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The Universal Decimal Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. It is based on the Dewey Decimal Classification, but uses auxiliary signs to indicate various special aspects of a subject and relationships between subjects. It thus contains a significant faceted or analytico-synthetic element, and is used especially in specialist libraries. UDC has been modified and extended over many years to cope with the increasing output in all disciplines of human knowledge, and is still under continuous review to take account of new developments.

The documents classified by UDC may be in any form. They will often be literature, i.e. written documents, but may also be in other media such as films, video and sound recordings, illustrations, maps, and realia such as museum pieces.

UDC classifications use Arabic numerals and are based on the decimal system. Every number is thought of as a decimal fraction with the initial decimal point omitted, which determines filing order. For ease of reading, a UDC identifier is usually punctuated after every third digit. Thus, after 61 "Medical sciences" come the subdivisions 611 to 619; under 611 "Anatomy" come its subdivisions 611.1 to 611.9; under 611.1 come all of its subdivisions before 611.2 occurs, and so on; after 619 comes 620. An advantage of this system is that it is infinitely extensible, and when new subdivisions are introduced, they need not disturb the existing allocation of numbers.

The main categories:

A document may be classified under a combination of different categories through the use of additional symbols. For example:

+ plus addition e.g. 59+636 zoology and animal breeding
/ stroke extension e.g. 592/599 Systematic zoology (everything from 592 to 599 inclusive)
: colon relation e.g. 17:7 Relation of ethics to art
[] square brackets algebraic subgrouping e.g. 311:[622+669](485) statistics of mining and metallurgy in Sweden (the auxiliary qualifies 622+669 considered as a unit)
= equals language e.g. =111 in English; 59=111 Zoology, in English

The design of UDC lends itself to machine readability, and the system has been used both with early automatic mechanical sorting devices, and modern library OPACs. A core version of UDC, with 65,000 subdivisions, is now available in database format, and is called the Master Reference File (MRF). The current full version of the UDC has 220,000 subdivisions.

