State Militia, government, History of Patriot,Patriots and Patriotism of the Minute Men, liberty Tree, American PatriotParty, Oregon Patriot Party, Patriot, Patriots and New England Patriots 12 September 2009 13:39 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity; and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
  • Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity.^ They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
  • NARA | The National Archives Experience 18 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America by Thomas Jefferson 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC salfantasia.us [Source type: Original source]
  • The Declaration of Independence - 1776 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • New Declaration of Independence Essays | Congress Check