Urals: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Riphean redirects here. For the time period, see Riphean (stage)
The Ural Mountains
Countries Russia, Kazakhstan
Regions Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Perm Krai, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, West Kazakhstan
Highest point Mount Narodnaya
 - elevation 1,895 m (6,217 ft)
Period Carboniferous

The Ural Mountains (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры, Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals) are a mountain range that runs roughly north-south through western Russia. They are usually considered the natural boundary between Europe and Asia.

In Greco-Roman antiquity, Pliny the Elder thought that the Urals correspond to the Riphean Mountains mentioned by various authors. They are also known as the Great Stone Belt in Russian history and folklore. According to one explanation, the word Ural is of Turkic origin and means a stone belt.[1]



  • The Southern Urals are broad, moderately high, well-populated and visited by tourists.
  • The Middle Urals, at about the latitude of Moscow, Perm and Yekaterinburg, are fairly low. Most routes between European Russia and Siberia pass here.
  • The Northern Urals are higher, thinly populated and have few roads.
  • The Polar Urals tend somewhat to the northeast and have almost no population.


The Urals extend 2,498 km (1,552 mi) from the Kazakh steppes along the northern border of Kazakhstan to the coast of the Arctic ocean. Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between the continents of Europe and Asia. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya (Poznurr, 1,895 m, 6,217 ft). Erosion has exposed considerable mineral wealth in the Urals, including gems such as topaz and beryl. The Virgin Komi Forests in the northern Urals are recognized as a World Heritage site. Geographers have divided the Urals into five regions: South, Middle, North, Subarctic and Arctic. The tree line drops from 1,400 meters (4,593 ft) to sea level as one progresses north. Sections of the south and middle regions are completely forested.


The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. For its age of 250 to 300 million years, the elevation of the mountains is unusually high. They were formed during the late Carboniferous period, when western Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (connected to Laurentia (North America) to form the minor supercontinent of Euramerica) and Kazakhstania to form the supercontinent of Laurasia. Later Laurasia and Gondwana collided to form the supercontinent of Pangaea, which subsequently broke itself apart into the seven continents known today. Europe and Siberia have remained joined together ever since.

The Urals were first studied in a systematic way by Russian mineralogist Ernst Karlovich Hofmann (1801-1871) of St. Petersburg University. During his tireless research, which began in 1828, Hofmann travelled thousands of miles in the Urals and gathered a vast collection of minerals, including gold, platinum, magnetite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, chromite, chrysoberyl, quartz, zircon, uvarovite, phenakite, topaz and beryl, among others.

The Urals have large deposits of gold, platinum, coal, iron, nickel, silver, oil and other minerals.

Flora and fauna

The Urals are considered the backbone of Russian wilderness, with a diverse plant and wildlife population.

See also


  1. ^ http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521829281&ss=exc The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages - Cambridge University Press]

External links

Coordinates: 60°00′N 60°00′E / 60°N 60°E / 60; 60


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Urals

The Urals is a common geographical name of the area of Russia around the Ural Mountains. It is a vast territory which includes major cities like Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk, as well as parts of the polar areas. The Ural mountains are among the oldest mountains on Earth and are generally not very high, more often looking like large hills, though there are some taller ones, too. Travellers to Urals should not miss Yekaterinburg; usually it is a starting point of any trip to the Urals.

Chelyabinsk Oblast
Kurgan Oblast
Orenburg Oblast
Perm Krai
Sverdlovsk Oblast
Tyumen Oblast


The most significant cities in the Ural region are Yekaterinburg and Ufa. Other major cities that have a population of over one million people include Chelyabinsk.


Except for the polar and northern sections, the mountains are forested, and lumbering is an important industry. The great mineral resources of Russia are in the Urals. Iron ore is mined in the south, and there are rich deposits of coal, copper, manganese, gold, aluminum, and potash. Oil fields and refineries along the Kama and Belaya rivers in the W Urals produce oil. Emeralds, chrysoberyl, topaz, and amethyst are mined, as are deposits of bauxite, asbestos, zinc, lead, silver, platinum, nickel, chrome, and tungsten.

The Urals industrial area (c.290,000 sq mi/751,100 sq km), a major Russia metallurgical region, is in the central and S Urals and the adjacent lowlands. Huge industrial centers are found at Yekaterinburg, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Berezniki, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk, Orenburg, Ufa, Miass and Zlatoust.

Get around

The major forms of transportation between cities in the Ural region include train, bus, electric train, and airplane.

For inner-city travel, most cities offer a combination of these services: bus, trolleybus, and tramvai.

In any Russian city, however, you can find a taxi with great ease. Simply stand on the side of the road, and hold your hand out at waist level. Within a minute or two, someone will stop to ask you where you're going. In the Urals, short trips generally cost between 50 and 80 rubles (USD2-3), while longer, cross-town trips may cost over 100 rubles (over USD3). Always be wary, however, when flagging down a taxi in Russia. It is not recommended to get into a car with two or more males or with suspicious-looking individuals. You shouldn't expect to run into problems, but it's always better to play it safe in Russia.


Often overlooked, Tobolsk never should be. It was historically the capital of Siberia, home to history's most notorious monk, Rasputin, and houses Asia's only kremlin, full of cathedrals and churches.


The Urals region is famous for its pelmeni, small dumplings usually stuffed with beef and eaten in large quantities topped with butter, vinegar, sour cream, or a combination of the three.

Get out

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also ural, and Ural



Wikipedia has an article on:


Proper noun




  1. The Ural Mountains



  • Anagrams of alrsu
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