University of Pennsylvania: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

University of Pennsylvania
Motto Leges sine moribus vanae
Motto in English Laws without morals are in vain
Established 1740[1]
Type Private
Endowment US $5.8 billion[2]
President Amy Gutmann
Staff 4,049 (Faculty), 2,278 (Staff)[3]
Students 20,128[3]
Undergraduates 10,275[3]
Postgraduates 9,853[3]
Location Philadelphia, PA, USA
Campus Urban, Total, 992 acres (4.01 km2) (300 acres (1.2 km2), West Philadelphia campus; 600 acres (2.4 km2), New Bolton Center; 92 acres (0.37 km2), Morris Arboretum)
Colors Red and blue          
Nickname Quakers
Athletics NCAA Division I
Affiliations Ivy League, AAU, COFHE
Website www.upenn.edu
UPenn logo.png

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn, though Penn is the University's preferred abbreviation) is a private research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education[4] in the United States, and is one of several institutions that claims to have been the first university in America. Penn is a member of the Ivy League and is one of the Colonial Colleges.

Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, concentrating multiple "faculties" (e.g., theology, classics, medicine) into one institution.[5] Penn is today one of the largest private universities in the nation, offering a very broad range of academic departments, an extensive research enterprise and a number of community outreach and public service programs. Penn is particularly well known for its medical school, dental school, business school, law school, social sciences and humanities programs and its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Its undergraduate programs are also among the most selective in the country.

In FY2009, Penn's academic research programs undertook more than $730 million in research, involving some 3,800 faculty, 1,000 postdoctoral fellows and 5,400 support staff/graduate assistants. Much of the funding is provided by the National Institutes of Health for biomedical research. Penn tops the Ivy League in annual spending, with a projected 2009 budget of $5.542 billion.[6] In 2008, it ranked fifth among U.S. universities in fundraising, bringing in about $475.96 million in private support.[7]

Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities.

Contents

History

Benjamin Franklin Statue, in front of College Hall. The light on in the upper left window is from the Philomathean Society Penn's first student group.

In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the evangelist George Whitefield. Designed and built by Edmund Woolley, it was the largest building in the city and it was also planned to serve as a charity school. The fundraising, however, fell short and although the building was erected, the plans for both a chapel and the charity school were suspended. In the fall of 1749, eager to create a college to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals for the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania," his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia."[8] However, according to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first drew up a proposal for establishing the academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution." Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1743  — Harvard, William and Mary, and Yale  — Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study became the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum.[citation needed]

Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees (November 13, 1749) the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from Independence Hall was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. On February 1, 1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. In 1751 the Academy, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first students. A charity school also was opened in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years.

Quad in the Fall, facing Ware College House

For its date of founding, the University uses 1740, the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself"[9] (the charity school mentioned above) during its existence.

The institution was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smith's loyalist tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania.[10] The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into the University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.[11] These three schools were part of the same institution and were overseen by the same board of Trustees.[10]

Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries.[12]

After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City.

Heads of the University of Pennsylvania

Provost birth – death Years as provost Name of institution
The Rev. George Whitefield 1714–1770 1740–1746 Church and Charity School of Philadelphia
Benjamin Franklin 1706–1790 1749–1754 Academy of Philadelphia
1 The Rev. William Smith 1727–1803 1754–1779
1789–1791[13]
College of Philadelphia[13]
2 The Rev. John Ewing 1732–1802 1779–1802 University of the State of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania (after 1791)[13]
3 The Rev. John McDowell 1751–1820[14] 1807–1810 University of Pennsylvania
4 The Rev. John Andrews 1746–1813 1810–1813 University of Pennsylvania
5 The Rev. Frederick Beasley 1777–1845 1813–1828 University of Pennsylvania
6 The Rev. William Heathcote DeLancey 1797–1865 1828–1834 University of Pennsylvania
7 The Rev. John Ludlow 1793–1857 1834–1852 University of Pennsylvania
8 The Rev. Henry Vethake 1790–1866 1853–1859 University of Pennsylvania
9 The Rev. Daniel Goodwin 1811–1890 1860–1868 University of Pennsylvania
10 Charles Janeway Stillé 1819–1899 1868–1880 University of Pennsylvania
11 William Pepper 1843–1898 1881–1894 University of Pennsylvania
12 Charles Custis Harrison 1844–1929 1894–1910 University of Pennsylvania
13 Edgar Fahs Smith 1854–1928 1910–1920 University of Pennsylvania
14 Josiah Harmar Penniman 1868–1940 1923–1930[15] University of Pennsylvania
Presidents of the University of Pennsylvania Years as president
1 Thomas Sovereign Gates 1930–1944
2 George William McClelland 1944–1948
3 Harold Edward Stassen 1948–1953
4 William Hagan DuBarry 1953–1953, Acting President
5 Gaylord Probasco Harnwell 1953–1970
6 Martin Meyerson 1970–1981
7 Sheldon Hackney 1981–1993
8 Claire Fagin 1993–1994, Interim President
9 Judith Rodin 1994–2004
10 Amy Gutmann 2004–Present

Educational innovations

College Hall and Logan Hall viewed from Woodland Ave., ca. 1892.

Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate school of business, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896;[16] the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest continuously functioning psychology department in North America and is where the American Medical Association was founded.[17][18]

Motto

Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace’s III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] morals?") From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae. When a wag pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals," the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised, and as part of the redesign it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace, and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[19]

Colors

The official school colors are red with hex value #990000, and blue with hex value #011F5B.[20] In printed materials they are PMS 201 red and PMS 288 blue.[21]

Academics

Undergraduate schools

The University of Pennsylvania has four undergraduate schools:

Lower Quad in Winter, from Riepe College House

The College of Arts and Sciences is the undergraduate division of the School of Arts and Sciences, which also contains the Graduate Division and the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, Penn's division for non-traditional undergraduate and graduate students.

Penn has a strong focus on interdisciplinary learning and research. It offers joint-degree programs, unique majors, and academic flexibility. Penn's "One University" policy allows undergraduates access to courses at all of Penn's undergraduate and graduate schools, except the medical, veterinary and dental schools. Undergraduates at Penn may also take courses at Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore, Penn's fellows in the Quaker Consortium.

Graduate and professional schools

The following schools offer graduate programs:

University of Pennsylvania Dental School

Joint-degree and interdisciplinary programs

Penn offers specialized joint-degree programs, which award candidates degrees from multiple schools at the University upon completion of graduation criteria of both schools. Undergraduate programs include:

Dual Degree programs which lead to the same multiple degrees without participation in the specific above programs are also available. Unlike joint-degree programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both programs independently without involvement of another program. Specialized Dual Degree programs include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as a Computer and Cognitive Science Program. Both programs award a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences and a degree from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

For graduate programs, there are many formalized joint degree graduate programs such as a joint J.D./MBA. Penn is also the home to interdisciplinary institutions such as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies, the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, and the Executive Master's in Technology Management Program.

Academic medical center and biomedical research complex

Penn's health-related programs — including the Schools of Nursing, Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine, and programs in bioengineering (School of Engineering) and health management (the Wharton School) — are among the university's strongest academic components. The combination of intellectual breadth, research funding (each of the health sciences schools ranks in the top 5 in annual NIH funding), clinical resources and overall scale ranks Penn with only a small handful of peer universities in the U.S.

The size of Penn's biomedical research organization, however, adds a very capital intensive component to the university's operations, and introduces revenue instability due to changing government regulations, reduced federal funding for research, and Medicaid/Medicare program changes. This is a primary reason highlighted in bond rating agencies' views on Penn's overall financial rating, which ranks one notch below its academic peers. Penn has worked to address these issues by pooling its schools (as well as several hospitals and clinical practices) into the University of Pennsylvania Health System, thereby pooling resources for greater efficiencies and research impact.

Admissions selectivity

Penn is one of the most selective universities in the United States. For the Class of 2012 entering in fall 2008, the university received 22,935 applications and admitted 16.95 percent of the applicants, 99% of whom were in the top 10% of their high school classes. Sixty-three percent of the admitted applicants matriculated.[22] In 2007, Penn's acceptance rate was 15.9%, with 96% of incoming freshmen ranked in the top 10% of their high school classes.[23] In the last 5 years, Penn has received around 21,000 applications for each freshman class, has admitted on average 17 percent of applications and saw about 65 percent of admitted applicants matriculate. Further, Penn consistently ranks among the 10 toughest schools to get into, according to the Princeton Review.[24] The Atlantic also ranked Penn among the 10 most selective schools in the country.

At the graduate level, Penn's admissions rates, like most universities', vary considerably based on school and program. Based on admission statistics from U.S. News and World Report, Penn's most selective programs include its law school, the health care schools (medicine, dental medicine, nursing), and its business school.

Rankings

University rankings (overall)

ARWU World[25] 15
ARWU North & Latin America[26] 13
Times Higher Education[27] 12
USNWR National University[28] 4
WM National University[29] 17

U.S. News & World Report ranked Penn #4 (tied with Caltech, MIT and Stanford) for undergraduate education in its 2010 review. Penn is ranked fourth in the Ivy League behind Harvard, Princeton, and Yale.[30] In the past, Penn was ranked #4 by U.S. News in 2005 and #6 in 2009.

In 2008, the British Times Higher Education magazine ranked Penn 11th in the world and 7th among U.S. universities.[31] In 2007, Penn placed 15th on the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities.[32] The Center for Measuring University Performance ranks Penn in its top cluster of research universities in the nation, tied with Columbia, Harvard, MIT, and Stanford.[33] In 2007, The Washington Monthly ranked Penn 17th overall, and 4th among private institutions (behind Cornell, Stanford, and MIT) on its list of universities' contributions to national service (Research: total research spending; Ph.D.s granted in science and engineering; Community Service: the number of students in ROTC, Peace Corps, etc.; and social mobility: percentage of, and support for, Pell grant recipients).[34] Forbes.com ranked Penn #83 on their 2009 edition of "America's Best Colleges."[35]

University of Pennsylvania's undergraduate business program at Wharton has retained its #1 ranking in U.S. News for many years.

Claudia Cohen Hall, formerly Logan Hall, home of The College of Arts and Sciences and former home of The Wharton School

Undergraduate programs

Penn's arts and science programs are all well regarded, with many departments ranked amongst the nation's top 10. At the undergraduate level, Wharton, Penn's business school, and Penn's nursing school have maintained their #1, 2 or 3 rankings since U.S. News began reviewing such programs. In the School of Engineering, top departments are bioengineering (typically ranked in the top 5 by U.S. News), mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and nanotechnology. The school is also strong in some areas of computer science and artificial intelligence.

