The Full Wiki

Ural Mountains: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Riphean redirects here. For the time period, see Riphean (stage)
The Ural Mountains
Range
Countries Russia, Kazakhstan
Regions Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Perm Krai, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, West Kazakhstan
Highest point Mount Narodnaya
 - elevation 1,895 m (6,217 ft)
Period Carboniferous

The Ural Mountains (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры, Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals) are a mountain range that runs roughly north-south through western Russia. They are usually considered the natural boundary between Europe and Asia.

In Greco-Roman antiquity, Pliny the Elder thought that the Urals correspond to the Riphean Mountains mentioned by various authors. They are also known as the Great Stone Belt in Russian history and folklore. According to one explanation, the word Ural is of Turkic origin and means a stone belt.[1]

Contents

Divisions

  • The Southern Urals are broad, moderately high, well-populated and visited by tourists.
  • The Middle Urals, at about the latitude of Moscow, Perm and Yekaterinburg, are fairly low. Most routes between European Russia and Siberia pass here.
  • The Northern Urals are higher, thinly populated and have few roads.
  • The Polar Urals tend somewhat to the northeast and have almost no population.

Geography

The Urals extend 2,498 km (1,552 mi) from the Kazakh steppes along the northern border of Kazakhstan to the coast of the Arctic ocean. Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between the continents of Europe and Asia. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya (Poznurr, 1,895 m, 6,217 ft). Erosion has exposed considerable mineral wealth in the Urals, including gems such as topaz and beryl. The Virgin Komi Forests in the northern Urals are recognized as a World Heritage site. Geographers have divided the Urals into five regions: South, Middle, North, Subarctic and Arctic. The tree line drops from 1,400 meters (4,593 ft) to sea level as one progresses north. Sections of the south and middle regions are completely forested.

Geology

The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. For its age of 250 to 300 million years, the elevation of the mountains is unusually high. They were formed during the late Carboniferous period, when western Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (connected to Laurentia (North America) to form the minor supercontinent of Euramerica) and Kazakhstania to form the supercontinent of Laurasia. Later Laurasia and Gondwana collided to form the supercontinent of Pangaea, which subsequently broke itself apart into the seven continents known today. Europe and Siberia have remained joined together ever since.

The Urals were first studied in a systematic way by Russian mineralogist Ernst Karlovich Hofmann (1801-1871) of St. Petersburg University. During his tireless research, which began in 1828, Hofmann travelled thousands of miles in the Urals and gathered a vast collection of minerals, including gold, platinum, magnetite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, chromite, chrysoberyl, quartz, zircon, uvarovite, phenakite, topaz and beryl, among others.

The Urals have large deposits of gold, platinum, coal, iron, nickel, silver, oil and other minerals.

Flora and fauna

The Urals are considered the backbone of Russian wilderness, with a diverse plant and wildlife population.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521829281&ss=exc The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages - Cambridge University Press]

External links

Coordinates: 60°00′N 60°00′E / 60°N 60°E / 60; 60

Advertisements

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Urals article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Urals

The Urals is a common geographical name of the area of Russia around the Ural Mountains. It is a vast territory which includes major cities like Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk, as well as parts of the polar areas. The Ural mountains are among the oldest mountains on Earth and are generally not very high, more often looking like large hills, though there are some taller ones, too. Travellers to Urals should not miss Yekaterinburg; usually it is a starting point of any trip to the Urals.

Bashkortostan
Chelyabinsk Oblast
Khantia-Mansia
Kurgan Oblast
Orenburg Oblast
Perm Krai
Sverdlovsk Oblast
Tyumen Oblast
Yamalia

Cities

The most significant cities in the Ural region are Yekaterinburg and Ufa. Other major cities that have a population of over one million people include Chelyabinsk.

Understand

Except for the polar and northern sections, the mountains are forested, and lumbering is an important industry. The great mineral resources of Russia are in the Urals. Iron ore is mined in the south, and there are rich deposits of coal, copper, manganese, gold, aluminum, and potash. Oil fields and refineries along the Kama and Belaya rivers in the W Urals produce oil. Emeralds, chrysoberyl, topaz, and amethyst are mined, as are deposits of bauxite, asbestos, zinc, lead, silver, platinum, nickel, chrome, and tungsten.

The Urals industrial area (c.290,000 sq mi/751,100 sq km), a major Russia metallurgical region, is in the central and S Urals and the adjacent lowlands. Huge industrial centers are found at Yekaterinburg, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Berezniki, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk, Orenburg, Ufa, Miass and Zlatoust.

