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State of Utah
Flag of Utah State seal of Utah
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Beehive State
Motto(s): Industry
before statehood, known as
the Utah Territory
Map of the United States with Utah highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Utahn or Utahan[1]
Capital Salt Lake City
Largest city Salt Lake City
Largest metro area Salt Lake City
Area  Ranked 13th in the US
 - Total 84,889 sq mi
(219,887 km2)
 - Width 270 miles (435 km)
 - Length 350 miles (565 km)
 - % water 3.25
 - Latitude 37° N to 42° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 3′ W
Population  Ranked 34 in the US
 - Total 2,736,424 (2008 est.)[2]
 - Density 27.2/sq mi  (10.50/km2)
Ranked 41st in the US
 - Median income  $50,614 (11)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Kings Peak[3]
13,528 ft  (4,126 m)
 - Mean 6,100 ft  (1,860 m)
 - Lowest point Beaver Dam Wash[4]
2,000 ft  (664 m)
Admission to Union  January 4, 1896 (45)
Governor Gary R. Herbert (R)
Lieutenant Governor Gregory S. Bell (R)
U.S. Senators Orrin Hatch (R)
Robert Foster Bennett (R)
U.S. House delegation 1: Rob Bishop (R)
2: Jim Matheson (D)
3: Jason Chaffetz (R) (list)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations UT US-UT
Website http://www.utah.gov

Utah (Pronunciation: /ˈjuːtɔː/ or Listeni /ˈjuːtɑː/) is a western state of the United States. It was the 45th state admitted to the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,736,424 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the sixth most urbanized in the U.S.[5] The name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe and means "people of the mountains." in Ute.[6] Utah is bordered by Arizona on the south, Colorado on the east, Wyoming on the northeast, Idaho on the north and Nevada on the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico.

Utah is one of the most religiously homogeneous states in the Union. Between 41% and 60% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church), which greatly influences Utah culture and daily life.[7][8]

The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, mining, and a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's population estimates, Utah was the fastest growing state in the United States as of 2008.[9] St. George, Utah was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000–2005.[10]

Contents

History

The Mormon settlement

Brigham Young led the first Mormon pioneers to the Great Salt Lake.

Following the assassination of Joseph Smith, Jr., in Carthage, Illinois, in 1844, the more than 11,000[11] Latter Day Saints remaining in Nauvoo, IL struggled in conflict with neighbors until Brigham Young, the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, emerged as the leader of the largest portion. (See Succession crisis.)

Brigham Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers came to the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers crossed the plains and settled in Utah.[12]

For the first few years Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive. The barren desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place they could practice their religion without interference.

Utah was the source of many pioneer settlements located elsewhere in the West. Salt Lake City was the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth"[13] of Mormon settlements. Fed by a constant supply of church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders often assigned groups of church members to establish settlements throughout the West. Beginning with settlements along Utah's Wasatch front (Salt Lake City, Bountiful and Weber Valley, and Provo and Utah Valley), irrigation enabled the establishment of fairly large pioneer populations in an area that Jim Bridger had advised Young would be inhospitable for the cultivation of crops because of frost.[14] Throughout the remainder of the 1800s, Mormon pioneers called by Brigham Young would leave Salt Lake City and establish hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, California, Canada, and Mexico - including in Las Vegas, Nevada; Franklin, Idaho (the first white settlement in Idaho); San Bernardino, California; Star Valley, Wyoming; and Carson Valley, Nevada.

Prominent settlements in Utah included St. George, Logan, and Manti (where settlers raised the first three temples in Utah, each built many years before the larger and better known temple built in Salt Lake City was completed in 1892), as well as Parowan, Cedar City, Bluff, Moab, Vernal, Fillmore (which served as the territorial capital between 1850 and 1856), Nephi, Levan, Spanish Fork, Springville, Provo Bench (now Orem), Pleasant Grove, American Fork, Lehi, Sandy, Murray, Jordan, Centerville, Farmington, Huntsville, Kaysville, Grantsville, Tooele, Roy, Brigham City, and many other smaller towns and settlements. Young had an expansionist's view of the territory that he and the Mormon pioneers were settling, calling it Deseret - which according to the Book of Mormon was supposed to have translated into "honeybee" - hence the beehive which can still be found on the Utah flag, and the state's motto, "Industry."[15]

Utah was Mexican territory when the first pioneers arrived in 1847. Early in the Mexican-American War in late 1846, the United States had captured New Mexico and California, and the whole Southwest became U.S. territory upon the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on March 11. The Utah Territory was created with the Compromise of 1850, and Fillmore was designated the capital. It was given the name Utah after the Ute tribe of Native Americans. Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856.

Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the US Government intensified due to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' practice of plural marriage among its members. The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. The U.S. Government, which was reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.

Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. In 1857, after rumors of rebellion spread, the government sent troops on the "Utah expedition" to quell the supposed rebellion and to replace Brigham Young as territorial governor with Alfred Cumming. The resulting conflict is known as the Utah War.

As troops approached Salt Lake in northern Utah, nervous Mormon settlers attacked and killed 120 immigrants from Arkansas in southern Utah. The attack became known as the Mountain Meadows massacre. The massacre became a point of contention between LDS leaders and the federal government for decades. Only one person, John D. Lee, was ever convicted of the murders, and he was executed at the massacre site.

Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial government. By agreement with Young, Johnston established Fort Floyd 40 miles (60 km) away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.

Salt Lake City was the last link of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, completed in October 1861. Brigham Young was among the first to send a message, along with Abraham Lincoln and other officials.

Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory, leaving the territory in LDS hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. Connor established Fort Douglas just 3 miles (5 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the state. Minerals were discovered in Tooele County and miners began to flock to the territory.

Beginning in 1865, Utah's Black Hawk War developed into the deadliest conflict in the territory's history. Chief Antonga Black Hawk died in 1870, but fights continued to break out until additional federal troops were sent in to suppress the Ghost Dance of 1872. The war is unique among Indian Wars because it was a three-way conflict, with mounted Timpanogos Utes led by Antonga Black Hawk exploited by federal and LDS authorities.

On May 10, 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, north of the Great Salt Lake. The railroad brought increasing numbers of people into the state and several influential businesspeople made fortunes in the territory.

During the 1870s and 1880s laws were passed to punish polygamists, and in the 1890 Manifesto, the LDS Church banned polygamy. When Utah applied for statehood again it was accepted. One of the conditions for granting Utah statehood was that a ban on polygamy be written into the state constitution. This was a condition required of other western states that were admitted into the Union later. Statehood was officially granted on January 4, 1896.

1900s to present

Beginning in the early 1900s, with the establishment of such national parks as Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park, Utah became known for its natural beauty. Southern Utah became a popular filming spot for arid, rugged scenes, and such natural landmarks as Delicate Arch and "the Mittens" of Monument Valley are instantly recognizable to most national residents. During the 1950s, '60s, and '70s, with the construction of the Interstate highway system, accessibility to the southern scenic areas was made easier.

Beginning in 1939, with the establishment of Alta Ski Area, Utah has become world-renowned for its skiing. The dry, powdery snow of the Wasatch Range is considered some of the best skiing in the world (thus the license plate, "the Greatest Snow on Earth").[16][17] Salt Lake City won the bid for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in 1995, and this has served as a great boost to the economy. The ski resorts have increased in popularity, and many of the Olympic venues scattered across the Wasatch Front continue to be used for sporting events. This also spurred the development of the light-rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, and the re-construction of the freeway system around the city.

During the late 20th century, the state grew quickly. In the 1970s growth was phenomenal in the suburbs. Sandy was one of the fastest-growing cities in the country at that time. Today, many areas of Utah are seeing phenomenal growth. Northern Davis, southern and western Salt Lake, Summit, eastern Tooele, Utah, Wasatch, and Washington counties are all growing very quickly. Transportation and urbanization are major issues in politics as development consumes agricultural land and wilderness areas.

