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Urdu
اُردوُ
Urdu in Persian-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style) URDUARAB.PNG
Pronunciation [ˈʊrduː]
Spoken in Pakistan, India. .Also in various countries due to immigration, USA, UK, Germany, Canada, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Fiji, Afghanistan and Burma (Myanmar).^ Most countries including US, UK, Canada and India celebrate Fathers Day on the third Sunday of June.
  • Urdu Hindi sms Messages- Love, Funny, Birthday, Friendship, Cute, Lovely sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lovesmsfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia .
  • Urdu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Region South Asia
Total speakers 200 million to 1 billion total (2007) depending on definition of what constitutes Urdu
Ranking 19–21 (native speakers), in a near tie with Italian and Turkish
Language family Indo-European
Writing system Urdu alphabet (Nastaʿlīq script)
Official status
Official language in Pakistan Pakistan
India India
Regulated by National Language Authority, (Pakistan);

National Council for Promotion of Urdu language, (India)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ur
ISO 639-2 urd
ISO 639-3 urd
.This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.^ Note : This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unicode is the standard character set for such things nowadays and the Arabic script part of it contains characters for Arabic, Persian, Urdu, etc.
  • Procrastination » Urdu Blogging and Web 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: General]

^ Note: Without the font change, some Urdu characters may not be rendered properly.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu (Urdu: اُردوُ, Hindi: उर्दू ; IPA: [ˈʊrduː]  ( listen)) is a Central Indo-Aryan language[1][2] of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages.^ Indo-Iranian group of languages.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Indo-Iranian group of languages 2) Indic Group of languages 3) The Semitic Group of languages 4) The Latin Group of languages 5) The Chinese Group of languages 6) The American Group of languages 7) The African Group of languages Other .
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen many scholars express the view that Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the two official languages (the other being English) of Pakistan.^ Kashmiri is one of India's "official" languages.
  • Urdu Unicode Fonts 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.wazu.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shares official language status with English.
  • Urdu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of five Indian states.^ Kashmiri is one of India's "official" languages.
  • Urdu Unicode Fonts 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.wazu.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ URDU LANGUAGE FACTS Urdu is one of the 22 official Indian languages and is also the national language of Pakistan.
  • Urdu Translation,Urdu Translation Services,Urdu Translators,Urdu Language Translation,Indian Translation Services,English to Urdu Translation Services, Language Translation Services,Translation servies 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

.Its vocabulary developed under Persian, Arabic and Turkic.^ Urdu poetry: Encyclopedia - Urdu Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800).

^ Urdu: Encyclopedia - Urdu Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800).

^ Pashto vocabulary has borrowed heavily from the Arabic and Persian, just as any other language of this region.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times Urdu vocabulary has been significantly influenced by English.^ This exercise is also expanding the already rich and fertile vocabulary of the Urdu language, with words from Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Baluchi, Kashmiri, Brahui, English and Hindi.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, its vocabulary was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian right from the time when it began to develop as a separate language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically Urdu vocabulary has drawn from Persian, Turkic, Arabic and Sanskrit, in modern times Punjabi and English have also contributed to its development.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Urdu was mainly developed in western Uttar Pradesh, India, which is the seat of Hindustani languages in the Indian Subcontinent, but began taking shape during the Delhi Sultanate as well as Mughal Empire (1526–1858) in South Asia.^ The language was developed for and used in the Muslim courts of Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire [1200-1800].
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Translator from English to India Urdu language?
  • GetAFreelancer.com - Translator from English to India Urdu language? | Translation | Windows 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.getafreelancer.com [Source type: General]

^ It developed under Persian and Arabic, to some lesser degree also under Turkic influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1526–1858 AD).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is the means of communication between the people from various provinces and regions of Pakistan, and the Pakistanis and Indians too.^ Urdu means lashkar (a conglomeration of people from various backgrounds).
  • Urdu ke Naam - اردو كے نام: February 2005 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC urdu-ke-naam.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ What varies between regions of the Indian subcontinent is the spicing.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Another factor in decline of Urdu is the reduced contact between the Guyanese people of south asian extraction and between Indians and Pakistanis.The second blow came when the Muslim community gradually moved fromits Indianess towards Arabness and as a result, Urdu suffered.
  • Urdu ke Naam - اردو كے نام: February 2005 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC urdu-ke-naam.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Due to historical affinities and a large number of Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Urdu is already read, understood and spoken by most Afghans.^ Punjabi sms Shayari Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu Hindi sms Messages- Love, Funny, Birthday, Friendship, Cute, Lovely sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lovesmsfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Moreover, this has also enabled nearly 3-5 million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins [such as Pathan, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi and Turkmen] to become fluent in the Urdu language, blending with the mainstream urban Pakistan.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu sms | Christmas sms | Happy New year sms | Hindi sms | Dewali sms | Birthday sms | Top sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.topsmsvideo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Language scholars independently categorize Urdu as a standardized register of Hindustani (literally translated means belonging to Hindustan) [4][5][6] termed the standard dialect Khariboli.^ The degree of politeness and formality expressed is an important characteristic of the language, Rekhta can be said to be the informal register of Urdu.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Standard Urdu has anywhere between 60 to 80 million speakers and ranks twentieth among the most widely spoken languages of the world.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with this general article on the Urdu language, Wikipedia provides separate, main articles on Hindi-Urdu Phonology , Hindustani Orthography , Urdu Alphabet and Hindi-Urdu Grammar .
  • Urdu Resources 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.govtilr.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdu.^ The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, the term "Urdu" can encompass dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised versions.^ In general, the term " Urdū " can encompass dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised versions.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with this general article on the Urdu language, Wikipedia provides separate, main articles on Hindi-Urdu Phonology , Hindustani Orthography , Urdu Alphabet and Hindi-Urdu Grammar .
  • Urdu Resources 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.govtilr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Hindi and Urdu — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Hindi and Urdu have always been separate languages.
  • Urdu Interpreter and Urdu Translation Services Medical Legal by MEJ in New York City NJ NYC USA needed 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.mejpbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original language of the Mughals was Chagatai, a Turkic language, but after their arrival in South Asia, they came to adopt Persian.^ Urdu poetry: Encyclopedia - Urdu Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800).

^ Urdu: Encyclopedia - Urdu Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800).

^ They wrote the curriculums for the schools, and took Islam to the nooks and coreners of South Asia.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gradually, the need to communicate with local inhabitants led to a composition of Sanskrit derived languages, written in the Perso-Arabic script and with literary conventions and specialised vocabulary being retained from Persian, Arabic and Turkic; the new dialect was eventually given its own name of Urdu.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Urdu Interpreter and Urdu Translation Services Medical Legal by MEJ in New York City NJ NYC USA needed 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.mejpbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they wanted to communicate they spoke their own languages and dialects.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.The word Urdu is believed to be derived from the Turkic or Mongolian word 'Ordu', which means army encampment.^ Urdu or Askasi was a Turkish word which means “lashkar” or army from a camp.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please describe three words in Urdu - Can any one tell meaning of these words.
  • Urdu Information And Discussions About This Language. 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: General]

^ The word Urdū itself comes from the Turkish word ordu , "tent" or "army", from which we get the word "horde".
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9][10] .It was initially called Zabān-e-Ordu-e-Mu'alla "language of the Exalted Camp" (in Persian) and later just Urdu.^ Pashto vocabulary has borrowed heavily from the Arabic and Persian, just as any other language of this region.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Moalla (زبانﹺ اردوﹺ معلہ), the "Language of Camp and Court".

^ Certain segments of the Hindu political establishemnt wanted to REPLACE Urdu and and Persian as the official language of the court and government.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] It obtained its name from Urdu Bazar, i.e. encampment (Urdu in Turkic) market, the market near the Red Fort in the walled city of Delhi.[12][13]
.Standard Urdu has approximately the twentieth largest population of native speakers, among all languages.^ Standard Urdū has approximately the twentieth largest population of native speakers, among all languages.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language and standard Urdu is the twentieth most populous language in the world, totalling over 60 million people.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taken by itself, Urdu is approximately the twentieth most populous natively spoken language in the world, and is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 24 national languages of India.

.Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi, another standardised form of Hindustani.^ Urdū is often contrasted with Hindi, another standardised form of Hindustani.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu along with Hindi is a standardized form of Hindustani.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (Hindustani).
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic script and draws vocabulary more heavily from Persian and Arabic,[15] while Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit comparatively[16] more heavily.^ The difference between the two are that while Urdu is written in Nastaliq script and is heavily influenced by Arabic, Persian and Turkish, the Hindi language as replaced some of its those “Urdu” words with Sanskrit words and is written in Devangari.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are more consonants present in Hindi compared to Urdu and Urdu writing is not as exact as Hindi/ Sanskrit.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Most linguists nonetheless consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standardized forms of the same language;[17][18] others classify them separately [19], while some consider any differences to be sociolinguistic.^ Urdu vs Hindi - What is the difference??
  • Urdu Information And Discussions About This Language. 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: General]

^ Urdu , Farsi and other Eastern languages.

^ Urdu: Encyclopedia II - Urdu - Urdu and Hindi Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi are distinct languages.

[20] .It should be noted, however, that mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts.^ Note however, that context can change the value of a vowel diacritic (such as a following ain or he ) - these are detailed below the table.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, due to religious nationalism since the partition of British India and consequent continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi and Urdu increasingly assert them to be completely distinct languages.^ But native speakers of both languages don't agree with this view.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urdu: Encyclopedia II - Urdu - Urdu and Hindi Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi are distinct languages.

^ Pakistan’s national anthem can be understood in BOTH languages, Urdu, and Persian.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Speakers and geographic distribution

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla ("The language of the exalted camp") written in Nastaʿlīq script.
.There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdu (Khari Boli).^ There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdū ( Khari Boli ).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard Urdu has anywhere between 60 to 80 million speakers and ranks twentieth among the most widely spoken languages of the world.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language and standard Urdu is the twentieth most populous language in the world, totalling over 60 million people.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the SIL Ethnologue (1999 data), Urdu اردو/Hindi is the fifth most spoken language in the world.^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ According to the SIL ethnologue (1999 data), Hindi/ Urdu is the fifth most spoken language in the world.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is.

[21] .According to George Weber’s article Top Languages: The World’s 10 Most Influential Languages in Language Today, Hindi/Urdu is the fourth most spoken language in the world, with 4.7 percent of the world's population, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish.^ I can interpret in a combination of English with Punjabi, Hindi and Urdu /­spoken.

^ English /­Spanish into Urdu .

^ According to Comerie (1998 data), Hindi- Urdu is the second most spoken language in the world, with 330 million native speakers, after Mandarin and possibly English.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Due to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan itself.^ Other related archivesIndia, Pakistan, Urdu, language, rhyming .

^ Punjabi sms Shayari Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu Hindi sms Messages- Love, Funny, Birthday, Friendship, Cute, Lovely sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lovesmsfun.com [Source type: General]

^ At Tomedes Urdu translation services are available not only to and from a large number of languages but also for a variety of domains including literary translation, scientific translation, business translation, academic translation and web site translation among many others.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words from Pakistani languages like Pashto, Punjabi and Sindhi, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani Flavour.^ Urdu also has similarity with Punjabi language and its dialects, and the Punjabi speakers of Pakistan and India can easily pick the Urdu speech.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sindhi, and Pashto are both big languages and their speakers are proud of them.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Pakistan, the Urdu vocabulary has borrowed significantly from Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashto.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since recent times.^ In India, Urdu dialects include Khariboli as spoken in the Punjab region and Dakhni, as spoken in South India.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dakkhini Urdū is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu sms | Christmas sms | Happy New year sms | Hindi sms | Dewali sms | Birthday sms | Top sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.topsmsvideo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another at a basic level if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary.^ It is one of the root languages of Urdu.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ Because of Urdū 's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another, if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some linguists count them as being part of the same language diasystem.^ Indeed, linguists sometimes count them as being part of the same language diasystem.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other characters are used that are not generally counted as part of the alphabet.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However some linguists proclaim that both Persian and Urdu belong to the Indo-European group of languages and have a common base.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23][24] and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons.[25] .It learned as a second or third language.^ For those Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue, Urdu is typically their second or third language.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ An added complication, in this case, is that there are many other languages in the area under discussion, and a majority of the population is neither a native speaker of Urdu or of Hindi, but rather has learned Urdu or Hindi as a second or third language.
  • Language Log » Terrorist speech recognition? 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly 93% of Pakistan's population has a mother tongue other than Urdu.^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ For those Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue, Urdu is typically their second or third language.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Taken by itself, Urdu is approximately the twentieth most populous natively spoken language in the world, and is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 24 national languages of India.

.Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other.^ Urdu , Farsi and other Eastern languages.

^ A composite popular culture is emerging on the basis of this language mix, a mix which is preferred as lingua franca among both Hindus and Muslims in the entire Gangetic belt, over a highly Sanskritised Hindi or a Persianised Urdu.
  • http://www.urdustan.net/blog/2005_11_01_archive.html 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urdustan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue, Urdu is typically their second or third language.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta and Sargodha.^ In Pakistan , Urdū is spoken and understood by a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan , Peshawar, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Sukkur and Sargodha.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also spoken in urban Afghanistan, in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia.
  • Professional Urdu Translation Services | Sure Languages 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyderabad is also the name of a city in Sindh about a hundred miles north of Karachi.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.It is written, spoken and used in all Provinces/Territories of Pakistan despite the fact that the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as from the fact that it is the "base language" of the country.^ Urdū is used as the official language in all provinces of Pakistan .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdū is the national language of Pakistan and is spoken and understood throughout the country.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All provinces of Pakistan voted to accept Urdu as the provincial languages.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems.^ It is also taught as a compulsory language up to high school in both the English and Urdū medium school systems.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balochi, Brahvi and Pashto were introduced as the compulsory medium of instruction in government schools in 1990 (LAD-Bal 21 June and 15 April 1990).
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus both recipient and sender must have the Active-X plug-in installed on their system to send/recieve urdu e-mails.

