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A diagram of some Usenet servers and clients.
^ Jump to: navigation , search A diagram of some Usenet servers and clients.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newsgroups or usenet posts from some usenet server 2.
  • usenet indexer with nzb by Alex1333 - Php, Sql - Freelance Projects 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.freelance-projects.info [Source type: General]

^ This full-featured usenet client enables you to both read and post to newsgroup servers.
  • Download Usenet Search - Binjet, Newsflash Plus, UsenetGrab!, Usenet Newsreader Benchmark 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC finaldownload.com [Source type: General]

.The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent which groups they carry.^ The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent which groups they carry.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As always in human nature, the busiest of these are the binary groups, simply because they use the most volume (bandwidth) to transmit and store on the different servers.
  • usenet; what it is UsenetHelp 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC abmefaq.net [Source type: General]

^ The neighboring servers will have notified the server as to which groups they are interested in receiving, and the server will honour those notifications.
  • usenet@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.everything2.org [Source type: General]
  • usenet@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Arrows between servers indicate that the servers are sharing the articles from the groups.^ Arrows between computers and servers indicate that the user is subscribed to a certain group, and uploads and downloads articles to and from that server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrows between servers indicate that the servers are sharing the articles from the groups.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other classes can retrieve groups stored in the database and retrieve articles of those groups from the NNTP servers.
  • Usenet Downloader (NNTP, downloader) - PHP Classes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.phpclasses.org [Source type: General]

Arrows between computers and servers indicate that the user is subscribed to a certain group, and uploads and downloads articles to and from that server.
.Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion system.^ Usenet is a world-wide distributed discussion system.
  • RXN Communications FAQ - Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.rxn.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet or Newsgroup: is a world-wide distributed discussion system.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet Usenet is a world-wide distributed discussion system.
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

.It evolved from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name.^ It evolved from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name.
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

.Duke University graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979 and it was established in 1980.[1] Users read and post public messages (called articles or posts, and collectively termed news) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups.^ When a user posts an article that is initially only available on the user's news server.
  • Usenet note: Technology, Practice, Statistics 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.caslon.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News: Read and post to newsgroups with standard newsreader software like ...
  • Usenet server Free Download 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.brothersoft.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the more frequently posted questions is "How can I create a new newsgroup?"
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

.Usenet resembles bulletin board systems (BBS) in most respects, and is the precursor to the various Internet forums that are widely used today; and can be superficially regarded as a hybrid between e-mail and web forums.^ Usenet resembles bulletin board systems (BBS) in most respects, and is the precursor to the various web forums which are widely used today; and can be superficially regarded as a hybrid between Email and web forums .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically, it's a world-wide distributed bulletin board system.
  • Usenet | A GThing Science Project 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gthing.net [Source type: General]

^ A widely used system for removing "SPAM" from your Usenet feed.
  • usenet - uncensored and anonymous Free Newsgroups,hard to find newsgroups AdultNewsgroups, Adult Newsfeed, banned newsgroups, binaries,mp3,download anything, exchangefiles, uncensored newsfeed, free adult xxx membership included, programs, movies,newsclips, over 100,000 uncensored newsgroups on super fast dedicated anonymousservers.....much more!!! 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC ensnews.com [Source type: General]

.Discussions are threaded, with modern news reader software, as with web forums and BBSes, though posts are stored on the server sequentially.^ Discussions are threaded , with modern news reader software , as with web forums and BBSes, though posts are stored on the server sequentially.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have a limited space Although most news servers can deal with posts as long as 1000 lines, most readers will run out of patience after the first couple of pages.
  • Introduction to USEnet newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC grahammitchell.com [Source type: General]

^ To join in you originally needed a news reader program but there are now several web gateways such as Deja .
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

.One notable difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator.^ One notable difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet resembles bulletin board systems (BBS) in most respects, and is the precursor to the various Internet forums which are widely used today.
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet resembles bulletin board systems (BBS) in most respects, and is the precursor to the various web forums which are widely used today; and can be superficially regarded as a hybrid between Email and web forums .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usenet is distributed among a large, constantly changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another.^ A server to connect to (where the messages and files are stored).
  • Share Files on Usenet - Wired How-To Wiki 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC howto.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet is distributed among a large, constantly changing conglomeration of servers which store and forward messages to one another.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet's technological underpinnings predate its association with the Internet, resting on dial-up-based store-and-forward e-mail BBS systems and UUCP protocols and programs.
  • Usenet: Not Dead Yet - PC World Business Center 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

.These servers are loosely connected in a variable mesh.^ These servers are loosely connected in a variable mesh (Think of it as a spider web.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Access to these news servers is intended for RXN Customers Only, logged in from RXN dialup connections, or pre-authorized network connections.
  • RXN Communications FAQ - Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.rxn.com [Source type: General]

This is similar to the complex transportation plan of a city. .There are multiple ways to get to any point in the city.^ There are multiple ways to get to any point in the web, so if any of those ways is blocked for any reason, there is always another way to get there, allowing the information to reach its destination safely.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole point of building a useful topic forum is to centralise users there - and if necessary break it up into a hierarchy in the way that Usenet (after Dewey?:) pioneered.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

.If one of those ways is blocked, for some reason, there's always another avenue available to get there.^ There are multiple ways to get to any point in the web, so if any of those ways is blocked for any reason, there is always another way to get there, allowing the information to reach its destination safely.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ File Availability - Usenet Advantage While the rest of the world debates whether DRM (Digital Rights Management) is the grandest solution or the epitome of evil, many file-sharers simply don't care one way or another.
  • Slyck News - BitTorrent vs. Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.slyck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One thing to always keep in mind is that Usenet is not a free support-service, but that there are people having discussions in their free time.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

.In this manner, the User Network or Usenet allows newsgroup postings to reach their many destinations robustly.^ Usenet was a network with many parts to it.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USENET A network of newsgroups.
  • Usenet definition by Babylon's free dictionary 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet.com enables users to access the Usenet network, which was in its beginning a way that users could share binary files, as well as participate in electronic discussion forums.
  • Usenet.com loses MP3 copyright lawsuit vs. RIAA - Computerworld Blogs 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by their Internet service provider, university or employer.^ Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by their ISP , university or employer.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet is a pre-Web technology that, for most of its history, relied on companies, Internet service providers, and universities to operate servers that would exchange messages posted by their users.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Try reading your Internet Service Provider's FAQs.
  • usenet; what it is UsenetHelp 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC abmefaq.net [Source type: General]

.The servers then exchange the messages among one another, making the messages available to readers beyond the original server.^ The servers then exchange the messages between one another, making the messages available to readers beyond the original server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highly-organized thread view lets you read all the messages in a group in one continuous flow, and makes it clear and easy to follow the replies.
  • Unison - the best Usenet browser for Mac - gets even better 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.downloadsquad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, there are other commercial Usenet server software systems available, including the one bundled with the Internet Information Server of Microsoft Windows NT and the ones from iPlanet.
  • http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/Usenet-News-HOWTO/softwarehistory.html 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC en.tldp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/mirrors/LDP/HOWTO/Usenet-News-HOWTO/softwarehistory.html 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.ischool.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Introduction

.Usenet is one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use.^ I still use USENET frequently.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ I think Usenet is still very useful.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ I still use USENET news.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

.It was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University,[1] over a decade before the World Wide Web was developed and the general public got access to the Internet.^ It was established in 1980, following experiments from the previous year, over a decade before the World Wide Web was introduced and the general public got access to the Internet.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steve Bellovin, a graduate student at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill , wrote the software that controlled this first version of USENET. USENET officially began in 1980 in North Carolina with three networked computers, located at UNC, Duke, and Duke Medical School.
  • USENET (Internet discussion network) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis of Duke University came up with the idea as a replacement for a local announcement program, and established a link with nearby University of North Carolina using Bourne shell scripts written by Steve Bellovin .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was originally built on the "poor man's ARPANET," employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software.^ It was originally conceived as a "poor man's ARPANET ," employing UUCP to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor man's ARPANet .
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ Just like SMTP and POP are protocols for sending and delivering mail, and HTTP is a protocol for requesting and receiving web pages, NNTP is the protocol for requesting and sending Usenet news messages.  .
  • usenet - uncensored and anonymous Free Newsgroups,hard to find newsgroups AdultNewsgroups, Adult Newsfeed, banned newsgroups, binaries,mp3,download anything, exchangefiles, uncensored newsfeed, free adult xxx membership included, programs, movies,newsclips, over 100,000 uncensored newsgroups on super fast dedicated anonymousservers.....much more!!! 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC ensnews.com [Source type: General]

.The name USENET emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation.^ "It is hoped that USENIX will take an active (indeed central) role in the network.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This system, developed at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University , was called USENET to emphasize its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation (Daniel et al.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Internet ever dropped Usenet, the other networks that carry it would probably, given time, take up the slack.
  • Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories called newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects.^ The articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories called newsgroups , which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newsgroups are organized by topic into hierarchies.
  • Usenet: Not Dead Yet - PC World Business Center 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A user posts an article to a server on a list of newsgroup s.
  • usenet@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.everything2.org [Source type: General]
  • usenet@Everything2.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci hierarchy, for science.^ For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci hierarchy, for science.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read.^ The DNews News Servers advanced database allows the DNews News server to handle news articles much faster and more efficiently than traditional Internet news server software.
  • Usenet - Free Download at Rocket Download 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.rocketdownload.com [Source type: General]

^ News processing software Software also exists to automatically archive Usenet newsgroups.
  • http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/Usenet-News-HOWTO/softwarehistory.html 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC en.tldp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/mirrors/LDP/HOWTO/Usenet-News-HOWTO/softwarehistory.html 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.ischool.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a user posts an article that is initially only available on the user's news server.
  • Usenet note: Technology, Practice, Statistics 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.caslon.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article.^ In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most conferencing systems other than USENET allow members or administrators of their equivalent to a newsgroup to define categories within the newsgroup to group discussions together.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of articles in this newsgroup are in Dutch, though there are a handful of messages written in English or French.

.The set of articles which can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread.^ The set of articles which can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It stores the newsgroup information in a MySQL database and aggregates the articles into sets of a single download .
  • Usenet News - Topix 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Usenet News - Topix 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Users read and post public messages (called articles or posts , and collectively termed news ) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into threads and subthreads.^ Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into threads and subthreads, making it easy to follow a single discussion in a high-volume newsgroup.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you can, arrange for your newsreading software to ignore articles from her; and chalk one up to experience.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrange for your newsreading software to ignore articles from him or her if you can, and chalk one up to experience.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a user posts an article, it is initially only available on that user's news server.^ When a user posts an article that is initially only available on the user's news server.
  • Usenet note: Technology, Practice, Statistics 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.caslon.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a user posts an article, it is initially only available on that user's news server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories called newsgroups , which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each news server, however, talks to one or more other servers (its "newsfeeds") and exchanges articles with them.^ Each news server, however, talks to one or more other servers (its "newsfeeds") and exchanges articles with them.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ongoing communication of 'newsfeeds' between that news server and one or more of its peers results in copying of the article from server to server, in principle ultimately propagating the article across all usenet servers throughout the globe and into an archive such as Googlegroups.
  • Usenet note: Technology, Practice, Statistics 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.caslon.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and (if all goes well) eventually reaches every server in the network.^ In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and (if all goes well) eventually reaches every server in the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whenever a message reaches a server, that server forwards the message to all its network neighbors that haven't yet seen the article.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GNKSA The structure of Usenet and the way these articles are copied from news server to news server require the posting agent to be as standards-conforming as possible.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.The later peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle; but for Usenet it is normally the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers.^ The later peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle; but for Usenet it is normally the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet was thus one of the first peer-to-peer applications, although in this case the "peers" are themselves servers that the users then access, rather than the users themselves being peers on the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Download Speed - Decisive Usenet Advantage Those who've been part of the P2P community since the beginning will agree that just about anything is faster than the networks of old.
  • Slyck News - BitTorrent vs. Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.slyck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some have noted that this seems an inefficient protocol in the era of abundant high-speed network access.^ Some have noted that this seems an inefficient protocol in the era of abundant high-speed network access.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True, but now I have an entire month of unlimited access to download whatever I please at very high speeds (by repeating the last few steps in that list).
  • mantup.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC mantup.com [Source type: General]

^ Most universities have some local newsgroups that can only be accessed from within the local network - the same goes for some ISP's.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

.Usenet was designed for the times when networks were much slower, and not always available.^ Usenet was designed for a time when networks were much slower, and not always available.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One thing to always keep in mind is that Usenet is not a free support-service, but that there are people having discussions in their free time.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ UseNet Rules #n: No firm info at the present time is available on just what the other UseNet Rules #n are.

.Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.^ Usenet was a network with many parts to it.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet started out in 1980 as a UNIX network linking sites which needed to talk about and receive prompt updates on UNIX system configuration and other UNIX questions.
  • Advertising on Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.shopsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
Usenet has significant cultural importance in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ" and "spam".[5]
.The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages.^ The current [update] format and transmission of Usenet articles is very similar to that of Internet email messages.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you want to contact the moderator(s) by email (as opposed to posting an article), then take the same thing (after the ' - ' replacement) followed by ' -request@usenet.org.uk ' (this adding of ' -request ' has been chosen to be similar to the convention for contacting the administrator of a mailing list).
  • Useful Information about Usenet esp. in the UK 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Usenet's technological underpinnings predate its association with the Internet, resting on dial-up-based store-and-forward e-mail BBS systems and UUCP protocols and programs.
  • Usenet: Not Dead Yet - PC World Business Center 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

.The difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages which have one or more specific recipients.^ Given any post, would it go in the new group or an existing one?
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

^ Users read and post public messages (called articles or posts , and collectively termed news ) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each news server, however, talks to one or more other servers (its "newsfeeds") and exchanges articles with them.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, blogs and mailing lists.^ Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums , blogs and mailing lists .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet resembles bulletin board systems (BBS) in most respects, and is the precursor to the various web forums which are widely used today; and can be superficially regarded as a hybrid between Email and web forums .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describing the gatewaying between Usenet and the Arpanet, Steve Bellovin, another Usenet pioneer, explains: "The first gateway of ARPANET mailing lists to Usenet was an early force to have gateways with ARPAnet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The difference, though, is that Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned, that information need not be stored on a remote server, that archives are always available, and that reading the messages requires not a mail or web client, but a news client.^ No person or group has authority over Usenet as a whole.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference, though, is that Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned, that information need not be stored on a remote server, that archives are always available, and that reading the messages requires not a mail or web client, but a news client (included in many modern e-mail clients).
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since there is no person or group in charge of Usenet as a whole -- i.e.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many still use alt.binaries for file sharing as it is rarely monitored for copyright violations.^ Usenet.com enables users to access the Usenet network, which was in its beginning a way that users could share binary files, as well as participate in electronic discussion forums.
  • Usenet.com loses MP3 copyright lawsuit vs. RIAA - Computerworld Blogs 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It is free though at times can be slow - best to use it during the hours the USA is asleep as it also carries the full alt.binaries.* and alt.sex.* hierarchies.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

^ The defendants took advantage of this fact by marketing the service as an alternative to peer-to-peer file sharing programs that were “getting shut down” due to copyright infringement.
  • Usenet.com loses MP3 copyright lawsuit vs. RIAA - Computerworld Blogs 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds

.Many Internet service providers, and many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access.^ Many other new features, and feature enhancements.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Internet service providers , and many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DNews News Servers advanced database allows the DNews News server to handle news articles much faster and more efficiently than traditional Internet news server software.
  • Usenet - Free Download at Rocket Download 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.rocketdownload.com [Source type: General]

.ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will often offer their users an account from another provider that specifically operates newsfeeds.^ ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will often offer their users an account from another provider that specifically operates newsfeeds.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UseNeXT provides their own usenet access software which comes free with every account.

.Usually the ISP will get a kickback for referring the customer to the Usenet provider.^ Usually the ISP will get a kickback for referring the customer to the Usenet provider.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comcast informed customers on 2-Oct that it will no longer provide any access to Usenet.

^ (AOL will continue to allow its customers to access third-party Usenet providers such as Giganews, and Usenet.com.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.^ Not all ISPs run news servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead.^ Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So no one program or package can be called "the Usenet software."
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So no one program or package can be called ``the Usenet software.''
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not all ISPs run news servers.^ Not all ISPs run news servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all news servers that try to handle moderated groups default to forwarding any message posted to a moderated group to the name of the group with periods replaced by hyphens @moderators.isc.org.
  • Usenet Hierarchy Administration FAQ 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.eyrie.org [Source type: General]

.A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer well because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base (compared to mainstream Internet services such as email and web access), and a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents (frequently complaining of missing news articles that are not the ISP's fault).^ It is not known to all Internet users, because most of them never leave the web or their email.
  • Download Usenet Search - Binjet, Newsflash Plus, UsenetGrab!, Usenet Newsreader Benchmark 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC finaldownload.com [Source type: General]

^ Not all ISPs run news servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will usually appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself.^ Not all ISPs run news servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will usually appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups.^ Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UUCP carried the first netnews traffic, and a considerable number of sites got their newsfeed using UUCP. But was also fed using NNTP, mag tapes, CD-ROMs, and printed out on paper to be tacked up on bulletin boards and pasted on refrigerators.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today Usenet News continues to grow in both the number of sites and in the size of posts it carries and the number of newsgroups.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commonly omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which largely carries software, music, videos and images, and accounts for over 99 percent of article data.^ Commonly omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which largely carries software, music, videos and images, and accounts for over 99 percent of article data.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hierarchies alt.binaries and rec are highlighted.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is free though at times can be slow - best to use it during the hours the USA is asleep as it also carries the full alt.binaries.* and alt.sex.* hierarchies.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.For those who have access to the Internet, but do not have access to a news server, Google Groups [7] allows reading and posting of text news groups via the World Wide Web.^ I can't access new messages and Google groups doesn't have that newsgroup.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

^ For those who have access to the Internet, but do not have access to a news server, Google Groups ( [1] ) allows reading and posting of text news groups via the World Wide Web .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notify me of new posts via email.
  • Essay: Usenet, the Original Piracy Hotbed 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC newteevee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though this or other "news-to-Web gateways" are not always as easy to use as specialized newsreader software, especially when threads get long, they are often much easier to search.^ This is a great software and seem easy to use.
  • Usenet Services- Clarification - dslreports.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

^ Though this or other "news-to-Web gateways" are not always as easy to use as specialized newsreader software, especially when threads get long, they are often much easier to search.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newsgroups can be accessed with specialized newsreader applications or though web gateways.
  • Essay: Usenet, the Original Piracy Hotbed 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC newteevee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Users who lack access to an ISP news server can use Google Groups to access the alt.free.newsservers newsgroup, which has information about open news servers.^ Useful Information about Usenet esp.
  • Useful Information about Usenet esp. in the UK 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ I can't access new messages and Google groups doesn't have that newsgroup.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

^ Not all ISPs run news servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed.^ What is disappearing is USENET as a service your ISP carries as part of your subscription.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet Service provider Pricing plan .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ There are places which provide feeds for a fee (e.g.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See also news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.^ (The notesfiles system from the University of Illinois is considered a news implementation.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article replacement can be implemented by replacing articles in-place if the original is above the newsgroup's low-water-mark, or by issuing a new article that users of old newsreader will see, but users of new newsreaders can avoid through the use of special entries placed in the Xref header by the news server.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On first start, Thunderbird will prompt to install its indexing system into Windows Vista and you can choose to see Thunderbird email and news messages in Windows search results.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

Newsreader clients

.Newsreader clients are available for all major operating systems.^ Newsreader clients are available for all major operating systems and come in all shapes and sizes.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet News, however, was available to all who were interested as long as they had access to the Unix operating system (which in those days was available without charge to the academic community.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: All accounts include 20 connections , all newsgroups, discount on newsreader clients, free headers , unlimited uploads !

.Mail clients or "communication suites" commonly also have an integrated newsreader.^ Mail clients or "communication suites" also now commonly have an integrated newsreader.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, however, these integrated clients are of low quality, e.g., incorrectly implementing Usenet protocols, standards and conventions.^ Usenet protocols, standards and conventions.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, however, these integrated clients are of low quality, e.g.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these integrated clients, for example the one in Microsoft 's Outlook Express , are disliked by purists because of their misbehavior.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these integrated clients, for example the one in Microsoft's Outlook Express, are disliked by purists because of their misbehavior.^ Many of these integrated clients, for example the one in Microsoft 's Outlook Express , are disliked by purists because of their misbehavior.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one discussion group, for example, becomes overwhelmed with too many question about a certain topic, the group may split into foo.general (or foo.misc) and foo.bar.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Well, those of us having this problem connecting to the news, because we use Outlook Express, also cannot connect to earthlink.support.usenet either!
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

[8]
.Newsgroups are typically accessed with special client software that connects to a news server.^ Newsgroups are typically accessed with special client software that connects to a news server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the connection to the news server is lost while downloading a binary attachment, an attempt to try again with a new connection is now done automatically.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ News posting software, in order to warn users that their articles may not meet the policies of a newsgroup they are posting to, need a means to do this.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the rise of the World Wide Web, web front-ends have become more common.^ With the rise of the world wide web , web front-ends have become more common.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet has significant cultural importance in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as " FAQ " and " spam ".
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those who have access to the Internet, but do not have access to a news server, Google Groups ( [1] ) allows reading and posting of text news groups via the World Wide Web .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Web front ends have made Usenet more accessible[citation needed] by lowering the technical entry barrier requirements to one application and no Usenet server account requirement.^ Web front ends have made Usenet more accessible by lowering the technical entry barrier requirements to one application and no Usenet server account requirement.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An account with a Usenet News Server is required to use Sponge.
  • usenet Resources | ZDNet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet providers do keep usage logs, but this logging information is not casually available to outside parties like the RIAA. [ citation needed ] .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Google Groups is one of the most popular web based front ends and browsers such as Firefox can access Google Groups via news: protocol links directly.^ I can't access new messages and Google groups doesn't have that newsgroup.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

^ Google Groups [ 2 ] is one of the most popular web based front ends and browsers such as Firefox can access Google Groups via news: protocol links directly.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer well because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base (compared to mainstream Internet services such as email and web access), and a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents (frequently complaining of missing news articles that are not the ISP's fault).
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .There are numerous other websites now offering web based gateways to Usenet groups, although some people have begun filtering messages made by some of the web interfaces for one reason or another.^ Google's Web-based interface to Usenet doesn't , for instance.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Some people wish that Usenet were a democracy.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are others reasons too why copyright holders can ignore Usenet.
  • Essay: Usenet, the Original Piracy Hotbed 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC newteevee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11]