Graduate and professional programs

Penn's graduate schools are among the most distinguished schools in their fields. Penn's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences is generally regarded as one of the top schools in the nation (see 1995 rankings by the National Research Council). A study updated the NRC rankings and adjusted them for faculty size and also factored out reputational surveys (saying that such surveys were lagging indicators of academic quality). That study, "The Rise of American Research Universities: Elites and Challengers in the Postwar Era," ranked Penn's arts, humanities, and sciences departments 7th in the US.

Among its professional schools, the schools of Design, business, communication, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and veterinary medicine rank in the top 5 nationally (see U.S. News, National Research Council, and Planetizen as well as DesignIntelligence's "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools"). Penn's Law School is ranked 7th, and its School of Education and School of Social Policy & Practice (SP2) are ranked in the top 10 (see U.S. News).

Campus

Overlooking Lower Quad from Upper Quad

Much of Penn's architecture was designed by the Cope & Stewardson firm, whose principal architects combined the Gothic architecture of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. The present core campus covers over 269 acres (1.09 km2) in a contiguous area of West Philadelphia's University City district. All of Penn's schools and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. Recent improvements to the surrounding neighborhood include the opening of several restaurants, a large upscale grocery store, and a movie theater on the western edge of campus.

In 2007, Penn acquired about 35 acres (140,000 m2) between the campus and the Schuylkill River (the former site of the Philadelphia Civic Center and a nearby 24-acre (97,000 m2) site owned by the United States Postal Service). Dubbed the Postal Lands, the site extends from Market Street on the north to Penn's Bower Field on the south. It encompasses the main U.S. Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets (the retail post office at the east end of the building will remain open), the Postal Annex between Chestnut Street and Walnut Street, the Vehicle Maintenance Facility Garage along Chestnut Street and the 14 acres (57,000 m2) of surface parking south of Walnut Street. Over the next decade, the site will become the home to educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities. Penn also plans new connections between the campus and the city, including a pedestrian bridge.

Upper Quad Gate.

The University also owns the 92-acre (370,000 m2) Morris Arboretum in Chestnut Hill in northwestern Philadelphia, the official arboretum of the state of Pennsylvania. Penn also owns the 687-acre (2.78 km2) New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary School. Located near Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center received nationwide media attention when Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro underwent surgery at its Widener Hospital for injuries suffered while running in the Preakness Stakes.

Penn borders Drexel University and is near the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

Libraries

Fisher Fine Arts Library, also referred to as the Furness Library or simply the Fine Arts Library

Penn's library began in 1750 with a donation of books from cartographer Louis Evans. Twelve years later, then-provost William Smith sailed to England to raise additional funds to increase the collection size. More than 250 years later, it has grown into a system of 15 libraries (13 are on the contiguous campus) with 400 FTE employees and a total operating budget of more than $48 million. The library system holds 5.76 million book and serial volumes as well as 4.15 million microform items.[36] It subscribes to over 68,000 print serials and e-journals.[37]

Penn's Libraries, with associated school or subject area:

  • Annenberg (School of Communications), located in the Annenberg School
  • Biddle (Law), located in the Law School
  • Biomedical, located adjacent to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School
  • Chemistry, located in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building
  • Dental Medicine
  • Engineering, located on the second floor of the Towne Building in the Engineering School
  • Fine Arts, located within the Fisher Fine Arts Library, designed by Frank Furness
  • Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, located on Walnut Street at Washington Square
  • Lea Library, located within the Van Pelt Library
  • Lippincott (Wharton School), located on the second floor of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center
  • Math/Physics/Astronomy, located on the third floor of David Rittenhouse Laboratory
  • Museum (Anthropology)
  • Rare Books and Manuscripts
  • Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center (Humanities and Social Sciences) - location of Weigle Information Commons
  • Veterinary Medicine, located in Penn Campus and New Bolton Center
  • High Density Storage

The University Museum

The University Museum was founded in 1887. During the early twentieth century UPM conducted some of the first and most important archaeological and anthropological expeditions to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Africa, East Asia and South America, thus the collection includes a very large number of antiquities from ancient Egypt and the Middle East. Its most famous object is the goat rearing into the branches of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal tombs of Ur. The museum also has a strong collection of Chinese artifacts. Features of its Beaux-Arts building include a dramatic rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus. UPM's scientific division, MASCA, focuses on the application of modern scientific techniques to aid the interpretation of archaeological contexts.

The Institute of Contemporary Art, which is based on Penn's campus, showcases various art exhibitions throughout the year.

Residences

University residences include DuBois College House, Fisher Hassenfeld College House (formerly Woodland), Gregory College House, Harnwell College House, Harrison College House,[38] Hill College House, Kings Court English College House, Riepe College House (formerly Spruce House), Rodin College House (formerly Hamilton College House), Sansom Place East / West, Stouffer College House, and Ware College House. Within the college houses, Penn has nearly forty themed residential programs for students with shared interests such as world cinema or science and technology.

Many of the nearby homes on 40-42nd are often rented by undergraduate students moving off campus after freshman year.

Student life

Locust Walk lit up during the winter season

Demographics

Demographics for Class of 2013 [39]
Multicultural Background Number Enrolled Percent of Class
American Indian 13 0.5%
Asian 642 25.9%
Black 206 8.3%
Caucasian 1422 57.4%
Hispanic 194 7.8%

Of those accepted for admission to the Class of 2013, 39.2 percent are Asian, Hispanic, African, or Native American. Women comprise 51.3 percent of all students currently enrolled.

