Use of capital punishment by nation: Wikis

  

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the globe, but in the last few decades many countries have abolished it. Abolitionist groups including Amnesty International classify countries into four categories:[1]

  • 58 maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. (which includes the Palestinian Authority)
  • 95 have abolished it.
  • 9 retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 35 permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions or is under a moratorium.

Additionally, five countries execute offenders under the age 18 at the time of the crime committed.[2] In some countries the practice of extrajudicial execution sporadically or systematically outside their own formal legal frameworks occurs. This list below includes several unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory and dependent territories, neither of which are included in the above numbers, except as noted above. Below, at least 2,390 were executed in 25 nations during 2008.[3]

Death Penalty World Map
Legend
     Abolished for all crimes      Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war)      Abolished in practice      Legal form of punishment

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort none.gif icon.

Contents

Africa

Executions in 2009: Botswana (1), Sudan (9)[citation needed]

Key Country Last Execution Abolished (If applicable) Notes
 Algeria August 1993 Treason; espionage; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory; sabotage to public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; murder; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft, currently under a moratorium.
 Angola N/A August 1992 (by Constitution)
 Benin 1987 Armed robbery[4]; Murder[5]; traffickers involved in "labor exploitation"[6]
 Botswana December 2009 Murder; treason; attempt on the life of the head of state; mutiny; desertion in the face of the enemy
 Burkina Faso 1988 Treason[7]
 Burundi 2000[8] April 2009[9]
 Cameroon January 1997[10] Secession; espionage; incitement to war[11]
 Cape Verde 1835 1981 (by Constitution)
 Central African Republic 1981 Treason; espionage; charlatanism; witchcraft; assassination; murder[12]
 Chad 2003[13] Murder
 Comoros 1997[14]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2003[15]
 Congo 1982
 Côte d'Ivoire None since independence[16] 2000
 Djibouti None since independence 1995
 Egypt 2008 Rape, if accompanied by kidnapping of the victim; murder; treason; organized drug trafficking
 Equatorial Guinea 2007
 Eritrea 1989
 Ethiopia August 2007 [17] Murder, Treason, armed conspiracy, genocide, outrages against the constitution
 Gabon 1981[18]
 Gambia 1981 Treason. Abolished 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995[19]
 Ghana 1993 Murder; treason; armed robbery[19]
 Guinea-Bissau 1986 1993 (by Constitution)
 Guinea 2001[20] Murder
 Kenya 1987 Murder, armed robbery,[15] treason. On August 03, 2009, the death sentences of all 4,000 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, and government studies were ordered to determine if the death penalty has any impact on crime.
 Lesotho 1984
 Liberia 1995[19] Armed robbery, terrorism, hijacking. On 16 September 2005, Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty, but re-introduced elements of it in July, 2008.[21]
 Libya February 2008 High treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder[22]
 Madagascar 1958
 Malawi 1992[23]
 Mali 1980
 Mauritania 1987 Sodomy[24]; apostasy[25] (no recorded executions).
 Mauritius 1987 1995
 Morocco 1993 Terrorism[15]. An abolition law project is being presented to the Parliament of Morocco in spring 2007. (see Human rights in Morocco#Capital punishment)
 Mozambique 1986 November 1990 (by Constitution)
 Namibia 1988 March 1990 (by Constitution)
 Niger 1976
 Nigeria 2002[19] Sodomy,[26] kidnapping. Each of the 36 states has its own laws. In the north of the country, Sharia (Islamic law) is used. In Imo State, a bill that provided capital punishment for kidnapping was signed into law.
 Rwanda 1998 2007[27] Since some of the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide fled to countries that refuse to extradite suspects to countries that use capital punishment, the Rwandan parliament voted to abolish capital punishment in 2007.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976 1991 The Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic outlaws the death penalty: Article 13 from the 1991 revision reads "The death penalty is banned" (translated into English from the Arabic.)[28]
 São Tomé and Príncipe None since independence September 1990 (by Constitution)
 Senegal 1967 December 2004
 Seychelles None since independence June 1993 (by Constitution)
 Sierra Leone October 1998 Treason[29]; Murder; aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leone the death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes
 Somalia October 2008[30] Murder, Adultery, Homosexuality: The Transitional Federal Government and most regional governments are under Islamic law
 Somaliland N/A
 South Africa 31 January 1991[10] 1995 (by Constitutional Court)[31] / 1997 (by statute)[32] This last execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised "homeland" of Venda. The last execution by the South African government was on 14 November 1989.