Moderated and unmoderated newsgroups

.A minority of newsgroups are moderated.^ A minority of newsgroups are moderated .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That means that messages submitted by readers are not distributed to Usenet, but instead are emailed to the moderators of the newsgroup, for approval.^ That means that messages submitted by readers are not distributed to Usenet, but instead are emailed to the moderators of the newsgroup, for approval.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet is a set of protocols for generating, storing and retrieving news "articles" (which resemble Internet mail messages) and for exchanging them among a readership which is potentially widely distributed.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moderators are persons whose job is to ensure that messages that the readers see in newsgroups conform to the charter of the newsgroup.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moderated newsgroups have rules called charters.^ Moderated newsgroups have rules called charters .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The " comp.newprod " newsgroup is NOT an exception to this rule: product announcements are screened by a moderator in an attempt to keep the hype-to-information ratio in check.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "comp.newprod" newsgroup is NOT an exception to this rule: product announcements are screened by a moderator in an attempt to keep the hype-to-information ratio in check.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moderators are persons whose job is to ensure that messages that the readers see in newsgroups conform to the charter of the newsgroup.^ Moderators are persons whose job is to ensure that messages that the readers see in newsgroups conform to the charter of the newsgroup.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moderated newsgroups have rules called charters .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I could see an example of a newsgroup and message in which this problem is occurring in which the posts were in English, I could understand any problem better.
  • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

.Typically, moderators are appointed in the proposal for the newsgroup, and changes of moderators follow a succession plan.^ Typically, moderators are appointed in the proposal for the newsgroup, and changes of moderators follow a succession plan.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The job of the moderator is to receive submitted articles, review them, and inject approved articles so that they can be properly propagated worldwide.^ The job of the moderator is to receive submitted articles, review them, and inject approved articles so that they can be properly propagated worldwide.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sites, injectors and moderators and others should use public key signed cancels to cancel articles they are authorized to cancel.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any node can submit an article, which will in due course propagate to all nodes.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such articles must bear the Approved: header line.^ Such articles must bear the Approved: header line.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternately, we could specify that "newsgroups" have a default and say only that postings not in the default language of the newsgroup must contain such a header.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newgroup message should be ignored unless there is an "Approved" line in the same message header.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unmoderated newsgroups form the majority of Usenet newsgroups, and messages submitted by readers for unmoderated newsgroups are immediately propagated for everyone to see.^ Rather, take some time and edit the messages into a form that contains the essential information that other readers would be interested in.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Figures 2a and 2b, however, we see the opposite result—the proportion of people posting replies in those newsgroups has dropped compared to the rest of Usenet.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purpose of this message is to explain some Usenet conventions regarding advertising to new users and, hopefully, spare everyone involved a lot of needless worry.
  • Advertising on Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.shopsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Creation of moderated newsgroups often becomes a hot subject of controversy, raising issues regarding censorship and the desire of a subset of users to form an intentional community.^ Creation of moderated newsgroups often becomes a hot subject of controversy, raising issues regarding censorship and the desire of a subset of users to form an intentional community .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fact leads inexorably to the following recommendation: > > If you are a new user, don't try to create a new newsgroup.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there is exactly one feature of Usenet that has a form of democracy: newsgroup creation.
  • What is Usenet? 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Technical details

.Usenet is a set of protocols for generating, storing and retrieving news "articles" (which resemble Internet mail messages) and for exchanging them among a readership which is potentially widely distributed.^ Newsreader Since network news articles certainly resemble mail messages (or e-mail), many people think of them as being the same, which is why they often request a program that handles mail and news instead of looking for one single program for each of these rather different tasks.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Since network news articles certainly resemble mail messages (or e-mail), many people think of them as being the same, which is why they often request a program that handles Mail and News instead of looking for one single program for each of these rather different tasks 10 .
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ It stores the newsgroup information in a MySQL database and aggregates the articles into sets of a single download .
  • Usenet News - Topix 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Usenet News - Topix 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

.These protocols most commonly use a flooding algorithm which propagates copies throughout a network of participating servers.^ USENET was not the same thing as USENET Newsgroups; it was a network of computer systems that communicated with one another via serial lines (mostly dial-up) using the UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Program) protocols to exchange files.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Please show the international law enforceable in all countries where exist NNTP servers that participate in the mesh network known as Usenet.
  • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ MT-NewsWatcher will attempt to detect which authentication methods your mail server supports, and use the most secure.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

.Whenever a message reaches a server, that server forwards the message to all its network neighbors that haven't yet seen the article.^ These statistics list the number of articles that have been seen flown through their usenet servers, for each Usenet path, during the period between each stats run.
  • TOP 1000 (and more) Usenet Servers 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.anthologeek.net [Source type: General]

^ (In practice, some political considerations have caused some hosts to be unable to post messages reaching the rest of the network.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So this means message/partial should only be permitted on articles above a certain size which we have declared all software can already handle.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only one copy of a message is stored per server, and each server makes it available on demand to the (typically local) readers able to access that server.^ Only one copy of a message is stored per server, and each server makes it available on demand to the (typically local) readers able to access that server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The servers then exchange the messages between one another, making the messages available to readers beyond the original server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also available in expanded form at your local computer store.
  • Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The collection of Usenet servers has thus a certain peer-to-peer character in that they share resources by exchanging them, the granularity of exchange however is on a different scale than a modern peer-to-peer system and this characteristic excludes the actual users of the system who connect to the news servers with a typical client-server application, much like an email reader.^ Isn’t Usenet sending messages much like email?
  • Usenet Community Takes Anti-Piracy Group to Court | TorrentFreak 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ Numerous communication tools are available, from new forms of interaction like instant messaging, weblogs, and wikis, to the widespread availability of private message boards and webforum systems.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or only connections to attorney-general-certified-free-of-alt-groups Usenet servers might be permitted.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.RFC 850 was the first formal specification of the messages exchanged by Usenet servers.^ RFC 850 was the first formal specification of the messages exchanged by Usenet servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet is a set of protocols for generating, storing and retrieving news "articles" (which resemble Internet mail messages) and for exchanging them among a readership which is potentially widely distributed.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet was thus one of the first peer-to-peer applications, although in this case the "peers" are themselves servers that the users then access, rather than the users themselves being peers on the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was superseded by RFC 1036.^ It was superseded by RFC 1036 .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cases where unsuitable content has been posted, Usenet has support for automated removal of a posting from the whole network by creating a cancel message, although due to a lack of authentication and resultant abuse, this capability is frequently disabled.^ In cases where unsuitable content has been posted, Usenet has support for automated removal of a posting from the whole network by creating a cancel message, although due to a lack of authentication and resultant abuse, this capability is frequently disabled.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet was created in 1979 as a collaborative effort between Duke University and UNC. Usenet today is a global message board with millions of active users and over 2 terabytes of content added daily.
  • GUBA, Google of the Usenet? – GigaOM 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Removal of copyrighted content from the entire usenet network is a nearly impossible task, due to the rapid propagation between servers and the retention done by each server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copyright holders may still request the manual deletion of infringing material using the provisions of World Intellectual Property Organization treaty implementations, such as the U.S. Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act.^ Copyright holders may still request the manual deletion of infringing material using the provisions of World Intellectual Property Organization treaty implementations, such as the U.S. Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Condé Nast Digital.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ That downloading is legal in the Netherlands, even if the uploader committed copyright infringement when he uploaded the material.
  • Usenet Community Takes Anti-Piracy Group to Court | TorrentFreak 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.On the Internet, Usenet is transported via the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) on TCP Port 119 for standard, unprotected connections and on TCP port 563 for SSL encrypted connections which is offered only by a few sites.^ This belongs in the transfer protocol not the news format.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the Internet, Usenet is typically served via NNTP on TCP Port 119 for plain text connections and on TCP port 563 for SSL encrypted connections which is offered only by a few sites.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet is transported by uucp connections and via nntp (Net News Transfer Protocol) along the internet, which is the child of the old Arpanet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organization

The "Big Nine" hierarchies of Usenet.
.The major set of worldwide newsgroups is contained within nine hierarchies, eight of which are operated under consensual guidelines that govern their administration and naming.^ The major set of worldwide newsgroups is contained within nine hierarchies, eight of which are operated under consensual guidelines that govern their administration and naming.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most conferencing systems other than USENET allow members or administrators of their equivalent to a newsgroup to define categories within the newsgroup to group discussions together.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find messages by this author Archive-name: uk/committee Posting-frequency: every 13 weeks Last-modified: Fri Jan  2 15:03:21 GMT 2009 The procedures for coordinating newsgroup management within the UK hierarchy are contained in four documents, of which this article contains the third.
  • UK Usenet Committee - uk.net.news.announce | Google Groups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.com.au [Source type: Original source]

The current Big Eight are:
  • comp.*: computer-related discussions (comp.software, comp.sys.amiga)
  • humanities.*: Fine arts, literature, and philosophy (humanities.classics, humanities.design.misc)
  • misc.*: Miscellaneous topics (misc.education, misc.forsale, misc.kids)
  • news.*: Discussions and announcements about news (meaning Usenet, not current events) (news.groups, news.admin)
  • rec.*: Recreation and entertainment (rec.music, rec.arts.movies)
  • sci.*: Science related discussions (sci.psychology, sci.research)
  • soc.*: Social discussions (soc.college.org, soc.culture.african)
  • talk.*: Talk about various controversial topics (talk.religion, talk.politics, talk.origins)
(Note: the asterisks are used as wildmat patterns, examples follow in parentheses)
.See also the Great Renaming.^ See also the Great Renaming .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alt.* hierarchy is not subject to the procedures controlling groups in the Big Eight, and it is as a result less organized.^ The alt.* hierarchy is not subject to the procedures controlling groups in the Big Eight, and it is as a result less organized.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories called newsgroups , which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big 8 Management Board Group creation and maintenance in the Big 8 hierarchies.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, groups in the alt.* hierarchy tend to be more specialized or specific—for example, there might be a newsgroup under the Big Eight which contains discussions about children's books, but a group in the alt hierarchy may be dedicated to one specific author of children's books.^ There’s a newsgroup out there for discussion about newsgroups.
  • Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alt.hierarchy is even more extensive.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ There are several Usenet newsgroups dedicated to Macintosh-specific topics.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

.Binaries are posted in alt.binaries.*, making it the largest of all the hierarchies.^ The hierarchies alt.binaries and rec are highlighted.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Binaries are posted in alt.binaries.*, making it the largest of all the hierarchies.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is free though at times can be slow - best to use it during the hours the USA is asleep as it also carries the full alt.binaries.* and alt.sex.* hierarchies.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.Many other hierarchies of newsgroups are distributed alongside these.^ Many other hierarchies of newsgroups are distributed alongside these.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These visualizations show newsgroup hierarchies, newsgroup populations, authors, and conversation threads.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groups oriented towards hobbies and recreational activities These ``world'' newsgroups are (usually) circulated around the entire Usenet---this implies world-wide distribution.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regional and language-specific hierarchies such as japan.*, malta.* and ne.* serve specific countries and regions such as Japan, Malta and New England.^ Regional and language-specific hierarchies such as japan.* , malta.* and ne.* serve specific regions such as Japan , Malta and New England .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the country (or rather language) specific newsgroups, there are now a large variety of other top-level hierarchies such as free.*, gnu.* and news.*, as well as commercial or “company-related” newsgroups.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to the country (or rather language) specific newsgroups there are now a large variety of other top-level hierarchies such as free.* 9 , gnu.* and news.*, as well as commercial or ``company-related'' newsgroups.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