Geography

Delicate Arch, Arches National Park, Utah

Utah is generally rocky with three distinct geological regions: the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau. Utah is a great geographical tourism site. Utah is known for its natural diversity and is home to features ranging from arid deserts with sand dunes to thriving pine forests in mountain valleys. Utah is one of the Four Corners states, and is bordered by Idaho in the north, Wyoming in the north and east; by Colorado in the east; at a single point by New Mexico to the southeast (at the Four Corners Monument); by Arizona in the south; and by Nevada in the west. It covers an area of 84,899 sq mi (219,890 km2). The state is one of only three U.S. states (with Colorado and Wyoming) that have only lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries.

Alpine Loop near Sundance in the fall.

One of Utah's defining characteristics is the variety of its terrain. Running down the northern center of the state is the Wasatch Range, which rises to heights of about 12,000 ft (3,700 m) above sea level. Portions of these mountains receive more than 500 in (13,000 mm) of snow each year and are home to world-renowned ski resorts, made popular by the light, fluffy snow, which is considered good for skiing. In the northeastern section of the state, running east to west, are the Uinta Mountains, which rise to heights of 13,000 feet (3,950 m) or more. The highest point in the state, Kings Peak, at 13,528 feet (4,123 m),[3] lies within the Uinta Mountains. At the western base of the Wasatch Range is the Wasatch Front, a series of valleys and basins that are home to the most populous parts of the state. The major cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, Layton, West Valley City, Sandy, West Jordan, Orem, and Provo are located within this region, which stretches approximately from Brigham City at the north end to Nephi at the south end. Approximately 75 percent of the population of the state lies in this corridor, and urban sprawl continues to expand along the edges of these valleys.

Western Utah is mostly arid desert with a basin and range topography. Small mountain ranges and rugged terrain punctuate the landscape. The Bonneville Salt Flats are an exception, being comparatively flat as a result of once forming the bed of ancient Lake Bonneville. Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake and Utah Lake are all remnants of this ancient freshwater lake,[18] which once covered most of the eastern Great Basin. West of the Great Salt Lake, stretching to the Nevada border, lies the arid Great Salt Lake Desert. One exception to this aridity is Snake Valley, which is (relatively) lush due to large springs and wetlands fed from groundwater derived from snow melt in the Snake Range, Deep Creek Range, and other tall mountains to the west of Snake Valley. Great Basin National Park is just over the Nevada state line in the southern Snake Range. One of western Utah's most famous attractions is Notch Peak, the tallest limestone cliff in North America, located west of Delta.

Utah county boundaries

Much of the scenic southern and south eastern landscape (specifically the Colorado Plateau region) is sandstone, specifically Kayenta sandstone and Navajo sandstone. The Colorado River and its tributaries wind their way through the sandstone, creating some of the world's most striking and wild terrain (the area around the confluence of the Colorado and Green Rivers was the last to be mapped in the lower 48 United States). Wind and rain have also sculpted the soft sandstone over millions of years. Canyons, gullies, arches, pinnacles, buttes, bluffs, and mesas are the common sight throughout south-central and southeast Utah. This terrain is the central feature of protected state and federal parks such as Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion national parks, Cedar Breaks, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Hovenweep, and Natural Bridges national monuments, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (site of the popular tourist destination, Lake Powell), Dead Horse Point and Goblin Valley state parks, and Monument Valley (a popular photographic and filming site). The Navajo Nation also extends into southeastern Utah.

Southwestern Utah is the lowest and hottest spot in Utah. It is known as Utah's Dixie because early settlers were able to grow limited amounts of cotton there. Beaverdam Wash in far southwestern Utah is the lowest point in the state, at 2,000 feet (610 m).[3] The northernmost portion of the Mojave Desert is also located in this area. Dixie is quickly becoming a popular recreational and retirement destination, and the population is growing rapidly. Just north of Dixie is the state's highest ski resort, Brian Head.

Eastern (northern quarter) Utah is a high-elevation area covered mostly by plateaus and basins. Economies are dominated by mining, oil shale, oil, and natural gas-drilling, ranching, and recreation. Much of eastern Utah is part of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. The most popular destination within northeastern Utah is Dinosaur National Monument near Vernal.

Like most of the Western and Southwestern states, the federal government owns much of the land in Utah. Over 70 percent of the land is either BLM land, Utah State Trustland, or U.S. National Forest, U.S. National Park, U.S. National Monument, National Recreation Area or U.S. Wilderness Area.[19]

Climate

Joshua Trees, yucca plants, and Jumping Cholla cactus occupy the far southwest corner of the state in the Mojave Desert.

Utah features a dry, semi-arid to arid climate, although its many mountains feature a large variety of climates, with the highest points in the Uinta Mountains being above the timberline. The dry weather results from the state lying mostly in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada in California. The eastern half of the state lies in the rain shadow of the Wasatch Mountains. The primary source of precipitation for the state is the Pacific Ocean, with the state usually lying in the path of large Pacific storms from mid-October through April, although northern Utah often sees these large storms earlier and later. In summer, the state, especially southern and eastern Utah, lies in the path of monsoon moisture from the Gulf of California. Most of the lowland areas receive less than 12 inches (300 mm) of precipitation annually, although the I-15 corridor, including the densely-populated Wasatch Front, receive approximately 15 inches (380 mm). The Great Salt Lake Desert is the driest area of the state, with less than 5 inches (125 mm). Snowfall is common in all but the far southern valleys. Although St. George only receives about 3 inches (7.5 cm) per year, Salt Lake City sees about 60 inches (150 cm), enhanced by the lake-effect snow from the Great Salt Lake, which increases snowfall totals to the south, southeast, and east of the lake. Some areas of the Wasatch Range in the path of the lake-effect receive up to 700 inches (1,770 cm) per year. The consistently dry, fluffy, snow led Utah's ski industry to adopt the slogan "the Greatest Snow on Earth" in the 1980s. In the winter, temperature inversions are a phenomenon across Utah's low basins and valleys, leading to thick haze and fog that can sometimes last for weeks at a time, especially in the Uintah Basin.

Mountains near the Great Salt Lake in winter.

Utah's temperatures are extreme, with cold temperatures in winter due to its elevation, and very hot summers statewide (with the exception of mountain areas and high mountain valleys). Utah is usually protected from major blasts of cold air by mountains lying north and east of the state, although major Arctic blasts can occasionally reach the state. Average January high temperatures range from around 30 °F (-1 °C) in some northern valleys to almost 55 °F (13 °C) in St. George. Temperatures dropping below 0 °F (-18 °C) should be expected on occasion in most areas of the state most years, although some areas see it often (for example, the town of Randolph averages about 50 days per year with temperatures dropping that low). In July, average highs range from about 85 °F (29 °C) to 100 °F (38 °C). However, the low humidity and high elevation typically leads to large temperature variations, leading to cool nights most summer days. The record high temperature in Utah was 118 °F (47 °C), recorded south of St. George on July 4, 2007,[20] and the record low was -69 °F (-56 °C), recorded at Peter's Sink in the Bear River Mountains of northern Utah on February 1, 1985.[21]

Utah, like most of the western United States, has few days of thunderstorms. On average there are fewer than 40 days of thunderstorm activity during the year, although these storms can be briefly intense when they do occur. They are most likely to occur during monsoon season from about mid-July through mid-September, especially in southern and eastern Utah. Dry lightning strikes and the general dry summer weather often spark wildfires in summer, while intense thunderstorms can lead to flash flooding, especially in the rugged terrain of southern Utah. Tornadoes are uncommon in Utah, with an average of two striking the state yearly, rarely higher than F1 intensity.[22] One exception of note, however, was the strong F2 Salt Lake City Tornado that sliced across the downtown metro area of Salt Lake City on August 11, 1999, striking large buildings and causing approximately $170 million in damage, and one fatality.[23]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1850 11,380
1860 40,273 253.9%
1870 86,336 114.4%
1880 143,963 66.7%
1890 210,779 46.4%
1900 276,749 31.3%
1910 373,351 34.9%
1920 449,396 20.4%
1930 507,847 13.0%
1940 550,310 8.4%
1950 688,862 25.2%
1960 890,627 29.3%
1970 1,059,273 18.9%
1980 1,461,037 37.9%
1990 1,722,850 17.9%
2000 2,233,169 29.6%
Est. 2008[2] 2,736,424 22.5%

The center of population of Utah is located in Utah County in the city of Lehi.[24] As of July 1, 2008 the Census Bureau estimated Utah had a population of 2,736,424.[2] In 2008, the US Census Bureau determined Utah to be the fastest growing state in the country in terms of population growth.[25]

Much of the population lives in cities and towns along the Wasatch Front, a metropolitan region that runs north-south with the Wasatch Mountains rising on the eastern side. Growth outside the Wasatch Front is also increasing. The St. George metropolitan area is currently the second-fastest growing in the country after the Las Vegas metropolitan area, while the Heber micropolitan area is also the second-fastest growing in the country (behind Palm Coast, Florida).[26]

Utah contains 5 metropolitan areas (Logan, Ogden-Clearfield, Salt Lake City, Provo-Orem, and St. George), and 5 micropolitan areas (Brigham City, Heber, Vernal, Price, and Cedar City).