More than 13% of the first year class are international students. Of the international students accepted to the Class of 2008, 48.1% were from Asia; 15.8% were from Africa and the Middle East; 14.1% were from Europe; 11.7% were from Canada and Mexico; 10% were from the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; 0.4% were from Australia and the Pacific Islands. A total of 2,440 international students applied for admission to Penn's undergraduate schools for the Class of 2008, and 489 (20%) were accepted.

Selected student organizations

The Philomathean Society, founded in 1813, is the United States' oldest literary society. The student-run TV station UTV13 is the oldest college TV station in the country. The Mask and Wig Club is the oldest all-male musical comedy troupe in the country. The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest continually operating collegiate choruses in the United States. Its best-known and longest-serving director was Bruce Montgomery, who led the club from 1956 until 2000.

The University of Pennsylvania Band has been a part of student life since 1897. The Penn Band performs at football and basketball games as well as university functions (e.g. commencement and convocation) throughout the year. It has a current membership of approximately 80 students. "The Red and the Blue" and "Fight On Pennsylvania" are notable songs commonly played and sung at university events and games.

The Castle Fraternity

Selected Penn publications

  • CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal
  • The Daily Pennsylvanian - Penn's independent, student-run newspaper; published since 1885; regularly wins Pacemaker and CSPA Gold Circle awards
  • First Call Magazine - Penn's undergraduate magazine
  • F-word: A Collection of Feminist Voices - a literary magazine about feminism, gender, and sexuality
  • Knowledge@Wharton - online business journal of the Wharton School
  • Penn Asian Review - journal related to all regions of Asia
  • Penn History Review - undergraduate history journal
  • Penn Triangle - science and technology magazine founded in 1899; oldest of Penn's student-run journals; a student-run SEAS publication
  • PennScience - undergraduate science research journal
  • Pennsylvania Punch Bowl - Penn's humor magazine, founded in 1889; one of the nation's oldest and most acclaimed humor magazines
  • PoliComm - journal of political communication
  • Res - undergraduate journal of research writing
  • Penn Political Review Magazine - Penn's primary outlet for student sociopolitical thought
  • Sound Politicks - undergraduate political science journal
  • Under The Button - online blog written by staff of the Daily Pennsylvanian and 34th Street magazine
  • The WALK - fashion magazine with bi-semester print publications, currently launching a website

Athletics

Athletic logo

Penn's sports teams are nicknamed the Quakers. They participate in the Ivy League and Division I (Division I FCS for football) in the NCAA. In recent decades they often have been league champions in football (12 times from 1982 to 2003) and basketball (22 times from 1970 to 2006). The first athletic team at Penn was its cricket team.[40]

Rugby

The Penn Men's Rugby Football Club is recognized as the one of the oldest collegiate rugby teams in America. The earliest documentation of its existence comes from the Daily Pennsylvanian, October 22, 1910: "Penn's Rugby Team Students Practice on Franklin Field at 7 o'clock am":

"Such is the devotion to English rugby football on the part of University of Pennsylvania's students from New Zealand, Australia, and England that they meet on Franklin Field at 7 o'clock every morning and practice the game. The varsity track and football squads monopolize the field to such an extent that the early hours of the morning are the only ones during which the rugby enthusiasts can play. Any time except Friday, Saturday and Sunday, a squad of 25 men may be seen running through the hardest kind of practice after which they may divide into two teams and play a hard game. Once a week, captain CC Walton, '11, dental, who hails from New Zealand, gives the enthusiastic players a blackboard talk in which he explains the intricacies of the game in detail…" - Daily Pennsylvanian, 10/22/1910

The team existed on and off during the World Wars, with the current club having it roots in the 1960s. While the current team no longer rises so early in the morning for practice, the tradition of hard work and enthusiasm developed by CC Walton lives on.

The club continues to strive for the highest level of play, while also enjoying the camaraderie and social aspects of the game. In 1992, Penn won the Ivy League Championship, defeating Dartmouth in the final.[41] In 2004, Penn Men's Rugby won the Eastern Pennsylvania Rugby Union championship.

Football

Penn first fielded a football team against Princeton at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia on November 11, 1876.[42]

Franklin Field

Penn football made many contributions to the sport in its early days. During the 1890s, Penn's famed coach and alumnus George Washington Woodruff introduced the quarterback kick, a forerunner of the forward pass, as well as the place-kick from scrimmage and the delayed pass. In 1894, 1895, 1897, and 1904, Penn was generally regarded the national champion of collegiate football.[43] The achievements of two of Penn's outstanding players from that era — John Heisman and John Outland — are remembered each year with the presentation of the Heisman Trophy to the most outstanding college football player of the year, and the Outland Trophy to the most outstanding college football interior lineman of the year.

In addition, each year the Bednarik Award is given to college football's best defensive player. Chuck Bednarik (Class of 1949) was a three-time All-American center/linebacker who starred on the 1947 team and is generally regarded as Penn's all-time finest. In addition to Bednarik, the '47 squad boasted four-time All-American tackle George Savitsky and three-time All-American halfback Skip Minisi. All three standouts were subsequently elected to the College Football Hall of Fame, as was their coach, George Munger (a star running back at Penn in the early '30s). Bednarik went on to play for 12 years with the Philadelphia Eagles, becoming the NFL's last 60-minute man. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1969. During his presidency of the institution from 1948 to 1953, Harold Stassen attempted to recultivate Penn's heyday of big-time college football, but the effort lacked support and was short-lived.

ESPN's College GameDay traveled to Penn to highlight the Harvard-Penn game on November 17, 2002, the first time the popular college football show had visited an Ivy League campus.