.Companies such as Microsoft administer their own hierarchies to discuss their products and offer community technical support.^ Companies such as Microsoft administer their own hierarchies to discuss their products and offer community technical support.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, Figure 3d shows clear growth in both posts and replies in a technical help area (the "microsoft.public" hierarchy, dedicated to discussing Microsoft products and technology).
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Verizon Communications deleted such unlawful discussion groups as us.military, ny.politics, alt.society.labor-unions, and alt.politics.democrats.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.Some users prefer to use the term "Usenet" to refer only to the Big Eight hierarchies; others include alt as well.^ Some users prefer to use the term "Usenet" to refer only to the Big Eight hierarchies; others include alt as well.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Usenet parlance, those newsgroups are called the big 8 ; they include complex procedures for newsgroup creation and deletion and even boast a formal management committee .
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ It is free though at times can be slow - best to use it during the hours the USA is asleep as it also carries the full alt.binaries.* and alt.sex.* hierarchies.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.The more general term "netnews" incorporates the entire medium, including private organizational news systems.^ The more general term "netnews" incorporates the entire medium, including private organizational news systems.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numerous communication tools are available, from new forms of interaction like instant messaging, weblogs, and wikis, to the widespread availability of private message boards and webforum systems.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users read and post public messages (called articles or posts , and collectively termed news ) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Binary content

.
A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to usenet newsgroups.
^ A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to usenet newsgroups.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TrafficCompressor TrafficCompressor compresses data received and sent over the Internet, for example web pages, e-mail, Usenet, ICQ, Windows Messenger messages and so on.
  • Download Usenet Search - Binjet, Newsflash Plus, UsenetGrab!, Usenet Newsreader Benchmark 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC finaldownload.com [Source type: General]

^ These data consist of 1.2 billion Usenet messages created by 48 million distinct identities and sorted into 150,000 different newsgroups.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These steps must be done again in reverse to download data from usenet.
.Usenet was originally created to distribute text content encoded in the 7-bit ASCII character set.^ Usenet was originally created to distribute text content encoded in the 7- bit ASCII character set.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Usenet is a distribution system for the exchange of text-based messages, providing services similar to a set of publicly archived email lists.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original creators of Usenet explain that they didn't know about the existence of the Arpanet mailing lists until the ucbvax at Berkeley, which was also on the Arpanet, joined Usenet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the help of programs that encode 8-bit values into ASCII, it became practical to distribute binary files as content.^ With the help of programs that encode 8-bit values into ASCII, it became practical to distribute binary files as content.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet was originally created to distribute text content encoded in the 7- bit ASCII character set.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard method of uploading binary content to Usenet is to first archive the files into RAR archives (for large files usually in 15 MB, 50 MB or 100 MB parts) then create Parchive files.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Binary posts, due to their size and often-dubious copyright status, were in time restricted to specific newsgroups, making it easier for administrators to allow or disallow the traffic.^ Binary posts, due to their size and often-dubious copyright status, were in time restricted to specific newsgroups, making it easier for administrators to allow or disallow the traffic.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post binaries to newsgroups.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ Most conferencing systems other than USENET allow members or administrators of their equivalent to a newsgroup to define categories within the newsgroup to group discussions together.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oldest widely used encoding method is uuencode, from the Unix UUCP package.^ The oldest widely used encoding method is uuencode , from the Unix uucp package.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1980s, Usenet articles were often limited to 60,000 characters, and larger hard limits exist today.^ In the late 1980s Usenet articles were often limited to 60,000 characters, and larger hard limits exist today.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UseNeXT UseNeXT is a program that offers anonymous and lightening fast access to over 60,000 Usenet discussion boards packed with MP3s, videos, games, pictures, and software.
  • Download Usenet Search - Binjet, Newsflash Plus, UsenetGrab!, Usenet Newsreader Benchmark 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC finaldownload.com [Source type: General]

.Files are therefore commonly split into sections that require reassembly by the reader.^ Files are therefore commonly split into sections that require reassembly by the reader.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the header extensions and the Base64 and Quoted-Printable MIME encodings, there was a new generation of binary transport.^ With the header extensions and the Base64 and Quoted-Printable MIME encodings, there was a new generation of binary transport.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mail message body is generated by prepending the letter N to each line of the news message, and then attaching whatever mail headers are convenient to generate.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NextPart_000_0049_01CA969A.1295FD30 > Content-Type: text/plain; > charset="iso-8859-1" > Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable > So what??
  • Usenet Abuse FAQ ----> +General Usenet protocol - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

.In practice, MIME has seen increased adoption in text messages, but it is avoided for most binary attachments.^ In practice, MIME has seen increased adoption in text messages, but it is avoided for most binary attachments.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The text only groups would fit on a single server, the _vast_ majority of usenet traffic (99% plus) is binary attachments.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Many of the text messages on Usenet are in fact portions of music files, encoded for transfer and sent to newsgroups such as "alt.binaries.music.mp3."
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some operating systems with metadata attached to files use specialized encoding formats.^ Using homemade auto dial modems and the unix to unix copy program (called UUCP), that was being distributed with the UNIX operating system, version 7, Steve Bellovin, one of the students, wrote some simple shell script programs in Unix to have the computers call each other up and search for changes in the files and then copy the changes.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Unix this file is named .signature in the person's login directory---it will vary for other operating systems.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been ported to a large variety of Operating Systems and can easily be extended using the s-lang macro language.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

.For Mac OS, both Binhex and special MIME types are used.^ It uses the most recent Mac OS X technologies like WebKit and Spotlight .
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ For Mac users, Thunderbird 3 is now integrated with Spotlight, can import from Mail.app, read your OS X address book, and use Growl for new mail alerts.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ Movies, and all new graphics are displayed using Mac OS X-native Cocoa.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

.Other lesser known encoding systems that may have been used at one time were BTOA, XX encoding, BOO, and USR encoding.^ When used in conjunction with a NZB downloading tool, it can save hours of time downloading from other mediums such as P2P through its on the fly NZB creation.
  • Usenet searching, Newsgroups searching, Usenet lore 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC searchlores.org [Source type: General]

^ However, one should not simply use an invalid e-mail address because this way it either puts more of a load on one's system or on the originating mailserver.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ I used to post at one newsgroup which had set up its own NNTP server which only carried that group and one other (related) group.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

.In an attempt to reduce file transfer times, an informal file encoding known as yEnc was introduced in 2001. It achieves about a 30% reduction in data transferred by assuming that most 8-bit characters can safely be transferred across the network without first encoding into the 7-bit ASCII space.^ Baseline data about the range of variation of these spaces and their participants have been mostly unavailable, making systematic management or evaluation difficult.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet these initial posts without replies can be indicative of spam and file transfer activities, rather than interaction and conversation.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last several years, as peer-to-peer file sharing has exploded across the Internet, file transfer has been an important part of Usenet traffic.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The standard method of uploading binary content to Usenet is to first archive the files into RAR archives (for large files usually in 15 MB, 50 MB or 100 MB parts) then create Parchive files.^ The first part was to split nz.netstatus into the two new groups and passed 58 to 5 while the second part was to moderate nz.net.announce and this passed 46 to 13.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

^ These binary files are usually pictures (and sometimes executables and HTML files).
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ At first, it is reported, mailing lists of discussions among Arpanauts (as they were called by Usenet users) were poured into Usenet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parity files are used to recreate missing data. This is needed often, as not every part of the files reaches a server. .These are all then encoded into yEnc and uploaded to the selected binary groups.^ All of these combine into a mosaic of statistical relevance, demonstrating certain threads of commonality and outliers of significance.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ While the volume of posts may be greatest in these binary groups, this by no means suggests that the remainder of Usenet activity is becoming less important.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All other groups forbid these being posted.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

Binary retention time

This is a list of the 30 biggest groups on Giganews on March 3, 2008, and is an example of the massive retention capabilities of a commercial usenet server.
.Each newsgroup is generally allocated a certain amount of storage space for post content.^ A messages posted to newsgroups misc.misc,btl.general will reach all hosts subscribing to either of the two classes.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ex: Newsdemon and Newsgroupdirect - Webnews usenet access : You can read, post, and decode newsgroup content with a web browser.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Before you start posting into a newsgroup, it is generally considered a good idea to .
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.When this storage has been filled, each time a new post arrives, old posts are deleted to make room for the new content.^ Besides, in most cases of impersonation, the content of their post pretty much makes it self-evident that it isn't anything important to anyone in that thread.
  • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ More groups were created, old silent groups deleted, new structures laid in.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ More groups were created, old silent groups deleted and new structures laid in.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.If the network bandwidth available to a server is high but the storage allocation is small, it is possible for a huge flood of incoming content to overflow the allocation and push out everything that was in the group before it.^ There are a number of groups available, called test groups , that exist solely for the purpose of trying out a news system, reader, or even new signature.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for everything else, I think the phrase "do a backup before you start" is the one most applicable to anyone starting out on this adventure.
  • Windows 7 Upgrade and Migration Guide 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The large number of small sites that get nz.* groups and high costs of phone calls for many are the main reason behind this.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.If the flood is large enough, the beginning of the flood will begin to be deleted even before the last part of the flood has been posted.^ Even though Usenet has changed it's face over the last, say ten years, the simple idea of exchanging ideas and having discussions among a large number of people by posting articles on a global message-board has pertained.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ Many people, particularly new users, want to try out posting before actually taking part in discussions.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though Usenet has changed its face over the last, say, ten years, the simple idea of exchanging ideas and having discussions among a large number of people by posting articles on a global messageboard has perpetuated.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Binary newsgroups are only able to function reliably if there is sufficient storage allocated to a group to allow readers enough time to download all parts of a binary posting before it is flushed out of the group's storage allocation.^ Post binaries to newsgroups.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ Most conferencing systems other than USENET allow members or administrators of their equivalent to a newsgroup to define categories within the newsgroup to group discussions together.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read a newsgroups for a week or two before you post anything.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.This was at one time how posting of undesired content was countered; the newsgroup would be flooded with random garbage data posts, of sufficient quantity to push out all the content to be suppressed.^ Given any post, would it go in the new group or an existing one?
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

^ Let this be just one reason why you should never ever post an attachment into a newsgroup that does not specifically state in its Charta that it is desired.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In order to make it easier for people to find the right newsgroup to post their message to, almost all newsreaders are able to show you a brief summary: a one line description of most groups when you subscribe to a newsgroup.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.This has been compensated by service providers allocating enough storage to retain everything posted each day, including such spam floods, without deleting anything.^ Bruno HRUST. If you have a complaint about the activities of a particular person's posts in newsgroups, complain to the News Service Provider concerned.
  • Usenet abuse (addressed to Usenet admins) - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ Yet these initial posts without replies can be indicative of spam and file transfer activities, rather than interaction and conversation.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This could result in the articles being deleted, people posting rude messages (flames) to or about you and complaints being made to you Internet Service Provider (ISP).
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.The average length of time that posts are able to stay in the group before being deleted is commonly called the retention time.^ If such a decision needs to be made, a posting is sent into this group as well as related groups to call for a vote.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Don Neal proposed this group in early 1995 to cover the New Zealand chapter of the Internet Society that was being setup at the time.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

^ All other groups forbid these being posted.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.Generally the larger usenet servers have enough capacity to archive several weeks of binary content even when flooded with new data at the maximum daily speed available.^ Or only connections to attorney-general-certified-free-of-alt-groups Usenet servers might be permitted.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ These may or may not be moderated, or have specific rules, but in general the only difference to the ``normal'' newsgroups is that they are not available on all news-servers, or only certain people have access to these groups.
  • Usenet is still a strange place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.netmeister.org [Source type: General]

^ GNKSA The structure of Usenet and the way these articles are copied from news server to news server require the posting agent to be as standards-conforming as possible.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.A good binaries service provider must not only accommodate users of fast connections (3 megabit) but also users of slow connections (256 kilobit or less) who need more time to download content over a period of several days or weeks.^ Many consumers who only need limited access to Usenet can use Google Groups, which provides free access to much of Usenet (though not the binary groups) and maintains an archive of messages that goes back to 1981.