Race and ancestry

Demographics of Utah (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 95.20% 1.14% 1.84% 2.20% 0.97%
2000 (Hispanic only) 8.62% 0.16% 0.26% 0.08% 0.05%
2005 (total population) 95.01% 1.32% 1.69% 2.40% 0.95%
2005 (Hispanic only) 10.39% 0.23% 0.26% 0.10% 0.05%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 10.37% 28.78% 2.04% 21.00% 8.53%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 8.09% 23.37% 0.78% 20.69% 8.43%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 33.30% 61.74% 9.53% 28.88% 10.45%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Utah Population Density Map

The largest ancestry groups in the state are:

Most Utahns are of Northern European descent.[27]

Religion

A majority of the state's residents are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly referred to as the Mormons or the LDS Church. As of 2007, the percentage of Utahns that are counted as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was 60.7 percent of the state's population and only 41.6 percent of them are active members. [7][28] Mormons now make up about 35%-40% of Salt Lake City,[7] while rural areas tend to be overwhelmingly Mormon. Though the LDS Church officially maintains a policy of neutrality in regards to political parties,[29] the church's doctrine has a strong regional influence on politics.[30] Another doctrine effect can be seen in Utah's high birth rate (25 percent higher than the national average; the highest for a state in the U.S.).[31] The Mormons in Utah tend to have conservative views when it comes to most political issues and the majority of voter-age Utahns are unaffiliated voters (60%) who vote overwhelmingly Republican.[32] John McCain polled 62.5% in the 2008 Presidential Election while 70.9% of Utahns opted for George W. Bush in 2004.

The LDS Salt Lake Temple, the primary attraction in the city's Temple Square.

According to a report produced by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life the self-identified religious affiliations of Utahns over the age of 18 as of 2008 are[7]:

Margin of error +/- 6%

Age and gender

Utah has a high total birth rate,[31] and the youngest population of any U.S. state. It is also one of the few non-Southern states that has more males than females.

In 2000, the gender makeup of Utah was:[33]

  • 49.9 percent female
  • 50.1 percent male

Economy

Utah Quarter released 2007.
Petroleum production is a large part of the economy in eastern Utah.
Bryce Canyon National Park is a major tourist attraction
Bridal Veil Falls in Provo Canyon between Orem and Heber City.

According to the University of Utah the gross state product of Utah in 2005 was $92 billion, or 0.74% of the total United States GDP of $12.4 trillion for the same year. The per capita personal income was $24,977 in 2005. Major industries of Utah include: mining, cattle ranching, salt production, and government services.

According to the 2007 State New Economy Index, Utah is ranked the top state in the nation for Economic Dynamism, determined by

"The degree to which state economies are knowledge-based, globalized, entrepreneurial, information technology-driven and innovation-based."

In eastern Utah petroleum production is a major industry.[34] Near Salt Lake City, petroleum refining is done by a number of oil companies. In central Utah, coal production accounts for much of the mining activity.

Utah collects personal income tax within 6 income brackets. The state sales tax has a base rate of 6.45 percent,[35] with cities and counties levying additional local sales taxes that vary among the municipalities. Property taxes are assessed and collected locally. Utah does not charge intangible property taxes and does not impose an inheritance tax.

Tourism

Tourism is a major industry in Utah and is well known for its year-round outdoor and recreational activities among other attractions. With five national parks (Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion), Utah has the third most national parks of any state after Alaska and California. In addition, Utah features seven national monuments, two national recreation areas, six national forests, and numerous state parks and monuments.

The Moab area, in the southeastern part of the state, is known for its challenging mountain biking trails, including Slickrock. Moab also hosts the famous Moab Jeep Safari semiannually.

Utah is well known for its winter activities and has seen an increase in tourism since the 2002 Winter Olympics. Park City is home to the United States Ski Team. Utah's ski resorts are primarily located in northern Utah near Salt Lake City, Park City, Ogden, and Provo. In 2009, for a third year in a row, Deer Valley, in Park City, has been ranked the top ski resort in North America by more than 20,000 subscribers of Ski Magazine.[36] In addition to having prime snow conditions and world-class amenities, Northern Utah's ski resorts are well liked among tourists for their convenience and proximity to a large city and International Airport, as well as the close proximity to other ski resorts, allowing skiers the ability to ski at multiple locations in one day. This is in contrast to most other states with large ski industries, where resorts are more often located in remote locations, away from large cities, and more spread apart. The 2009 Ski Magazine reader survey concluded that six out of the top ten resorts deemed most "accessible" and six out of the top ten with the best snow conditions were located in Utah [37]. In Southern Utah, Brian Head Ski Resort is located in the mountains near Cedar City. Former Olympic venues including Utah Olympic Park and Utah Olympic Oval are still in operation for training and competition and allows the public to participate in numerous activities including ski jumping, bobsleigh, and speed skating.

Utah features many cultural attractions such as Temple Square, the Sundance Film Festival, the DOCUTAH Film Festival, and the Utah Shakespearean Festival. Temple Square is ranked as the 16th most visited tourist attraction in the United States by Forbes Magazine, with over five million annual visitors.[38]

Other attractions include Monument Valley, the Great Salt Lake, the Bonneville Salt Flats, and Lake Powell.

Mining

Bingham Canyon Mine southwest of Salt Lake City.

Beginning in the late 19th century with the state's mining boom (including the Bingham Canyon Mine, among the world's largest open pit mines), companies attracted large numbers of immigrants with job opportunities. Since the days of the Utah Territory mining has played a major role in Utah's economy. Historical mining towns include Mercur in Tooele County, Silver Reef in Washington County, Eureka in Juab County, Park City in Summit County and numerous coal mining camps throughout Carbon County such as Castle Gate, Spring Canyon, and Hiawatha. These settlements were characteristic of the boom and bust cycle that dominated mining towns of the American West. During the early part of the Cold War era, uranium was mined in eastern Utah. Today mining activity still plays a major role in the state's economy. Minerals mined in Utah include copper, gold, silver, molybdenum, zinc, lead, and beryllium. Fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and natural gas continue to play a major role in Utah's economy, especially in the eastern part of the state in counties such as Carbon, Emery, Grand, and Uintah.[39]

Transportation

Utah state welcome sign
Map of Utah, showing major cities and roads

I-15 and I-80 are the main interstate highways in the state, where they intersect and briefly merge near downtown Salt Lake City. I-15 traverses the entire state north-to-south, entering from Arizona near St. George, traversing the entire Wasatch Front, and exiting into Idaho near Portage. I-80 spans northern Utah east-to-west, entering from Nevada at Wendover, crossing the Wasatch Mountains east of Salt Lake City, and entering Wyoming near Evanston. I-84 West enters from Idaho near Snowville (from Boise) and merges with I-15 from Tremonton to Ogden, then heads southeast through the Wasatch Mountains before terminating at I-80 near Echo Junction.

I-70 splits from I-15 at Cove Fort in central Utah and heads east through mountains and rugged desert terrain, providing quick access to the many national parks and national monuments of southern Utah, and has been noted for its beauty. The 103 mile (163 km) stretch from Salina to Green River is the longest stretch of interstate in the country without services, and, when completed in 1970, was also the longest stretch of entirely new highway constructed in the U.S. since the Alaska Highway was completed in 1943.