The Palestra, "Cathedral of Basketball"

Basketball

Penn basketball is steeped in tradition. Penn made its only (and the Ivy League's second) Final Four appearance in 1979, where the Quakers lost to Magic Johnson-led Michigan State in Salt Lake City. (Dartmouth twice finished second in the tournament in the 1940s, but that was before the beginning of formal League play.) Penn's team is also a member of the Philadelphia Big 5, along with La Salle, Saint Joseph's, Temple, and Villanova. In 2007, the men's team won its third consecutive Ivy League title and then lost in the first round of the NCAA Tournament to Texas A&M.

Facilities

Franklin Field is where the Quakers play football, field hockey, lacrosse, sprint football, and track and field (and formerly soccer). It is the oldest stadium still operating for football games and was the first stadium to sport two tiers. It hosted the first commercially televised football game, was once the home field of the Philadelphia Eagles, and was the site of early Army – Navy games. Today it is also used by Penn students for recreation such as intramural and club sports, including touch football and cricket. Franklin Field hosts the annual collegiate track and field event "the Penn Relays."

Penn's home court, the Palestra, is an arena used for men's and women's basketball teams, volleyball teams, wrestling team, and Philadelphia Big Five basketball, as well as high school sporting events. The Palestra has hosted more NCAA Tournament basketball games than any other facility. Penn baseball plays its home games at Meiklejohn Stadium.

The Olympic Boycott Games of 1980 were held at the University of Pennsylvania in response to Moscow's hosting of the 1980 Summer Olympics following the Soviet incursion in Afghanistan. Twenty-nine of the boycotting nations participated in the Boycott Games.

Controversies

The university has come under fire several times in recent years for free speech issues. In spite of this, Penn is one of only two Ivy League universities (the other being Dartmouth College) to receive the highest possible free speech rating from the watchdog group Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, founded by noted Penn professor and civil libertarian Alan Charles Kors.

Notable people

This statue of Benjamin Franklin donated by Justus C. Strawbridge to the City of Philadelphia in 1899 now sits in front of College Hall[44]

Notable University of Pennsylvania alumni include 9 signers of the Declaration of Independence: George Clymer, Benjamin Franklin, Francis Hopkinson, Thomas McKean, Robert Morris, William Paca, George Ross, Benjamin Rush, and James Wilson; 11 signers of the Constitution: George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Benjamin Franklin, Jared Ingersoll, Rufus King, Thomas Mifflin, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, George Washington, Hugh Williamson, and James Wilson; 3 United States Supreme Court justices: William J. Brennan, Jr., Owen Roberts, and James Wilson; and 1 president of the United States: William Henry Harrison.[45] Other notable Penn alumni include entrepreneurs Warren Buffett[46] and Donald Trump, poets Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams, linguist and political theorist Noam Chomsky, and various Nobel laureates. 23 Penn affiliates have won Nobel Prizes, of whom 4 are current faculty members and 6 are alumni.