^ Too expensive to use as prime newsserver if you're doing a lot of downloading but very good as a fill serve and ideal service for beginners.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ The settings on the old server were more flexible, plus more fair for users who use less than three concurrent connections (which I do).
  • Usenet Services- Clarification - dslreports.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

Legal issues

.While binary newsgroups can be used to distribute completely legal user-created works, open-source software, and public domain material, some binary groups are used to illegally distribute commercial software, copyrighted media, and pornography.^ Maybe their is better software, maybe some open source?
  • Usenet Services- Clarification - dslreports.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

^ The shell-scripts used by these two students, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, were later rewritten in C for public distribution and named the “A” release of news.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Groups oriented towards hobbies and recreational activities These ``world'' newsgroups are (usually) circulated around the entire Usenet---this implies world-wide distribution.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, some binary groups such as alt.binaries.^ For example, say you wish to find a list of all Linux-specific groups from the “alt” or “comp” hierarchy: .
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Being able to fetch all articles from some groups and only headers from others (e.g., binary groups) makes browsing fast and comfortable.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the text messages on Usenet are in fact portions of music files, encoded for transfer and sent to newsgroups such as "alt.binaries.music.mp3."
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

warez.*
exist solely for the illegal distribution of commercial software.[12]
.ISP-operated Usenet servers frequently block access to all alt.binaries.* groups to both reduce network traffic and to avoid related legal issues.^ Or only connections to attorney-general-certified-free-of-alt-groups Usenet servers might be permitted.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ While the volume of posts may be greatest in these binary groups, this by no means suggests that the remainder of Usenet activity is becoming less important.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let's hope this puts to rest misunderstandings like this reddit.com thread that talked about broadband providers blocking access to Usenet servers elsewhere.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.Commercial Usenet service providers claim to operate as a telecommunications service, and assert that they are not responsible for the user-posted binary content transferred via their equipment.^ While the volume of posts may be greatest in these binary groups, this by no means suggests that the remainder of Usenet activity is becoming less important.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News posting software, in order to warn users that their articles may not meet the policies of a newsgroup they are posting to, need a means to do this.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Usenet is a distribution system for the exchange of text-based messages, providing services similar to a set of publicly archived email lists.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States, Usenet providers can qualify for protection under the DMCA Safe Harbor regulations, provided that they establish a mechanism to comply with and respond to takedown notices from copyright holders.^ That directing users to content on Usenet via FTD is legal, even if the material was put there without permission of the copyright holders.
  • Usenet Community Takes Anti-Piracy Group to Court | TorrentFreak 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ Unix enthusiastists and pioneers at some large companies like AT&T's Bell Labs did whatever they could to provide support for Usenet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Removal of copyrighted content from the entire Usenet network is a nearly impossible task, due to the rapid propagation between servers and the retention done by each server.^ Please show the international law enforceable in all countries where exist NNTP servers that participate in the mesh network known as Usenet.
  • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ That directing users to content on Usenet via FTD is legal, even if the material was put there without permission of the copyright holders.
  • Usenet Community Takes Anti-Piracy Group to Court | TorrentFreak 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ This section describes the overall scheme of USENET and the algorithm followed by hosts in propagating news to the entire logical network.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Petitioning a Usenet provider for removal only removes it from that one server's retention cache, but not any others.^ Petitioning a usenet provider for removal only removes it from that one server's retention cache, but not any others.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet Service provider : reviews by retention .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet was thus one of the first peer-to-peer applications, although in this case the "peers" are themselves servers that the users then access, rather than the users themselves being peers on the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible for a special post cancellation message to be distributed to remove it from all servers, but many providers ignore cancel messages by standard policy, because they can be easily falsified and submitted by anyone.^ It is possible for a special post cancellation message to be distributed to remove it from all servers, but many providers ignore cancel messages by standard policy, because they can be easily falsified and submitted by anyone.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It requires that the lock string be placed on all messages when they are posted.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News posting software, in order to warn users that their articles may not meet the policies of a newsgroup they are posting to, need a means to do this.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] .For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.^ For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this manner, usenet is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address, but the origin information for a usenet posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the origin server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid crossposting if possible and go for the group most specific to your post, you should only post to nz.general if no other group covers the subject of your post.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

.Removal of the content at this early stage would prevent further propagation, but with modern high speed links, content can be propagated as fast as it arrives, allowing no time for content review and takedown issuance by copyright holders.^ Removal of the content at this early stage would prevent further propagation, but with modern high speed links, content can be propagated as fast as it arrives, allowing no time for content review and takedown issuance by copyright holders.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Removal of copyrighted content from the entire usenet network is a nearly impossible task, due to the rapid propagation between servers and the retention done by each server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Establishing the identity of the person posting illegal content is equally difficult due to the trust-based design of the network.^ Establishing the identity of the person posting illegal content is equally difficult due to the trust-based design of the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Removal of copyrighted content from the entire usenet network is a nearly impossible task, due to the rapid propagation between servers and the retention done by each server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like SMTP email, servers generally assume the header and origin information in a post is true and accurate.^ Like SMTP email, servers generally assume the header and origin information in a post is true and accurate.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Added "Show Post Info" command to Special menu for article list windows to display a text window with header information for the selected posts.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

.However, as in SMTP email, Usenet post headers are easily falsified so as to obscure the true identity and location of the message source.^ However, as in SMTP email, usenet post headers are easily falsified so as to obscure the true identity and location of the message source.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Usenet is a distribution system for the exchange of text-based messages, providing services similar to a set of publicly archived email lists.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The transmission of a Usenet article is centered around the unique Message-ID: header.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .In this manner, Usenet is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address, but the origin information for a Usenet posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the original server.^ For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, but has not yet been propagated to other servers.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ok, most usenet posts are short.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ In this manner, usenet is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address, but the origin information for a usenet posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the origin server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Also unlike modern P2P services, the identity of the downloaders is hidden from view.^ Also unlike modern P2P services, the identity of the downloaders is hidden from view.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On P2P services a downloader is identifiable to all others by their network address.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On P2P services a downloader is identifiable to all others by their network address.^ On P2P services a downloader is identifiable to all others by their network address.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this manner, usenet is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address, but the origin information for a usenet posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the origin server.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also unlike modern P2P services, the identity of the downloaders is hidden from view.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On Usenet, the downloader connects directly to a server, and only the server knows the address of who is connecting to it.^ Or only connections to attorney-general-certified-free-of-alt-groups Usenet servers might be permitted.
  • usenet posts - Politics and Law - CNET News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ The settings on the old server were more flexible, plus more fair for users who use less than three concurrent connections (which I do).
  • Usenet Services- Clarification - dslreports.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

^ If the connection to the news server is lost while downloading a binary attachment, an attempt to try again with a new connection is now done automatically.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

Some Usenet providers do keep usage logs, but this logging information is not casually available to outside parties like the RIAA.[citation needed]

History

UUCP/USENET Logical Map  —   June 1, 1981 / mods by S. McGeady 11/19/81

            (ucbvax)
+=+===================================+==+
| |                                   |  |
| |                wivax              |  |
| |                  |                |  |
| |         microsoft| uiucdcs        |  |
| |  genradbo      | | |  |           |  |           (Tektronix)
| |     |          | | |  | purdue    |  |
| decvax+===+=+====+=+=+  | |         |  |
|       |   | |      |    | | pur-phy |  |                        tekmdp
|       |   | |      |    | |     |   |  |                           |
+@@@@@@cca  | |      |    | |     |   |  |                           |
|       |   | |  +=pur-ee=+=+=====+===+  |                           |
|    csin   | |  |   |                   |                           |
|           | +==o===+===================+==+========+=======+====teklabs=+
|           |    |                                                        |
|           |    |                    pdp phs   grumpy  wolfvax           |
|           |    |                     |   |      |        |              |
|           | cincy                unc=+===+======+========+              |
|           |   |        bio       |                                      |
|           |   |  (Misc) |        |            (Misc)                    |
|           |   | sii  reed        |    dukgeri duke34  utzoo             |
|           |   |  |    |          |         |   |       |                |
|      +====+=+=+==+====++======+==++===duke=+===+=======+==+=========+   |
|      |      |    |     |      |   |                       |         |   | u1100s
|    bmd70  ucf-cs ucf   | andiron  |                       |         |   |   |
|                        |          |                       |         |   |   |
|                  red   |          |                       |         |   | pyuxh
|                   |    |          |     zeppo             |         |   |   |
|       psupdp---psuvax  |          |       |               |         |   |   |
|                   |    |          | alice |   whuxlb      | utah-cs |   | houxf
|                allegra |          | |     |     |         |   |     |   |   |
|                     |  |          | |     |     |         |   |  +--chico---+
|                 +===+=mhtsa====research   |   /=+=======harpo=+==+     |    |
|                 |   |  |  |               |  /            |            |    |
|               hocsr |  |  +=+=============+=/           cbosg---+      |    |
|    ucbopt           |  |    |                             |     |   esquire |
|       :             |  |    |                           cbosgd  |           |
|       :             |  |    |                                   |           |
|    ucbcory          |  | eagle==+=====+=====+=====+=====+       |           |
|       :             |  |  |     |     |     |     |     |       |  +-uwvax--+
|       :             |  |  |   mhuxa mhuxh mhuxj mhuxm mhuxv     |  |
|       :             |  |  |                                     |  |
|       :             |  |  |        +----------------------------o--+
|       :             |  |  |        |                            |
|    ucbcad           |  |  |      ihpss    mh135a                |
|       :             |  |  |        |         |                  |
|       :             \--o--o------ihnss----vax135----cornell     |
|       :                |  |        |         |                  |
+=+==ucbvax==========+===+==+=+======+=======+=+========+=========+
  (UCB) :            |        |              |          | (Silicon Valley)
     ucbarpa      cmevax      |              |        menlo70--hao
        :                     |              |        |    |
     ucbonyx                  |              |        |   sri-unix
                              |           ucsfcgl     |
                              |              |        |
Legend:                       |              |      sytek====+========+
-------                       |              |               |        |
- | / \ + = Uucp           sdcsvax=+=======+=+======+     intelqa   zehntel
=           "Bus"                  |       |        |
o           jumps               sdcarl  phonlab  sdcattb
:           Berknet
@           Arpanet
UUCP/USENET Logical Map, original by Steven McGeady. .Copyright© 1981, 1996
Bruce Jones, Henry Spencer, David Wiseman.
^ Copyright© 1981, 1996 Bruce Jones, Henry Spencer, David Wiseman.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Spencer, David Lawrence (January 1998).
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copied with permission from
The Usenet Oldnews Archive: Compilation.
^ Templeton, who helped Google compile an index of historically significant Usenet articles when it first launched its archive, thinks Google’s neglect is a simple matter of economics.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Copied with permission from The Usenet Oldnews Archive: Compilation .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Newsgroup experiments first occurred in 1979. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis of Duke University came up with the idea as a replacement for a local announcement program, and established a link with nearby University of North Carolina using Bourne shell scripts written by Steve Bellovin.^ Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis of Duke University came up with the idea as a replacement for a local announcement program, and established a link with nearby University of North Carolina using Bourne shell scripts written by Steve Bellovin .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet News was born in 1979 when Tom Truscott, and Jim Ellis, graduate students at Duke University and Steve Bellovin, a graduate student at the University of North Carolina conceived of creating a network to link the computers at their different schools together.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steve Bellovin, a grad student at the University of North Carolina, put together the first version of the news software using shell scripts and installed it on the first two sites: unc and duke .
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The public release of news was in the form of conventional compiled software, written by Steve Daniel and Truscott.^ The news software was rewritten and became the “B” release.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The public release of news was in the form of conventional compiled software , written by Steve Daniel and Truscott.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shell-scripts used by these two students, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, were later rewritten in C for public distribution and named the “A” release of news.
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Usenet is Still a Strange Place 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

[18]

Network

.UUCP networks spread quickly due to the lower costs involved, and the ability to use existing leased lines, X.25 links or even ARPANET connections.^ USENET was not the same thing as USENET Newsgroups; it was a network of computer systems that communicated with one another via serial lines (mostly dial-up) using the UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Program) protocols to exchange files.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ This was one of the first services on the Internet and it even existed before (the common use of) email as a way for users on various nodes to communicate electronically.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

^ Mitigate Risk, Lower Costs and Improve Network Efficiency Create a stable IP network that not only meets today's challenges, but is flexible enough to also meet future demands.