On 25 May 2005 the Constitutional Court ordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced.

 Sudan January 2010 Sodomy [33]; Waging war against the state[34]; apostasy[25]; prostitution; treason; acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state; murder; armed robbery; weapons possession and smuggling
 Swaziland 1983[35] Murder[36]; treason
 Tanzania 1994 Murder; treason
 Togo 1978[37] 23 June 2009[38]
 Tunisia 1991 Murder; violence and aggression; attacks against the internal security of the state; attacks against the external security of the state
 Uganda 2003[39] Treason; terrorism; murder[40]; Rape; defilement; aggravated robbery; aggravated kidnapping. On 14 June 2005 the Constitutional Court ruled that the death penalty was constitutional but its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not.[41]
 Zambia 1997 Murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. President Levy Mwanawasa stated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant."[23]
 Zimbabwe June 2003[42] Drug trafficking; treason; murder; mutiny

Asia

Executions in 2008: Afghanistan (17+), Bahrain (1), Bangladesh (5), People's Republic of China (1718+), Indonesia (10), Iran (346+), Iraq (3400), Japan (15), Malaysia (1+), Mongolia (1+), North Korea (15+), Pakistan (36+), Saudi Arabia (102+), Singapore (1+), Syria (1+), UAE (1+), Vietnam (19+), Yemen (13+)[citation needed]

Key Country Last Execution Abolished (If Applicable) Notes
 Afghanistan 11 November 2008 Murder; child smuggling in order to use the victim's body parts; apostasy (see Abdul Rahman (convert))

[43]