.This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose mother tongue is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Potwari, Hindko, Pahari, Saraiki, and Brahui but they can read and write only Urdu.^ It is estimated that around a quarter of Quetta’s one million people are Brahui speakers.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They read only English books and not Urdu ones nor those in other languages.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has produced millions of Urdū speakers whose mother tongue is one of the regional languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Hindko, Sindhi, Pashto, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Balochi, Siraiki, and Brahui.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan.^ Since it is spoken in many parts of the world, Urdu has become localized under the influence of local languages and cultures of the regions where it is spoken.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Baluch courts of pre-Independence Sub-Continent, the British used the Roman script for the Baluchi, as they used for many other regional languages.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the immigrant residents of this region need Urdu translation and interpretation because this area is home to many people that have moved recently or a long time from Pakistan.
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This variation of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu. .So while most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the mother tongue only of an estimated 7% of the population, mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of South Asia (India, Burma, Bangladesh etc.^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ For those Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue, Urdu is typically their second or third language.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language and standard Urdu is the twentieth most populous language in the world, totalling over 60 million people.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary.^ It also has been influenced by other regional languages, besides them.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Hindi and Urdu as separate languages.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it is spoken in many parts of the world, Urdu has become localized under the influence of local languages and cultures of the regions where it is spoken.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are millions of Pakistanis whose mother tongue is not Urdu, but since they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language.^ For those Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue, Urdu is typically their second or third language.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ Punjabi sms Shayari Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu Hindi sms Messages- Love, Funny, Birthday, Friendship, Cute, Lovely sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lovesmsfun.com [Source type: General]

.Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu.^ Moreover, this has also enabled nearly 3-5 million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins [such as Pathan, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi and Turkmen] to become fluent in the Urdu language, blending with the mainstream urban Pakistan.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Punjabi sms Shayari Punjabi is the native language of Punjab-India, the prominent language of Sikhs, the most common language in Pakistan and the spoken language of millions.
  • Urdu Hindi sms Messages- Love, Funny, Birthday, Friendship, Cute, Lovely sms 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.lovesmsfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Hindi and Urdu as separate languages.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has in recent years acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further.^ URDU Urdu is a language spoken and understood by about a billion people on this planet.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries with large numbers of Urdū speakers: .
  • Urdu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries with large numbers of native Urdū speakers: .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Autograph and a couplet of Last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, dated 29th April 1844
.A great number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan).^ The number of language listed for Pakistan is 69.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Tomedes Urdu translation services are available not only to and from a large number of languages but also for a variety of domains including literary translation, scientific translation, business translation, academic translation and web site translation among many others.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See how the commenter names in Urdu are misaligned with the numbers and the brackets.
  • Procrastination » Urdu/اردو 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.zackvision.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past.^ In India, Urdū is spoken in places where there are large Muslim majorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In India, Urdu dialects include Khariboli as spoken in the Punjab region and Dakhni, as spoken in South India.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, there is a country right next door to India, namely Pakistan, where Urdu is supposed to be the major national language!
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.These include parts of Uttar Pradesh(Awadh), Areas of Former State of Hyderabad and cities namely Lucknow, Delhi, Meerut,Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Nanded, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.^ Hyderabad is also the name of a city in Sindh about a hundred miles north of Karachi.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdū include Hyderabad, Karachi, Lucknow and Lahore.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides being the second language of all four provinces of Pakistan, it is widely spoken in Azad Kashmir, Northern Areas, Indian occupied Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Hyderabad (Deccan), Andhra Pradesh and many other states of India.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams.^ Some Indian states also recognize Urdu as a state language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Indian schools teach Urdū as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Urdu & Indian languages.

.Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu.^ Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teaching Arabic to Urdu and English speakers.

^ Meant to teach Urdu to Arabic speaking people, it contains sentences for a variety of every day life situations.
  • Albalagh Islamic Bookstore (Education->Learn Urdu) 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.albalagh.net [Source type: General]

.India has more than 3,000 Urdu publications including 405 daily Urdu newspapers.^ India has more than 2,900 daily Urdū newspapers.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, studies reporting validation of questionnaires in Urdu for uses other than measuring psychiatric symptoms were not included.
  • Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: a systematic review 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Here is what an Indian historian (In an interesting article on Urdu: A Historian Looks at Hindi-Urdu Debate 8 December 1995; Copyright: India Abroad Publications) says about Urdu and Hindi: .
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newspapers such as Sahara Urdu, Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bengaluru, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai (see List of newspapers in India).^ Newspapers such as Daily Salar, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the 23 official languages of India (about 250 million speakers) including parts of Uttar Pradesh (such as Lucknow), Delhi, Kashmir, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Urdu-language daily Rashtriya Sahara , he added: “It has been polluted by the sewerage water from factories and cities flowing into it.

.Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia.^ Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside South Asia, it is spoken by emigrant South Asian workers.
  • Urdu Translation Services | Free Urdu Translation Quotation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major Hindi- Urdu South Asian film industries, Bollywood and Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, Norway, and Australia.^ Urdū is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centers of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Norway and Australia.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdū is also spoken by Pakistani immigrants in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Norway and Australia.
  • Professional Urdu Translation Services | Sure Languages 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also spoken in urban Afghanistan, in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia.
  • Professional Urdu Translation Services | Sure Languages 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Along with Arabic, Urdu is among the immigrant languages with most speakers in Catalonia.^ We can offer a multitude of languages from Arabic to Urdu .

^ Teaching Arabic to Urdu and English speakers.

^ Most of the languages of Pakistan have based their scripts on the Arabic [along with Persian] script.
  • UrbanPK.com 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urbanpk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
Countries with large numbers of native Urdu speakers:
Country No of speakers as per year % of total population Reference/Note
India 51,536,111 2001 58.2%
Pakistan 38,765,000 2001 44.2%
United Kingdom 300,000 2008 est.
Bangladesh 50,000 0.06%
United Arab Emirates 200,000 1.1% [citation needed]
Saudi Arabia 282,000 12.43%
United States 150,000 0.1% [citation needed]
Afghanistan 120,000 0.8% [citation needed]
Canada 56,415 2006 0.5%
Oman 90,000 2.8% [citation needed]
Bahrain 80,000 11.3% [citation needed]
Mauritius 74,000 5.6% [citation needed]
Qatar 70,000 8% [citation needed]
Germany 50,000 [citation needed]
Cuba 1,000 [citation needed]
Norway 27,700 2006
France 20,000 [citation needed]
Spain (Catalonia) 18,000 2004
Sweden 10,000 2001
World Total 88,459,578

Official status

.Urdu is the national and one of the two official languages (Qaumi Zabaan) of Pakistan, the other being English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, while the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages.^ Urdu is one of the official languages of India where it is the official language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ URDU Urdu is a language spoken and understood by about a billion people on this planet.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They read only English books and not Urdu ones nor those in other languages.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is used in education, literature, office and court business.^ It is used in education, literature, office and court business, media, and in religious institutions.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .It holds in itself a repository of the cultural and social heritage of the country.^ It holds in itself a repository of the cultural, religious and social heritage of the country.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu is the lingua franca national language in Pakistan.^ But the language used in many of these movies is exactly the language used by Urdu speakers in Pakistan.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan’s national anthem can be understood in BOTH languages, Urdu, and Persian.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She knows Urdu well, but uses English.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is also one of the officially recognised languages in India[41] and has official language status in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,[42], Andhra Pradesh,Chattisgarh and the national capital, New Delhi.^ Urdu is one of the official languages of India where it is the official language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is the state language of the Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The importance of Urdu in the Muslim world is visible in the Holy cities of Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia, where most informational signage is written in Arabic, English and Urdu, and sometimes in other languages.^ Ability to mix Urdu, Sindhi, Arabic, English or any other language in a single line.

^ Urdu , Farsi and other Eastern languages.

^ Urdu by itself is the twentieth most popular 'first' language in the world.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite being the national language of Pakistan, it is not native to the country, but was introduced by Urdu-speaking immigrants from India.^ RE: Urdu for India versus Urdu for Pakistan .

^ Pakistan’s national anthem can be understood in BOTH languages, Urdu, and Persian.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today the Urdu language is the national language of the republic of Pakistan and is a constitutionally recognized language of the republic of India.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu was not spoken as a native language in the area that would become Pakistan before the Partition of India, although it was taught as literary language.^ RE: Urdu for India versus Urdu for Pakistan .

^ As spoken language : Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: India , Pakistan , Urdu: A history of the language .
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dialects

.Urdu has four recognised dialects: Dakhni, Pinjari, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region).^ In India, Urdu dialects include Khariboli as spoken in the Punjab region and Dakhni, as spoken in South India.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urdū has four recognised dialects: Dakhini, Pinjari, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdū (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other prominent dialects of the language include Rekhta, Pinjari and Modern Vernacular Urdu which is used in the Delhi region in India and is based on Khariboli.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sociolinguists also consider Urdu itself one of the four major variants of the Hindi-Urdu dialect continuum.^ Sociolinguists also consider Urdū iself one of the four major variants of the Hindi- Urdū dialect continuum.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muslim students in India must be allowed to take urdu as one of the languages in schools besides English, Hindi and regional languages in State boards and University examinations.
  • Real action for Urdu language (Asal Koshish Urdu Zaban Ke Liye) - Petitions - Action Tools - TakingITGlobal 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC petitions.tigweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major Hindi- Urdu South Asian film industries, Bollywood and Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Dakhni (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India.^ Dakkhini Urdū is a dialect of the Urdu language spoken in the Deccan region of southern India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dakhini (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Maharashtra state in India and around Hyderabad.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In India, Urdu dialects include Khariboli as spoken in the Punjab region and Dakhni, as spoken in South India.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu language, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a native speaker is their pronunciation of the letter "qāf" (ﻕ) as "kh" (ﺥ). .Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.^ Dakhini (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Maharashtra state in India and around Hyderabad.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is widely spoken today in both India and Pakistan and all countries having a sizeable South Asian Diaspora.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India.^ Other prominent dialects of the language include Rekhta, Pinjari and Modern Vernacular Urdu which is used in the Delhi region in India and is based on Khariboli.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As long as the other person has the font installed they will be able to read Urdu text.

.A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states.^ Newspapers such as Daily Salar, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In actuality there are more than one Urdu dailies in England, and several weeklies from New York and Los Angeles and many cities have periodicals.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Munawar Anees adds: “There is at least one Urdu daily out of London but none in Hindi…and there is a Urdu daily coming out from the Gulf; several dozen monthly, quarterly and annual magazines published by the immigrant community”.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pakistani variant of the language spoken in Pakistan; it becomes increasingly divergent from the Indian dialects and forms of Urdu as it has absorbed many loan words, proverbs and phonetics from Pakistan's indigenous languages such as Pashto, Panjabi and Sindhi.^ As spoken language : Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Pakistan, the Urdu vocabulary has borrowed significantly from Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashto.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urdū is the lingua franca of Pakistan and is absorbing many words from regional languages of Pakistan.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, due to the region's history, the Urdu dialect of Pakistan draws heavily from the Persian and Arabic languages, and the intonation and pronunciation are informal compared with corresponding Indian dialects.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Pakistan’s national anthem can be understood in BOTH languages, Urdu, and Persian.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect.^ In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdū poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The degree of politeness and formality expressed is an important characteristic of the language, Rekhta can be said to be the informal register of Urdu.
  • Professional Urdu translation services 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urdu and Hindi have been called different languages on the one hand and dialects of the same language on the other.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Grammar

Levels of formality

Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rekhta (ریختہ, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo'alla (زبان اردو معلہ [zəbaːn eː ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the "Language of Camp and Court".
.The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is.^ The etymology of the word used in the Urdū language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He knows Urdu but uses English words.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb, both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard, meaning "man". The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin.^ Often, this means using poetic Urdū words, of Arabic and Persian origin.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Urdū speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb , both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard , meaning "man".
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand.^ The letter ع is used in words of Arabic origin.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdū , the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand.^ Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdū , the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I am using them to explore the Arabic script as used for Urdu.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.^ If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In more serious speech and writing the Sanskritization or Persianization will become more pronounced.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.That distinction has likenesses with the division between words from a French or Old English origin while speaking English.^ The English word “horde” is of the same origin.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, however, especially in words of Arabic origin such as the equivalent of the English prefix 'un-', the more Arabic form لا is used, eg.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Shabaz Sharif: Speaks better Urdu without using English words.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Politeness

.Urdu is supposed to be a subtle and polished language; a host of words are used in it to show respect and politeness.^ Urdū is supposed to be very subtle and a host of words are used to show respect and politeness.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He knows Urdu but uses English words.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as adab and to some extent as takalluf in Urdu.^ This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as takalluf in Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted.^ These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two words are usually used interchangeably but it is very important to educate the community about the difference and when to use the word "interpret" and when to use the word "translate".
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arabic letters yaa and haa are split into two in Urdū : one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the English pronoun 'you' can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms tu (derogatory) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pan" in Urdu) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful).^ For example, the English pronoun 'you' can be translated into three words in Urdū the singular forms tu (informal, extremely intimate, or derogatory) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pun" in Urdū ) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strictly singular, its plural form would be تُم tum .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Need the translation of this phrase into Urdu ...

Vocabulary

.Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indic and Middle Eastern origins.^ Urdū has a vocabulary rich in words with Indian and Middle Eastern origins.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the middle of a word, even where Noon Ghunna would be appropriate, Urdu just uses the ordinary Noon.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aspirated letters can occur only in the words of Indic origin.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The language's Indic base has been enriched by borrowing from Persian and Arabic.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The borrowings are dominated by words from Persian and Arabic.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one end is a heavily Persianized language which is written in the Nastaliq font and in a modified Arabic script.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English.^ There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English to Turkish English to Ukrainian English to Urdu English to Vietnamese English to Zhuang (Chuang) 1 more pairs .
  • Urdu Translation Jobs 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.proz.com [Source type: General]

^ Since more and more immigrants who are limited English proficient have moved to the USA recently, the need for translating especially legal and medical documents for them has dramatically grown.
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic.^ The letter ع is used in words of Arabic origin.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only used in words of Arabic origin.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Other words have exactly the same pronunciation, spelling, and meaning.^ The words in the original instrument and the translated instrument should have the same meaning.
  • Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: a systematic review 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Urdu word اَرَب [arab] necessity , though pronounced the same, becomes a completely different word by its spelling.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

For instance, the words "Sawaal" (lit. "Question") and "Jawaab" (lit. ."Answer") are exactly the same in both Urdu and Arabic.^ Persian and Urdu have the same syntax…..EXACTLY THE SAME SYNTAX. Most of the nouns are the same.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter "qaaf" ق (key Q) has the same pronunciation in Urdu and Arabic but a different one in Persian.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Urdu, the same vowels do double duty to represent both maaroof and majhool sounds.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Writing system

The Urdu Nastaʿliq alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets

Persian script

.Urdu is written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet.^ Urdu is written using Arabic alphabet, it is ok if an A ...