By 1983, the number of UUCP hosts had grown to 550, nearly doubling to 940 in 1984.[19]
.As the mesh of UUCP hosts rapidly expanded, it became desirable to distinguish the Usenet subset from the overall network.^ Usenet is not a UUCP network.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please show the international law enforceable in all countries where exist NNTP servers that participate in the mesh network known as Usenet.
  • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ This document defines the standard format for the interchange of network News messages among USENET hosts.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A vote was taken at the 1982 USENIX conference to choose a new name.^ A vote was taken at the 1982 USENIX conference to choose a new name.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several months later, the software for the A News program for Usenet News was put on the conference tape for general distribution at the Delaware Summer 1980 Usenix meeting.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information, see the paper News Need Not Be Slow , published in the Winter 1987 Usenix Technical Conference proceedings.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name Usenet was retained, but it was established that it only applied to news.^ The name Usenet was retained, but it was established that it only applied to news.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GroupLens: applying collaborative filtering to Usenet news ".
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In most cases Usenet News is available to a site without any charge, though there are also commercial providers who make it available only for a fee.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The name UUCPNET became the common name for the overall network.^ The name UUCPNET became the common name for the overall network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the mesh of UUCP hosts rapidly expanded, it became desirable to distinguish the Usenet subset from the overall network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to UUCP, early Usenet traffic was also exchanged with Fidonet and other dial-up BBS networks.^ Usenet is not a UUCP network.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USENET was not the same thing as USENET Newsgroups; it was a network of computer systems that communicated with one another via serial lines (mostly dial-up) using the UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Program) protocols to exchange files.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ And UUCP is only one of the various transports carrying Usenet traffic.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Widespread use of Usenet by the BBS community was facilitated by the introduction of UUCP feeds made possible by MS-DOS implementations of UUCP such as UFGATE (UUCP to FidoNet Gateway), FSUUCP and UUPC. The Network News Transfer Protocol, or NNTP, was introduced in 1985 to distribute Usenet articles over TCP/IP as a more flexible alternative to informal Internet transfers of UUCP traffic.^ I still use USENET news.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet is transported by uucp connections and via nntp (Net News Transfer Protocol) along the internet, which is the child of the old Arpanet.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This belongs in the transfer protocol not the news format.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since the Internet boom of the 1990s, almost all Usenet distribution is over NNTP.[21]

Software

.Early versions of Usenet used Duke's A News software.^ I still use USENET news.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Early versions of Usenet used Duke's A News software.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Software designed to support Usenet traffic can be (and is) used for other kinds of communication, usually without risk of mixing the two.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Berkeley an improved version called B News was produced by Matt Glickman and Mark Horton.^ At Berkeley an improved version called B News was produced by Matt Glickman and Mark Horton .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1981 at the University of California at Berkeley, grad student Mark Horton and high school student Matt Glickman rewrote the news software to add functionality and to cope with the ever increasing volume of news---``A'' news was intended for only a few articles per group per day.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With a message format that offered compatibility with Internet mail and improved performance, it became the dominant server software.^ With a message format that offered compatibility with Internet mail and improved performance, it became the dominant server software.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improved compatibility with a wider range of news servers.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ The current [update] format and transmission of Usenet articles is very similar to that of Internet email messages.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C News, developed by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer at the University of Toronto, was comparable to B News in features but offered considerably faster processing.^ A new version of news, becoming known as ``C'' news, has been developed at the University of Toronto by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C News , developed by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer at the University of Toronto , was comparable to B News in features but offered considerably faster processing.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was originally conceived as a "poor man's ARPANET ," employing UUCP to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 1990s, InterNetNews by Rich Salz was developed to take advantage of the continuous message flow made possible by NNTP versus the batched store-and-forward design of UUCP. Since that time INN development has continued, and other news server software has also been developed.^ A possible alternative: individual NNTP servers .
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ For example, if the remote system is called remote, news would be sent over a UUCP link with the command: uux - remote!rnews and on a Berknet: net -mremote rnews It is important that the message be sent via a reliable mechanism, normally involving the possibility of spooling, rather than direct real-time remote execution.
  • RFC1036: Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-replayer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With UUCP, news is stored in batches on a site until the neighbor calls to receive the articles, or the feed site happens to call.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Public venue

.Usenet was the initial Internet community and the place for many of the most important public developments in the commercial Internet.^ Usenet was the initial Internet community and the place for many of the most important public developments in the commercial Internet.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet replaced the USENET, for the most part.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ Likewise, many conflicts which later spread to the rest of the Internet, such as the ongoing difficulties over spamming , began on Usenet.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was the place where Tim Berners-Lee announced the launch of the World Wide Web,[22] where Linus Torvalds announced the Linux project,[23] and where Marc Andreessen announced the creation of the Mosaic browser and the introduction of the image tag,[24] which revolutionized the World Wide Web by turning it into a graphical medium.^ I wrote at the search textfield ‘Marc Andreessen alt.hypertext mosaic’ .
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The history of the greatest invention the world has ever seen, the world wide web, is especially important.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Mozilla was the original name for Netscape Navigator, back when it was first being developed in 1994 by Marc Andreesen and his friends from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA - the people who developed Mosaic, the world's first graphical web browser).
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

Internet jargon and history

.Many terms now in common use on the Internet—so-called "jargon"—originated or were popularized on Usenet.^ Many terms now in common use on the Internet—so-called " jargon "—originated or were popularized on Usenet.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet has significant cultural importance in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as " FAQ " and " spam ".
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Usenet sites are academic or government organizations; in fact, Usenet originated in academia.
  • Zen and the Art of the Internet - Usenet News 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.cs.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Likewise, many conflicts which later spread to the rest of the Internet, such as the ongoing difficulties over spamming, began on Usenet.^ Likewise, many conflicts which later spread to the rest of the Internet, such as the ongoing difficulties over spamming , began on Usenet.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet providers do keep usage logs, but this logging information is not casually available to outside parties like the RIAA. [ citation needed ] .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet has significant cultural importance in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as " FAQ " and " spam ".
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Usenet is like a herd of performing elephants with diarrnea (sic). Massive, difficult to redirect, awe-inspiring, entertaining, and a source of mind-boggling amounts of excrement when you least expect it. -- Gene Spafford, 1992

Usenet traffic today

.Over time, the amount of Usenet traffic has steadily increased.^ Usenet software had gotten much better over time to cope with the ever increasing aggregate flow of netnews and (in some cases) the extreme volume that newsgroups generated.
  • Network Tallahassee Technical Support -- Usenet Newsgroups 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC support.nettally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the average number of all text posts made in all Big-8 newsgroups is 1,800 new messages every hour, with an average of 25,000 messages per day.^ The student posted his questions to a number of newsgroups.
  • Gifts of Speech - Ronda Hauben 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News posting software, in order to warn users that their articles may not meet the policies of a newsgroup they are posting to, need a means to do this.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark Davies posted the following message (slightly edited) outlining the history of the current newsgroups up till March 95.
  • The nz.* Usenet Hierarchy FAQ 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC www.enzed.com [Source type: General]

[25] .However, these averages are minuscule in comparison to the traffic in the binary groups.^ While the volume of posts may be greatest in these binary groups, this by no means suggests that the remainder of Usenet activity is becoming less important.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are all then encoded into yEnc and uploaded to the selected binary groups.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The text only groups would fit on a single server, the _vast_ majority of usenet traffic (99% plus) is binary attachments.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

[26] .Much of this traffic increase reflects not an increase in discrete users or newsgroup discussions, but instead the combination of massive automated spamming and an increase in the use of .binaries newsgroups in which large files are often posted publicly.^ Participants vary in what they post, how often, how much, and to which newsgroups.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post binaries to newsgroups.
  • Macintosh Usenet Newsreaders Software at The Mac Orchard 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.macorchard.com [Source type: General]

^ News posting software, in order to warn users that their articles may not meet the policies of a newsgroup they are posting to, need a means to do this.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A small sampling of the change (measured in feed size per day) follows:
Usenet traffic per day (en).svg
Daily Volume Date Source
4.5 GB 1996-12 Altopia.com
9 GB 1997-07 Altopia.com
12 GB 1998-01 Altopia.com
26 GB 1999-01 Altopia.com
82 GB 2000-01 Altopia.com
181 GB 2001-01 Altopia.com
257 GB 2002-01 Altopia.com
492 GB 2003-01 Altopia.com
969 GB 2004-01 Altopia.com
1.30 TB 2004-09-30 Octanews.net
1.27 TB 2004-11-30 Octanews.net
1.38 TB 2004-12-31 Octanews.net
1.52 TB 2005-01 Altopia.com
1.34 TB 2005-01-01 Octanews.net
1.30 TB 2005-01-01 Newsreader.com
1.67 TB 2005-01-31 Octanews.net
1.63 TB 2005-02-01 Newsreader.com
1.81 TB 2005-02-28 Octanews.net
1.87 TB 2005-03-08 Newsreader.com
2.00 TB 2005-03-11 Various sources
2.27 TB 2006-01 Altopia.com
2.95 TB 2007-01 Altopia.com
3.12 TB 2007-04-21 Usenetserver.com
3.07 TB 2008-01 Altopia.com
3.80 TB 2008-04-16 Newsdemon.com
4.60 TB 2008-11-01 Giganews.com
4.65 TB 2009-01 Altopia.com
5.42 TB 2010-01 Altopia.com
.In 2008, Verizon Communications, Time Warner Cable and Sprint Nextel signed an agreement with Attorney General of New York Andrew Cuomo to shut down access to sources of child pornography.^ ISP's like AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, Time Warner and Comcast are discontinuing or restricting their free Usenet Newsgroup service.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Folks, I had a TV card in a WIN 98 machine, I didn't have cable, but I could watch the Nightly News on NBC & play solitaire on the same screen, at the same time.
  • Windows 7 Upgrade and Migration Guide 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Click here for more details - Comcast newsgroup specials Click Here - AT&T newsgroup specials Click Here - Verizon newsgroup specials Click Here - Time Warner newsgroup specials Click Here Usenet - newsgroups Tools .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