 Azerbaijan 1992 1998
 Bahrain 4 June 2008 Premeditated murder; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law
 Bangladesh January 2010 Murder [44]; drug offences [45]; Trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; trafficking in women for purposes of prostitution[46]
 Bhutan 1974[23] 2004
 Brunei 1957 Murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, cocaine of more than 30 grams, cannabis of more than 500 grams, syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or opium of more than 1.2 kg[47]
 Cambodia 1989 1989 (by Constitution)
 China January 2010 Embezzlement; rape of children; fraud; bombing; people trafficking; piracy; theft; corruption; arson; murder; poaching; endangerment of national security; terrorism[48] (see Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China) (Hong Kong and Macau, have separate legal systems from China and have abolished the death penalty.)
 Hong Kong 1966 1993* *when Hong Kong was under British rule, and remains so after the handover to the People's Republic of China.
 Macau N/A The death penalty is prohibited, continuing since the handover to the People's Republic of China.[49] The maximum possible sentence is imprisonment for 30 years.[50]
 Taiwan 26 December 2005 Since 2004, most death sentences have been informally given moratorium by President Chen Shui-bian except serious murders. (see Capital punishment in Taiwan)
 Cyprus 1962 2002 Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983.
 Georgia 1995[51] 2006 The death penalty was abolished for most offenses in 1997, but the constitution stated that the Supreme Court had the power to impose the death penalty in exceptionally serious cases of "crimes against life". On 27 December 2006, President Mikheil Saakashvili signed into a law a new constitutional amendment totally abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances
 India 14 August 2004[52] Murder; instigating a child's suicide; treason; acts of terrorism; a second conviction for drug trafficking. For more information see Capital punishment in India
 Indonesia 9 November 2008[53] Murder; Drug trafficking[54]; Terrorism;[55]
 Iran January 2010 Murder; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping; rape; pedophilia; homosexuality; espionage; terrorism; consumption of alcohol; apostasy; crimes against chastity.
 Iraq 25 January 2010[56] Murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; attacks on transport convoys; financing and execution of terrorism[57]. Suspended in June 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated August 2004.[58]
 Israel 1962 1954 (for other crimes) Crimes against humanity[59], high treason, genocide, crimes against the Jewish people. Only two executions: accused traitor Meir Tobiansky (posthumously acquitted) and high-ranking Nazi Adolf Eichmann.
 Japan 28 July 2009 Prosecutors push for the death penalty only in the case of multiple murders, or single murder with aggravating circumstances.[60] Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides. Between 1946 and 2003 766 people were sentenced to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to an informal moratorium. (See Capital punishment in Japan)
 Jordan 2005 Murder[61]
 Kazakhstan 2003[62] 2009 (for other crimes) Terrorism, crimes in wartime[63]. Moratorium since 17 December 2003. Abolished on 30 July 2009[64]
 North Korea 7 October 2008[65][66][67] Prostitution;[65] “drug transactions”;[66] plots against national sovereignty; terrorism; treason against the Motherland by citizens; treason against the people; murder[68]
 South Korea 30 December 1997[69] Murder [70]. There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since President Kim Dae-jung took office in February 1998.[71] However, a man was recently sentenced to death, a sentence which had not been carried out as of April 2009 [72]
 Kuwait 20 May 2007 Drug trafficking; rape; murder
 Kyrgyzstan None since independence 2007 Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998. Abolished by constitution in 2007[73][74]
 Laos 1989 Drugs trafficking[75]
 Lebanon 2004 Murder[76]