A light rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, consists of two lines, both ending in Downtown Salt Lake City, with one heading to the suburb of Sandy and the other to the University of Utah. The system is currently undergoing an expansion that will see the completion of four additional lines by 2014. The Utah Transit Authority (UTA), which operates TRAX, also operates a bus system that stretches across the Wasatch Front and west into Tooele, and also provides winter service to the ski resorts east of Salt Lake City. Several bus companies provide access to the ski resorts in winter, and local bus companies also serve Logan, St. George and Cedar City. A commuter rail line known as FrontRunner currently operates between Salt Lake City and Pleasant View, and is also currently undergoing an expansion south to Provo. Amtrak's California Zephyr, with one train in each direction daily, runs east-west through Utah with stops in Green River, Helper, Provo, and Salt Lake City.

Salt Lake City International Airport is the only international airport in the state and serves as a hub of Delta Air Lines. The airport has consistently ranked first in on-time departures and had the fewest cancellations among U.S. airports.[40] The airport currently has non-stop service to over 100 destinations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, as well as to Paris and Tokyo. Canyonlands Field (near Moab), Cedar City Regional Airport, St. George Municipal Airport, and Vernal-Uintah County Airport all provide limited commercial air service. Ground has recently been broken on creating a new, larger regional airport in St. George, due to the rapidly-growing population and the lack of room for expansion for the current airport. Completion is expected in 2011. SkyWest Airlines is also headquartered in St. George and maintains a hub at Salt Lake City.

Law and government

Utah State Symbols
Animate insignia
Bird(s) California Gull
Fish Bonneville Cutthroat Trout
Flower(s) Sego Lily
Grass Indian ricegrass
Insect European Honey Bee
Mammal(s) Rocky Mountain Elk
Tree Blue Spruce

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square Dance
Dinosaur Allosaurus
Gemstone Topaz
Mineral Copper
Rock Coal
Ship(s) USS Utah (BB-31)
Slogan(s) "Life Elevated"
Song(s) Utah, This is the Place
Tartan Utah State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Utah Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Utah
Released in 2007

Lists of United States state insignia

Utah government, like most U.S. states, is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor of Utah is Gary Herbert,[41] who was sworn in on August 11, 2009. The governor is elected for a four year term. The Utah State Legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. State senators serve four year terms and representatives two year terms. The Utah Legislature meets each year in January for an annual forty-five day session. The Utah Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Utah. It consists of five justices, who are appointed by the governor, and then subject to retention election. The Utah Court of Appeals handles cases from the trial courts.[42] Trial level courts are the district courts and justice courts. All justices and judges, like those on the Utah Supreme Court, are subject to retention election after appointment.

Counties

Utah is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1918 there were 29 counties in the state, ranging from 611 to 7933 square miles.

UTAH COUNTIES
County name County seat Year founded 2008 U.S. Census Est. Percent of Total Area (Sq. Mi.)
Beaver Beaver 1856 6,162 0.23 % 2,592 3.05 %
Box Elder Brigham City 1856 49,015 1.79 % 6,729 7.93 %
Cache Logan 1856 112,616 4.12 % 1,173 1.38 %
Carbon Price 1894 19,549 0.71 % 1,485 1.75 %
Daggett Manila 1918 938 0.03 % 723 0.85 %
Davis Farmington 1852 295,332 10.79 % 634 0.75 %
Duchesne Duchesne 1915 16,861 0.62 % 3,256 3.84 %
Emery Castle Dale 1880 10,510 0.38 % 4,462 5.26 %
Garfield Panguitch 1882 4,658 0.17 % 5,208 6.13 %
Grand Moab 1890 9,589 0.35 % 3,694 4.35 %
Iron Parowan 1852 44,540 1.63 % 3,302 3.89 %
Juab Nephi 1852 9,983 0.36 % 3,406 4.01 %
Kane Kanab 1864 6,577 0.24 % 4,108 4.84 %
Millard Fillmore 1852 12,082 0.44 % 6,828 8.04 %
Morgan Morgan 1862 8,669 0.32 % 611 0.72 %
Piute Junction 1865 1,404 0.05 % 766 0.90 %
Rich Randolph 1868 2,205 0.08 % 1,086 1.28 %
Salt Lake Salt Lake City 1852 1,022,651 37.37 % 808 0.95 %
San Juan Monticello 1880 15,055 0.55 % 7,933 9.34 %
Sanpete Manti 1852 25,520 0.93 % 1,603 1.89 %
Sevier Richfield 1865 20,014 0.73 % 1,918 2.26 %
Summit Coalville 1854 36,100 1.32 % 1,882 2.22 %
Tooele Tooele 1852 56,941 2.08 % 7,287 8.58 %
Uintah Vernal 1880 29,885 1.09 % 4,499 5.30 %
Utah Provo 1852 530,837 19.40 % 2,141 5.30 %
Wasatch Heber 1862 21,066 0.77 % 1,209 1.42 %
Washington St. George 1852 137,589 5.03 % 2,430 2.86 %
Wayne Loa 1892 2,509 0.09 % 2,589 2.90 %
Weber Ogden 1852 227,487 8.31 % 659 0.78 %
Total Counties: 29 Total 2008 Population est.: 2,736,424 Total State Area: 84,898 square miles

Women's rights

Utah granted full voting rights to women in 1870, 26 years before becoming a state. Among all U.S. states, only Wyoming granted suffrage to women earlier.[43] However, in 1872 the initial Edmunds-Tucker Act was passed by Congress in an effort to curtail excessive Mormon influence in the territorial government. One of the provisions of the Act was the repeal of women's suffrage; full suffrage was not returned until Utah was admitted to the Union in 1896. (See Women's suffrage in Utah.)

Utah is one of the 15 states that has not ratified the U.S. Equal Rights Amendment.[44]

Constitution

The constitution of Utah was enacted in 1895. Notably, the constitution outlawed polygamy, as requested by Congress when Utah had applied for statehood, and reestablished the territorial practice of women's suffrage. Utah's Constitution has been amended many times since its inception.[45]

Other laws

Utah is also one of only 2 states in the United States to outlaw all forms of gambling; the other is Hawaii. Utah is an alcoholic beverage control state. The Utah Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control regulates the sale of alcohol; wine and spirituous liquors may only be purchased at state liquor stores, and local laws may prohibit the sale of beer and other alcoholic beverages on Sundays. The state bans the sale of fruity alcoholic drinks at grocery stores and convenience stores. The law states that such drinks must now have new state-approved labels on the front of the products that contain capitalized letters in bold type telling consumers the drinks contain alcohol and at what percentage.

Politics

Presidential election results[46]
Year Republican Democrat
2008 62.25% 596,030 34.22% 327,670
2004 71.54% 663,742 26.00% 241,199
2000 66.83% 515,096 26.34% 203,053
1996 54.37% 361,911 33.30% 221,633
1992 43.36% 322,632 24.65% 183,429
1988 66.22% 428,442 32.05% 207,343
1984 74.50% 469,105 24.68% 155,369
1980 72.77% 439,687 20.57% 124,266
1976 62.44% 337,908 33.65% 182,110
1972 67.64% 323,643 26.39% 126,284
1968 56.49% 238,728 37.07% 156,665
1964 45.14% 180,682 54.86% 219,628
1960 54.81% 205,361 45.17% 169,248
The Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City.
The Scott Matheson Courthouse is the seat of the Utah Supreme Court

Historically, politics in Utah have been controversial, such as the Federal government versus the LDS Church on the issue of polygamy. The LDS Church discontinued plural marriage in 1890, and in 1896 Utah gained admission to the Union. Many new people settled the area soon after the Mormon pioneers. Relations have often been strained between the LDS population and the non-LDS population.[47] These tensions played a large part in Utah's history, such as (Liberal Party vs. People's Party).

Both of Utah's U.S. Senators, Orrin Hatch and Robert Foster Bennett, are Republican. Two more Republicans, Rob Bishop and Jason Chaffetz, as well as one member of the Democratic Party, Jim Matheson, represent Utah in the United States House of Representatives. After Jon Huntsman, Jr., resigned to serve as U.S. Ambassador to China, Gary Herbert was sworn in as governor on August 11, 2009.