Get around

The major forms of transportation between cities in the Ural region include train, bus, electric train, and airplane.

For inner-city travel, most cities offer a combination of these services: bus, trolleybus, and tramvai.

In any Russian city, however, you can find a taxi with great ease. Simply stand on the side of the road, and hold your hand out at waist level. Within a minute or two, someone will stop to ask you where you're going. In the Urals, short trips generally cost between 50 and 80 rubles (USD2-3), while longer, cross-town trips may cost over 100 rubles (over USD3). Always be wary, however, when flagging down a taxi in Russia. It is not recommended to get into a car with two or more males or with suspicious-looking individuals. You shouldn't expect to run into problems, but it's always better to play it safe in Russia.

See

Often overlooked, Tobolsk never should be. It was historically the capital of Siberia, home to history's most notorious monk, Rasputin, and houses Asia's only kremlin, full of cathedrals and churches.

Eat

The Urals region is famous for its pelmeni, small dumplings usually stuffed with beef and eaten in large quantities topped with butter, vinegar, sour cream, or a combination of the three.

Get out

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

URAL MOUNTAINS, a system of mountains which extends from the Arctic Ocean southwards nearly to the Caspian Sea, and is regarded as separating Europe from Asia. Russians describe them either as Kamen (stone) merely, or by the appropriate name of Poyas (girdle), while the name of Urals (Uraly,- derived either from the Ostyak urr (chain of mountains) or from the Turkish aral-tau or ural-tau - has with them become a generic name for extensive mountain chains. Although the real structure of the Urals, both orographical and geological, is imperfectly ascertained, enough is known to warrant the statement that they have been affected by a series of separate upheavals, some having a north-western strike and some a north-eastern, and that they reach their maximum altitudes along a zone stretching nearly north and south. The composite nature of the Urals is best seen at the northern and southern extremities of the system, where the upheavals assume the character of distinct chains of mountains.

The Pae-khoy or coast ridge (Samoyedic "stony ridge") is quite independent of the Urals proper, from which it is separated by a marshy tundra, some 30 m. wide. It has a distinct north-northwesterly and north-westerly trend along the shores of the Kara Sea; and, although it is cut through by the Ugrian Strait (Yugorskiyshar), there is no doubt that it is continued in Vaygach Island and Novaya-Zemlya. Its dome-shaped summits, which rise 1000 ft. above the tundra (Vozaipae, 1312 ft.), are completely destitute of trees, and its stony crags are separated by broad marshy tundras. The Obdorsk or Northern Urals, which begin within a few miles of the head of Kara Bay (Konstantinov Kamen, in 68° 30' N., 1465 ft.), and extend south-west as far as the 64th parallel, form a distinct range, stony and craggy, sloping steeply towards the southeast and gently towards the marshes of European Russia. Its highest elevations (e.g. Khard-yues, 3715 ft., and Pae-yer, 4650 ft.) are on the 66th and 67th parallels. Sometimes the main chain has on the west two or three secondary chains, formed by the upheaval of sedimentary rocks, and it is towards the southern extremity of one of these that the highest peaks of the Urals occur (Sablya, 5135 ft., in 6 4° 47' N., and Toll-poz-iz or Murai-chakhl, 5535 ft. in 6 3° 55'). Dense forests, chiefly fir, pine and larch, clothe the slopes of the mountains and the narrow valleys; but, as the less hospitable latitudes are approached, every species except the larch gradually disappears and the upper limit of vegetation (2400 ft. in the south) rapidly descends till it reaches the very base of the mountains towards the Arctic Circle, and forest vegetation disappears altogether about 65° N. (67° in the plains of Russia and Siberia).

Although usually reckoned to the Northern Urals, the section between 64° and 61° N. has again a wholly distinct character. Here the main chain (or, more correctly, the main water-parting) of the Urals is a succession of plateaus stretching in a north-westerly direction, and dimpled with broad, flat, marshy valleys, rising here and there into isolated dome-shaped, flattened summits, mostly under 3000 ft. (Yang-tump, 62° 43' N., 4170 ft.). The whole region, except the mountain summits, is densely clothed with coniferous forests, birch appearing only occasionally in the south, and even the Scotch pine only in a few valleys. This part of the range is also uninhabited.