 Malaysia 2008 Mandatory for trafficking in dangerous drugs; discharging a firearm in the commission of a scheduled offence; accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; offences against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong’s person; murder. Discretionary for kidnapping; consorting with a person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri[77]
 Maldives 1952 Murder[78]
 Mongolia 2008 Terrorist acts committed for political purposes; terrorist acts against representatives of a foreign State for political purposes; sabotage; premeditated murder committed with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; armed robbery[79]. According to Amnesty International, executions were carried out in secret and there are no official statistics[80] On January 14, 2010, President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced that he would, henceforth, systematically use his prerogative to pardon all persons sentenced to death. He stated that most countries in the world had abolished the death penalty, and that Mongolia should follow their example; he suggested that it be replaced with a thirty year prison sentence. The decision was controversial; when Elbegdorj announced it in Parliament, a significant number of represesentatives chose not to give the applause customarily due after a presidential speech.[81] (See: Capital punishment in Mongolia)
 Myanmar 1993 High treason[82]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic N/A de facto moratorium on executions since 1997
 Nepal 1979 1997 (by Constitution)
 Oman 2001[83] Murder; Drug trafficking[84]
 Pakistan 19 August 2008 Murder; sodomy[85]; gang rape; mutiny. (See Capital punishment in Pakistan)
 Palestinian Authority 2005[86] Murder, rape, collaborating with Israeli forces[87][88]. There are a total of 17 offenses in the West Bank and 15 in the Gaza Strip for which the death penalty can be imposed under the Palestinian Penal Code.[7] There had been an unofficial moratorium since 2002 after President Yasser Arafat stopped authorising executions. The Hamas Islamic court has sentenced people to death for murder.[8]
 Philippines 2000 2006 Abolished in 1987 under the present constitution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on 24 June 2006 under Republic Act No. 9346.
 Qatar 2001 Espionage[89]; Threat to national security[90]; Apostasy[25](no recorded executions
 Saudi Arabia January 2010 Many violent and nonviolent offenses, including murder; apostasy; drug offenses; witchcraft; sexual misconduct.[91]. Method most often used is beheading by a sword
 Singapore August 2009 Murder; kidnapping; treason; certain firearm offenses; trafficking in more than 15 grams of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis[92] (see capital punishment in Singapore)
 Sri Lanka 23 June 1976 Murder; perjury causing an innocent person to be executed; rape; drug trafficking. Moratorium since 1976.
 Syria 2008 Treason; murder; political acts such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robbery; rape; verbal opposition to the government; membership of the Muslim Brotherhood
 Tajikistan 2004 Murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; biocide; genocide[93]. Moratorium introduced 30 April 2004 by President Emomalii Rahmon
 Thailand 25 August 2009[94] Regicide; sedition or rebellion; offences committed against the external security of Thailand; murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state; bribery; arson; rape; murder with intent; kidnapping; robbery resulting in death. For a full list see here (PDF)
 Timor-Leste 1999
 Turkmenistan 1997 1999 (by Constitution)
 United Arab Emirates 22 February 2008[95] Murder; Drug offences[96]; Rape; treason; aggravated robbery; terrorism
 Uzbekistan 2005[97] 2008 President Islam Karimov signed a decree on 1 August 2005 that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January 2008[98][99]
 Vietnam 2009 Treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud[100]
 Yemen January 2010 Murder [101]; Adultery[102]; homosexuality[103][104]; Apostasy[25] (no recorded executions)