Contents

UDC Classes Table

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Main Table

0 Generalities
 000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
   001      Science and knowledge in general. Organization of intellectual work
   002  Documentation. Books. Writings. Authorship
   003  Writing systems and scripts. Including: signs and symbols
   004  Computer science and technology. Computing
     004.2      Computer architecture
     004.3  Computer hardware
     004.4  Software
     004.5  Human-computer interaction
     004.6  Data
     004.7  Computer communication
     004.8  Artificial intelligence
     004.9   Application-oriented computer-based techniques
   005  Management (Revision from 2001)
     005.1      Management Theory
     005.2  Management agents. Mechanisms. Measures
     005.3  Management activities
     005.32     Organizational behaviour. Management psychology
     005.5  Management operations. Direction
     005.6  Quality management. Total quality management (TQM)
     005.7  Organizational management (OM)
     005.9  Fields of management
     005.92     Records management
     005.93     Plant management. Physical resources management
     005.94     Knowledge management
     005.95/.96     Personnel management. Human Resources management
   006  Standardization of products, operations, weights, measures and time
   007  Activity and organizing. Information. Communication and control theory generally (cybernetics)
   008  Civilization. Culture. Progress
   009  Humanities. Arts subjects in general
 010 Bibliographies
 020 Library and information sciences
 030 Encyclopedias & books of facts
 040 [Unassigned]
 050 Magazines, journals, periodicals & serials
 060 Associations and organizations & museums
 070 News media, journalism, Mass media & publishing
 080 Quotations
 090 Manuscripts & rare books
1 Philosophy. Psychology
 100 Philosophy
 110 Metaphysics
 120 Epistemology
 130 Parapsychology &       ism
 140 Philosophical schools of thought
 159.9 Psychology
   159.91   Psychophysiology (physiological psychology). Mental physiology
   159.92   Mental development and capacity. Comparative psychology
   159.93   Sensation. Sensory perception
   159.94   Executive functions
   159.95   Higher mental processes
   159.96   Special mental states and processes
   159.97   Abnormal psychology. Insanity. Mental deficiency
   159.98   Applied psychology
 160 Logic
 170 Ethics
 180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy
 190 Modern western philosophy
2 Religion. Theology
 200 Religion
   21  Prehistoric and primitive religions
   22   Religions of the Far East
     221    Religions of China
     221.3  Taoism
     223    Religions of Korea
     225    Religions of Japan
   23   Religions of the Indian subcontinent
     233    Hinduism narrowly
     234    Jainism
     235    Sikhism
   24   Buddhism
     241    Hinayana (Theravada) Buddhism
     242    Mahayana Buddhism
     243    Lamaism
     244    Japanese Buddhism
   25  Religions of antiquity. Minor cults and religions
     252    Religions of Mesopotamia
     254    Religions of Iran
     257    Religions of Europe
   26   Judaism
     262    Ashkenazi Judaism
     264    Sephardi Judaism
     265    Orthodox Judaism
     266    Progressive Judaism
     267    Modern movements arising from Judaism
   27   Christianity
     271    Eastern church
     272/279 Western church
       272  Roman Catholic church
       273  Non-Roman Catholic episcopal churches
       274  Protestantism generally. Protestants. Dissenters. Puritans
       275  Reformed churches
       276  Anabaptists
       277  Free churches. Non-conformists
       278  Other protestant churches
       279  Other Christian movements and churches
   28   Islam
     282    Sunni. Sunnite Islam
     284    Shi'a. Shi'ite Islam
     285    Babi-Baha'i
     286    Baha'i
   29   Modern spiritual movements
 210 Philosophy & theory of religion
 220 Religions of the Far East
 230 Religions of the Indian subcontinent
 240 Buddhism
 250 Religions of antiquity. Minor cults and religions
 260 Judaism
 270 Christianity
 280 Islam
 290 Modern spiritual movements
3 Social Sciences
 300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
 310 Statistics
 320 Political science
 330 Economics
 340 Law
 350 Public administration & military science
 360 Social problems & social services
 370 Education
 380 Commerce, communications & transportation
 390 Customs, etiquette & folklore
4 Vacant
5 Mathematics and natural sciences
 500 Science
 510 Mathematics
   510 Fundamental and general consideration of mathematics
   511 Number theory
   512 Algebra
   514 Geometry
   515.1 Topology
   517 Analysis
   519.1 Combinatorial analysis. Graph theory
 520 Astronomy
 530 Physics
   531 General mechanics. Mechanics of solid and rigid bodies
   532 Fluid mechanics in general. Mechanics of liquids (hydromechanics)
   533 Mechanics of gases. Aeromechanics. Plasma physics
   534 Vibrations. Acoustics
   535 Optics
   536 Heat. Thermodynamics
   537 Electricity. Magnetism. Electromagnetism
   539 Physical nature of matter
 540 Chemistry
 550 Earth sciences & geology
 560 Fossils & prehistoric life
 570 Life sciences; biology
 580 Plants (Botany)
 590 Animals (Zoology)
6 Applied sciences. Medicine. Technology
 600 Technology
 610 Medicine & health
 620 Engineering. Technology in general 
   620 Materials testing. Commercial materials. Power stations. Economics of energy
   621 Mechanical engineering in general. Nuclear technology. Electrical engineering. Machinery
   621.3 Electrical engineering
   622 Mining
   623 Military engineering
   624 Civil and structural engineering in general
   625 Civil engineering and land transport. Railway engineering. Highway engineering
   626 Hydraulic engineering in general
   627 Natural waterway, port, harbour and shore engineering. Navigational, dredging, salvage and
       rescue facilities. Dams and hydraulic power plant
   628 Public health engineering. Water. Sanitation. Illuminating engineering
   629 Transport vehicle engineering
 630 Agriculture
 640 Home & family management
 650 Management & public relations
 660 Chemical engineering
 670 Manufacturing
 680 Manufacture for specific uses
 690 Building & construction
7 The arts. Recreation. Entertainment. Sport
 700 Arts
 710 Landscaping & area planning
 720 Architecture
 730 Sculpture, ceramics & metalwork
 740 Drawing & decorative arts
 750 Painting
 760 Graphic arts
 770 Photography & computer art
 780 Music
 790 Sports, games & entertainment
8 Language. Linguistics. Literature
 800 General questions. Including: Philology. Rhetoric
 810 Linguistics and languages
 820 Literature
9 Geography. Biography. History
 900 History
 910 Geography & travel
 920 Biography & genealogy
 930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)
 940 History of Europe
 950 History of Asia
 960 History of Africa
 970 History of North America
 980 History of South America
 990 History of other areas

Table 2 (Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons)

-1 Place in general
-2 Physiographic designation
-3 The ancient world
-4 Europe
-41 British Isles (geographical whole)
-410 United Kingdom of Gt Britain and N Ireland
-410.1 England
-410.3 Wales
-410.5 Scotland
-410.7 Northern Ireland
-415 Ireland (geographical whole)
-417 Republic of Ireland
-430 Germany
-436 Austria
-437.1 Czech Republic
-437.6 Slovak Republic
-438 Poland
-439 Hungary
-44 France
-450 Italy
-4549 San Marino
-45634 Vatican City
-4585 Malta
-460 Spain
-469 Portugal
-47 Former European USSR
-470 Russia
-48 Scandinavia
-480 Finland
-481 Norway
-485- Sweden
-489 Denmark
-492 Netherlands
-493 Belgium
-494 Switzerland
-495 Greece
-497 Balkan States
-5 Asia
-61 Tunisia, Libya
-7 North and Central America
-71 Canada
-72 Mexico
-728 Central America
-729 West Indies
-73 USA
-74 N E States
-75 S E States
-76 S Central States
-77 N Central States
-78 W States
-79 Pacific States
-8 South America
-9 South Pacific and Australia. Arctic. Antarctic

Table 5 (Ethnic and National Groups)

-5 Italians, Romanians, related groups
-591 Romanians
-5994 Ladins
-5998 Sardinians and Corsicans
-59982 Sardinians
-59984 Corsicans

Table 6 (Languages)

-21 English language
-59 Romanian, Rhaetian, Sardinian, Corsican
-5992 Friulian language
-5994 Ladin language
-5996 Romansch language
-59982 Sardinian
-59984 Corsican 
-67 Judeo-Spanish (Ladino)
-9455 Sami

See also

External links


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