[27] .Time Warner Cable stopped offering access to Usenet.^ The Globe and Mail has recently declared the death of USENET , as a result of Rogers Communications deciding to stop providing netnews access to its customers.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ AFAIK Gmane provides nntp (and other) access to mailing lists rather than USENET. I use it all the time.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

Verizon reduced its access to the "Big 8" hierarchies. Sprint stopped access to the alt.* hierarchies. .AT&T stopped access to the alt.binaries.* hierarchies.^ The bottom left quadrant of the 2000 Treemap is filled by the "alt.binaries" hierarchy, which contains newsgroups dedicated to exchanging files: pictures, music, video, and software.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hierarchies alt.binaries and rec are highlighted.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Binaries are posted in alt.binaries.*, making it the largest of all the hierarchies.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cuomo never specifically named Usenet in his anti-child pornography campaign. .David DeJean of PC World said that some worry that the ISPs used Cuomo's campaign as an excuse to end portions of Usenet access, as it is costly for the internet service providers.^ Usenet Service provider Pricing plan .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet Service provider : reviews by retention .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Some ISPs stopped carrying usenet.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

.In 2008 AOL, which no longer offered Usenet access, and the four providers that responded to the Cuomo campaign were the five largest internet service providers in the United States; they had more than 50% of the U.S. ISP marketshare.^ Usenet Service provider Pricing plan .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ They provide more than usenet service with too much options included: e-mail and web hosting !!!.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ Usenet Service provider : reviews by retention .
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

[28] On June 8, 2009, AT&T announced that it would no longer provide access to the Usenet service as of July 15, 2009.[29]
.AOL announced that it would discontinue its integrated Usenet service in early 2005, citing the growing popularity of weblogs, chat forums and on-line conferencing.^ AOL announced that it would discontinue its integrated Usenet service in early 2005, citing the growing popularity of weblogs, chat forums and on-line conferencing.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are pleased to announce an upgrade to our Usenet service, effective immediately.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

[30] .The AOL community had a tremendous role in popularizing Usenet some 11 years earlier,[citation needed] with all of its positive and negative aspects.^ The AOL community had a tremendous role in popularizing Usenet some 11 years earlier, with all of its positive and negative aspects.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usenet providers do keep usage logs, but this logging information is not casually available to outside parties like the RIAA. [ citation needed ] .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AOL announced that it would discontinue its integrated Usenet service in early 2005, citing the growing popularity of weblogs, chat forums and on-line conferencing.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This change marked the end of the legendary Eternal September.^ This change marked the end of the legendary Eternal September .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others, however, feel that Google Groups, especially with its new user interface, has picked up the torch that AOL has dropped—and that the so-called Eternal September has yet to end.^ Others, however, feel that Google Groups, especially with its new user interface, has picked up the torch that AOL has dropped—and that the so-called Eternal September has yet to end.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users read and post public messages (called articles or posts , and collectively termed news ) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups .
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can't access new messages and Google groups doesn't have that newsgroup.
  • Earthling - EarthLink blog: Usenet Revisited 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC blogs.earthlink.net [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
In August, 2009, Verizon announced that it would discontinue access to Usenet on September 30, 2009.[31][32]

Archives and web interfaces

.Web-based archiving of Usenet posts began in 1995 at Deja News with a very large, searchable database.^ Deja.com, and Deja News before it, did an excellent job of archiving Usenet posts.
  • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet is dead because the discussion groups are, by and large, not attracting new members and there is no way to keep the kooks and flame wars in check.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ With Usenet access readily available from NSPs, and with many ISPs still freely passing Usenet traffic, the text-based communities may be affected very little.

In 2001, this database was acquired by Google.[33]

Google Groups / DejaNews

.Google Groups hosts an archive of Usenet posts dating back to May 1981. The earliest posts, which date from May 1981 to June 1991, were donated to Google by the University of Western Ontario with the help of David Wiseman and others,[34] and were originally archived by Henry Spencer at the University of Toronto's Zoology department.^ I come back to usenet and groups died.
  • Usenet Abuse FAQ ----> +General Usenet protocol - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ Most conferencing systems other than USENET allow members or administrators of their equivalent to a newsgroup to define categories within the newsgroup to group discussions together.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many consumers who only need limited access to Usenet can use Google Groups, which provides free access to much of Usenet (though not the binary groups) and maintains an archive of messages that goes back to 1981.

[35] .The archives for late 1991 through early 1995 were provided by Kent Landfield from the NetNews CD[36] and Jürgen Christoffel from GMD.[37] The archive of posts from March 1995 onward was originally started by the company DejaNews (later Deja), which was purchased by Google in February 2001. Google began archiving Usenet posts for itself beginning in August 2000, which was before it had acquired the Deja archive.^ History: Supernews launch their first service in 1995, and was one of the leaders in Usenet providers.
  • Usenet Newsgroup providers Reviews. Compare all the Usenet providers in one usenet site 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet-providers.net [Source type: General]

^ The Usenet is a distribution system for the exchange of text-based messages, providing services similar to a set of publicly archived email lists.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We begin by sampling all hierarchies from Usenet during the period 2000-2004.
  • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Already during the DejaNews era the archive had become a popular constant in Usenet culture, and remains so today.
The archiving of Usenet led to a fear of loss of privacy.[38] An archive simplifies ways to profile people. This has partly been countered with the introduction of the X-No-Archive: Yes header, which is itself seen as controversial.[39]

See also

Usenet history

Usenet administrators

.There are no Usenet "administrators" per se; each server administrator is free to do whatever pleases him or her as long as the end users and peer servers tolerate and accept it.^ There are only a few server systems, and they are maintained by system admins, not ordinary users.
  • USENET-Format Poll 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.templetons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no worldwide gov't (as yet) and a division of such that regulates the operation of NNTP servers and what content they may provide.
  • Usenet abuse (addressed to Usenet admins) - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

^ Slashdot is no USENET :-) There are many interesting and useful USENET groups that have no alternatives, at least not widely known ones.
  • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

Nevertheless, there are a few famous administrators:

Usenet celebrities

References

  1. ^ a b From Usenet to CoWebs: interacting with social information spaces, Christopher Lueg, Danyel Fisher, Springer (2003), ISBN 1852335327, ISBN 9781852335328
  2. ^ Stephen Daniel, James Ellis, and Tom Truscott (1980). USENET - A General Access UNIX Network. (inside archive as usenet/uprop.n)
  3. ^ Lehnert, Wendy G.; Kopec, Richard (2007). Web 101. Addison Wesley. p. 291.
  4. ^ Store And Forward Communication: UUCP and FidoNet. Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science.
  5. ^ "USENET Newsgroup Terms - SPAM". http://www.newsdemon.com/usenet_term_spam.php. 
  6. ^ Kozierok, Charles M. (2005). The TCP/IP guide: a comprehensive, illustrated Internet protocols reference. No Starch Press. p. 1401.
  7. ^ http://groups.google.com/
  8. ^ Jain, Dominik (2006-07-30). "OE-QuoteFix Description". http://home.in.tum.de/~jain/software/oe-quotefix/description.html. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  9. ^ "news: links to Google Groups". http://www.melez.com/mykzilla/2008/11/news-links-to-google-groups.html. 
  10. ^ "Improve-Usenet". 2008-10-13. http://improve-usenet.org. 
  11. ^ "Improve-Usenet Comments". 2008-10-13. http://improve-usenet.org/voices1.html. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  12. ^ The official Warez FAQ says the cracked and full-media commercial software downloads are provided for "evaluation purposes only": Warezfaq.com
  13. ^ The SuperNews DMCA notifications page shows a typical example of Usenet provider DMCA takedown compliance. http://www.supernews.com/docs/dmca.html
  14. ^ "Cancel Messages FAQ". Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212175002/http://www.killfile.org/faqs/cancel.html. Retrieved 2009-06-29. "...Until authenticated cancels catch on, there are no options to avoid forged cancels and allow unforged ones..." 
  15. ^ Microsoft knowledgebase article stating that many servers ignore cancel messages Support.microsoft.com
  16. ^ ...every part of a Usenet post may be forged apart from the left most portion of the "Path:" header... By-users.co.uk
  17. ^ Quux.org
  18. ^ LaQuey, Tracy (1990). The User's directory of computer networks. Digital Press. p. 386.
  19. ^ Haddadi, H. (2006). "Network Traffic Inference Using Sampled Statistics." University College London.
  20. ^ Horton, Mark (December 11, 1990). "Arachnet". http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Usenet.Hist/Nethist/0111.html. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  21. ^ Huston, Geoff (1999). ISP survival guide: strategies for running a competitive ISP. Wiley. p. 439.
  22. ^ Tim Berners-Lee (1991-08-06). "WorldWideWeb: Summary". alt.hypertext. (Web link). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  23. ^ "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  24. ^ Marc Andreessen (1993-03-15). "NCSA Mosaic for X 0.10 available.". comp.infosystems.wais, comp.infosystems, alt.hypertext, comp.windows.x comp.infosystems.gopher, comp.infosystems.wais, comp.infosystems, alt.hypertext, comp.windows.x. (Web link). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  25. ^ NewsAdmin: Top 100 text newsgroups by postings
  26. ^ NewsAdmin: Top 100 binary newsgroups by postings
  27. ^ Rosencrance, Lisa. "3 top ISPs to block access to sources of child porn." Computer World. June 8, 2008. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  28. ^ DeJean, David. "Usenet: Not Dead Yet." PC World. Tuesday October 7, 2008. 2. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  29. ^ "ATT Announces Discontinuation of USENET Newsgroup Services". NewsDemon. 2009-06-09. http://www.newsdemon.com/blog/2009/06/09/att-announces-discontinuation-of-usenet-newsgroup-services/. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  30. ^ Hu, Jim. "AOL shutting down newsgroups." CNet. January 25, 2005. Retrieved on May 1, 2009.
  31. ^ Bode, Karl. "Verizon To Discontinue Newsgroups September 30". DSLReports. August 31, 2009. Retrieved on October 24, 2009.
  32. ^ "Verizon Newsgroup Service Has Been Discontinued" Verizon Central Support. Retrieved on October 24, 2009.
  33. ^ Cullen, Drew (February 12, 2001). Google saves Deja.com Usenet service. The Register.
  34. ^ Wiseman, David. "Magi's NetNews Archive Involvement", csd.uwo.ca
  35. ^ Mieszkowski, Katharine. "The Geeks Who Saved Usenet", archive.salon.com (January 7, 2002).
  36. ^ Feldman, Ian. "Usenet on a CD-ROM, no longer a fable", "TidBITS" (10 February 1992)
  37. ^ "Google Groups Archive Information" (21 December 2001)
  38. ^ R.I.P Usenet: 1980-2008 - Usenet's Decline - Columns by PC Magazine
  39. ^ Strawbridge, Matthew (2006). Netiquette: Internet Etiquette in the Age of the Blog. Software Reference. p. 53.
  • This article is partly based on the Pegasi.net (infoAnarchy.org wiki)

Further reading

  • Bruce Jones, archiver (1997). .USENET History mailing list archive covering 1990–1997. communication.ucsd.edu
  • Michael Hauben, Ronda Hauben, and Thomas Truscott (1997-04-27).^ Mailing lists and the web obsoleted usenet's conversation function years ago.
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The Globe and Mail has recently declared the death of USENET , as a result of Rogers Communications deciding to stop providing netnews access to its customers.
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ In February 2001, Google rescued that history when it acquired the New York-based Deja.com, and with it a Usenet archive going back to 1995.
    • Google’s Abandoned Library of 700 Million Titles (UPDATED) | Epicenter | Wired.com 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet (Perspectives). Wiley-IEEE Computer Society P. ISBN 0-8186-7706-6. 
  • Bryan Pfaffenberger (1994-12-31). .The USENET Book: Finding, Using, and Surviving Newsgroups on the Internet.^ I read a handful of technical newsgroups and I find them extremely useful.
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ That said, it seems clear that people are still finding usenet useful to them, and I am glad for that.
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Krikorian and Kiyomiya (2002) offer an alternative framework for studying meta-statistics about participation in Usenet newsgroups, which they use to predict persistence and death of Usenet newsgroups.
    • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-40978-X.
     