Europe

Executions in 2008: Belarus (4)[citation needed]

Key Country Last Execution Abolished Notes
 Albania 1995[51] 2007 Ratification of Protocol No. 13 of ECHR took place on 6 February 2007, in effect by 1 June 2007.[105]
 Armenia 1992 1998 (by Constitution)
 Andorra 1943 1990 (by Constitution)
 Austria 1950 1950 (in peacetime); 1968 (by Constitution)
 Belarus 5 February 2008[106] Acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war[107] (see Capital punishment in Belarus)
 Belgium 1863 for common law crimes; 1950 for war crimes 1996 (by Constitution)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina none since independence 1995 (by Constitution)
 Bulgaria 1989 1998
 Croatia 1973[51] 1990 (by Constitution)
 Czech Republic 1989 1990 (by Constitution) For more info see Capital punishment in the Czech Republic.
 Denmark 1892 for common law crimes; 1950 for war crimes 1930; reinstated 1945-51 for WW II crimes; 1952-1978 for war crimes Capital punishment was retroactively carried out 1945-50 for crimes related to the German occupation in World War II, repealed in 1951 and confirmed in 1993. A similar rule was active 1952-1978 in the civil penalty law for war crimes committed under extreme circumstances. See Capital punishment in Denmark.
 Estonia 21 September 1991 1998
 European Union 1977 (France) 1998 (G-B) current criterion for admission
 Finland 1944 1949 (by Constitution)
 France 1977 1981 Forbidden by law in 1981 and by Constitution in 2007.
 Germany none by FRG authorities 1949 (FRG)/1951 (West Berlin)/1987 (GDR) Last execution in West Germany, 1956, by US military authorities; in East Germany, 1981. Prohibited by the Basic Law since 1949.
 Greece 25 August 1972 2001 Abolished in 1994 (Law 2207/1994) except for high treason in time of war; abolished completely with the Constitutional amendment of 2001
 Hungary 1989 1990
 Iceland 1830 1928 Abolished in 1928; reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of parliament
 Ireland 1954 1990 21st Amendment to the Constitution (2001) passed by national referendum made reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment (and referendum). Until recently it was still technically lawful to execute the murderer of a police officer; however, in practice this never occurred, likely due to widespread moral objection.
 Italy 1947 1994 Abolished except in time of war in 1948 (by the Constitution). Abolished from the military penal code in 1994. Constitution amended in 2007 to make reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment.
 Kosovo N/A 2008 (by Constitution)[108]
 Latvia 1996[51] 1999 (for other crimes) murder with aggravating circumstances if committed during wartime[109]
 Liechtenstein 1785 1987
 Lithuania 1995 1998
 Luxembourg 1949 1979 (by Constitution)
 Macedonia 1988[51] 1991 (by Constitution)
 Malta 1943 2000 Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; part of the military code until 2000.
 Isle of Man 1872 1993
 Moldova 1985[51] 1995 On 23 September 2005 the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that abolished the death penalty[110].
 Monaco 1847 1962 (by Constitution)
 Montenegro 1992 1995
 Netherlands 1952 1982 (by Constitution) Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870, last execution for peacetime offences 1860.
 Norway 1948 1979 Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876.
 Poland 1988 1997 A criminal law reform including reintroducion of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost its first reading vote in the Sejm by 198 to 194 with 14 abstentions). It is said that this was only a populism, as Poland was in the European Union and so this initiative hardly had a chance.[23]
 Portugal 1846 (last woman in 1763) 1867 (by Constitution)
 Romania 25 December 1989 1990[51] (by Constitution)
 Russia 1996/1999 1997(yet to be ratified) Murder with aggravating circumstances; assassination attempt against a state or public figure; attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations; attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer; genocide[111]. On 16 April 1997 Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions in the Russian Federation since August 1996, though one took place in 1999 in the Chechen Republic. In November 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia extended the moratorium pending ratification of the Sixth Protocol.
 San Marino 1468 1865
 Serbia 1992 1995 Abolished in 1995 on Federal level, local legislation adjusted in 2002[112]
 Slovakia 1989 1990 (by Constitution)
 Slovenia 1959 1989 (by Constitution)
 Spain 27 September 1975 1978 Abolished in 1978 by constitution except for military laws during wartime.
 Sweden 23 November 1910 1972 Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975. See also capital punishment in Sweden.
 Switzerland 1944 1874/1938/1992 Abolished in 1874, later permitted again and practiced by a few states (nine executions up to 1940). Abolished by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was abolished in 1992.
 Transnistria N/A Murder; attempt to murder a state or public official; armed rebellion; attempt to murder a magistrate or investigator; attempt to murder a law enforcement agent; genocide. Moratorium since 1 January 1999
 Turkey 25 October 1984 21 July 2004 (by Constitution)
 Northern Cyprus N/A Treason during wartime, acts of terrorism and piracy jure gentium (by the law of nations), and for repeated murders[113]
 Ukraine March 1997[114] 2000 Abolished February 2000 after the Constitutional Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999. New criminal code passed in April 2001.
 United Kingdom 13 August 1964 1998 Abolished for murder in 1969 in Great Britain and 1973 in Northern Ireland. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in 1998. European Convention ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. See Capital punishment in the United Kingdom
 Vatican City 9 July 1870 (Papal States[115]) 1969

North America

Executions in 2009: United States (52)

Key Country Last Execution Abolished Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 2 February 1991 Murder
 Bahamas 6 January 2000 Treason; Piracy; Murder
 Barbados 10 October 1984[10] Murder; Treason
 Belize June 1985 [10] Murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved[116]
 Bermuda 1977 2000
 Canada 11 December 1962 1976 (other crimes)
1998 (military)[117]
For more information see Capital punishment in Canada
 Costa Rica 1859[118] 1877 (by Constitution)
 Cuba 2003 Most commuted to imprisonment for 30 years to life[119]
 Dominica 8 August 1986
 Dominican Republic 1966 1966 (by Constitution)
 El Salvador 1973 1983 (for other crimes) May be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war[120]
 Grenada 1978
 Guatemala June 2000[121]
 Haiti 1972 1987 (by Constitution)
 Honduras 1940 1956(by Constitution)
 Jamaica 1988[122] Murder[123]
 Mexico 1961 1976(other crimes)
2005 (military)
Death penalty abolished by Constitution in 1917 except for military crimes, 2005 all crimes. Since the kidnap and murder of 14-year-old Fernando Marti in July 2008 at the hands of an organized group of criminals that included police officers, there has been social pressure to reinstate capital punishment and the issue is about to be brought up in Congress.[124][125]

See Capital punishment in Mexico.