While the LDS church maintains an official policy of neutrality in regards to political parties and candidates,[29] Utah votes predominately Republican. Self-identified Latter-day Saints are more likely to vote for the Republican ticket than non-Mormons, and Utah is one of the most Republican states in the nation.[48] The connection between the LDS Church and the Republican Party of Utah is controversial.[expand]

In the 1970s, then-Apostle Ezra Taft Benson was quoted by the Associated Press that it would be difficult for a faithful Latter-day Saint to be a liberal Democrat.[49] Although the LDS Church has officially repudiated such statements on many occasions, Democratic candidates—including LDS Democrats—believe that Republicans capitalize on the perception that the Republican Party is doctrinally superior.[50] Political scientist and pollster Dan Jones explains this disparity by noting that the national Democratic Party is associated with liberal positions on gay rights and abortion, both of which the LDS Church is against.[51] The Republican Party in heavily Mormon Utah County presents itself as the superior choice for Latter-day Saints. Even though Utahn Democratic candidates are predominantly LDS, socially conservative, and pro-life, no Democrat has won in Utah County since 1994.[52] David Magleby, dean of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Brigham Young University, a lifelong Democrat and a political analyst, asserts that the Republican Party actually has more conservative positions than the LDS Church. Magleby argues that the locally conservative Democrats are in better accord with LDS doctrine.[53] For example, the Republican Party of Utah opposes almost all abortions while Utah Democrats take a more liberal approach, although more conservative than their national counterparts. On Second Amendment issues, the state GOP has been at odds with the LDS Church position opposing concealed firearms in places of worship.

In 1998 the Church expressed concern that Utahns perceived the Republican Party as an LDS institution and authorized lifelong Democrat and Seventy Marlin Jensen to promote LDS bipartisanship.[49]

Utah is much more conservative than the United States as a whole, particularly on social issues. Compared to other Republican-dominated states in the Mountain West such as Wyoming, Utah politics have a more moralistic and less libertarian character according to David Magleby.[54]

Governor elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 78% 734,049 20% 186,503
2004 57% 473,814 42% 350,841
2000 56% 422,357 43% 320,141
1996 75% 500,293 24% 155,294
Salt Lake County Mayor
Year Republican Democratic
2008 32% 114,097 66% 233,655
2004 44% 144,928 48% 157,287
2000 52% 158,787 47% 144,011
Senator Bennett results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 69% 626,640 28% 258,955
1998 64% 316,652 33% 163,172
Senator Hatch results
Year Republican Democratic
2006 63% 356,238 31% 177,459
2000 66% 501,925 32% 241,129


About 80% of Utah's Legislature are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[55] while they account for 61 percent of the population.[28] Since becoming a state in 1896, Utah has had only two non-Mormon governors.[56]

In 2006, the legislature passed legislation aimed at banning joint-custody for a non-biological parent of a child. The custody measure passed the legislature and was vetoed by the governor, a reciprocal benefits supporter.

Carbon County's Democrats are generally made up of members of the large Greek, Italian, and Southeastern European communities, whose ancestors migrated in the early 1900s to work in the extensive mining industry. The views common amongst this group are heavily influenced by labor politics, particularly of the New Deal Era.[57]

The Democrats of Summit County are the by-product of the migration of wealthy families from California in the 1990s to the ski resort town of Park City; their views are generally supportive of the economic policies favored by unions and the social policies favored by the liberals.

The state's most Republican areas tend to be Utah County, which is the home to Brigham Young University in the city of Provo, and nearly all the rural counties.[58][59] These areas generally hold socially conservative views in line with that of the national Religious Right.

The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964. Historically, Republican presidential nominees score one of their best margins of victory here. Utah was the Republicans' best state in the 1976,[60] 1980,[61] 1984,[62] 1988,[63] 1996,[64] 2000,[65] and 2004[66] elections. In 1992, Utah was the only state in the nation where Democratic candidate Bill Clinton finished behind both Republican candidate George H. W. Bush and Independent candidate Ross Perot.[67] In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won every county in the state and Utah gave him his largest margin of victory of any state. He won the state's five electoral votes by a margin of 46 percentage points with 71.5% of the vote. In the 1996 Presidential elections the Republican candidate received a smaller 54% of the vote while the Democrat earned 34%.[68]

Important cities and towns

Utah's population is concentrated in two areas, the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, with a population of over 2 million; and southwestern Utah, locally known as "Dixie", with nearly 150,000 residents.

According the 2000 Census, Utah was the fourth fastest growing state (at 29.6 percent) in the United States between 1990 and 2000. St. George, in the southwest, is the second-fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States, trailing Greeley, Colorado.

The state's two fastest growing counties are: Summit (at 91.6 percent; ranking it 8th in the country) and Washington (at 86.1 percent; ranking it 12th). The cities (defined as having at least 9,000 residents in 2000) that saw the greatest increases between 1990 and 2000 were: Draper (248 percent), South Jordan (141 percent), Lehi (125 percent), Riverton (122 percent), and Syracuse (102 percent). Between 1990 and 2000 the five fastest-growing cities of any size were Cedar Hills (302 percent), Draper (248 percent), Woodland Hills (213 percent), Ivins (173 percent), and South Jordan (141 percent). According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the five fastest-growing cities of any size between 2000 and 2008 were Saratoga Springs (1,501%), Herriman (1,061%), Eagle Mountain (934%), Cedar Hills (209%), and Lehi (146%).

Utah
Rank
City Population
(2008)
within
city limits
Land
area
Population
density
(/mi²)
Population
density
(/km²)
County
1 Salt Lake City 181,698 109.1 sq mi (283 km2) 1,666.1 630 Salt Lake
2 West Valley City 123,447 35.4 sq mi (92 km2) 3,076.3 1236 Salt Lake
3 Provo 118,581 39.6 sq mi (103 km2) 2,653.2 1106 Utah
4 West Jordan 104,447 30.9 sq mi (80 km2) 2,211.3 1143 Salt Lake
5 Sandy 96,660 22.3 sq mi (58 km2) 3,960.5 1551 Salt Lake
6 Orem 93,250 18.4 sq mi (48 km2) 4,572.6 1881 Utah
7 Ogden 82,865 26.6 sq mi (69 km2) 2,899.2 1137 Weber
8 St. George 72,718 64.4 sq mi (167 km2) 771.2 385 Washington
9 Layton 65,514 20.7 sq mi (54 km2) 2,823.9 1153 Davis
10 Taylorsville 58,785 10.7 sq mi (28 km2) 5,376.1 2094 Salt Lake
Combined statistical area Population
(2007)
Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem-Ogden-Clearfield
comprises:
Salt Lake City , Provo-Orem and Ogden-Clearfield Metropolitan Areas and
Brigham City and Heber Micropolitan Areas (as listed below)
2,210,816
Utah
Rank
Metropolitan area Population
(2008)
Counties
1 Salt Lake City* 1,115,692 Salt Lake, Tooele, Summit
2 Provo-Orem 540,820 Utah
3 Ogden-Clearfield* 531,488 Weber, Davis, Morgan
4 St. George 137,589 Washington
5 Logan 125,070 Cache, Franklin (Idaho)
  • Until 2003, the Salt Lake City and Ogden-Clearfield metropolitan areas were considered as a single metropolitan area.[69]
Utah
Rank
Micropolitan area Population
(2008)
1 Brigham City 49,015
2 Cedar City 44,540
3 Vernal 29,885
4 Heber 21,066
5 Price 19,549

Colleges and universities

Sports

The Utah Jazz of the National Basketball Association play in the EnergySolutions Arena[70] in Salt Lake City. Utah is the least populous U.S. state to have a major professional sports league franchise, although the District of Columbia has fewer people. Other teams include the Utah Blaze of the Arena Football League.

