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United States Service academies: Wikis

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The United States Service academies, also known as the United States Military Academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for the United States armed forces.

Contents

United States Service academies

There are five U.S. Service academies:

Nature of the Service academies

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In general

Service academies can be used to refer to all of the academies collectively. In popular use, however, this term is more often used for the academies of the four branches of the military: those of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, under the Department of Defense, and that of the Coast Guard, under the Department of Homeland Security. These are the only four Academies whose students are on Active Duty in the Armed Forces of the United States from the day they enter the Academy, subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and eligible for all privileges and benefits of being members of an Armed Service.

The United States Coast Guard, and therefore the Coast Guard Academy, is a United States military service under the Department of Homeland Security but in time of war it can be placed as a service in the Department of the Navy.

The Merchant Marine Academy is under the United States Maritime Administration, a part of the Department of Transportation. However, every student at the Merchant Marine Academy is appointed as a Midshipman, Merchant Marine Reserve, U.S. Navy Reserve, and has a requirement to serve eight years in the military reserve, maintain a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States for at least six years, and serve the foreign and domestic commerce and national defense of the United States for at least five years.[1]

At times, or in certain discussion groups, the Academies can be collectively referred to as "The Five Pointed Star."

Duty commitments

Students at four Service academies (not including Merchant Marine Academy) incur a minimum five year active duty commitment and if in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps or Coast Guard have an additional three year reserve commitment. Kings Point graduates also have an eight year total obligation, but, although voluntarily entered by some, active duty is not required. The United States Marine Corps, a service under the Department of the Navy, does not have an academy of its own but instead commissions officers from Annapolis and Kings Point. If an Air Force cadet receives a pilot slot, they incur a 10 year commitment. Midshipmen who go on to become Naval Aviators in the Navy and Marine Corps owe 8 years from the time of earning their wings (the end of flight training) and seven for those who become Naval Flight Officers. However, this commitment is independent of commissioning source; it also applies for NROTC graduates and OCS graduates who go on to become Naval Aviators or Naval Flight Officers.

Congressional nominations

Applicants to all Service academies, except the United States Coast Guard Academy, are required to obtain a nomination to the school. Nominations may be made by Senators, Congressmen, the President, and the Vice President (The United States Merchant Marine Academy only accepts nominations from Senators and Congressmen). Applicants to the Coast Guard Academy compete in a direct nationwide competitive process that has no by-state quotas.

Nomenclature

Students at West Point, the U.S.A.F.A., and the United States Coast Guard Academy are Cadets. Students at Annapolis and the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy are Midshipmen. While they are students at the academies, all Cadets and Midshipmen (excluding the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Midshipmen for pay purposes only) receive taxable pay at a rate of 35% of O1 under 2 years of service (which can be used to pay for textbooks and uniforms), free room and board, and pay no tuition or fees. Midshipmen at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy are paid for their service while at sea during their "Sea Year" and are paid based on a pay scale for seamen in the merchant marine.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and other DOD Graduate Institutions

The United States federal government also runs the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, a post-graduate institution for the training of doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals for the military and uniformed services. Additionally each of the services also operate a number of other graduate schools, granting Master's and in some cases Doctoral degrees. These schools include the National Defense University, the U.S. Army War College, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the U.S. Naval War College, the Naval Postgraduate School, Air University and Marine Corps University. Every commissioned officer in the United States armed forces is expected to have a post-graduate degree and Joint Professional Military Education prior to promotion to Lieutenant Colonel or Commander.

Preparatory Schools

These schools provide for strengthening of academic potential of candidates to each of the above-described United States service academies. Admission is restricted to those students who have applied to an academy, failed initially to qualify, either academically or physically, but who have demonstrated an ability to qualify during the initial admission selection process:

See also

  • Reserve Officer Training Programs

References


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