 Nicaragua 1930 1979 (by Constitution)
 Panama 1903 1903 (by Constitution)
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 December 2008 Murder
 Saint Lucia 17 October 1995 Murder; Treason
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13 February 1995 Murder; Treason
 Trinidad and Tobago 28 July 1999 Murder; Treason[126]
 Turks and Caicos Islands N/A 2002[127]
 United States 16 February 2010[128] Federal law provides the death penalty for many homicide-related crimes; espionage; treason,[129]; 38 of 50 states still exercise the death penalty. In practice, used only for murder; conspiracy to commit murder; treason. Sentences of death may be handed down by a jury or a judge, depending upon the jurisdiction. For more information see Capital punishment in the United States.

Oceania

Executions in 2009: none

Key Country Last Execution Abolished Notes
 Australia 3 February, 1967[130] 1922 - 1985 Queensland 1922, Tasmania 1968, the Commonwealth, Northern Territory and the ACT 1973, Victoria: 1975, South Australia 1976, Western Australia 1984, New South Wales 1985. For more information see Capital punishment in Australia.
 Cook Islands none since self-government 2007[131] For more information see Capital punishment in the Cook Islands
 Fiji 1964; none since independence 1979
(for other crimes)
Only for crimes under the Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act.
 Kiribati none since independence 1979
 Marshall Islands none since independence 1986
(by Constitution)
 Micronesia none since independence 1986
(by Constitution)
 Nauru none since independence Treason; Piracy; Murder
 New Zealand 17 February, 1957 1989 For more information see Capital punishment in New Zealand
 Niue N/A
 Palau none since independence 1994
 Papua New Guinea November 1954; none since independence[132] Treason; Piracy; Attempted piracy; willful murder.
 Samoa 1950s; none since independence 21 January, 2004[133]
 Solomon Islands none since independence 1978
 Tonga 7 September, 1982[134] Treason, Murder; For more information see Capital punishment in Tonga
 Tuvalu none since independence 1978
 Vanuatu none since independence 1980

South America

Executions in 2009: none

Key Country Last Execution Abolished Notes
 Argentina 1916 1984 (for other crimes)/2009 Constitution states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished."[135] The Military Code of Justice (including the death penalty) was abolished on 6 August 2008 and into law six months later.[136]
 Bolivia 1974 1997
(for other crimes)
 Brazil 1876 1978 (For other crimes)[137] The last execution happened in 1876 in Pilar, Alagoas, when a slave was convicted of murder and hanged. Capital punishment was abolished after Brazil became a republic in 1889, then reinstated and abolished again twice (1938-53 and 1969-78).[137][138][139][140] Only one person was ever sentenced to death during the Republican period, in 1969, and the execution was not carried out.[141]

The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment by the civil penal justice system[142]. For more information see Capital punishment in Brazil.

 Chile 1985 2001 (for other crimes) Has been completely abolished from civil justice.
 Colombia 1909 1910
(by Constitutional reform)
Prohibited by the Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."
 Ecuador 1884 1906
(by Constitution)
For more information see Capital punishment in Ecuador.
 Guyana 1997 terrorist acts[143]; murder; mass murder; rape; willful murder; treason; torture. The constitution states that it is not a mandatory punishment.
 Paraguay 1928 1992
(by Constitution)
 Peru 1979 1979
(for other crimes)
Treason in time of war; Terrorism[120]
 Suriname 1982 1987(by treaty) The last execution in 1982, was arbitrary, by military firing squad and without due process. The perpetrators are presently being tried. The death penalty is abolished by signing the treaty of San Jose, but formally it is not abolished. Aggravated or premeditated murder; treason[144] For more information see Capital punishment in Suriname
 Uruguay 1905 1907
(by Constitution)
 Venezuela N/A 1863
(by Constitution)