Miscellaneous

  • Popular recreational destinations within the mountains besides the ski resorts include Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area, Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Bear Lake, and Jordanelle, Strawberry, Pineview Reservoir, East Canyon, and Rockport reservoirs. The mountains are popular camping, rock-climbing, skiing, snowboarding, and hiking destinations.
  • The USS Utah, sunk at Pearl Harbor, was named in honor of this state. The dinosaur Utahraptor was also named after this state.
  • The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is built and serviced by the Thiokol division of ATK, which has its facilities in Promontory Point. Boosters are tested periodically at a proving grounds in the Wasatch Range.
  • According to a study based on prescription claims from one mail-order pharmaceutical provider,[71] Utah (as of 2000) ranked first in antidepressant and narcotic painkiller use, and was in the top three for prescriptions for thyroid medications, anticonvulsants and anti-rheumatics.[72] While Utah once ranked first in personal bankruptcies per capita in the US, this is no longer true (as of 2005).[73] It ranks 47th in teenage pregnancy, last in percentage of births out of wedlock, last in number of abortions per capita, and last in percentage of teen pregnancies terminated in abortion. Statistics relating to pregnancies and abortions may be artificially low from teenagers going out of state for abortions because of parental notification requirements.[74][75] Utah has the lowest child poverty rate in the country, despite its young demographics.[76]
  • A 2009 study published in the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that Utah was the largest consumer of paid pornography per capita in the United States. The study found that pornography subscriptions are more prevalent in states where surveys indicate conservative positions on religion, gender roles, and sexuality.[77]
  • According to Internal Revenue Service tax returns, Utahns rank first among all U.S. states in the proportion of income given to charity by the wealthy.[76]
  • According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, Utah has the highest rate of volunteerism. On average, Utah's 792,000 volunteers dedicated 146.9 million hours of service per year (between 2005 and 2007). The estimated economic contribution of the volunteer hours served is $2.9 billion annually.[78]
  • Jell-O is the official snack food of Utah, and Utah is in the center of the "Jell-O Belt"[79], which refers to the Mormon Corridor.
  • Mexican President Vicente Fox visited Salt Lake City, Utah, on May 23, 2006, as the first stop on his trip to the United States, which also included stops in California and Washington state. It is unusual for a foreign head of state to visit Utah (except for the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics). The LDS Church also has a large presence in Mexico, with 1,082,427 members as of 2008,[80] although only about 205,000 professed to be LDS in the 2000 census of Mexico.[81]

Branding

The state of Utah relies heavily on income from tourists and travelers taking advantage of the state's ski resorts and natural beauty, and thus the need to "brand" Utah and create an impression of the state throughout the world has led to several state slogans, the most famous of which being "The Greatest Snow on Earth", which has been in use in Utah officially since 1975 (although the slogan was in unofficial use as early as 1962) and now adorns nearly 50 percent of the state's license plates. In 2001, Utah Governor Mike Leavitt approved a new state slogan, "Utah! Where Ideas Connect", which lasted until March 10, 2006, when the Utah Travel Council and the office of Governor Jon Huntsman announced that "Life Elevated" would be the new state slogan.[82]

In entertainment

Utah is the setting of or the filming location for many books, films,[83] television series,[83] music videos, and video games. A selective list of each appears below.

Books

  • Harry Turtledove's Timeline-191, which is set in a North America where the South won the Civil War, mentions Utah several times. The state's Mormon population rebels against the United States in an attempt to create the Nation of Deseret throughout the series, which results in battles in and around Salt Lake City, Provo, and other locations.
  • In Around the World in Eighty Days, the characters pass through Utah by train.
  • The children's series The Great Brain is set in a fictional town that is based on Price, Utah.
  • Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang is set in Southern Utah and Northern Arizona. The characters' ultimate goal is the destruction of the Glen Canyon Dam.
  • Much of Walter M. Miller, Jr.'s post-apocalyptic novel A Canticle for Leibowitz is set near or directly within Utah. The "hero" of the first part of the novel, the novice Brother Francis Gerard, is from Utah.
  • In the second of four books based on the video game Doom much of the story takes place in Salt Lake City.
  • Jack Kerouac's semi-autobiographical novel On the Road (arguably the most defining work of the post-WWII Beat Generation) describes traveling through Utah as part of a number of spontaneous road trips taken by the book's main characters. Additionally, the character of Dean Moriarty (like his real life counterpart Neal Cassady) was born in Salt Lake City. While many of the names and details of Kerouac's experiences are changed, the characters and road trips in the novel are based heavily on road trips taken by Kerouac and his friends across mid-20th century America.

Film

Monument Valley in southeastern Utah. This area was used to film many Hollywood Westerns.

See also: Category:Films shot in Utah

The Uinta Mountains, an extension of the Rocky Mountains, runs east to west and has several peaks over 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level. This is Kings Peak, the highest point in Utah.

Television

Music videos

Video games

Utahns

See also

References

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  78. ^ Volunteering in Utah - Volunteering in America
  79. ^ "Utah loves Jell-O - official", February 6, 2001, BBC News
  80. ^ Membership Distribution. LDS.org Newsroom.
  81. ^ Mexican Census: Religion (Spanish), Instito Nacional de Estadistica Georafia e Informatica (INEGI), México.
  82. ^ As found at utah.travel, official site of the Utah Office of Tourism
  83. ^ a b Internet Movie Database (IMBd), Filming Locations in Utah
  84. ^ Worsley, Sheryl (2009-05-07). "Vulcan planet shot in San Rafael Swell in eastern Utah". KSL-TV. http://www.ksl.com/?nid=148&sid=6410730. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 

External links

General

Government

Maps and Demographics

Tourism and Recreation

Other

Related information

Preceded by
Wyoming
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 4, 1896 (45th)
Succeeded by
Oklahoma

Coordinates: 39°30′N 111°30′W / 39.5°N 111.5°W / 39.5; -111.5


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Utah is a U.S. state located in the western United States. It was the 45th state admitted to the union, on January 4, 1896.

Sourced

  • This was the country the Mormons settled, the country which, as Brigham Young with some reason hoped, no one else wanted. Its destiny was plain on its face, its contempt of man and his history and his theological immortality, his Millennium, his Heaven on Earth, was monumentally obvious. Its distances were terrifying, its cloudbursts catastrophic, its beauty flamboyant and bizarre and allied with death.
  • The Utah deserts and plateaus and canyons are not a country of big returns, but a country of spiritual healing, incomparable for contemplation, meditation, solitude, quiet, awe, peace of mind and body. We were born of wilderness, and we respond to it more than we sometimes realize. We depend upon it increasingly for relief from the termite life we have created. Factories, power plants, resorts, we can make anywhere. Wilderness, once we have given it up, is beyond our reconstruction.
  • Wilderness and the life dependent on it are fragile entities. They can be destroyed in a matter of years, if not days. Legislative protection is the surest way to maintain a wilderness reserve on our hungry and crowded planet. When wilderness is protected, watershed is protected. Biological diversity is protected. Game is protected. The proper functioning of a natural system is protected. Our quality of life is protected.
    • Rep. Wayne Owens (D-UT) on his bill, H.R. 1500, to protect 5.7 million acres of southern Utah, Wilderness at the Edge
  • In 1849 the Mormons organized a "free and independent" government and erected the "State of Deseret," with Brigham Young as its head. But the very next year Congress deliberately snubbed it and created the "Utah Territory" out of the same accumulation of mountains, sage-brush, alkali and general desolation, -- but made Brigham Governor of it.
  • Utah will yet become the treasure-house of the nation.
    • Abraham Lincoln, Edward Tullige in "History of Salt Lake City" (1886) 697.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Wave, one of Utah's myriad astonishing rock formations
The Wave, one of Utah's myriad astonishing rock formations

Utah, [1] located in the Southwest region of the United States, is well known for its incredible scenic beauty and year round outdoor activities including skiing, snowboarding, hiking, boating, water skiing, horseback riding, camping, and rock climbing. The capital city of Salt Lake City has a number of unique modern and historical sites to visit, including Temple Square, the headquarters for the Mormon church.