The Middle Urals, between 61° and 55° 30' N. and about 80 m. in breadth, are the best known, as they contain the richest iron, copper and gold mines (Bogoslovsk, Goroblagodatsk and Ekaterinburg Urals). The Denezhkin Kamen in the north (5355 ft.) and the Tara-tash in the south (2800 ft.) may be considered as marking the limits of this section. Here the orographical structure is still more complicated. In the north (61st to 60th parallel) there is a succession of chains with a distinct north-eastern trend; and it still remains an open question whether, for two degrees farther south, the whole of the Bogoslovsk Urals (4795 ft. in the Konzhaliovski-Kamen, and from 3000 to 4000 ft. in several other summits) do not consist of chains having the same direction. South of Kachkanar (2885 ft.), i.e. from the 58th to the 56th parallel, the Urals assume the appearance of broad swellings woo to 2000 ft. in height, deeply trenched by ravines. These low and ravine-broken plateaus, the higher parts of which can be reached from Russia on a very gentle gradient, have been utilized for centuries as the chief highway to Siberia. The water-parting between the Russian and Siberian rivers is here not more than 1245 ft. above sea-level on the great Russo-Siberian highway (W. of Ekaterinburg). The eastern slope is steeper, but even there Ekaterinburg is only 435 ft. below the water-parting. The valleys have a decidedly south-eastern direction, and such is also the course of the railway from Perm to Tyumen, as soon as it reaches the Siberian slope. The Middle Urals are densely forested. The valleys and lower slopes are covered with a thick sheet of rich humus and have become the site of large and wealthy villages. The mines also support a considerable population.

The Southern Urals (55° 30' to 51° N.), instead of being made up of three chains of mountains radiating from Mount Yurma, as was formerly supposed, consist of three parallel chains running northeast and south-west, and therefore constitute a quite independent part of the Ural system. The Urals proper are a low sinuous chain extending due south-west and hardly exceeding 2200 to 2800 ft. in altitude. They slope gently towards the north-west and abruptly towards the south-east, where several short, low spurs (Ilmen, Irenly) rise in the basins of the Miyas and the Ui. In the west a chain, separated from the main range, or Ural-tau, by a longitudinal valley, accompanies it throughout its entire length. This, although pierced by the rivers which rise in the longitudinal valley just mentioned (Ai, Upper Byelaya), nevertheless rises to a much greater height than the main range. Its wild stony crest reaches an extreme altitude of 5230 f t. Farther west, another series of chains reach nearly the same altitudes. The gorges by which the rivers pierce the Devonian limestones on their way towards the lower terraces are most picturesque in the west, where the Urals assume an alpine character. The forests are no longer continuous; the gentle slopes of the hilly tracts are dotted with woods, mostly of deciduous trees, while the hollows contain rich pasture grounds. The whole region, formerly the exclusive abode of the Bashkirs, is being colonized by Russians.

Farther south, between the 53rd and 51st parallels, the main range continues in the same direction, and, except when deeply trenched by the rivers, assumes the appearance of a plateau which hardly reaches 1500 ft. It is continued farther south-west (towards the Volga) under the name of Obshchiy Syrt.

As a rule, the Urals are not considered to continue south of the great bend of the Ural river, where quite independent ranges of hills, or flat swellings, appear (e.g. Dzhaman-tau, Mugodzhar Hills). It appears, however, that the Mugodzhar Hills may safely be regarded as an actual prolongation of the upheavals which constitute the Urals. These consist of diorites and crystalline slates, and reach their maximum in Airyuk (1885 ft.). A range of heights connects the Mugodzhar Hills with the Ust-Urt plateau (see Transcaspian Region).

Geology

The Ural Mountains are - no more than the western edge of a broad belt of folding of which the greater part is buried beneath the Tertiary deposits of western Siberia. Throughout the greater portion of the chain a broad strip of granites, diorites, peridotites, gneisses and other crystalline rocks rises directly from the Siberian plain, and is covered towards the west by Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic strata, which are thrown into numerous folds parallel to the length of the chain and usually rise to much greater heights than the crystalline zone. In the north, however, folded sedimentary rocks lie to the east as well as to the west of the crystalline axis, and between 60° 40' and 46° 50' N. Fedorov distinguishes three zones: (i.) the eastern hill region, where one finds Mesozoic rocks (Chalk, Jurassic) in the north, and Devonian limestones, porphyrites and quartz-porphyries farther south; in this zone most gold placers are found; (ii.) the central mountain zone consists of various amphibolitic metamorphic slates, and also of syenite and gabbro; granites, gneisses, and occasionally serpentines and porphyrites are found subordinately; and (iii.) the western hilly zone consists chiefly of Carboniferous and PermoCarboniferous deposits; Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and, occasionally, crystalline slates are found in a few meridional ridges. The crystalline rocks are usually believed to be of Archean age. The Carboniferous deposits - coal-bearing in the Middle and Southern Urals - although appearing at the surface only as a narrow strip in the west Urals, occupy an extensive area, but are concealed by the largely developed Permian deposits, and that series of sediments which must be considered as intermediate between the Carboniferous and the Permian. These latter, described as "PermoCarbon" by Russian and German geologists, are largely developed in the west Urals. The Permian deposits cover a wide zone all along the western slope of the Urals from north to south, and are most important on account of their copper ores, salt beds and salt springs. They are also covered with variegated marls which are almost destitute of fossil organisms, so that their age is not yet quite settled.