Penn in popular culture

Fiction

Film

Television

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The University officially uses 1740 as its founding date and has since 1899. The ideas and intellectual inspiration for the academic institution stem from 1749, with a pamphlet published by Benjamin Franklin. When Franklin's institution was established, it inhabited a schoolhouse built in 1740 for another school, which never came to practical fruition. Penn archivist Mark Frazier Lloyd [1] notes: “In 1899, Penn’s Trustees adopted a resolution that established 1740 as the founding date, but good cases may be made for 1749, when Franklin first convened the Trustees, or 1751, when the first classes were taught, or 1755, when Penn obtained its collegiate charter." Princeton's library[2] presents another, carefully nuanced view.
  2. ^ As of December 31, 2009. Shtrakhman, Darina (March 4, 2010). "Endowment shows 'strong rebound'". The Daily Pennsylvanian. http://www.dailypennsylvanian.com/article/endowment-shows-strong-rebound. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Penn: Fact and Figures". University of Pennsylvania. 2008. http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  4. ^ Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution. Penn, Princeton, and Columbia originated within a few years of each other. In 1899, Penn officially changed its "founding" date from 1749 to 1740, affecting its rank. See Building Penn's Brand for the reasons why Penn did this. Princeton University implicitly challenges this[3], also claiming to be fourth. Penn was chartered in 1755, making it the sixth-oldest chartered, following Princeton (1746) and Columbia (1754). A Presbyterian minister operated a "Log College" in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1726 until 1746; some have suggested a connection between it and the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) which would justify pushing Princeton's founding date back to 1726, earlier than Penn's 1740. However, Princeton has not done so, and a Princeton historian says that "the facts do not warrant" such an interpretation. [4]
  5. ^ "Penn: Penn's Heritage". Upenn.edu. http://www.upenn.edu/about/heritage.php. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  6. ^ "Penn: Facts and Figures". Upenn.edu. 2009-11-24. http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  7. ^ Charitable contributions to colleges and universities in the United States grew by 6.2 percent in 2008[5]
  8. ^ A Brief History of the University, University of Pennsylvania Archives
  9. ^ Cheyney, Edward Potts. History of the University of Pennsylvania 1740–1940 University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1940. pp 46–48.
  10. ^ a b Penn in the 18th Century, University of Pennsylvania Archives
  11. ^ "Penn in the 18th Century". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/1700s/penn1700s.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  12. ^ "The University of Pennsylvania: America's First University". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/genlhistory/firstuniv.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  13. ^ a b c The Pennsylvania state government revoked the colonial charter of the College of Philadelphia in 1779 and replaced it with the University of the State of Pennsylvania under John Ewing. In 1789 the College of Philadelphia and its administration under Smith were reinstated, coexisting with the University of the State of Pennsylvania. Two years later in 1791 the state legislature merged the two schools into the University of Pennsylvania under Ewing. "Timeline". Penn in the Age of Franklin. Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text & Image, The University of Pennsylvania Libraries. http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/franklin/timeline.cfm. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  14. ^ "John McDowell (1751-1820)". Penn in the 18th Century. University of Pennsylvania Archives. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/1700s/mcdowell_john.html. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  15. ^ Penniman served as Provost until 1939, but in 1930 the university created the position of President, which greatly reduced the Provost's authority. "Leaders of the University of Pennsylvania: Provosts". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/notables/leaders_uprovst.html. Retrieved 2009-10-14.  "Leaders of the University of Pennsylvania: Presidents". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/notables/leaders_upres.html. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  16. ^ Building America's First University: An Historical and Architectural Guide to the University of Pennsylvania George E. Thomas, David Bruce Brownlee, p3
  17. ^ "Welcome to the Department of Psychology". University of Pennsylvania. http://www.psych.upenn.edu/. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  18. ^ "History of the School of Medicine". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/schools/med.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  19. ^ Hughes, Samuel (2002). "Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University's seal has a curious history". Pennsylvania Gazette 100 (3). http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0102/0102finals.html. 
  20. ^ Penn: Web Style Guide: Color Values
  21. ^ http://www.business-services.upenn.edu/publicationservices/pdf/logostyleguide.pdf
  22. ^ "Penn Admissions: Incoming Class Profile". http://www.admissionsug.upenn.edu/profile/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  23. ^ "University of Pennsylvania Profile - SAT Scores and Admissions Data for the University of Pennsylvania - Penn". Collegeapps.about.com. http://collegeapps.about.com/od/collegeprofiles/p/penn_profile.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  24. ^ "The Ten Toughest Schools to Get Into". The Ten Toughest Schools to Get Into. MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/college_article_tentoughestschools/the_most_competitive_admissions.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  25. ^ Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2009). "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. http://www.arwu.org/ARWU2009.jsp. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  26. ^ Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2009). "Ranking of North & Latin American Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. http://www.arwu.org/Americas2009.jsp. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  27. ^ The Times (2009). "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Educational Supplement. http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2009/results. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  28. ^ "National Universities Rankings". America's Best Colleges 2009. U.S. News & World Report. 2009. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/college/national-search. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  29. ^ "The Washington Monthly National University Rankings" (PDF). The Washington Monthly. 2009. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/rankings/national_university_rank.php. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  30. ^ USNews.com: America's Best Colleges 2010: National Universities: Top Schools
  31. ^ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 2008-10-09. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=243&pubCode=1. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  32. ^ "学院简介 上海交通大学高等教育研究院". Ed.sjtu.edu.cn. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2007/ARWU2007_Top100.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  33. ^ http://mup.asu.edu/research2006.pdf
  34. ^ 2007 College Guide
  35. ^ "America's Best Colleges". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2009/94/colleges-09_Americas-Best-Colleges_Rank_9.html. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  36. ^ [hhttp://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php "Penn: Facts and Figures"]. hhttp://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  37. ^ "Penn Library Data Farm". http://datafarm.library.upenn.edu/. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  38. ^ "Harrison College House". Harrison.house.upenn.edu. http://harrison.house.upenn.edu/. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  39. ^ "Incoming Class Profile 2013" (php). UPenn. http://www.admissionsug.upenn.edu/profile/. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  40. ^ Kieran, John (1932), "Sports of the Times," The New York Times, October 8, 1932, p. 22.
  41. ^ www.ivyrugby.com
  42. ^ Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 25.
  43. ^ Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 28, 33–34.
  44. ^ Strawbridge, Justus C.. Ceremonies Attending the Unveiling of the Statue of Benjamin Franklin. Allen, Lane & Scott. http://books.google.com/books?id=GOYEAAAAYAAJ&dq=justus+c+strawbridge&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=5rJt2PC74w&sig=GKOe-m80dabdqrQ2ITjk1ABAKeY#PPA1,M1. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  45. ^ William Henry Harrison, Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia[6]: "At his father’s insistence, [he] studied medicine from 1790 to 1791 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Upon his father’s death in 1791, Harrison immediately joined the United States Army."
  46. ^ "Warren Buffett Biography". Beginnersinvest.about.com. 1930-08-30. http://beginnersinvest.about.com/cs/warrenbuffett/a/aawarrenbio.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  47. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://www.dailypennsylvanian.com/media/storage/paper882/news/2004/11/12/News/Author.Uses.Penn.To.Research.SexCrazed.College.Life-2150010.shtml?norewrite200612081654&sourcedomain=www.dailypennsylvanian.com. 
  48. ^ "Virtual Tour of Penn's Campus: College Hall". Upenn.edu. http://www.upenn.edu/admissions/tour/tourstop.php?stop=1. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  49. ^ "Colbert filming at Penn in April | The Daily Pennsylvanian". Media.www.dailypennsylvanian.com. 2008-03-20. http://media.www.dailypennsylvanian.com/media/storage/paper882/news/2008/03/20/News/Colbert.Filming.At.Penn.In.April-3276310.shtml. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  50. ^ "11/2/08 - 11/9/08". Dueling Tampons. http://www.duelingtampons.com/2008_11_02_archive.html. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  51. ^ "Lindsey Naegle - Simpsons Wiki". Simpsons.wikia.com. 2010-02-16. http://simpsons.wikia.com/wiki/Lindsey_Naegle. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 