^ Nowadays, Urdū is generally written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is associated with the Nastaʿlīq script style of Persian calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized Naskh style.^ Urdū is associated with the Nasta’liq style of Arabic calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized Naskh style.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ORIGINS OF URDU Urdu was influenced by Persian and adopted the Persian script as opposed to the Arabic script.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as katib or khush-navees, until the late 1980s.^ Urdu is typically written in a nasta'liq style; ie.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Nasta'liq.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdū newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as katib or khush-navees , until the late 1980s.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kaithi script

.Urdu was also written in the Kaithi script.^ Historically, Urdū was also written in the Kaithi script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is written in the Arabic script like Farsi,.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdu was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh.^ A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdū was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdū and Hindi Kaithi's association with Urdū and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has impacted the British Empire and it effected the lingua franca of the world– English.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu were written officially in the Persian script.^ Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdū was written officially in the Persian script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu uses Arabic and Persian scripts.
  • Urdu Translation,Urdu Translation Services,Urdu Translators,Urdu Language Translation,Indian Translation Services,English to Urdu Translation Services, Language Translation Services,Translation servies 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi.^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As you can see, it is hard to phonetically map the Urdu or Persian alphabet to a Latin-based keyboard!
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Kaithi's association with Urdu and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu.^ Urdu uses Arabic and Persian scripts.
  • Urdu Translation,Urdu Translation Services,Urdu Translators,Urdu Language Translation,Indian Translation Services,English to Urdu Translation Services, Language Translation Services,Translation servies 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdū and Hindi Kaithi's association with Urdū and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Devanagari script

.More recently in India, Urdu speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari.^ More recently in India, Urdū speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari The popular Urdū monthly magazine, महकता आंचल ( Mahakta Anchal ), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end of an Urdu declarative sentence is marked with a small dash rather than a period.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the language used in many of these dramas is exactly the language used by Hindi speakers in India.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .The popular Urdu monthly magazine, महकता आंचल (Mahakta Anchal), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script.^ Urdu uses Arabic and Persian scripts.
  • Urdu Translation,Urdu Translation Services,Urdu Translators,Urdu Language Translation,Indian Translation Services,English to Urdu Translation Services, Language Translation Services,Translation servies 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More recently in India, Urdū speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari The popular Urdū monthly magazine, महकता आंचल ( Mahakta Anchal ), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdu sounds.^ Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdū sounds.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am working with the largest urdu newspaper of the world Jang and my translation experience includes converting English news and articles into ...

^ In Urdu, the same vowels do double duty to represent both maaroof and majhool sounds.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example is the use of अ (Devanagari a) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع (‘ain).^ One example is the use of अ (Devanagari a ) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع ( ‘ain ).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note however, that context can change the value of a vowel diacritic (such as a following ain or he ) - these are detailed below the table.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.To Urdu publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdu when written in Devanagari.^ To Urdū publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdū when written in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Urdu letter je has two distinct visual forms requiring the use of two Unicode characters: this one ی and ے ‎06D2: ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE. .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Roman script

.Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script.^ Urdū is occasionally also written in the Roman script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most major difference between Urdu and Hindi is that Urdu is written in the Nastaliq font of the modified Arabic script while Hindi is written in the Devnagari script.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Urdu Translation Services worldwide 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roman Urdu has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses.^ Roman Urdū has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the nineteenth century, poets like Iqbal used Urdu to rile the masses against the British colonialism.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will be able to use this layout in order to type Urdu characters using the standard English keyboard that came with your Mac.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels.^ The use of Roman Urdū was common in contexts such as product labels.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major Hindi- Urdu South Asian film industries, Bollywood and Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such it is not surprising that Urdu does not use the Arabic script.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions.^ Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdū support on computers and the Internet.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have had 60 years to develop our own army culture which will be hard to translate in case of messages being passed.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Habib R. Sulemani says, "The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world, especially Pakistan, are using Romanised Urdu on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language.^ Urdu to English must be in Pakistan).

^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English to Urdu per word of source language: General= ...

.Typically, in that sense, a person from Islamabad in Pakistan may chat with another in Delhi in India on the Internet only in Roman Urdū.^ A person from Islamabad chats with another in Delhi on the Internet only in Roman Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They both speak the same language but would have different scripts.^ They both speak the same language but with different scripts.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu , and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The “foreign” words of Urdu were taken out, and words Tatsama words (words in the same form as they appear in Sanskrit ) from a dead language called Sanskrit were injected into Urdu.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population."
[47] Roman Urdu also holds significance among the Christians of Pakistan and North India.^ RE: Urdu for India versus Urdu for Pakistan .

^ Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She not only can speak Urdu, she also writes in Urdu.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Karachi and Lahore in present-day Pakistan and Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan in India, during the early part of the nineteenth and twentieth century, and is still used by Christians in these places.^ Urdū is used as the official language in all provinces of Pakistan .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan in the early part of 1900s and is still used by some people in these Indian states.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Pakistan , Urdū is spoken and understood by a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan , Peshawar, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Sukkur and Sargodha.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pakistani and Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū.^ Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdū is occasionally also written in the Roman script.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman Urdū has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Pakistani and Indian Christians in these areas up to the 1960s.^ Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Indian Christians in these states up to the 1960s.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today).^ The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdū enjoyed commanding status in the literary courts of late Muslim rulers and Nawabs, and flourished under their patronage, partially displacing Farsi as the language of elite in the then Indian society.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Bollywood films today present film titles in Roman, although some also include the Hindī and Urdū scripts.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū.^ Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Indian Christians in these states up to the 1960s.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of Roman Urdū was common in contexts such as product labels.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states.^ Urdū uses postpositions where English uses prepositions.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman Urdū has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Phonology

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
ɡ
ɡʱ
q  
Affricate
tʃʰ

dʒʱ
Fricative f s z ʃ x ɣ ɦ
Tap or Flap ɾ (ɽ)
(ɽʱ)
Approximant ʋ l j
Vowels
Hindi vowel chart.png
.A list of the Urdu alphabet and pronunciation is given below.^ A list of the Urdū alphabet and pronunciation is given below.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu words retain Arabic and Persian spellings, and therefore has many irregularities.^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Urdū contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The borrowings are dominated by words from Persian and Arabic.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Arabic letters yaa and haa are split into two in Urdu: one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants.^ The two letters together represent the aspirated consonant [ gʰ ] in Urdu.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The letter ع is used in words of Arabic origin.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The two letters together represent the aspirated b in Urdu.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط (to'e) above the corresponding dental consonants.^ The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط ( to'e ) above the corresponding dental consonants.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the distinction between dental and alveolar (or retroflex) consonants will also pose problems.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu.^ The two letters together represent the aspirated consonant [ gʰ ] in Urdu.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdū .
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two letters together represent the aspirated consonant [ pʰ ] in Urdu.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The National Language Authority of the Government of Pakistan has finalized the list and collating order of Urdu letters.^ After all, there is a country right next door to India, namely Pakistan, where Urdu is supposed to be the major national language!
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, your typed Urdu letters might be displayed in their isolated form from left to right in the order of their entry, without being connected together.
  • Urdu on the Mac 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC patriot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the national language of Pakistan as well as one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
Letter Name of letter Phonemic representation (in IPA)
ا alif /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /ə/, /ɑ/ depending on diacritical marks
ب bay /b/
پ pe /p/
ت te /t̪/ (dental)
ٹ ṭe /ʈ/ (retroflex)
ث se /s/
ج jīm /dʒ/
چ chay /tʃ/
ح baṛī he /h/
خ khe /x/
د dāl /d̪/ (dental)
ڈ ḍāl /ɖ/ (retroflex)
ذ zāl /z/
ر re /r/
ڑ ṛe /ɽ/ (retroflex flap)
ز ze /z/
ژ zhe /ʒ/
س sīn /s/
ش shīn /ʃ/
ص su'ād /s/
ض zu'ād /z/
ط to'e /t/ (dental)
ظ zo'e /z/
ع ‘ain /ɑ/ after a consonant; otherwise /ʔ/, /ə/, or silent.
غ ghain /ɣ/
ف fe /f/
ق qāf /q/
ک kāf /k/
گ gāf /ɡ/
ل lām /l/
م mīm /m/
ن nūn /n/ or a nasal vowel
و vā'o /v/, /u/, /ʊ/, /o/, /ow/
ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ choṭī he /ɑ/ at the end of a word, otherwise /h/ or silent
ھ do cashmī he indicates that the preceding consonant is aspirated (/pʰ/, /t̪ʰ/, /ʈʰ/, /tʃʰ/, /kʰ/) or murmured (/bʱ/, /d̪ʱ/, /ɖʱ/, /dʒʱ/, /ɡʱ/).
ء hamzah /ʔ/ or silent
ی choṭī ye /j/, /i/, /e/, /ɛ/
ے baṛī ye /eː/

Transliteration of Urdu

.Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin alphabet.^ Urdu , Farsi and other Eastern languages.

^ English/­Spanish into Urdu .

^ English into Urdu US based ...

.It should be noted that a comprehensive system has emerged with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as:ژ خ غ ط ص or ق and Hindi for letters such as ڑ.^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Teaching Arabic to Urdu and English speakers.

^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other.^ Certified translator A translator is someone who transmits a written message in one language into a written message in another.
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As on-site realities are understood, barriers of acceptance may be found in many of the larger people groups that will require multiple distinct church planting efforts.
  • Joshua Project - Urdu of Mauritius Ethnic People Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the general skills necessary to do any translation, medical translation requires a thorough knowledge of medical terminology in the two languages involved in the translation, and a real understanding of the concepts involved in the given medical field.
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples

English Urdu Transliteration Notes
Hello السلام علیکم assalāmu ‘alaikum lit. "Peace be upon you." (from Arabic)
Hello و علیکم السلام waˈalaikum assalām lit. "And upon you, peace." Response to assalāmu ‘alaikum (from Arabic)
Hello (آداب (عرض ہے ādāb (arz hai) lit. "Regards (are expressed)", a very formal secular greeting
Goodbye خُدا حافظ khuda hāfiz lit. "May God be your Guardian" (from Persian).
yes ہاں n casual
yes جی formal
yes جی ہاں jī hān confident formal
no نہ casual
no نہیں، جی نہیں nahīn, jī nahīn casual; jī nahīn formal
please مہربانی meharbānī lit. "kindness" Also used for "thank you"
thank you شُکریہ shukrīā from Arabic shukran
Please come in تشریف لائیے tashrīf laīe lit. "(Please) bring your honour"
Please have a seat تشریف رکھیئے tashrīf rakhīe lit. "(Please) place your honour"
I am happy to meet you اپ سے مل کر خوشی ہوئی āp se mil kar khushī hūyī
Do you speak English? کیا اپ انگریزی بولتے ہیں؟ kya āp angrezī bolte hain? lit. ."Do you speak English?"^ First, you want to make sure you fluently speak both English and the target language to be able to understand the message that is being delivered and to interpret it correctly and accurately in the target language.
  • urdu english interpretation and translation 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.nvahec.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her English may be fluent, but you can’t say the same about her Urdu, which she speaks like a well-groomed foreigner: fluently but ungrammatically.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I do not speak Urdu. میں اردو نہیں بولتا/بولتی main urdū nahīn boltā/boltī boltā is masculine, boltī is feminine
My name is ... میرا نام ۔۔۔ ہے merā nām .... hai
Which way to Lahore? لاھور کس طرف ہے؟ lāhaur kis taraf hai? lit. "What direction is Lahore in?"
Where is Lucknow? لکھنؤ کہاں ہے؟ Lakhnau kahān hai
Urdu is a good language. اردو اچھی زبان ہے urdū achhī zabān hai lit. "Urdu is a good language"

Sample text

The following is a sample text in zabān-e urdū-e muʻallā (formal Urdu), of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Nastaliq text (used in Pakistan and India)

دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوۓ ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہی۔ اسلۓ انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہیۓ۔

Transliteration (ALA-LC)

Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e haiṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

IPA Transcription

d̪əfa ek: t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o ʔizət̪ ke ɪʔt̪ɪbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛda hʊe hẽ. ʊnʱẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ ʔəqəl ʋədiət̪ hʊi he. ɪslɪe ʊnʱẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bʱai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe.

Gloss (word-for-word)

.Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity *('s) consideration from equal born are.^ I knew this article would bring out all the right-wing wackos.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that our comments section is not a general free-for-all but for feedback to articles/blogs posted on the site .
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another *('s) with brotherhood *('s) treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical)

.Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.^ I knew this article would bring out all the right-wing wackos.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that our comments section is not a general free-for-all but for feedback to articles/blogs posted on the site .
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

They are endowed with reason and conscience. .Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.^ Ask the Holy Spirit to soften the hearts of the Urdu towards Christians so that they will be receptive to the Gospel.
  • Joshua Project - Urdu of Guyana Ethnic People Profile 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note: *('s) represents a possessive case which when written is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English 'of'.

Literature

.Urdu has become a literary language only in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for "elevated" subjects.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ We can offer a multitude of languages from Arabic to Urdu .

.However, despite its relatively late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.^ My late maternal grandfather, who hailed from Hyderabad too was a prolific writer of Urdu literature.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My father is a master of Urdu/ Persian literature and is an all India level poet of some renown and both my parents contribute extensively to Urdu print media.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However some linguists proclaim that both Persian and Urdu belong to the Indo-European group of languages and have a common base.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Prose

Religious

.Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature and Sharia after Arabic.^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am working with the largest urdu newspaper of the world Jang and my translation experience includes converting English news and articles into ...

^ The next bookshop may deal exclusively in Islamic texts, but the nearby Kutub Khana Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu offers the best of both worlds—literature and religious works.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

These include translations and interpretation of Qur'an, commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, spirituality, Sufism and metaphysics. .A great number of classical texts from Arabic and Persian, have also been translated into Urdu.^ Arabic, Persian, Urdu character picker .
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ English commands and questions into Arabic, Urdu , Pashto and Dari.

^ All, I need some translators for the languages Urdu , Arabic and Begali (Indian).

.Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua franca among Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language.^ Urdu , Farsi and other Eastern languages.

^ The article also discusses the other language systems in the South Asian Subcontinent.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.June 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Popular Islamic books, originally written in Urdu, include Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, Bahar-e-Shariat, Fazaeil-e-Aamaal and Faizan-e Sunnat.^ Home > > Islamic Books > > Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs Home > > Recommendations > > Arabic/Urdu > > Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs .
  • Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC store.talkislam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC onlineislamicstore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is typically written in a nasta'liq style; ie.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Literary

.Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres.^ And that’s only if they do all 40 only into English : double the figure because they are implying they work both ways ...

^ I am working with the largest urdu newspaper of the world Jang and my translation experience includes converting English news and articles into ...

The dāstān, or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse.
.The afsāna, or short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction.^ Part 2 of 5 In Urdu, the artistic forms which are prominent are its poetry (called as shaayari) and short stories (known as afsaane).
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The best-known afsāna writers, or afsāna nigār, in Urdu are Munshi Premchand, Saadat Hasan Manto, Krishan Chander, Qurratulain Hyder (Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Ismat Chughtai, Bhupendra Nath Kaushik "Fikr", Ghulam Abbas, Bano Qudsia and Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi.^ So since they died, anything by Qurut-ul-ain Haider or Kamleshwar is selling like hot cakes."
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lahore Served as Editorial Writer and Translator Languages Urdu English Punjabi Personal Information Father’s Name : Ch Ghulam ...

.Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsāna, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu.^ Part 2 of 5 In Urdu, the artistic forms which are prominent are its poetry (called as shaayari) and short stories (known as afsaane).
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ghalib Academy Some premier schools are offering Urdu as a subject, though not very seriously.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Urdu Poets and much of Urdu’s Poetry is full of ideas which run in the face of the known Islamic Norms.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel.
Other genres include saférnāma (travel story), mazmoon (essay), sarguzisht(account/narrative), inshaeya(satirical essay), murasela(editorial), and khud navvisht (autobiography).

Poetry

.
Urdu has been one of the premier languages of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres.
^ It is one of the major languages of Asia.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This multi-cultural South Asian language, rich in literature, and history can be understood by millions around the world.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu, which is the language of the Indian Muslims, which was invented and improvised by them as sought to be tracked by the author is a highly developed poetic and artistic medium.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 'Ghazal' in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective music and poetry, while the 'Nazm' exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes.^ In Urdu poetry, the form which is most captivating is the Ghazal.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Part 2 of 5 In Urdu, the artistic forms which are prominent are its poetry (called as shaayari) and short stories (known as afsaane).
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Sufis used the medium of poetry, music and social events in addition to discourses to popularize Islam.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as 'Masnavi' (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), 'Marsia' (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbala fame), or 'Qasida' (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded.^ This symbol is used to indicate a single line ( misra ) of a couplet ( shayr ) from an Urdu poem, when quoted in text.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century.
.Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is nāt—panegyric poetry written in praise of the Prophet Muhammad.^ Most probably Urdu has met th ...

^ Urdu poetry is the most beautiful and romantic to read and listen.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Urdu is the language known for producing the most renowned poets of the sub-continent and his knowledge of Urdu poetry adds so much to his stature amongst Pakistanis.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Nāt can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form.^ In Urdu poetry, the form which is most captivating is the Ghazal.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The language used in Urdu nāt ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persified formal language.^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu, which is the language of the Indian Muslims, which was invented and improvised by them as sought to be tracked by the author is a highly developed poetic and artistic medium.
  • www.outlookindia.com | Urdu And The City 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To facilitate the adoption of Urdu as the language to be used in all Competitive Examinations, in cooperation with the Federal and Provincial Public Service Commissions Development Boards.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great early twentieth century scholar Imam Ahmed Rida Khan, who wrote many of the most well known nāts in Urdu (the collection of his poetic work is Hadaiq-e-Baqhshish), epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi.^ Most of Akbars Nine gems spoke and wrote Urdu and Persian.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persian and Urdu have the same syntax…..EXACTLY THE SAME SYNTAX. Most of the nouns are the same.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many schools have Hindi/Urdu programs but they do maintain a very clear distinction between Hindi and Urdu.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same poet composed a salām—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad, derived from the unorthodox practice of qiyam, or standing, during the mawlid, or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—Mustafā Jān-e Rahmat, which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era.^ Urdu Sign placed over the name or nom-de-plume of a poet, or in some writings used to mark all proper names.
  • Urdu character notes 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC people.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ During the Lodhi era, Urdu was FIRMLY past the crib, and was in the population.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ameer Khusro is considered by some the first Urdu poet.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali Allah hiss salam and Battle of Karbala, called noha (نوحہ) and marsia.^ For me it seems more important to dispel those barriers and if it means one section learning more Urdu and another learning more English, let’s embrace it on those counts.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard.

Terminology

Ash'ār (اشعار) (Couplet). It consists of two lines, Misra (مصرعہ); first line is called Misra-e-oola (مصرع اولی) and the second is called 'Misra-e-sānī' (مصرعہ ثانی). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing) She'r (شعر).

Urdu poetry example

This is Ghalib's famous couplet in which he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir:[49]
         
ریختے کے تمہی استاد نہیں ہو غالب
کہتے ہیں اگلے زمانے میں کوئی میر بھی تھا
Transliteration
Rekhta ke tumhinustād nahīn ho Ghālib
Kahte hain agle zamāne men ko'ī Mīr bhī thā
Translation
You are not the only master of Rekhta*, Ghalib
They say that in the past there also was someone named Mir.
*Rekhta was the name for the .Urdu/Hindi language in Ghalib's days, when the distinction had not yet been made.^ Many schools have Hindi/Urdu programs but they do maintain a very clear distinction between Hindi and Urdu.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen many scholars express the view that Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.Urdu developed as local Indo-Aryan dialects came under the influence of the Muslim courts that ruled South Asia from the early thirteenth century.^ NORTHERN “INDIA” THE CULTURAL CAPITAL OF SOUTH ASIA SPAWNS URDU Even though she is a thousand years old, Urdu is considered a young language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the establishment of the rule of Muslim kings in Northern India in the seventh century, many Sufi saints migrated to India from West Asia.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the British rule some of these families carefully created a vision for the youth of South Asia.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its Indo-Aryan vocabulary has been enriched by borrowings from Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English and other Indian languages.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is a mixture of languages including Persian, Arabic and Turkish.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, Urdu & Indian languages.

.The official language of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though it is relatively a young language it is rich in culture, poetry and literature.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The importance of Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire and court can hardly be exaggerated: it was found in Akbars Sufisim but also in the reintroduction of Persian as the official language of Mughal administration and law (Persian had been used by the Tughlaqs but not the Lodis).
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Turks from Central Asia who spoke Turkic as their mother tongue.^ The nobility (including Hindus and Muslims) preferred Persian as the tongue of the elites: common folk (including Hindus and Muslims) spoke their local languages and used local idioms which transcended religion.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mughals were also from Central Asia, they spoke Turkish as their first language; however the Mughals later adopted Persian.^ However the convent bred Pakistani elite is unable to communicate with the masses because they do not speak the language of the masses.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they wanted to communicate they spoke their own languages and dialects.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How funny is it that so many here are trying to use this to show Obama is so worldy and smart yet he didn't even know what language they spoke in Afganistan.
  • Obama a fan of 'the great Urdu poets' - Ben Smith - POLITICO.com 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Persian became the preferred language of the Muslim elite of north India before the Mughals entered the scene.^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nobility (including Hindus and Muslims) preferred Persian as the tongue of the elites: common folk (including Hindus and Muslims) spoke their local languages and used local idioms which transcended religion.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1901 Census, the British insisted that the language of Muslim be entered as Urdu and the language of Hindus be entered as Hindi.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Babur's mother tongue was a Turkic language and he wrote exclusively in Turkish.^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ Outlook Express and Email; Languages: Dari, Pashto (Mother Tongue) Urdu and Persian (Iranian dialect) and English : Reading , Writing, and ...

^ LANGUAGES: · URDU - mother tongue · PASHTO - mother tongue WORKING ...

His son and successor Humayun also spoke and wrote in this Turkic language. .Muzaffar Alam, a noted scholar of Mughal and Indo-Persian history, suggests that Persian became the lingua franca of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature.^ It has impacted the British Empire and it effected the lingua franca of the world– English.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The migration of the language Eastword preceded the decline of the language in Northern India, where under British patronage, and Hindu benefaction, Hindi was fast becoming the lingua-franca .
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The importance of Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire and court can hardly be exaggerated: it was found in Akbars Sufisim but also in the reintroduction of Persian as the official language of Mughal administration and law (Persian had been used by the Tughlaqs but not the Lodis).
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .The influence of these languages on Indian apabhraṃśas led to a vernacular that is the ancestor of today's Urdu.^ Arabic, Urdu & Indian languages.

^ Urdu is the state language of the Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military Defense,Science (general, pakistani translation , urdu translation , punjabi translation , indian languages translation , ...

.Dialects of this vernacular are spoken today in cities in Pakistan and in some places throughout northern India.^ So the language spoken in Pakistan today is prety much the language that existed int he courts and the streets of Northern India.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu was the lingua franca of Northern India during the Mughals era and remains the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today the Urdu language is the national language of the republic of Pakistan and is a constitutionally recognized language of the republic of India.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdu Delhi, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Karachi and Lahore,

Urdu and Hindi

.Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Urdu and Hindi as separate languages — at least not in reference to the informal spoken registers.^ Hindi and Urdu, have similar linguistic structure.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to many linguists the basic difference between Hindi and Urdu linguists is that Hindi-ites believe that “Kharri boli” was the language spoken by the populace of Delhi.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ URDU Urdu is a language spoken and understood by about a billion people on this planet.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (Hindustani) with the difference being that Urdu is supplemented with a Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Hindi a Sanskritic vocabulary.^ I have seen many scholars express the view that Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can offer a multitude of languages from Arabic to Urdu .

^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

.Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Persio-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari.^ Urdu is written in the Arabic script like Farsi,.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic Kurdish Urdu Farsi The English script is 2,189 words, and we would ...

^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The standard, "proper" grammars of both languages are based on Khariboli grammar — the dialect of the Delhi region.^ Khari boli (standard Hindi) spoken around Delhi formed the base of the common language “adopted” by Afghans, Arabs, Persian,and Turks to “interact” with the local population.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However some linguists proclaim that both Persian and Urdu belong to the Indo-European group of languages and have a common base.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Hindi-ite linguists around 1000 AD, the Delhi army used “kharrri boli” (standard Hindi) as the base language and started speaking “Urdu” and the two languages Urdu and Hindi developed side by side.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So, with respect to grammar, the languages are mutually intelligible when spoken, and can be thought of as two written variants of the same language.^ Arabic and English in addition to written and sight translation s in the same language pairs.

^ In spoken form, they are mutually intelligible – in fact they are essentially identical.
  • Urdu - Language Information & Resources 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.alsintl.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other possible view is that Urdu/Hindi is basically the same language that has many variations.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hindustani is the name often given to this language as it developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan).^ Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, and is the provincial language of all provinces of Pakistan, namely, Punjab, Sarhad, Balauchistan, Kashmir and Sindh.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This new ethnically cleansed language officially called Hindi (actually Sankritized Hindi) is now the national language of a “secular” country called India.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words.^ Persian and Arabic are second languages in Pakistan.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be conjugated in the Sanskrit manner, or the Persian or the Arabic manner.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teaching Arabic to Urdu and English speakers.

This usually made the words easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce and also more pleasant than the coarse original sounds. .Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically just like many other languages in the world.^ It also provides translation services in other western and eastern languages like French, ...

^ In addition to providing our clients with only the highest quality certified Urdu translations, ALS offers many ancillary services for any other Urdu language needs.
  • Urdu Translation by ALS International 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.alsintl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hindi and Urdu, having the same linguistic structure are considered different languages based on ‘Religion’ just like Dutch and German ARE different.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linguistically speaking, Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, with lesser use of Persian and Arabic loanwords, while inheriting its formal vocabulary from Sanskrit; Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, de-Sanskritised, with a significant part of its formal vocabulary consisting of loanwords from Persian and Arabic.^ Urdu is written using Arabic alphabet, it is ok if an A ...

^ In short English, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu and Sanskrit voice over services.

^ Indian Languages - Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil , Telugu, Urdu , Shahmukhi, Bhojpuri, Sanskrit, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, ...

.The difference, thus is in the vocabulary, and not the structure of the language.^ Thus, its vocabulary was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian right from the time when it began to develop as a separate language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu, having the same linguistic structure are considered different languages based on ‘Religion’ just like Dutch and German ARE different.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu, and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language.^ However Urdu proponents say that the two languages are conjugated differently.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1901 Census, the British insisted that the language of Muslim be entered as Urdu and the language of Hindus be entered as Hindi.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Muslim Sikh and many Hindu rulers, the government, the official court system and the Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to Islamic faith (though there have been many many prolific Sikh and Hindu poets and writers) in the sub-continent, used the ‘Arabic’ script where as a section of the Hindu population kept the Sanskrit script alive and Hindi speakers have adopted the ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Urdu and Hindi — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Urdu and Hindi have always been separate languages.^ Languages Urdu , Hindi: Mother tongue.

^ In the 1901 Census, the British insisted that the language of Muslim be entered as Urdu and the language of Hindus be entered as Hindi.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The migration of the language Eastword preceded the decline of the language in Northern India, where under British patronage, and Hindu benefaction, Hindi was fast becoming the lingua-franca .
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There have been some observations that the "fully standardized" Hindi register is artificial enough to make it partially incomprehensible to many people classified as Hindi speakers.^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many South Indians are resentlful of Hindi and claim that the politicians of Northern India have tried to “impose” Sankritized Hindi (without Persian or Arabic words in it) upon the people.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51][52]

Software

The Daily Jang/daily waqt was the first Urdu newspaper to be typeset digitally in Nasta’liq by computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. .Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package.^ Desktop publishing (DTP) DTP is one the most effective messages ...

^ Urdu /­Punjabi(Pakistani)writing softwares i.e.Inpage,PowerPage, Paras ...

.Microsoft has included Urdu language support in all new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista and Microsoft Office 2007 are available in Urdu through Language Interface Pack[53] support.^ It is possible with new Office and Windows version ...