Metallurgy* and Mining

The mineral wealth of the Urals was known to the Greeks in the 9th century, and afterwards to the Novgorodians, who penetrated there in the i ith century for trade with the Ugrians. When the colonies of Novgorod (Vyatka, Perm) fell under the rule of Moscow, the Russian tsars soon grasped the importance of the Ural mines, and Ivan III. sent out German engineers to explore that region. in 1558 the whole of the present government of Perm was granted by the rulers of Moscow to the brothers Stroganov, who began to establish salt-works and mines for iron and copper. Peter the Great gave a new impulse to the mining industry by founding several iron-works, and from 1745, when gold was first discovered, the Russian colonization of the Urals took a new departure. The colonization was of a double character, being partly free - chiefly by Nonconformists in search of religious freedom - and partly compulsory, - the government sending peasant settlers who became serfs at the iron and copper works. Until 1861 all work at the mines was done by serfs belonging either to private persons (the Stroganovs, Demidovs and others) or to the crown. Not only are the Urals very rich in minerals, but the vast areas covered with forests afford an almost inexhaustible supply of cheap fuel for smelting purposes. Thus for a long time the Urals were the chief mining region in Russia. But when coal began to be used for smelting purposes, south Russia generally, and Ekaterinoslav in particular, became the chief iron-producing region. Attention has, however, again been directed to the great mineral wealth locked up in the mountain region, and the last two years of the 19th century witnessed a "boom" in the purchase of iron and gold mines by foreign companies. The chief pig-iron and iron-works are at NizhniyTagilsk, and the principal steel-works at Bogoslovsk. The manufacture of agricultural machinery has increased in the southern Urals, especially at Krasno-ufimsk, and the manufacture of tea-urns has grown in importance at Perm.

Gold is met with in the Urals both in veins and in placers; the output increased from about 30,000 oz. in 1883 to three times that amount at the end of the century. The Urals have also rich placers of platinum, often mixed with gold, iridium, osmium and other rare metals, and supply annually some 13,000 ib, i.e. 95% of all the platinum obtained in the world. Silver, mercury, nickel, zinc and cobalt ores are found. Rich mines of copper are found at Turinsk, Gumishev and other places, yielding as much as 5% of pure copper; nickel is obtained at Revdinsk, and the extraction i Comp. Moravia and the Madiars, by K. J. Groth; Zabyelin's History of Russian Life, and the polemics on the subject in Izvestia of the Russ. Geogr. Soc., xix. (1883).

of iron chromates has developed. Coal exists in many places on the western slope of the Urals, mainly on the Yaiva river, in the basin of the Kama, and on the Usva (basin of the Chusovaya), and about 500,000 tons are raised annually. Several beds of coal have been found on the eastern slope; excellent anthracite exists at Irbit and good coal at Kamyshlov. Sapphires, emeralds, beryls, chrysoberyls, tourmalines, aquamarines, topaz, amethysts, rockcrystals, garnets and many kinds of jade, malachite and marble are cut and polished at several stone-cutting works, especially at Ekaterinburg; and diamond-mining may prove successful. Good asbestos is extracted, and pyrites is worked for the manufacture of sulphuric acid Many varieties of mineral waters occur in the Urals, the best being those at Serginsk, Klyuchevsk and Elovsk.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Ural Mountains

Plural
-

Ural Mountains

  1. a range of mountains in Russia that stretch from the Arctic to the Caspian Sea; traditionally, the border between Europe and Asia

Synonyms

Translations


Simple English

File:Ural Mountains Map.gif
Map of the Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (Russian: Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia.

Geography

[[File:|thumb|left|The Village of Kolchedan in the Ural Mountains in 1912]]

The Urals stretch 2,500 km from the Kazakh steppes along the northern border of Kazakhstan to the coast of the Arctic ocean. The island of Novaya Zemlya forms a further continuation of the chain. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between Asian and European sections of the Eurasian continent. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya (Poznurr, 1895 m). [[File:|thumb]]

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message