External links

Coordinates: 39°57′14″N 75°11′35″W / 39.953885°N 75.193048°W / 39.953885; -75.193048


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, an American institution of higher learning, in Philadelphia, occupying about 60 acres, near the west bank of the Schuylkill river, north-east of the Philadelphia Hospital, east of 39th Street, south-east of Woodland Avenue, and south of Chestnut Street. In this irregular area are all the buildings except the Flower Astronomical Observatory (1896), which is 2 m. beyond the city limits on the West Chester Pike. The northernmost of these buildings is the law school, between Chestnut and Sansom Streets, on 34th Street. In a great triangular block bounded by Woodland Avenue, Spruce Street, and 34th Street are: the university library, which had in 1909 about 275,000 bound volumes and 50,000 pamphlets, including the Biddle Memorial law library (1886) of 40,000 volumes, the Colwell and Henry C. Carey collections in finance and economics; the Francis C. Macauley library of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese authors, with an excellent Dante collection, the classical library of Ernst von Leutsch of Göttingen, the philological library of F. A. Pott of Halle, the Germanic library of R. Bechstein of Rostock, the Semitic library of C. P. Caspari of Copenhagen, the (Hebrew and Rabbinical) Marcus Jastrow Memorial library, the ethnological library of D. G. Brinton, and several special medical collections; College Hall, with the university offices; Howard Houston Hall (1896) the students' club; Logan Hall; the Robert Hare chemical laboratory; and (across 36th Street) the Wistar institute of anatomy and biology. Immediately east of this triangular block are: Bennett House; the Randal Morgan laboratory of physics; the engineering building (1906); the laboratory of hygiene (1892); dental hall; and the John Harrison laboratory of chemistry. Farther east are the gymnasium, training quarters and Franklin (athletic) field, with brick grand-stands. South of Spruce Street are: the free museum of science and art (1899), the north-western part of a projected group, with particularly valuable American, Egyptian, Semitic and Cretan collections, the last two being the results in part of university excavations at Nippur (1888-1902) and at Gournia (1901-1904); between 34th and 36th Streets the large and well-equipped university hospital (1874); large dormitories, consisting in 1909, of 29 distinct but connected houses; medical laboratories; a biological hall and vivarium; and across Woodland Avenue, a veterinary hall and hospital.

The university contains various departments, including the college (giving degrees in arts, science, biology, music, architecture, &c.), the graduate school (1882), a department of law (founded in 1790 and re-established in 1850) and a department of medicine (first professor, 1756; first degrees granted, 1768), the oldest and probably the most famous medical school in America. Graduation from the school of arts in the college is dependent on the successful completion of 60 units of work (the unit is one hour's work a week for a year in lectures or recitations or two hours' work a week for a year in laboratory courses); this may be done in three, four or five years; of the 60 counts: 22 must be required in studies (chemistry, 2 units; English, 6; foreign languages, 6; history, logic and ethics, mathematics, and physics, 2 each); 18 must be equally distributed in two or three "groups" - the 19 groups include astronomy, botany, chemistry, economics, English, fine arts, French, geology, German, Greek, history, Latin, mathematics, philosophy, physics, political science, psychology, sociology and zoology; and in the remaining 20 units the student's election is practically free. Special work in the senior year of the college counts 8 units for the first year's work in the department of medicine. College scholarships are largely local, two being in the gift of the governor of the state, fifty being for graduates of the public schools of the city of Philadelphia, and five being for graduates of Pennsylvania public schools outside Philadelphia; in 1909 there were twenty-eight scholarships in the college not local. In the graduate school there are five fellowships for research, each with an annual stipend of $800, twenty-one fellowships valued at $50o each, for men only, and five fellowships for women, besides special fellowships and 39 scholarships.

The corporation of the university is composed of a board of twenty-four trustees, of which the governor of Pennsylvania is ex-officio president. The directing head of the university, and the head of the university faculty and of the faculty of each department is the provost - a title rarely used in American universities; the provost is president pro tempore of the board of trustees.

In1908-1909the university had 454 officers of instruction, of whom 220 were in the college and 157 in the department of medicine, and an enrolment of 4570 students, of whom 2989 were in the college (412 in the school of arts; 987 in the Towne scientific school; 472 in the Wharton school, and 253 in the evening school of accounts and finance; 384 in courses for teachers; and 481 in the summer school), 353 in the graduate school, 327 in the department of law, 559 in the department of medicine, 385 in the department of dentistry, and 150 in the department of veterinary medicine.

In August 1907 the excess of the university's assets over its liabilities was $13,239,408 and the donations for the year were $305,814. A very large proportion of the university's investments is in real estate, especially in Philadelphia. In 1907 the total value of real estate (including the university buildings) was $6,829,154; and libraries, museums, apparatus and furniture were valued at $2,025,357. Students' tuition fees vary from $150 to $200 a year in the college; and are $160 in the department of law, $200 in the department of medicine, $150 in the department of dentistry and $100 in the department of veterinary science. The income from tuition fees in1906-1907was $458,396; the payments for "educational salaries" amounted to $433,311, and for "administration salaries" to $135,314.