See also

References

  1. ^ Categorized
  2. ^ Child executions
  3. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/death-sentences-and-executions-in-2008
  4. ^ http://www.omct.org/pdf/procedures/2004/joint/s_violence_benin_sum_recom_10_2004.pdf (PDF)
  5. ^ United Nations Human Rights Website - Treaty Bodies Database - Document - Summary Record - Benin
  6. ^ Benin
  7. ^ http://www.politinfo.com/articles/article_2004_04_8_2302.html
  8. ^ Burundi: Imminent resumption of executions or summary trials and executions | Amnesty International
  9. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/burundi-abolishes-death-penalty-but-bans-homosexuality-20090427
  10. ^ a b c d British Commonwealth:
  11. ^ University of Minnesota Template Page
  12. ^ Human Rights Committee Considers The Situation In The Central African Republic
  13. ^ Chad: Death penalty / Fear of imminent execution | Amnesty International
  14. ^ The death penalty: List of abolitionist and retentionist countries (October 1996) | Amnesty International
  15. ^ a b c Document Information | Amnesty International
  16. ^ West Africa: Time to abolish the death penalty\n\n | Amnesty International
  17. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Ethiopia executes spy boss killer
  18. ^ Concluding Observations/Comments - Gabon
  19. ^ a b c d West Africa: Time to abolish the death penalty\n\n | Amnesty International
  20. ^ Guinea: Death Penalty/fear of imminent execution | Amnesty International
  21. ^ Armed robbery, terrorism and hijacking capital offenses&Death penalty under fire
  22. ^ The Trial In Libya - Libyan Court System And Criminal Justice
  23. ^ a b c d The death penalty worldwide: developments in 2004 | Amnesty International
  24. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  25. ^ a b c d Copyright © 2007 Barnabas Fund | Islamic Teaching on the Consequences of Apostasy from Islam
  26. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  27. ^ Rwanda's ban on executions helps bring genocide justice - CNN.com
  28. ^ Pazzanita, Anthony G. and Hodges, Tony, ed (1994) [1994]. Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara (Second Edition ed.). Metuchen, New Jersey, United States, and London, United Kingdom: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.. pp. 381. ISBN 0-8108-2661-5. 
  29. ^ Sierra Leone: Amnesty International expresses dismay at 10 death sentences for treason | Amnesty International
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ State v. Makwanyane, Case No. CCT/3/94
  32. ^ Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1997 (Act No. 105 of 1997)
  33. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  34. ^ afrika.no - Sudan: Attorney General expects death penalty for islamist coup plotters
  35. ^ The Clarion Issue - Column
  36. ^ http://www.cidi.org/humanitarian/irin/safrica/00a/0020.html
  37. ^ Death Penalty News: 2002, September | Amnesty International
  38. ^ Togo abolishes the death penalty
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ Human Rights House Uganda: Death row inmates put their own penalty on trial
  41. ^ [3]
  42. ^ Overview of the death penalty worldwide in 2007
  43. ^ Country
  44. ^ Zee News - MP murder case: Bangla court awards death penalty to 22
  45. ^ Travel Advice for Bangladesh - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  46. ^ Bangladesh
  47. ^ Brunei
  48. ^ People's Republic of China: Executed "according to law"? The death penalty in China\n\n | Amnesty International
  49. ^ Article 39 of the Penal Code (Chinese: 刑法典, Portuguese: Código Penal) of Macao published in 13 November 1995 in traditional Chinese and Portuguese. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  50. ^ Article 41 of the Penal Code of Macao, http://www.unesco.org.mo/eng/law/6penal.html
  51. ^ a b c d e f g Country
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  55. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Asia-Pacific | Executions spark Indonesia unrest
  56. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/7072155/Saddam-Husseins-henchman-Chemical-Ali-executed.html
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  63. ^ Kazakhstan Set To "Virtually" Abolish Death Penalty
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  66. ^ a b “Open execution of criminals was proceeded recently in North Korea” by NK Information Center
  67. ^ “North Koreans ‘shot at frontier’” by BBC News
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  69. ^ “Death Penalty News: December 2002” by Amnesty International