Wasatch Front
The most urbanized area of the state - home to Salt Lake City, the majority of Utah's population, a number of LDS temples, and world class skiing and snowboarding
Canyon Country
Mars on earth; few people reside here, but some of the world's most extraordinary desert landscapes and enormous national parks await
Northeastern Utah
High desert landscape, mining settlements, and the Uinta Mountains, home to Utah's highest peaks
Dixie
Utah's southwest is home to striking desert landscapes, forested mountains, ranchland, and the warmest spot in the state
Central Utah
Rolling hills, agricultural land, and historic Mormon settlements abound in the Central region
Western Utah
Endless desert, some high mountains, rugged terrain, salt flats, and the Great Salt Lake
  • Salt Lake City – located along the Wasatch Front, it is the largest city and capital of the state, the center of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church, whose members are known as Mormons), including Temple Square, and the University of Utah; host city of the 2002 Winter Olympics
  • Cedar City – good-sized college town of Southern Utah University in northern Dixie, home to the annual Utah Shakespearean Festival, and located near Cedar Breaks National Monument and the northwestern section of Zion National Park
  • Logan – fast-growing city located in Cache Valley in northern Utah, with plenty of nearby recreational activities, two impressive Mormon religious structures, and Utah State University
  • Moab – tourist town in northeastern Canyon Country, located in the center of a major recreational area that includes Arches, Canyonlands national parks and Dead Horse Point State Park, and offering outdoor outfitters and guides
  • Ogden – traditionally industrial city north of Salt Lake City, which includes George S. Eccles Dinosaur Park and is near many ski resorts and abundant recreational activities
  • Price – small town in eastern Utah with many local dinosaur attractions, ancient Indian petroglpyhs, the College of Eastern Utah, and wide open desert areas
  • Provo – located in Utah Valley south of Salt Lake City on the Wasatch Front, home to Brigham Young University, and surrounded by high mountains, great skiing, canyons, Utah Lake, and numerous other recreational opportunities
  • Park City – mountain resort city at center of large winter sports area with 3 ski resorts; many events for the 2002 Winter Olympics took place near here
  • St. George – fast-growing city in the southwest corner of state in Dixie, near Zion National Park and offering plenty of leisurely recreational activities akin to Mesquite, Nevada and also a hot spot for spring break
Green River Overlook in Canyonlands National Park
Green River Overlook in Canyonlands National Park

Utah has an extraordinary number of national parks and monuments. The following is subdivided into "National parks and monuments" and "Other" as an aid to the reader:

National parks and monuments

A "Park Pass" from the United States National Park Service [2] is a particularly good investment if you're visiting Utah and planning to see its national parks and monuments. The $80 fee allows unlimited access to all National Park Service units for a year, and also provides discounts on some of the services within the units. Paying for this pass may save you money in the long run as you move from park to park in Utah. (Note, however, that there are a very few national monuments that are not part of the National Park Service, and are therefore not covered by a Park Pass; Monument Valley is one prominent example in Utah.)

Sailboat Race Day on the Great Salt Lake
Sailboat Race Day on the Great Salt Lake
  • Bear Lake - popular water sports and summer resort area surrounded by spectacular mountain scenery northeast of Logan
  • Cache Valley - a scenic mountain valley in Northern Utah, home to Utah State University and blanketed by irrigation-fed agriculture.
  • Dead Horse Point State Park - spectacular gorge southwest of Moab where the Colorado River winds through a major bedrock of sandstone
  • Flaming Gorge - reservoir north of Vernal, popular for water sports, located in the eastern Uintas
  • Four Corners - only place where four states meet, located at southeast corner with Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico
  • Goblin Valley - desert valley with strange formations of sandstone in south-central portion of state
  • Great Salt Lake - shallow, salty lake in northwestern portion of state northwest of Salt Lake City. The Great Salt Lake Marina, operated as a state park, Great Salt Lake State Park and Marina [3]is located on the south shore of the Great Salt Lake, 16 miles west of Salt Lake City along Interstate 80. The Great Salt Lake Marina has 300 slips and is available for year-round boating on the lake that never freezes. Few power boats frequent the lake which makes this large lake with beautiful vistas and expansive night skies an excellent sailing location. The Great Salt Lake Yacht Club [4]organizes sailboat races that occur all summer long on Saturday mornings and Wednesday evenings.
  • King's Peak - in the Uinta mountain range - the tallest mountain in Utah (13,528 feet)
  • Kodachrome Basin State Park - is a small, popular (but very quiet) state park, situated about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Bryce Canyon National Park, containing multicoloured rock formations
  • Maple Canyon – Conglomerate rock climbing area with hiking, camping, and OHV.
  • Monument Valley - A Navajo Nation Tribal Park boasting the Southwest's most famous desert scenery
  • Palisade State Park – Golf, Fish, Swim, Canoe, Camp.
  • Snowkite Skyline Drive – The newest extreme winter sport.
  • The Arapeen ATV Trail System – 350-mile Off-Highway Vehicle Trail System.
  • Uinta Mountains - large east-west range of the Rocky Mountains through northeast portion of state with spectacular mountain climbing and pristine, serene wilderness
  • Wasatch Mountains - mountain range running through center of state north-south with gorgeous mountain scenery, excellent summer recreational activities, and multiple world-famous ski areas; vibrant fall colors that rival that of New England
  • Yuba Lake State Park – Waterski, Fish, and Camp.
Utah public lands map
Utah public lands map

Dixie refers to the low-lying area in the southwest corner of the state. It contains the city of St. George, and the climate is more closely-related to the southwestern deserts than it is to the rest of the state, with low annual precipitation, hot, dry summers, and mild winters with infrequent snowfall. Early settlers were able to grow cotton in the area, hence the name Dixie (a name for the cotton belt of the southern U.S.).

The Wasatch Front is the heavily-populated region of basins and valleys located between the Wasatch Mountains on the east and on the west by the Great Salt Lake (to the north) and the Oquirrh Mountains (to the south). 3/4 of Utah's population lies in this portion of the state, which stretches from Brigham City in the north to Santaquin in the south. Ogden, Salt Lake City, Sandy, Orem, and Provo are located on the Wasatch Front.

The benches are the higher slopes along the Wasatch Front. Residential development on the Wasatch Front typically extends high onto the slopes of the Wasatch Mountains in some areas. Homes here are generally more affluent, as they provide spectacular views of the surrounding areas, and the benches receive more precipitation and much more snow than the valley floors.

Mormons or members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints make up a good part of Utah's population, and their beliefs and practices are one of the strongest influences for public policy in the state, particularly when it comes to drinking, smoking, and homosexuality. Mormons are generally tolerant and friendly towards non-Mormons, but may be taken aback by cussing, smoking, or drinking in their presence, particularly in the more rural cities and towns. Sunday is considered a day of rest, and so some stores will be closed on Sunday. These stereotypes hold more weight in smaller cities and towns, and in some areas (especially Park City and Salt Lake City) the number of non-Mormons do outnumber members of the LDS faith.

When to visit

Utah has four distinct seasons and widely-variable climate zones. Summer is hot in the north (about 80°-100°F), but rarely extreme, and is often unbearable in the far southern valleys and desert terrain (often exceeding 100°F, and even 110°F). However, summers tend to be quite comfortable in the mountains, making summer an ideal time to experience the mountain terrain of Utah. In winter, temperatures from 20° - 40°F are common in the north, with warmer temperatures in the south. Overnight temps can occasionally drop below 0°F. Snow is common statewide, with the exception of the far southern valleys, from November - March, and often occurs even earlier and later than this. Snow is particularly common downwind of the Great Salt Lake. A number of excellent ski resorts operate in the Wasatch Mountains, especially around Salt Lake City, from about late November through mid-April. Snow is common in the mountains from late September - May. Summer and fall are both excellent times to enjoy the mountain scenery, with comfortable temperatures, low chance of snow, and easy access to a number of fantastic trails and hiking paths.

Although snow is common in winter in much of the state, rain is less common - it can be expected in winter and spring in the south and in spring in the north, but it's usually fairly light and short in duration. Fall also sees a short but unpredictable rainy season. Although summer is bone dry statewide, thunderstorms are a daily threat, especially throughout the south and in the northern mountains. Although these t-storms are short and small, they can be very intense. Although summer and fall are great times to enjoy the mountains and the slot canyons and desert terrain of southern Utah, attention must be paid to the skies as the evening approaches if camping in the mountains or enjoying the rugged terrain of southern Utah, especially in August. These storms can bring flash flooding to the narrow slot canyons of southern Utah, so make sure to evacuate the slot canyons as soon as possible if you see thunderstorms nearby - if you have a guide they will usually know when precautions must be taken. Summer and fall also bring a serious threat of wildfires in the backcountry.