  • Kate Gregory, Jim Mann, Tim Parker, and Noel Estabrook (June 1995). .Using Usenet Newsgroups.^ Krikorian and Kiyomiya (2002) offer an alternative framework for studying meta-statistics about participation in Usenet newsgroups, which they use to predict persistence and death of Usenet newsgroups.
    • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You are not using a web browser when participating in Usenet (unless you are stupid and need to use a webnews-for-dummies interface to Usenet but then the cookies are from the *sites* you visit, not the newsgroups).
    • Usenet abuse (addressed to Usenet admins) - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ You are not using a web browser > when participating in Usenet (unless you are stupid and need to use a > webnews-for-dummies interface to Usenet but then the cookies are from > the *sites* you visit, not the newsgroups).
    • Usenet abuse (addressed to Usenet admins) - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    Que. ISBN 0-7897-0134-0.
     
  • Mark Harrison (July 1995). The USENET Handbook (Nutshell Handbook). O'Reilly. ISBN 1-56592-101-1. 
  • Henry Spencer, David Lawrence (January 1998). Managing Usenet. O'Reilly. ISBN 1-56592-198-4. 
  • Don Rittner (June 1997). Rittner's Field Guide to Usenet. MNS Publishing. ISBN 0-937666-50-5. 
  • Konstan, J., Miller, B., Maltz, D., Herlocker, J., Gordon, L., and Riedl, J. (March 1997). "GroupLens: applying collaborative filtering to Usenet news". Communications of the ACM 40 (3): 77–87. doi:10.1145/245108.245126. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=245108.245126. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  • Miller, B., Riedl, J., and Konstan, J. (January 1997). "Experiences with GroupLens: Making Usenet useful again". Proceedings of the 1997 Usenix Winter Technical Conference. .http://www.grouplens.org/papers/pdf/usenix97.pdf. 
  • "20 Year Usenet Timeline".^ The bulk of my groups come from http://www.gmane.org/ , the front page of which has a posting activity graph with a healthy positive slope, suggesting to me that "USENET is dead, long live USENET!" The end of USENET .
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Usenet Improvement Project: http://twovoyagers.com/improve-usenet.org/ Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ As an aside, I actually have on my webpage an archive of some Usenet articles which were never fully indexed on Google's archive: http://www.samiam.org/alt.hackers.1995/ - Sam [1] Actually, that's not true.
    • The end of USENET [LWN.net] 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

    Google. .http://www.google.com/googlegroups/archive_announce_20.html.^ Visit www.hrvat.name -- To understand me better see: http://tinyurl.com/y8fcpmp Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ An example of this was with the Signapore "service" poster that was constantly spamming his web site to *sell* his services, like at: http://groups.google.com/group/microsoft.public.windowsxp.messenger/m...
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ You maybe also want to look at the Ghost KB here: http://www.symantec.com/techsupp/enterprise/select_product_kb.html (Click Symantec Ghost) .
    • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2006-06-27
    . 
  • "Web 2.0, Meet Usenet 1.0". Linux Magazine. .http://www.linux-mag.com/id/2675/.^ Visit www.hrvat.name -- To understand me better see: http://tinyurl.com/y8fcpmp Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ You maybe also want to look at the Ghost KB here: http://www.symantec.com/techsupp/enterprise/select_product_kb.html (Click Symantec Ghost) .
    • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Old Gringo Just West Of Nowhere Enjoy Life And Live It To Its Fullest http://www.NuBoy-Industries.com Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2007-02-13
    .
     
  • Schwartz, Randal (2006-06-15). "Web 2.0, Meet Usenet 1.0". .http://www.linux-mag.com/id/2675/.^ Visit www.hrvat.name -- To understand me better see: http://tinyurl.com/y8fcpmp Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    ^ You maybe also want to look at the Ghost KB here: http://www.symantec.com/techsupp/enterprise/select_product_kb.html (Click Symantec Ghost) .
    • Picturing Usenet: Mapping Computer-Mediated Collective Action 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Old Gringo Just West Of Nowhere Enjoy Life And Live It To Its Fullest http://www.NuBoy-Industries.com Rpondre Rpondre l'auteur Transfrer .
    • Improve the quality of Usenet - 24hoursupport.helpdesk | Google Groupes 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC groups.google.fr [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2007-06-04
    .
     
  • Kleiner, Dmytri; Wyrick, Brian (2007-01-29). "InfoEnclosure 2.0". http://www.metamute.org/InfoEnclosure-2.0. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 

External links

.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

< USENIX group of computer programmers using the operating system Unix < users of Unix

Proper noun

Singular
Usenet
Plural
-
Usenet
  1. (Internet) A world-wide distributed discussion system consisting of "newsgroups" classified hierarchically by subject.

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Internet Technologies/Usenet article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Internet Technologies
.Usenet is a "network" of newsgroup servers (often run by ISPs) working together.^ YottaNews - free usenet newsgroup server .
  • YottaNews - free usenet newsgroup server 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.yottanews.com [Source type: General]

^ Usenet servers are required to establish a connection to the Usenet newsgroups network.
  • Usenet.de - Usenet server for access to Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet.de [Source type: General]

^ Newsgroups or usenet posts from some usenet server 2.
  • usenet indexer with nzb by Alex1333 - Php, Sql - Freelance Projects 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.freelance-projects.info [Source type: General]

.Once connected to Usenet one can find everything from logical conversation to porn.^ Once connected to Usenet one can find everything from logical conversation to porn.
  • Internet Technologies/Usenet - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: General]

^ Also, if you haven't noticed, one of the unwritten rules of the usenet is at least once a week, someone MUST post Equilibrium and Cube.
  • Usenet - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything you need to get started with usenet you will find it here Binary newsreaders for Windows, macintosh and Linux.
  • Usenet Links, Download with Binaries usenet, Newsreaders, Binary Newsgroups, Usenet Access Providers 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenetpage.com [Source type: General]

.One bad thing about Usenet is that it is often used to distribute warez, or illegal digital content like mp3s, Screeners, or cracked video games.^ Useful Information about Usenet esp.
  • Useful Information about Usenet esp. in the UK 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Usenet can be used for various things.
  • Usenet.de - Information about Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.usenet.de [Source type: Reference]

^ One bad thing about Usenet is that it is often used to distribute warez, or illegal digital content like mp3s, Screeners, or cracked video games.
  • Internet Technologies/Usenet - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: General]

.In most cases Usenet is the first step in the life of warez.^ In most cases Usenet is the first step in the life of warez.
  • Internet Technologies/Usenet - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: General]

^ Giganews was one of the first to offer premium usenet service back in 1998 and have worn the crown of the most reliable usenet service since then.
  • Usenet Servers Info 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC usenetservers.info [Source type: General]
  • Giganews | Usenet Servers Info 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC usenetservers.info [Source type: General]

^ Usenet was thus one of the first peer-to-peer applications, although in this case the "peers" are themselves servers that the users then access, rather than the users themselves being peers on the network.
  • Usenet (Linux Reviews) 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately this has caused many newsgroup servers to block access to known warez newsgroups.^ Unfortunately this has caused many newsgroup servers to block access to known warez newsgroups.
  • Internet Technologies/Usenet - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 15:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: General]

^ Newsgroups are typically accessed with special client software that connects to a news server like the free Usenet client.
  • eMule.net - eMule Download, Help, Docu, News... 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.emule.net [Source type: General]

^ The Original Uncensored Newsfeed with Fast Usenet access to uncensored newsgroups via dedicated, geographically dispersed servers since 1999; .
  • Usenet - URL.biz Add URL Free Marketing 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.url.biz [Source type: General]

.Usenet providers normally charge money for access but many ISPs have newsgroup servers running that their customers can access for free.^ Usenet Newsgroup access .
  • usenetserviceprovider.com uncensored usenet access newsgroups since 2001 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC usenetserviceprovider.com [Source type: General]

^ RXN Communications offers access to Usenet newsgroups for RXN Communications customers.
  • RXN Communications FAQ - Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.rxn.com [Source type: General]

^ Does not provide access to newsgroups.
  • Usenet | Astanda Directory Project — Add Url, Submit Website 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.astanda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So if you would like to check out Usenet first call your ISP and find out if they have a newsgroup server running.^ Do you have your own USENET stories?
  • I Remember USENET - O'Reilly Media 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.oreillynet.com [Source type: General]

^ The history the Usenet Find newsgroups of interest to you Getting started on Usenet .
  • Usenet Learning Center :: Your First Stop on the Usenet - Tutorials, How-To Guides, White Papers and everything you need to get started on the Usenet 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC usenetlearningcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ Would you like to outsource your next project?
  • GetAFreelancer.com - usenet,newsgroups and nzb script | AJAX | PHP | SQL | XML 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.getafreelancer.com [Source type: General]
  • GetAFreelancer.com - usenet indexer with nzb | PHP | SQL 20 January 2010 10:35 UTC www.getafreelancer.com [Source type: General]

External Links


Simple English

Netnews is a kind of online service that shares articles between a group of computers over a network. One kind of netnews is called usenet. Usenet was in use before the Internet and is still very active today. Usenet provided a way for people to write articles on many different topics and share them with people all over the world. It is different from the web because articles are sent to all the computers in the community. An article on a webserver stays on one computer until a person gets it with their web browser.

The community of computers comprising a Usenet typically does not include those of end users, e.g. home personal computers. Rather, that community consists of a group of cooperating servers. End users must have access to a member of the server community to read and post. Such access is typically achieved through the news feature of their email program or web browser or through a special program that specializes in netnews. Configuring the program requires the URL of a server, and often a user ID and password.

The servers in the Usenet community are independent in the sense that each gets to decide what portions of the Usenet they will serve to their users and how long postings will last on the server. For example, some servers may leave out the adult groups. Because postings have to be transmitted from computer to computer, a given posting takes some time to be available on all servers. Further, they may disappear from active groups on busy servers in a matter of days or weeks.

Because Usenet groups are frequently used to share large files, servers may have bandwidth and download limits. If you use a commercial service, it may offer a range of limits at different prices.

Query your Internet Service Provider to determine whether their servers are members of the Usenet community or whether they provide free access to one of the commercial services that offers access. You may have to seek out your own commercial service because many providers have their own alternative. AOL and MSN have their Communities; AT&T uses Yahoo! Groups.

A netnews service may not even be a community of computers. Any user could configure their personal computer to offer a netnews service. Organizations often offer their own netnews service independent of Usenet to support their customers and members. For example, news.microsoft.com is a very large community of Microsoft users and developers that help each other out.

Netnews groups have a long history and their own netiquette. Look for FAQ and netiquette postings to see the rules for any given group.

Groups may be moderated or unmoderated. Expect a lot of off topic and potentially offensive material on the unmoderated groups, which are the majority of Usenet.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Usenet, which are similar to those in the above article.








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