  70. ^ Time Magazine – Asia Edition vol. 171, no. 12 31 March 2008
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  72. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8011560.stm
  73. ^ Kyrgyzstan Abolishes Death Penalty - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
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  76. ^ Lebanon: Further Information on Death penalty/imminent execution | Amnesty International
  77. ^ Malaysia independent news
  78. ^ Maldives - Family demands death penalty for woman's murder
  79. ^ http://www.asiapacificforum.net/activities/annual_meetings/eighth/mongolia_acj.htm http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/8E61783D9ED31093802568AC0037D5DB?opendocument
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  81. ^ “Le président mongol veut abolir la peine de mort”, Le Monde, January 14, 2009
  82. ^ http://www.derechos.org/news/archives/000506.html
  83. ^ Oman: Imminent Execution: Rebecca Thompson (f), aged 44, US citizen\n\n | Amnesty International
  84. ^ Amnesty International
  85. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  86. ^ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=44769 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4084882.stm
  87. ^ Scoop: Palestine Urged Not to Resume Executions
  88. ^ Palestinian woman accused of spying for Israel may face death, Associated Press 07/06/2009
  89. ^ Qatar: Death Penalty, Firas Nassuh Salim Al-Majali | Amnesty International
  90. ^ Journalism.co.uk :: Crusading journalist wins case against Al-Jazeera
  91. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  92. ^ Singapore death penalty shrouded in silence
  93. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  94. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/thailand-first-executions-six-years-20090826
  95. ^ Capital Punishment in UAE
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  97. ^ Uzbekistan: Further information on: Fear of imminent execution/torture and ill-treatment | Amnesty International
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  99. ^ Presidential Decree on the abolition of the death penalty - Legislationline - free online legislation database
  100. ^ Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: The death penalty - inhumane and ineffective | Amnesty International
  101. ^ Yemen: Further information on Imminent execution, Fuad 'Ali Mohsin al-Shahari\n\n | Amnesty International
  102. ^ Yemen: Further Information on: Death by stoning and flogging | Amnesty International
  103. ^ Egypt52
  104. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  105. ^ Amnesty International
  106. ^ Three get executed
  107. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  108. ^ Wikisource: Constitution of Kosovo
  109. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  110. ^ http://www.tass.ru/eng/level2.html?NewsID=2446740&PageNum=0
  111. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  112. ^ www.glas-javnosti.rs
  113. ^ TRNC Public Information Office
  114. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/aireport/ar99/eur50.htm
  115. ^ Cover story: He executed justice
  116. ^ Belize: Death Penalty, Gilroy "Hooty" Wade, Oscar "Negro" Catzim Mendez, Glenford Baptist | Amnesty International
  117. ^ The Death Penalty In Canada: Facts, Figures And Milestones
  118. ^ http://www.bestwesterncostarica.com/tourist_pura_human.html
  119. ^ Death Penalty: Cuba ceases fire, for now
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  121. ^ Guatemala: Death Penalty/imminent execution | Amnesty International
  122. ^ Amnesty International
  123. ^ Comunità di Sant'Egidio - No to the Death Penalty - News
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  125. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7553633.stm
  126. ^ Links to documents
  127. ^ http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/cm5707,0.pdf (PDF)
  128. ^ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8519709.stm Florida executes killer Martin Grossman]
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  130. ^ Death penalty in Australia
  131. ^ Cook Islands Government Online
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  135. ^ http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/documentos/constitucion_ingles.pdf Section 18
  136. ^ Last Vestiges of Capital Punishment Abolished
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  143. ^ Amnesty International
  144. ^ HRC Concluding Observations: SURINAME

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