The university publishes the following series: Astronomical Series (1899 sqq.); Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory (1892 sqq.); Contributions from the Laboratory of Hygiene (1898 sqq.); Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory (1893 sqq.); Series in History (1901 sqq.); Series in Mathematics (1897 sqq.); Series in Philology and Literature (1891 sqq.); Series in Romanic Languages and Literatures (1907 sqq.); Series in Philosophy (1890 sqq.); Series in Political Economy and Public Law (1885 sqq.); The American Law Register (1852 sqq.); The University of Pennsylvania Medical Bulletin (1888 sqq.); Transactions of the Department of Archaeology (1904 sqq.); the Journal of Morphology (1887 sqq.); and Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Pennsylvania (1897 sqq.). There are also occasional publications by institutes and departments connected with the university. Student publications include: a daily, The Pennsylvanian (1885); the weekly, Old Penn (1902); a comic monthly, The Punch Bowl; a literary monthly, The Red and Blue; a quarterly of the department of dentistry, The Penn Dental Journal; an annual, The Record; and The Alumni Register (1896), a monthly.

Benjamin Franklin in 1749 published a pamphlet, entitled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, which led to the formation of a board of twenty-four trustees, nineteen of whom, on the 13th of November 1749, met for organization and to promote "the Publick Academy in the City of Philadelphia," and elected Benjamin Franklin president of the board, an office which he held until 1756. So closely was Franklin identified with the plan that Matthew Arnold called the institution "the University of Franklin." On the 1st of February 1750 there was conveyed to this board of trustees the "New Building" on Fourth Street, near Arch, which had been erected in 1740 for a charity school - a use to which it had not been put - and as a "house of Publick Worship," in which George Whitefield had preached in November 1740; the original trustees (including Franklin) of the "New Building" and of its projected charity school date from 1740, and therefore the university attaches to its seal the words "founded 1740." In the "New Building" the academy was opened on the 7th of January 1751, the city having voted L200 in the preceding August for the completion of the building. On the 16th of September 1751 a charitable school "for the instruction of poor Children gratis in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetick" was opened in the "New Building." The proprietaries, Thomas and Richard Penn, incorporated "The Trustees of the Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania" in 1 753; and in 1 755 issued a confirmatory charter, changing the corporate name to "The Trustees of the College, Academy and Charitable School," &c., whereupon William Smith (1727-1803) of the university of Aberdeen, who had become rector of the academy in 1752 and had taken orders in the Church of England in 1753, became provost of the college. In 1756 Dr Smith established a complete and liberal curriculum which was adopted by Bishop James Madison in 1777 when he became president of the College of William and Mary. In 1757 the first college class graduated. Under Smith's control the Latin school grew in importance at the expense of the English school, to the great annoyance of Franklin. In1762-1764Dr Smith collected for the college in England about £6900; and in 1764 his influence had become so strong that it was feared that the college would become sectarian. The Penns and others deprecated this and the trustees bound themselves (1764) to "use their utmost endeavours that. .. (the original plan) be not narrowed, nor the members of the Church of England, nor those dissenting from them. .. be put on any worse footing in this seminary than they were at the time of receiving the royal brief." From September 1777 to June 1778 college exercises were not held. because Philadelphia was occupied by British troops. In 1779. the state legislature, on the ground that the trustees' declaration in 1764 was a "narrowing of the foundation,"1 confiscated the rights and property of the college and chartered a new corporation "the Trustees of the University of the State of Pennsylvania"; in 1789 the college was restored to its rights and property and Smith again became its provost; in 1791 the college and the university of the State of Pennsylvania were united under the title, "the University of Pennsylvania," whose trustees were elected from their own members by the board of trustees of the college and that of the university. In 1802 the university purchased new grounds on Ninth Street, between Market and Chestnut, where the post office building. now is; there until 1829 the university occupied the building erected for the administrative mansion of the president of the United States; there new buildings were erected after 1829;, and from these the university removed to its present site in. 1872.

The provosts have been: in1755-1779and in 1789-1803,. William Smith; in 1779-1791, of the university of the state of Pennsylvania, John Ewing (1732-1802); in 1807-1810, John McDowell (1750-1820); in 1810-1813, John Andrews (1746-1813);, in 1813-1828, Frederick Beasley (1777-1845); in 1828-1833. William Heathcote De Lancey (1797-1865); in 1834-1853, John Ludlow (1793-1857) ; in 18J4-1859, Henry Vethake (1792-1866); in 1860-1868, Daniel Raynes Goodwin (1811-1890); in 1868-1880, Charles Janeway Stine (1819-1899); in 1881-1894,. William Pepper (1843-1898); in 1894-1910, Charles Custis Harrison (b. 1844), and in 1911 sqq. Edgar Fahs Smith (b. 1856).

See T. H. Montgomery, A History of the University of Pennsylvania. from its Foundation to A.D. 1770 (Philadelphia, 1900); George B. Wood, Early History of the University of Pennsylvania (3rd ed.,. ibid., 1896); J. B. McMaster, The University of Pennsylvania (ibid. 1897); G. E. Nitzsche, Official Guide to the University of Pennsylvania (ibid., 1906); and Edward P. Cheyney, "University of Pennsylvania," in vol. i. of Universities and their Sons (Boston,. 1901).

1 Probably the actual reason was that the assembly, dominated by the advocates of the radical constitution of 1776, was attempting to punish the trustees of the college, who were almost all "anticonstitutionalists."


<< Pennsylvania Governors

Penny >>


Simple English

The University of Pennsylvania is a private university in Western Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Many people call the university "Penn." It contains four undergraduate schools, which are for students without a college degree. These schools are nursing, arts and sciences, engineering, and Wharton, which is a famous business school. It had graduate schools-for those with a college degree- in medicine, business, law, dentistry, veterinary medicine, nursing, education, communication, design, and social policy.

References

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message