^ Either sing only Urdu songs, or sing in all languages of Pakistan.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To facilitate the adoption of Urdu as the language to be used in all Competitive Examinations, in cooperation with the Federal and Provincial Public Service Commissions Development Boards.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Linguistic Lineage for Urdu - Ethnologue
  2. ^ "Urdu (اُردو)". Omniglot. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/urdu.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  3. ^ "A Historical Perspective of Urdu". National Council for Promotion of Urdu language. http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/pers_pp/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  4. ^ "Urdu language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  5. ^ a b "Urdu". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/urdu. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  6. ^ a b "Hindustani language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  7. ^ Hindi By Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
  8. ^ The private lives of English words By Louis G. Heller, Alexander Humez, Malcah Dror page 197 http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0KI9AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA197&lpg=PA197&dq=Urdu+is+Turkic+or+Mongolian+word+%27Ordu%27&source=bl&ots=o1Acu_fTtl&sig=XLRENA-zEWvtSOahEdb2_3XKudk&hl=en&ei=cyOKSvjfCqHajQfRuoxX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  9. ^ http://www.turkishweekly.net/news/49043/pakistani-ambassador-to-turkey-our-countries-friendship-is-difficult-to-describe-in-words-.html
  10. ^ http://www.loghatnaameh.com/dehkhodaworddetail-425df33b8c494ab68d57b5794cd5a884-fa.html. Dehkhoda Loghatnameh
  11. ^ "Urdu and Hindi". Palgrave Macmillan. http://www.palgrave.com/language/freeborn/site/pdfs/Loan_words_pdfs/13_UrduHindi.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  12. ^ Ghalib, 1797-1869: In 2vols .Vol.1, Life and Letters, By Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Ghalib, Asad-Allāh Ḫān Mīrzā Ġālib, Ralph Russell, Khurshidul Islam. Published by Allen & Unwin, 1969
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Hindi language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266241/Hindi-language. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  15. ^ "Bringing Order to Linguistic Diversity: Language Planning in the British Raj". Language in India. http://www.languageinindia.com/oct2001/punjab1.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  16. ^ "A Brief Hindi - Urdu FAQ". sikmirza. http://www.oocities.com/sikmirza/arabic/hindustani.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  17. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. http://mesa.ucdavis.edu/hindiurdu/index.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  18. ^ a b "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.org/show_language.asp?code=hin. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  19. ^ The Annual of Urdu studies, number 11, 1996, “Some notes on Hindi and Urdu, pp.204
  20. ^ "Urdu and it's Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. http://india_resource.tripod.com/Urdu.html. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  21. ^ "Most Widely Spoken Languages". Saint Ignatius. http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/languages.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  22. ^ "The World's 10 most influential Languages". Language Today. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/reprints/weber/rep-weber.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  23. ^ "The Range of Hindi and Urdu". Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urduhindilinks/shacklesnell/104range.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  24. ^ "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University. http://sasw.chass.ncsu.edu/fl/faculty/taj/hindi/abturdu.htm. Retrieved 2009–08–09. 
  25. ^ "Hindi-Urdu Flagship Program". University of Texas at Austin. http://www.hindiurduflagship.org/about/what-is-hindi-urdu.html. Retrieved 2009–08–09. 
  26. ^ India Travelite: Holy Places - Ajmer
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ "Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001". Government of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  29. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Pakistan". SIL Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=pk. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  30. ^ Only refers to Pakistanis with Urdu as first language, i.e people who do not additionally speak the State languages of Pakistan including Punjabi, Sindhi,Saraiki, Pashto and Balochi as mother tongues- See Muhajir
  31. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GB
  32. ^ Ethnologue Report for Bangladesh
  33. ^ Ethnologue Report for Saudi Arabia
  34. ^ Canada:The most common non-official mother tongues, 1971, 2001 and 2006
  35. ^ Statistics Norway
  36. ^ Pakistan Link: Desi Salsa in Barcelona
  37. ^ Answers.com: Demographics of Sweden
  38. ^ Ethnologue Report for Urdu
  39. ^ It should be noted that in the lower courts in Pakistan, despite the proceedings taking place in Urdu, the documents are in English whilst in the higher courts, ie the High Courts and the Supreme Court, both documents and proceedings are in English.
  40. ^ Zia, Khaver (1999), "A Survey of Standardisation in Urdu". 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan
  41. ^ see Urdu at Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  42. ^ "Urdu in Bihar". Language in India. http://www.languageinindia.com/feb2003/urduinbihar.html. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  43. ^ "About Urdu". Afroz Taj (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.unc.edu/. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  44. ^ "Urdu". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0850180.html. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  45. ^ King, 1994.
  46. ^ Ahmad, R., 2006.
  47. ^ The News, Karachi, Pakistan: Roman Urdu by Habib R Sulemani
  48. ^ Government of Pakistan, National Language Authority (Cabinet Division) [nla.gov.pk].
  49. ^ Columbia University: Ghazal 36, Verse 11
  50. ^ Alam, Muzaffar. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
  51. ^ Gerald B. Kelley, Edward C. Dimock, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (1992), Dimensions of sociolinguistics in South Asia: papers in memory of Gerald B. Kelley, Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., ISBN 8120405730, http://books.google.com/books?id=O8FhAAAAMAAJ, "... policy of Sanskritization resulted in a variety of Hindi which was far removed from everyday usage and became almost incomprehensible to the common man ..." 
  52. ^ Maria Misra (2007), Vishnu's crowded temple: India since the Great Rebellion, Allan Lane, http://books.google.com/books?id=DvttAAAAMAAJ, "... This linguistic cleansing not only destroyed Hindustani, but in its hyper-purist form rendered Hindi itself incomprehensible to the less well-educated and ..." 
  53. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/Browse.aspx?displaylang=ur&productID=38DF6AB1-13D4-409C-966D-CBE61F040027
  • Ahmad, Rizwan. .2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari". http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/NWAV/Abstracts/Papr172.pdf
  • Alam, Muzaffar.^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Japanese to English, Hindi, French , German, Urdu , & all other Asian language visit http:/­/­www.

    .1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics."^ Certain segments of the Hindu political establishemnt wanted to REPLACE Urdu and and Persian as the official language of the court and government.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
  • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. .Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]
  • Azim, Anwar.^ Amazingly the Federal Urdu University also uses the English moniker to describe itself on its website.
    • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The students of the Department of Urdu at the University of Moscow speak better English than most of our politicians and TV and Radio anchors.
    • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Help improve the websites that translate English words to Urdu.
    • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259).
  • Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
  • Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course)
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). .Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.^ I have seen many scholars express the view that Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PERSIAN AND INDIC GROUP OF LANGUAGES According to many linguists, Pushto and Baluchi, including Persian , belong to the Iranian group of languages and Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati etc.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), .Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations.^ Urdu started out as an army “language” where people of different religions and nationalities mixed together and wanted to talk to each other.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The language developed as a means of communication between the soldiers of different nationalities who served under the kings.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864.
  • Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. Pakistani Urdu.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan.
  • Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. Urdu Phonetic Reader. .Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  • Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology.^ Islamic Studies Women Studies Languages : English <> Urdu English <> Punjabi ( Pakistani) میرپوری اردو پنجابی ...

    ^ Here is what an Indian historian (In an interesting article on Urdu: A Historian Looks at Hindi-Urdu Debate 8 December 1995; Copyright: India Abroad Publications) says about Urdu and Hindi: .
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The “foreign” words of Urdu were taken out, and words Tatsama words (words in the same form as they appear in Sanskrit ) from a dead language called Sanskrit were injected into Urdu.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Poona: Deccan College.
  • Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). .The Hague: Mouton.
  • King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India.^ The migration of the language Eastword preceded the decline of the language in Northern India, where under British patronage, and Hindu benefaction, Hindi was fast becoming the lingua-franca .
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This new ethnically cleansed language officially called Hindi (actually Sankritized Hindi) is now the national language of a “secular” country called India.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Koul, Ashok K. 2008. Urdu Script and Vocabulary.^ Quantity: The Little Oxford English-Urdu Dictionary : English words, Urdu script definitions : (Shanul Haq Haqee, Ibrahim Saad) View Item Order Description ISBN: 0195978994 Author: Shanul Haq Haqee, Ibrahim Saad Publisher: Oxford University Press (2005) Pages: 728 Binding: Paperback Description from the publisher: This Dictionary is an abridged edition of The Oxford English-Urdu Dictionary, w View more...
    • Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC store.talkislam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Urdu Books, Tapes, & CDs 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC onlineislamicstore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Hindi Phonetic Reader.^ We offer translation services in all languages including Indian eg : Hindi, ...

    ^ Indian Languages - Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil , Telugu, Urdu , Shahmukhi, Bhojpuri, Sanskrit, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, ...

    ^ Qualified, Experienced Language Professionals with expertise in Indian Languages - Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu , Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Assamese, ...

    .Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Koul, Omkar N. 2008. Modern Hindi Grammar.^ We offer translation services in all languages including Indian eg : Hindi, ...

    ^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Indian Languages - Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil , Telugu, Urdu , Shahmukhi, Bhojpuri, Sanskrit, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, ...

    Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
  • Narang, G. C. and D. A. Becker. 1971. Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu. .Language, 47, 646–767.
  • Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology.^ I have seen many scholars express the view that Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PERSIAN AND INDIC GROUP OF LANGUAGES According to many linguists, Pushto and Baluchi, including Persian , belong to the Iranian group of languages and Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati etc.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
  • "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30
  • Rahim, Rizwana. .Urdu in India, 3-part review:
  • The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar.^ Urdu-Hindi phrase book: ( http://www.gorp.com/atb/cwasia/g1146.htm ) Shams-Ul-Ulama, Maulana Mohammad Hussein Azad has done extensive research on the history of Urdu in the subcontinent.
    • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Japanese to English, Hindi, French , German, Urdu , & all other Asian language visit http:/­/­www.

    ^ THE INCOMPETENT NATIONAL LANGUAGE AUTHORITY: It is sad to see Urdu words in English on the “ National Language Authority ” website ( http://www.nla.gov.pk/ ).
    • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003.
News web colaction by Maifnaz]
  • Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.
  • Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC

External links

Urdu edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dictionaries

.

Urdu Translation Services


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Urdu phrasebook article)

From Wikitravel

.Urdu اردو, Sometimes formally called Zabān-e-Urdū-e-Mo‘allah زبانِ اردوِ معلیٰ), is the official language of Pakistan and one of the official languages of India.^ Either sing only Urdu songs, or sing in all languages of Pakistan.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly the Punjab, the heart of Pakistan chose Urdu instead of Gurmukhi for its language.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain segments of the Hindu political establishemnt wanted to REPLACE Urdu and and Persian as the official language of the court and government.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A dialect called Dakini is also spoken by 5% of a majority Muslim Indian population. .Urdu derives its grammar from Hindi, but the vocabulary is mainly Arabic, Persian, and Turkish.^ Urdu is a mixture of languages including Persian, Arabic and Turkish.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PERSIAN AND INDIC GROUP OF LANGUAGES According to many linguists, Pushto and Baluchi, including Persian , belong to the Iranian group of languages and Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati etc.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is written in a Perso-Arabic abjad known as Nast'alīq (نستعليق). .Dakini is a dialect of Urdu with less Arabic and Persian words and is spoken in the Muslim enclave of the Deccan (India).^ Please refrain from telling us what the relationship of Persian and Arabic is to Urdu.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we call Urdu is nothing but Hindi with more ‘borrowed’ Persian words just like Hindi having more Sanskrit words.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ORIGINS OF URDU Urdu was influenced by Persian and adopted the Persian script as opposed to the Arabic script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu emerged during Muslim rule in Central and Southern Asia where Persian was the official language.^ Certain segments of the Hindu political establishemnt wanted to REPLACE Urdu and and Persian as the official language of the court and government.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tughlaqs officially used Persian as the court language but they gave Urdu the importance it deserved.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PERSIAN AND INDIC GROUP OF LANGUAGES According to many linguists, Pushto and Baluchi, including Persian , belong to the Iranian group of languages and Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati etc.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word Urdu is itself derived from the Turkish word ordu, ultimately derived from the Mongolian word "horde."^ Urdu or Askasi was a Turkish word which means “lashkar” or army from a camp.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is a Turkish word (Ordu) that translates to “lashkar” an “army camp” or an “army caravan”.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to vocabulary, Urdu also adopted the Persian use of the enclitic ezāfe and most poets used takhallus (noms de plume).^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the nineteenth century, poets like Iqbal used Urdu to rile the masses against the British colonialism.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persian and Urdu have the same syntax…..EXACTLY THE SAME SYNTAX. Most of the nouns are the same.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Urdu is renowned for its poetic tradition dating back to Mughal times when, as mentioned, Persian was the court language; thus the reason why Persian vocabulary and elements are so notable.^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elegant decadence of Mughal dress, decor, manners, and morals all reflected Persian court life and custom.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain segments of the Hindu political establishemnt wanted to REPLACE Urdu and and Persian as the official language of the court and government.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A mixture of Urdu and Hindi, called Hindustani, is the form heard in most Bollywood films, that try to appeal to the widest audience possible.^ The “foreign” words of Urdu were taken out, and words Tatsama words (words in the same form as they appear in Sanskrit ) from a dead language called Sanskrit were injected into Urdu.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern Indians still speak Urdu, but call it Hindi.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phrasebook may help lift the veil of this "exotic" language, in addition to the primary goal of helping travellers who wish to visit Pakistan or certain parts of India.^ Hindi and Urdu are modern languages: in a very real sense, their most effective development began after 1947 when they became the State languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the language spoken in Pakistan today is prety much the language that existed int he courts and the streets of Northern India.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today the Urdu language is the national language of the republic of Pakistan and is a constitutionally recognized language of the republic of India.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pronunciation Guide

.Urdu; as mentioned earlier, is a modified Perso-Arabic script known as an abjad.^ Again Urdu speakers, mostly people belonging to ‘Islamic’ faith in the sub-continent, have adopted ‘Arabic’ script where as Hindi speakers have adopted ‘Devanagari’ script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From its earlier use in the sub-continent it was written in the Arabic script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ORIGINS OF URDU Urdu was influenced by Persian and adopted the Persian script as opposed to the Arabic script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An abjad does not write short vowels, except at the beginning of a word with alif' serving as a place holder. .This can make it frustrating for the learner as the words I and in are both written ميں in Urdu.^ Jang , Nawai Waqt, Musawat, Mashriq and Jasarat etc all have a horrible record on using English words written in Urdu.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Urdu is also written in a stylized form of the Arabic script called nast'alīq (نستعليق). .Developed in Persia it is still used for religious and poetic calligraphy in Iran today, Urdu in contrast uses it as its standard script.^ Urdu uses the Persian script (subtle differences in vowel “liaison”, fonts, alphabets, pronunciation,joining,sounds….
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Hindi-ite linguists around 1000 AD, the Delhi army used “kharrri boli” (standard Hindi) as the base language and started speaking “Urdu” and the two languages Urdu and Hindi developed side by side.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such it is not surprising that Urdu does not use the Arabic script.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meaning; if you want to read an Urdu newspaper, street sign, etc.^ If she really wanted to she could write her speech in Romanized Urdu and rehearse it and then read it in Urdu.
  • Urdu language & Communication skills of Pakistani Politicians, & Television Networks graded on usage of the National Language. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

you will have to learn to read nastaliq, which can prove difficult for the beginner. .As a result, a simpler style called Naskh (نسخ), as used in other languages using the Arabic abjad will be used for two reasons.^ At his time this language was used only for some poetry purpose and was called “Rekhta” not Urdu untill Mirza Ghalib’s time.
  • Subcontinent Language Systems: History of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindi, Saraiki, Potohari, Hindko, Bengali etc. « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1. to ease the learner into nastaliq, and 2. because unicode does not support nast'aliq, thus making #1 somewhat of a moot point, but nonetheless an important one. Vowel diacritics do exist, mostly used to modify the alif vowel holder at the beginning of a word. But they are also used for educational purposes, in the Qur'ān, and for clarifying ambiguous spellings.
The Arabic system of writing is cursive. Most letters have four forms. Others; which do not attach to the following letter, have only two. These forms are quite self-explanatory: initial, medial, final, and isolated. When written alone letters are written in their isolated form. Example:
  • پ + آ + ك + س + ت + آ + ن
when these isolated letters are joined together they look like this:
  • پاكستان, Pākistān
After studying the alphabet this system will hopefully become more clear.

Vowels

At the beginning of a word alif serves as a placeholder for the diacritical mark. Due to directional issues with unicode the medial/final occurs before the initial example, when they should appear after, i.e., to the left of the letter. A final &#65258; is sometimes used do represent an inherent 'a' at the end of a word (c.f. Arabic usage). When choṭī ye and baṛī ye occur in the middle, both take the &#65268; form. For further reference, in Urdu transliteration ai is ae and au is ao.
Initial Medial/Final Transliteration Name
اَ تَ a zabar
اِ تِ i zer
اُ تُ u pesh
آ تا ā alif madda
اِى تِى ī zer + choṭī ye
اُو تُو ū pesh + vā'o
اے تے e baṛī ye
او تو o vā'o
اَے تَے ai zabar + baṛī ye
اَو تَو au zabar + vā'o
Final Medial Initial Isolated Transliteration Urdu Name Name
&#65166; &#65166; ا ا a, i, ʔ آلِف ālif
&#65168; &#65170; &#65169; ب b بے be
&#64343; &#64345; &#64344; پ p پے pe
&#65174; &#65176; &#65175; ت t تے te
&#64359; &#64361; &#64360; ٹ ٹے ṭe
&#65178; &#65180; &#65179; ث ثے se
&#64379; &#64381; &#64380; چ c چے ce
&#65186; &#65188; &#65187; ح h بَڑى حے baṛī he
&#65190; &#65192; &#65191; خ kh خے khe
&#65194; &#65194; &#65193; &#65193; d دال dāl
&#64393; &#64393; &#64392; &#64392; ڈال ḍāl
&#65196; &#65196; &#65196; &#65196; ż ذال zāl
&#65198; &#65198; &#65197; &#65197; r رے re
&#64397; &#64397; &#64396; &#64396; ڑے ze
&#65200; &#65200; &#65199; &#65199; z زے eṛ
&#64395; &#64395; &#64394; &#64394; zh ژے zhe
&#65202; &#65204; &#65203; &#65201; s سِين sīn
&#65206; &#65208; &#65207; &#65205; ś شِين śīn
&#65210; &#65212; &#65211; &#65209; s صُاد su'ād
&#65214; &#65216; &#65215; &#65213; ضُاد zu'ād
&#65218; &#65220; &#65219; &#65217; t طوے to'e
&#65222; &#65224; &#65223; &#65221; z ظوے zo'e
&#65226; &#65228; &#65227; &#65225; ‘a, ʔ عَين ‘ain
&#65230; &#65232; &#65231; &#65229; gh غَين ghain
&#65234; &#65236; &#65235; &#65233; f فے fe
&#65238; &#65240; &#65239; &#65237; q قَاف qāf
&#65242;،&#64399; &#65244; &#65243; &#65241;،&#64398; k كَاف kāf
&#64403; &#64405; &#64404; &#64402; g گَاف gāf
&#65246; &#65248; &#65248; &#65245; l لاَل lāl
&#65250; &#65252; &#65251; &#65249; m مِيم mīm
&#65254; &#65256; &#65255; &#65253; n نوْن nūn
&#65262; &#65262; &#65261; &#65261; v, o, ū وَاو vā'o
&#64423; &#64425; &#64424; &#64422; h چهوٹى ەے choṭī he
&#64427; &#64429; &#64428; &#64426; asp. دو چَشمى ەے do chaśmī he
&#65152; &#65164; &#65163; &#65152; - ەَمزَه hamza
&#65264; &#65268; &#65267; &#65263; y, ī چهوٹى يے choṭī ye
&#64430; &#65268; &#65267; &#64431; y, e بَڑى يے baṛī ye
So why are there 5 z's, etc.?! - The letters ق,غ,ع,ظ,ط,ض,ص,ژ,ذ,خ,ح,ث are exclusively Persian (Fārsi) or Arabic sounds. As such; the Arabic sounds especially, are pronounced with the closest Indic equivalent. Thus, to illustrate: the Arabic ث (θ) is pronounced as س, and the Arabic ذ (ð) is pronounced as ز. A rare Urdu letter unique to Persian and Persian loan words is ژ, which is pronounced as the Russian ж, or s in pleasure.

Aspiration

To make aspirated letters in Urdu the do chashmī he is added to the letter it aspirates. In Nastaliq, the do chashmī he, lit. meaning "two-eyed he" looks like this: &#65260;. Unfortunately unicode only supports this character as it exists in Arabic; therefore the Urdu Naskh will have to suffice.
Final Medial Initial Isolated Devanagari Transliteration
&#64427;&#65170; &#64429;&#65170; &#64429;&#65169; &#64427;&#65169; bh
&#64427;&#64345; &#64429;&#64345; &#64429;&#64344; &#64427;&#64344; ph
&#64427;&#65176; &#64429;&#65176; &#64429;&#65175; &#64427;&#65175; th
&#64427;&#64361; &#64429;&#64361; &#64429;&#64360; &#64427;&#64360; ṭh
&#64427;&#65192; &#64429;&#65192; &#64429;&#65191; &#64427;&#65191; jh
&#64427;&#64381; &#64429;&#64381; &#64429;&#64380; &#64427;&#64380; ch
&#64427;&#65194; &#64429;&#65194; &#64429;&#65193; &#64427;&#65193; dh
&#64427;&#64393; &#64429;&#64393; &#64429;&#64392; &#64427;&#64392; ḍh
&#64427;&#64397; &#64429;&#64397; &#64429;&#64396; &#64427;&#64396; ṛh
&#64427;&#64401; &#64429;&#64401; &#64429;&#64400; &#64427;&#64400; kh
&#64427;&#64405; &#64429;&#64405; &#64429;&#64404; &#64427;&#64404; gh

Special Characters & Signs

Special diacritical signs will be used with ت as an example when appropriate. Explanations are given below the table.
Sign Urdu Name Name
ں نُونِ غُنّا nūn-e ghunna
ء ەَمزَه hamzah
تِ اِضافَت iẓāfat
تّ تَشدِيد taśdīd
تˆ جَزم; jazm
ىۢ آلِف مَقصُورَه ālif maqsūra
تۢ كهَڑا زَبَر khaṛa zabar
ة تا مَربُوطَهة tā marbūtah
nūn-e ghunna - The nasalization symbol in Urdu. In medial form a normal nūn is used.
hamzah - Though part of the alphabet, the hamzah is not really a letter. Nor is it exactly a diacritical sign. It is an entity unto itself. It is a vowel separator similar to the glottal ‘ain. It is used often, on a consonantal "seat" in words ending with the irregular polite imperative suffix -iye.
iẓāfat - Though identical to zer in appearance, it is an element borrowed from the Persian ezafe. This is very common in Urdu and unlike zer is pronounced as a "long" e. It is placed under the last consonant of the adjective which is affecting the noun. Roughly translated as of. It is transliterated as the suffix -e, or -e-. Example:
زخمِ قلب — zakhm-e-qalb — lit. wound of (the) heart, i.e. heartsorrow, or better, German Herzeleid.
When the first word ends in a vowel, the iẓāfat is written under a hamzah placeholder: ءِ.
taśdīd - A small "w" which doubles the consonant it is written over. However; in verbs, the consonant is written twice.
jazm - Placed over a consonant, it indicates there is no short vowel following it. It looks like a circumflex.
ālif maqsūra - Used only in Arabic loanwords. Appears over the final choṭī ye as a superscript ālif. Indicates an sound.
khaṛa zabar - lit. "standing zabar", also only occurs in Arabic origin words. Written over a consonant like the above, it indicates an ā after that consonant. Also called a "dagger alif".
tā marbūtah - Is the Arabic fem. marker. It is often merely replaced by a choṭī he or te.

Special Ligatures

There are many special ligatures in nast'aliq. Kāf+ālif, kāf+lām, gāf+ālif, gāf+lām, and many more which unicode does not support. Learn the naskh and you will hopefully be able to spot these on your own with some practice; not to mention much patience.
Medial/Final Isolated Transliteration
&#65276; &#65275;

Urdu Punctuation

Except for the final dash, most are as in the Roman alphabet; the comma, semi-colon and question mark being inverted.
Roman Urdu Punctuation
. ۔ period/full stop
, ، comma
; ؛ semi-colon
: : colon
! ! exclamation point
? ؟ question mark

Phrase List (عبارت)

Basics (بنیاد)

English Urdu Transliteration
Hello (used esp. when answering the phone) ەيلو, سلام Hello, Salam, Adab
Hello السلام عليكم assalām ‘alaikum
Hello (reply) وعليكم السلام wālaikum assalām
Hello (short) سلام salām
Goodbye خدا حافظ khuda hāfiz
Welcome khush amdeed
See you later پھر ملیں گے phir milengeh
How are you? کیا حال ہے؟ Aap kaiseh hain
I am fine میں ٹھیک ہوں main theek hoon
Fine, and you? (more formal reply) میں ٹھیک ہوں، آپ؟ main theek hoon, aur aap?
What is your name? آپ كا نام كيا ەے؟ āapka nam kiya hai?
My name is ___ . ميرا نام ___ ەے۔ merah nam ___ hai. Nice to meet you (formal). آپسے ملکر خوشی ہوی apseh mil kar khushi huee.
Same here (reply). مجهے بھی mhujhey bhih
Yes ەاں n
No/not نەيں naheenn
Do you speak English? آپ كو انگریزی آتى ەے؟ āapko angrezi baulnih atih hai?
Is there someone here who speaks English? یہاں كسى كو انگریزی آتى ەے؟ yahaan kisī ko angrezī ātīh hai?
I don't know Urdu। مجهے ەندى\اردو نەيں آتى ەے۔ mujheh urdu nahī atih hain ātī
I speak some Urdu. مجهے تھوڑی اردو آتی ہے; main thorih si urdu baul saaktah hoonū ātī hai।
I don't understand. نہیں سمجھا mujhey samaaj nahen ai
Speak slower آەسته بولیٔے āhista boliyeh
Come again? دوبارہ بولیں؟ dubara bolain?
What does "..." mean? کا کیا مطلب ہے؟"..." "..." ka kya matlab hai?
How do you say "..."? كيتے كيسے ەےں؟ "..." "..." kaise kehteh hain?
Where are you from? آپ كەاں سے ەيں؟ āp kahan se hain?
I'm from ... ميں ... سے ەوں main ... se hūn
Please برأے مہربانی barai mehrbāni
Thank you شكريه śhukriya
Thank you very much بەت بەت شکریہ bahut bahut śhukriya
You're welcome (lit. don't mention it) کوئی بات نہیں Koi bat nahin.
Excuse me (getting s.o.'s attention) سنیٔے suniyeh
Pardon me/I'm sorry معاف کیجیے mā'af kijiye
Where is the toilet? غسلخانه كەاں ەے؟ ghasalkhāna?
Good!, nice, etc. خوب khoob
Just one minute ایک منٹ ek minit
Sure ضرور ẓuroor

Forms of Address (ختاب)

English Urdu Transliteration
Mr. صاحب sāheb
Mrs. صاحبه sāheba
Sir جناب janāb
Sir حضور huzūr
Dr. ڈاکٹر doctor

Interrogatives (سوال)

English Urdu Transliteration
how/of what kind? كيسا؟ kaisa
how much/many? کتنا؟ kitna
what? كيا؟ kyā?
when? کب، کس وفت kis waqt،kab?
where? كەاں؟ kahān?
who? كون؟ kaun?
which? كونسا؟ kaunsa?
why? كيوں؟ kyon?
Leave me alone. 
Mhujhey akela chor do. (مجھے اکیلا چھور دو)
Don't bother me. 
Mhujhey tang na karoh. ( مجھے تنگ نہ کرو)
Don't touch me! 
Mhujhey na cheroh (مجھے نہ چھیڑو)
Should I call the police. 
Mein police ko call karoon? (میں پولیس کو کال کروں؟)
Police! 
Police! (پولیس)
Stop! Thief! 
Ruko! Chor! (رکو! چور!۔)
I need your help. 
meri maddat karain. ( میری مدد کریں)
It's an emergency. 
emergency hai. (ایمرجنسی ہے)
I'm lost. 
mein ghum ho gaya hoon. (میں گم گیا ہوں)
I lost my bag. 
Mera bag ghum gaya. (بیگ گم ہو گیا)
I lost my wallet. 
mera battwa ghum gaya. (بٹوہ گم ہوگیا)
I'm sick. 
mei bimaar hoon. (میں بیمار ہوں)
I've been injured. 
mei zhakhmi hoon. (میں زخمی ہوں)
I need a doctor. 
Mujhe doctor ki zaroorat hai. (ڈاکٹر کی ضرورت ہے)
Can I use your phone? 
Aapka phone istamaal kar loon? (آپکا فون استعمال کرلوں؟)
Where is __________?
Kahan pher hayh ____________?
aik (ایک)
dou (دو)
teen (تین)
char (چار)
panch (پانچ)
chhe (چھ)
saat (سات)
aath (آٹھ)
nau (نو)
10 
das (دس)
11 
gayara گیارہ)
12 
baara (بارہ)
13 
teera (تیرہ)
14 
choda (چودہ)
15 
pandra (پندرہ)
16 
sola (سولہ)
17 
satra (سترہ)
18 
athara (اٹھارہ)
19 
unees (انیس)
20 
bees (بیس)
21 
ikees (اکیس)
22 
baees (بائیس)
23 
taees (تیئیس)
29 ; : unetis 30 ; : tees (تیس)
40 
chalees (چالیس)
50 
pachaas (پچاس)
60 
saath (ساٹھ)
70 
sattar (ستر)
80 
assi (اسی')
90 
naway (نوے)
100 
aik sou (ایک سو)
200 
dou sou (دو سو)
300 
teen sou (تین سو)
1000 
aik hazaar (ایک ہزار)
2000 
dou hazaar (دو ہزار)
100,000 
aik lakh (ایک ﻻﻛﻬ)
1,000,000 
das lakh (ﻬﻛﻻ ﺱﺩ)
10,000,000 
karore (ﮌﻭﺮﻛ)
100,000,000 
das karore (ﮌﻭﺮﻛ ﺱﺩ)
1,000,000,000 
arab (اﺭﺏ)
10,000,000,000 
das arab (دس اﺭﺏ)
100,000,000,000 
kharab (ﺏﺮﻬﻛ)
1,000,000,000,000 
das kharab (ﺏﺮﻬﻛ دس)
number _____ (bus, etc.) 
bus number _____ (_____بس نمبر)
half 
aadha (ادھا)
less 
kam (کم)
more 
ziyada (زیادہ)
English Urdu Transliteration
now ابھی Abhi
later بعد bādmein
before پہلے pehley
morning صبح subeh
afternoon سہہ پہر seh pehar
evening شام shaam
night رات raat

Clock Time (گھڑی کا وقت)

one o'clock AM 
subah ke eik bajey (صبح کے ایک بجے)
two o'clock AM 
subah ke doo bajey (صبح کے دو بجے)
noon 
do pahar (دوپہر)
one o'clock PM 
raat ke eik bajey (رات کے ایک بجے)
two o'clock PM 
raat ke doo bajey (رات کے دو بجے)
midnight 
aadhi raat (آدھی رات)

Duration (مدت)

English Urdu Transliteration
second second second
minute منٹ minute
hour گھنٹہ ghanta
day دن din
week ەفته hafta
month مہینہ mahiinaa
year سال saal

Days (روز)

English Urdu Transliteration
Today آج aaj
Yesterday گزشتہ کل/ کل kal/ guzishta kal
Tomorrow کل / آنے والا کل kal/ aaney wala kal
Week ەفته hafta
This week اس ەفتے is hafte
Last week پچھلے ہفتے / ەفتے گزشتہ guzishta hafte/ pichley haftey
Next week پچھلے ہفتے / اگلے ہفتے aynda hafte/ agley haftey
Two weeks دو ەفتے do hafte
Month مہینہ mahiinaa

Days of the Week (ہفتہ کے دن)

Day Urdu Transliteration
Sunday اتوار itwaar
Monday پیر peer
Tuesday منگل mangal
Wednesday بدھ budh
Thursday جمعرات jum'eh'raat
Friday جمعہ jum'a
Saturday ہفتہ/ سنیچر haftah/sanichar

Calendar (تقویم)

In Pakistan and other Urdu speaking place, two calendars are used: the Gregorian and the Islamic. Months of Gregorian calendar are used as these are in English so the Islamic will be discussed. The Islamic calendar is a lunar Calendar. Months are usually 29-30 days long. .The Calendar dates from the hijra, or migration, of the Prophet Muhammad &#65018; from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. The abbreviation for Muslim dates is AH (anno Hegiræ).^ Prophet from Mecca to Medina) hujoom: A n.m.
  • Urdu Dictionary, learn urdu, urdu phrases, english to urdu dictionary, urdu language 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: Academic]

When writing in Urdu, the word ەجرى, hijrī should precede/ follow the date.
Arabic Transliteration Arabic Name
Muharram محرّم
Safar صفر
Rabī al-Avval ربيع الاوّل
Rabī‘ As-sānī ربيع الثانى
Jumādī al-Awwal جمادى الاوّل
Jumādī As-sānī جمادى الثاني
Rajab رجب
Śābān/ Shabaan شعبان
Ramzān رمضان
Śavvāl/ Shavvaal شوّال
Zī Qāda/ Zil Qad ذى قعده
Zī al-Hijjah/ Zil Hajj ذى الحجه

Qualities

|Angry- Khafaa
|Pleased-Mahzooz
|Displeased-Beh-zaar
|Happy-Be-gham, khush,Khurram, Khush haal
|Unhappy-Naashaad
|Difficult-mushqill
|innocent- mazloom, masoom
|Sad-udaas, Aazardah,
|Skilled-mahir
|Worthy-qabil
|Disapointed-Mayoos
|Fragile-nazuk
|Bad- Kharab
|Beautiful-khoobsorat
|confident-ham-raaz
|Wild-awaara
|slave-bandah
|Brave-Bahadur
|Helpless-be-bass
|dishonorable- be abroo
|unmannered- be adab
|Faithless- be-imaan
|careless- beparwaa
|restless- betaab
|-lifeless- bejaan
|uninformed- bekhabar
Color Urdu Transliteration
color رنگ rang
colorful رنگارنگ rangeen
colorless بےرنگ berang
black سياه کالا sīāh or kāla
white سفيد safed / chita
red لال/ سرخ surkh, laalsurkh
pink گلابى gulābī
orange مالٹا نارنجى nāranjī / malta
saffron زعفران za'fron
yellow زرد/ پیلا zard / peela
green ہرا / سبز sabz / harra
blue نیلا neela
turquoise فروزى firozī
purple ارغوانی arghwaani
brown نسواری / خاکی naswari, khākī
gray سرمئ surma'ī
golden سنہری sunehri
silver چاندی chaandi
shiny چمکدار chamak daar
dark گہرا / تاریک tareek / gehra
light روشن / ہلکا roshan / halka

Bus, Train, and Taxi (بس, ریل اور ٹیکسی)

Note: If you stick to main cities Karachi, Lahore or Islamabad, you should be fine with using English words in Urdu phrases. The native speakers do it all the time. This is why the phrase I need a car' becomes Mujhe car chahye.
English Urdu Transliteration
Train ریل گاڑی rail gaari
Train Station ریلوے سٹیشن railway station
Bus بس bus
Bus Stop بس سٹاپ bus stop
Rickshaw ركشه rikshah
Taxi ٹیکسی taxi
Car گاڑی ؕ/ کار gaari / car
Airplane هوأی جہاز hawai jahaz
Airport ہوأی اڈہ / أیرپورٹ hawai adda / airport
How much is a ticket to _____? 
_____ tak ticket kitnay ka hai? (ّّّّتک ٹکٹ کتنے کا ہے؟_____)
One ticket to _____, please. 
ake ticket _____ kay liyee
Where does this train/bus go? 
Yeh train/bus kahan jaati hai? (یہ ٹرینؕ/بس کہان جاتی ہے؟)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
_____ ki train/bus kahan se jaati hai? (ّّّّکی ٹرین/بس کہاں سے جاتی ہے؟_____)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Kya yeh train / bus _____ rukti hai? (کیا یہ ٹرین / بس _____ رکتی ہے؟)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
_____ ki train/bus kab jaati hai? (ّّّّکی ٹرین/بس کب جاتی ہے؟_____)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
Yeh train/bus _____ kab pohnchay gi? (یہ ٹرین / بس _____ کب پہنچے گی؟)

Directions (اطراف)

English Urdu Transliteration
Direction طرف, سمت, رخ taraf, simt, rukh
North شمال shumaal
South جنوب janoob
West مغرب magharib
East مشرق mashriq
Right سیدھے ہاتھ / دأیں dain / seedhay haath
Left الٹے ہاتھ / بأیں bain / ultay haath
Ahead آگے aagay
Back پیچھے peechay
Up اوپر oopar
Down نیچے neechay
Under کے) نیچے) (kay) nichay
Cross چوک chowk
Straight سیدھا seedha
How do I get to _____ ? 
_____ kidhar hai? (کدہر ہے_____ )
...the train station? 
railway station...? (ریلوے سٹیشن)
...the bus station? 
...the bus station? (بس سٹاپ)
...the airport? 
...the airport? (ہوأی اڈہ ایٔرپورٹ)
...downtown? 
...downtown? (مرکزِ شہر)
...the youth hostel? 
...the youth hostel? (یوتھ ہوسٹل)
...the _____ hotel? 
...the _____ hotel? (ہوٹل_____)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...Amreeki/Canadian/Australvi/Bartanvi sifarat khana? (سفارت خانہ؟ امریکی,کینیڈین, آسٹریلوی, برطانوی
Where are there a lot of... 
Zayada _____ kahan hain? (زیادہ _____ کہاں ہیں؟)
...hotels? 
hotel (ہوٹل)
...restaurants? 
khanay kay hotel (کھانے کے ہوٹل) (Word "hotel" is commonly used for restaurants)
...bars? 
bar (بار)(There are no public bars in Pakistan some bars found in five star hotels though for foreigners.)
...sites to see? 
tafreehi maqaam (تفریحی مقام)
Can you show me on the map? 
naqsha par dikha saktay hain? (نقشہ پر دکھاسکتے ہیں؟)
footpath
footpath (فٹ پاتھ)
road
sarak / road (سڑک / روڈ)
Turn left. 
bain / ultay haath murrain(الٹے ہاتھ / بأیں مڑیں)
Turn right. 
dain / seedhay haath murrain (سیدھے ہاتھ / دأیں مڑیں)
left 
bain / ultay haath (الٹے ہاتھ / بأیں)
right 
dain / seedhay haath (سیدھے ہاتھ / دأیں مڑیں)
straight ahead 
seedha (سیدھا)
towards the _____ 
_____ ki taraf(کی طرف_____ )
past the _____ 
_____ kay baad( کے بعد_____ )
before the _____ 
_____ say pehlay (سے پہلے_____ )
uphill 
oopar(اوپر)
downhill 
nichay (نیچے)
Do you have any rooms available? 
aap keh paas dasteyaab kamrein hain? (کیا کؤی کمرہ خالی ہے؟)
How much is a single/doube bed room? 
Aik/douh bistar keh kamron keey kya keemat hai? (ایکؕ/دو بستر کا کمرہ کتنے کا ہے؟)
Does the room come with... 
Kya kamre kay sath _____ bhi shamil hai? (کیا کمرے کے ساتھ_____بھی ہے؟)
...a bathroom? 
gusal khana/bathroom (باتھروم, غسل خانہ)
...a telephone? 
phone (فون)
...a TV? 
TV (ٹی وی)
...a safe? 
mehfooz (سیف)
...a wardrobe? 
almaari (الماری)
May I see the room first? 
Kia mei kamra pehleh dekh loon? (کیا میں کمرہ دیکھ لوں؟)
Do you have anything...? 
Ap keh paas koi cheez hai? (اس سے_____کؤی ہے؟)
...quieter? 
pur sakoon (پرسکون)
...comfortable? 
aaraam deh (آرام دہ)
...bigger? 
barra (بڑا)
...cleaner? 
saaf (صاف)
...cheaper? 
sasta (سستا)
OK, I'll take it. 
Theek hai, lay leta <leti> hoon. (ٹھیک ہے, لے لیتا <لیتی> ہوں) <females>
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
Mei _____ raat(raatain) rukoon ga. (میں _____ رات(راتیں) رکوں گا)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
aap kisi aur hotel ki tajwiz karsaktein hain? (کؤی اور ہوٹل ہے؟)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Nashta/Khana shamil hai? (ناشتہ/کھانا شامل ہے؟)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
Nashta/Khana kis waqt milta hai? (ناشتہ/کھانا کس وقت ملتا ہے؟)
Please clean my room. 
Mehrbaani, mera kamra saaf kar dijeiy. (میرا کمرہ صاف کردیں)
Can you wake me at _____? 
Mujhe _____ bajay utha dijyeh ghein? (مجھے _____ بجے اٹھا دیجے گا؟)
I want to check out. 
Mujhe dekhn hai. (مجھے چیک آوٹ کرنا ہے)
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Aap amrikan/autralian/canadian pasia lay thain hain?
Do you accept British pounds? 
Aap angraze pasia lay thain hain?
Do you accept credit cards? 
Do you accept credit cards? (آپ کارد اعتباری قبول کرتے ہیں؟)
Can you change money for me? 
Can you change money for me? (آپ میرے خاطر نقد عوض کرلیںگیں؟)
Where can I get money changed? 
Where can I get money changed? (میں نقد کہاں عوض کروں؟)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
Can you change a traveler's check for me? (آپ میرے خاطر چک مسافری عوض کرلیںگیں؟)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (میں چک مسافری کہاں عوض کروں؟)
What is the exchange rate? 
What is the exchange rate? (نرخِ معاوضہ کیا ہے؟)
A table for one person/two people, please. 
A table for one person/two people, please. (یک میز برایِ یک یا دو فرد, مہرباناً)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Can I look at the menu, please? (میں منیو مشاہدہ کرلوں؟)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Can I look in the kitchen? (میں مطبخ نظارہ کرلوں؟)
Is there a house specialty? 
Is there a house specialty? (اختصاصیِ بیت ہے؟)
Is there a local specialty? 
Is there a local specialty? (محلی اختصاص ہے؟)
I'm a vegetarian. 
mein gosht naheen kahtah, or mein sirf sabzee kahtah hoon. (میں سبزی خور ہوں)
I don't eat pork. 
mein laham-e-khinzeer naheen kahtah. (میں خنزیر نہیں طناول کرتہ ہوں)
I don't eat beef. 
mein gaa'ay ka gosht naheen kahtah. (میں گوشتِ گاو نہیں طناول کرتہ ہوں)
I only eat kosher food. 
mein sirf kosher khana kahta hoon. (میں فقط گوشتِ یہودی طناول کرتہ ہوں)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
Zara halka banana, maharbani? (سبک پخت کرنا, مہرباناً. کم رغن, مسکہ, یا چربیِ خنزیر)
fixed-price meal 
fixed-price meal (تعام مقطوعاً)
à la carte 
a la carte (جدا جدا سفارش دینہ ہو)
breakfast 
naashta (ناشتہ)
lunch 
Khana (نہار) یا ظہرانہ)
tea (meal
chai (چای)
supper 
supper (غذا یا شامی)
I want _____. 
Mujhe ______ chahiyeh. (مجہے ______ کی ضرورت ہے)
I want a dish containing _____. 
I want a dish containing _____. (مجہے تعام با _______ لینا ہے)
chicken 
murghiye (مرغ)
beef 
gaa'ay ka ghosht (گوشت)
fish 
machlih (ماہی)
ham 
ham (خنزیر)
sausage 
sausage (سوسیج)
cheese 
paneer (پنیر)
eggs 
andhey (تخم)
salad 
salad (سلاد)
(fresh) vegetables 
(fresh) sabzee (میوہ)
(fresh) fruit 
(fresh) phaal (میوہ)
bread 
bread (نان)
toast 
toast (نان برشتہ)
noodles 
noodles (رشتہ فرنگی)
rice 
chaval (برنج)
beans 
beans (لوبیا)
May I have a glass of _____? 
May I have a glass of _____? (میں یک شیشہِ _____ لےلوں؟)
May I have a cup of _____? 
May I have a cup of _____? (میں یک جامِ _____ لےلوں؟)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
May I have a bottle of _____? (میں یک جامِ _____ لےلوں؟)
coffee 
coffee (قہوا)
tea (drink
chai (چای)
juice 
juice (شیرہ)
(bubbly) water 
(bubbly) panih (پاني حبابی)
water 
pani (پاني)
beer 
daru (ابجو)
red/white wine 
red/white wine (بادہ سفید یا سرخ)
May I have some _____? 
May I have some _____? (میں بعضِ ______ لے لوں؟)
salt 
namak (نمک)
black pepper 
black pepper (فلفل سیاہ)
butter 
makhaan(مسکہ)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Excuse me, waiter? (بخشدو پیشِخدمت)
I'm finished. 
meineh khatam kar liya hai. (بس ہے, خلاص)
It was delicious. 
bohot mazeydaar/lazeez tha. (خوشمزہ تها)
Please clear the plates. 
Please clear the plates. (ظرف صاف کردیں)
The check, please. 
The check, please. (صورتِ حساب, لطفاً)
  • note: Alcohol is only available in some bars inside five star hotels. Availability to non-Muslims with the proper license or foreigners with passport. Fact is that bars serving drinks do have English speaking staff available.
Do you serve alcohol? 
Aap sharaab bechte karte hain? (آپ شراب فروخت کرتے ہیں؟)
A beer/two beers, please. 
Aik / Dou beer dijye. (ایک / دو بٔیر دیجیٔے)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
Aik glass laal/safaid sharaab dijye. (ایک گلاس سفید/سرخ شراب دیجیٔے)
A bottle, please. 
aik botal dijye. ( ایک بوتل دیجٔیے)
whiskey 
whiskey (وسکی)
vodka 
vodka (ووڈکا)
rum 
rum (رم)
water 
paani (پانی)
club soda 
club soda (کلب سوڈا)
tonic water 
tonic water (ٹانک واٹر)
orange juice 
orange juice (مالٹے کا جوس)
Coke 
Coke (کوک)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Kuch khanay ko hai? (کچھ کھانے کو ہے؟)
One more, please. 
Aik aur dijye. (ایک اور دیجیٔے)
When is closing time? 
Bar kis waqt bund hota hai? (بار کس وقت بند ہوتاہے؟)
Do you have this in my size? 
Merhey Qaad mein hai? (میرے سایش میں ہے؟)
How much is this? 
Kitney ka hai? (کیا قدر ہے اسکی؟)
That's too expensive. 
Yeh bohot hi zyaada meheingha hai. (وہ گران ہے)
Would you take _____? 
aap kuch lehnghey_____? (____لےلیںگ؟)
expensive 
mehengha (گران)
cheap 
sustaah (ارزان)
I can't afford it. 
meri itnih gunjaish naheen hai . (میرے قابل نہیں ہے)
I don't want it. 
Mujhey iskih nahin chahiye/ Mujhe iskih naheen zaroorat (مجہے نہیں ضرورت)
You're cheating me. 
aap mujhey dhohka dey rahey hain. (تم فریب دہرہے ہو)
I'm not interested. 
mhujhey ismeh koih dilchaspi naheen hai. (مین شوقین نہیں)
OK, I'll take it. 
Theekh hai, mein lehleh thi hoon. (خیر ہے, لےلے تہ ہوں)
Can I have a bag? 
mein koi thelaa leinloon? (لفافہ دےدیں)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (بیرونِ ملک ترسیل کرتے ہیں؟)
I need... 
(مجہے _____ کی ضرورت ہے)
...toothpaste. 
mhujey daant ki paste ki zaroorat hai(خمیر دندان)
...a toothbrush. 
mhujhey daant brush ki zaroorat hai (مسواک)
...tampons. 
(تمپون)
...soap. 
sabun(صابون)
...shampoo. 
(شمپو)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
(اسپرن)
...cold medicine.davaa 
(دواِ تب)
...stomach medicine. 
(دواِ میدہ)
...a razor. 
(تیغ)
...an umbrella. 
chattrih(جتر)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (کرمِ ضدِ افتابی)(...)
...a postcard. 
(کارتِ پستال)
...postage stamp. 
(ستمپ پستال)
...batteries. 
(باطری)
...writing paper. 
(کاغز)
...a pen. 
KAHlam (قلم)
...a pencil 
(مداد)
...an English-language book. 
angreyzih-zabaan ki kitaab (کتابِ لسانِ انگلیزی)
... an English-language magazine. 
angreyzih-zabaan ka risallah(رسالہِ لسانِ انگلیزی)
...an English-language newspaper. 
angreyzih-zabaan ka akhbaar (روزنامنہِ لسانِ انگلیزی)
...an English-Urdu dictionary. 
(فرہنگِ اردو و انگلیزی)
I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (میں نے گاری کرایا کرنا ہے)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (بیمہ لےلوں؟)
stop (on a street sign
rukh jao (توقف)
one way 
one way (یک طرف)
yield 
yield (تسلیم)
no parking 
no parking (قائم ہونہ منع ہے)
speed limit 
speed limit (حدِ سرعت)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (گاز)
petrol 
petrol (بنزین)
diesel 
diesel (دیزل)
I haven't done anything wrong. 
meiney koi bura kaam naheen kiyaمیں نے ہیچ خطا نہیں کی)
It was a misunderstanding. 
ghalat fehmi hogai hai
Where are you taking me? 
aap mhujhe kahan lay kay ja rahe hain? (کہاں لہچارے ہو؟)
Am I under arrest? 
mein giraftar ho raahan hoon? (میں گرفتار میں ہوں؟)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
mein American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen hoon. (میں امریکی رعیت ہوں)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
merheey American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate seh baat kara dheeh jaey. (میں نے از امریکی سفارت صحبت کرنی ہے)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (میں نے با وکیل صحبت کرنی ہے)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
mein fine abhiy pay kardhoon (میں حالا تاوان دےدوں؟)
How do you say _____ ? 
How do you say _____ ? (______ کیسے کہتے ہیں؟)
What is this/that called? 
What is this/that called? (وہ کیا ہے؟)

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also urdu, urdú, and úrdú

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

.From Persian اردو (urdū), from Turkish ordu (army, camp) ( > Turkish ordu).^ The word Urdu is believed to be derived from the Turkish, word 'Ordu', which means army encampment.
  • Study Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC studyurdu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome to our website Urdu is a Turkish word which means camp or army.

^ It was initially called Zab?n-e-Ordu-e-Mu'alla "language of the Exalted Camp" (in Persian) and later just Urdu.
  • Pakistan Urdu Language 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.url.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Compare horde.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Urdu
Plural
-
Urdu
  1. A Indo-Iranian language with native speakers mainly in Pakistan and India.

Translations

Adjective

Urdu (not comparable)
Positive
Urdu
  1. Relative to the Urdu language.

Translations

See also

.
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Urdu poetry on Wikipedia.^ Description: Poetry in the Indic Urdu language.
    • Discussions - alt.language.urdu.poetry | Google Groups 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]
    • Discussions - alt.language.urdu.poetry | Google Groups 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Urdu poetry of the Indian subcontinent as we know it today did not take its final shape until the 17 th century when it was declared the official language of the court.
    • A Brief History of Urdu Poetry 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC niazi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Urdu Adab & Shayeri Post Urdu poetry , Urdu literature , Urdu essays etc and discuss about the past , present and future of Urdu language.
    • Urdu Forum & Social Networking Website 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urdupages.com [Source type: General]
    • Urdu Forum & Social Networking Website 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.urdupages.com [Source type: General]

    Wikipedia:Urdu poetry

External links


Dutch

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Urdu n.
  1. Urdu (language)

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Urdu اردو
Reading & Writing
Introduction
Alphabet
Nasta'liq
Transliteration
Lessons
Basic
Elementary
Intermediate
Advanced
Exercises
Reference
Vocabulary
Grammar
Dialects
Linguistic Terms
Related Wikibooks
Hindi
Persian
Miscellaneous
Appendices
Random lessons
Welcome to the Urdu Wikibook, a free textbook for learning Urdu
URDUARAB.PNG
Urdu
The national flag of Pakistan The national flag of India

Introduction

.Urdu is one of the two official languages of Pakistan.^ As for Pakistan it's their official language!
  • phpBB •View topic - Making a Urdu (Pakistan) Language pack :) 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.phpbb.com [Source type: General]
  • phpBB •View topic - Making a Urdu (Pakistan) Language pack :) 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.phpbb.com [Source type: General]

^ Kashmiri is one of India's "official" languages.
  • Urdu Unicode Fonts 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.wazu.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is the National language of Pakistan and one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Virtual Vienna Net - URDU - THE LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.virtualvienna.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IIt is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of five Indian states.^ It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India.
  • Urdu language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kashmiri is one of India's "official" languages.
  • Urdu Unicode Fonts 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.wazu.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urdu is the National language of Pakistan and one of the 23 official languages of India.
  • Virtual Vienna Net - URDU - THE LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.virtualvienna.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdu.^ There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdū ( Khari Boli ).
  • Urdu Poetry, Urdu Poets, Urdu Shairy, Urdu Poetry Voice, Poetry in Urdu 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.telepk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are large numbers of Urdu speakers outside of South Asia in countries with Urdu workers or immigrants: The United States, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom each have between 350,000 and 400,000 speakers.
  • Sorting it all Out : Give a lady Urdu? (her due?) 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ The sound system of Hindi/Urdu is also very challening for non-natives, as one has to learn to distinguish between so-called dental and retroflex consonants, and aspirates and non-aspirates.
  • Hindi/Urdu Profile (Collaborative writing) Language Learning Forum 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC how-to-learn-any-language.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the SIL Ethnologue (1999 data), Urdu/Hindi is the fifth most spoken language in the world.^ Urdu is the 20th most popular first language in the world.
  • Urdu Translation and Localization Services - High Quality Urdu to English, English to Urdu Translation by professional translators 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.advancedlanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Study of Urdu and Hindi languages and vocabulary .
  • Web based Transliteration and Translation System between Urdu and Hindi Languages (isif asia project) 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.advancedcentrepunjabi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Urdu by itself is the 20th most popular 'first' language in the world.
  • Urdu Translation and Localization Services - High Quality Urdu to English, English to Urdu Translation by professional translators 13 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.advancedlanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To read more about the history of Urdu: History
.Please feel free to use the English Wiktionary's Urdu language Category as a reference for these courses.^ The Lodhis used Urdu as the court language.
  • Urdu: A history of the language « The Dawn 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC thedawn.com.pk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is.

^ Urdu is supposed to be a polished language and a host of words are used in it to show respect and politeness.Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature.
  • Feba inside 3 February 2010 18:36 UTC www.febaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Writing and Pronunciation

Reference

Grammar 25%.png

Vocabulary 25%.png

Lessons

External Resources


Simple English

Urdu is a name of one of the languages which is spoken in South Asia. It is spoken in Pakistan and Indian-administered Kashmir and is an official language of the country. It is also an official language of India. It is spoken all over India and particularly in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh.

Contents

History

As Mongol hordes swept across Central Asia in the Middle Ages, a new word developed in several languages. The Mongol military camp was known in Turkish as ordo, is a Turkic word meaning Lashkar (Army), in English as horde and in Tatar as Urdu. The descendants of the Mongols, the Mughals, settled in the subcontinent where they became one of the world's most renowned patrons of beautiful art and architecture. Their royal encampments retained the Tatar word , Urdu, which became the word for the language spoken in the military camp. Since this language had been used by the Army in Mughal Era it had been given the name Urdu. So wherever the Mughal Army moved it has adopted the different words from languages of different regions of the Indian subcontinent. Mainly, words used in Urdu are from Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit. However the origin of this language itself pre-dates the Mughals.

Levels of formality

Urdu in its less formalised register has been called a rekhta (ریختہ, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes called zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo'alla (زبان اردو معلہ [zəbaːn eː ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the "Language of Camp and Court."

The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how nice or well done your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb, both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard, meaning "man." The first in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the last in the set is used formally and poetically.

If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is thought to be more formal and nice. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also thought more formal and nice. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is thought more colloquial and personal.[1]

Politeness

Urdu is supposed to be a nice and well done language; many of words are used in it to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which comes from the vocabulary, is known as adab and to sometimes as takalluf in Urdu. These words are mostly used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not met yet.

References

  1. "About Urdu". Afroz Taj (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.unc.edu/. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Urdu, which are similar to those in the above article.








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