September and early October is usually the best time to enjoy Utah, especially the mountains, with milder temperatures than summer, less chance of violent thunderstorms, and little chance of snow in the mountains. In addition, significant snowpack can linger in the mountains through May, while by early Autumn, summer has melted all of the snow, and snowstorms are rare. The national parks of Utah can get very crowded during Summer but predictably become less crowded towards late Summer and into Fall. Finally, Fall colors are spectacular in the mountains of Utah, and reach their peak in September. Colors in the valley peak in mid-October but aren't especially spectacular. The gorgeous Fall colors in the mountains rival the famous colors of New England, and are sometimes accompanied by early snow, creating a unique and beautiful mixture of vibrant colors and soft white.

Talk

English. On top of the Latino population that speaks Spanish, there are a surprising number of non-native Spanish speakers, especially in Salt Lake City and Provo, since the LDS church actively proselytizes in Latin America. "No hablo inglés" doesn't work anymore when these guys knock at your door. The universities also have a large number of foreign speakers, particularly Chinese.

Get in

By road

Take I-15 from Southern California and Las Vegas. It also enters from Idaho to the north, eventually connecting to Canada. I-80 connects west to Reno and northern California - the route begins in San Francisco. It also connects from Wyoming near Evanston, providing the quickest route from Denver to Salt Lake City. I-70 heads straight west from Denver, entering Utah near Grand Junction and providing quick access to the incredible desert terrain of southern Utah, although not to any of the urban centers.

By train

Amtrak [5] runs the California Zephyr from Emeryville to Chicago, stopping in Green River, Helper, Provo, and Salt Lake City.

For more information, see Amtrak's website or Wikitravel's article Rail travel in the United States.

By plane

Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) is the westernmost hub for Delta Air Lines, which offers nonstop service from 109 different destinations, most in the western US, but also from medium-sized cities in the central US and the large cities on the east coast. Nonstop service is also available from Paris-De Gaulle and 5x weekly service from Tokyo-Narita will begin in June 2010.

American Airlines, Continental, United, US Airways, and low cost airlines Southwest and JetBlue also serve Salt Lake City.

Cedar City (CDC) in central Utah is served with prop service to Salt Lake City, and St. George (SGU) in southern Utah has prop service to Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

Canyonlands Field (CNY) (serving the Moab area) has service to Ely, Nevada (ELY) and Denver on Great Lakes Airlines.

  • Public Transportation: The Utah Transit Authority (UTA) [6] maintains a bus system with several routes, generally between Ogden and Provo. UTA also is responsible for the TRAX system, which is light rail running from the University of Utah to downtown Salt Lake to Sandy. For both bus and train, one-way fare is $1.75, and a transfer can be obtained upon request, which will allow you to board another bus or train within two hours.
  • Skyline Drive – winds for over 100 miles along the very top of the Wasatch Plateau, providing access to forested mountains, alpine meadows and numerous lakes, streams and camping areas. At elevations ranging from about 9,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level, it is one of the highest roads in America. Views of the mountain basins and surrounding valleys are marvelous.
  • Snowmobile Skyline Drive – the Wasatch Plateau of Central Utah is a high altitude play area with snow, meadows, and hill climbs. Know as 'Boondocker's Heaven'.

Do

Utah is also home to some of the best skiing and snowboarding in the world. Most of Utah's best ski areas are located in Big Cottonwood Canyon and Little Cottonwood Canyon, which are both conveniently located less than an hour's drive away from Salt Lake City.

If you like off-roading, Moab is home to the semi-annual Jeep Safari. The Safari will often times run twice a year, one over Easter Weekend the other over Memorial Day Weekend. The desert terrain combined with it's vast canyons can make for some fun and beautiful scenic drives, or wild rides with some very challanging obstacles. You can also bike and in some cases take an ATV out on the trails. For a less arid ride, try your hand at high mountain OHV riding through aspen and pine forests on the Arapeen ATV Trail System.

There is some mind-blowing rock climbing to be done in Utah, some of the best is located at Maple Canyon and Zion National Park. If this is not enough to satisfy your extreme sports cravings, consider snowkiting at high altitudes on Skyline Drive.

Heathen hops

Chances are, at some point during a visit to Utah, you will wonder: What the heck is "Polygamy Porter?!" The fact that their motto is "Why have just one" will likely only fuel further questions about why the state seems to be full of local brews insulting the local religion. The explanation is bizarre and not just a little humorous. An entrepreneurial Milwaukeean decided that America's most temperate state could use a brewery, and that the best way to market his brews would be to have as outrageous and controversial an advertising campaign as possible. Stunts like sending two men in stereotypical "Mormon missionary dress" door-to-door trying to convert Mormons to beer, predictably generated the intended controversy, which in turn served as widespread publicity for his business, the Wasatch Brew Pub. In any rate, it can feel a little uncomfortable to ask a local for a "Polygamy Porter," but it is a fine brew.

Utah's liquor laws are known as one of the more peculiar things about the state. Liquor is sold only in state-owned stores and generally costs more than in other states. Other states also have state owned liquor stores such as New Hampshire, although New Hampshire prices tend to be much lower. Beer contains significantly less alcohol (3.2% alcohol, as opposed to the standard 4-5%) than the usual brew, which is available in stores and restaurants. "Full strength" beer is available in bars and liquor stores. Also, state law prohibits the serving of more than one ounce (shot) of alcohol as the primary liquor in a mixed drink. Secondary alcoholic flavorings may then be added to a mixed drink as the recipe requires. While this can be circumvented with the purchase of a "sidecar" ( a separate shot of liquor ). Keep in note driving after drinking is prosecuted aggressively in the State of Utah.

Although liquor laws in Utah are more strict, they are not impossible. There are several kinds of establishments to know about:

  • Private club. Memberships are no longer required at Utah's bars as of 2009
  • Tavern. A tavern is a bar that serves only beer and requires no "membership".
  • Restaurants. Many restaurants serve beer as well as hard liquor. No "membership" is required, but you must order food.

Stay safe

While much of Utah is developed, there is a great amount of desert especially to the south and west. If going out to the deserts always take plenty of water (at least one gallon per person, per day) and sunscreen as well as light clothing. Let people know where you are going and when you expect to get back.

Always be careful and watch for lightning while hiking. It's often best to hike in the early morning to avoid the possibility of hitting an afternoon thunderstorm. If caught in a storm while hiking seek shelter as quickly as you can. Also, if you see a thunderstorm nearby while exploring the slot canyons or the rough desert terrain of southern Utah, seek high ground immediately! Flash flooding is common in these areas, even when there is not a thunderstorm overhead.

Stay healthy

Because of Utah's High Elevation those not accustomed can be subject to mild altitude sickness, especially when hiking. Always pace yourself when hiking, and drink plenty of water, especially in summer time.

The high elevation also makes the exposure to UV rays far more intense than other places. Too much exposure can lead to skin conditions down the road, including skin cancer. Always apply sunscreen when you are expecting prolonged time in the sun. It's advised to do this year round.

Certain parts of Utah are valley regions. In the winter time they are subject to days of pollution inversions. Those with respiratory and heart conditions should advise the air quality index to see the primary pollutant. You usually can find the indexes in the daily paper as well as watching local news and The Weather Channel.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

UTAH,' one of the Central Western states of the United States of America. It lies between latitudes 37° and 42° N. and between longitudes 32° and 37° W. from Washington (i.e. about 109° I' 34" and 114° I' 34" respectively W. of Greenwich). The state is bounded wholly by meridians and parallels, and is bordered on the N. by Idaho and Wyoming, on the E. by Wyoming and Colorado, on the S. by Arizona, and on the W. by Nevada. Utah has an area of 84,990 sq. m., of which 2806 sq. m. are water surface, including Great Salt, Utah and other lakes. The state has a maximum length of 345 m. N. and S., and a maximum width of about 280 m. E. and W.

Table of contents

Physical Features

The eastern portion of Utah consists of high plateaus, and constitutes a part of the Colorado Plateau province. The remaining western portion of the state is lower, belongs in the Great Basin province, and is characterized by north-south mountain ranges separated by desert basins. The high plateaus consist of great blocks of the earth's crust which are separated from each other by fault-lines, and which have been uplifted to different heights. Erosion has developed deep and sometimes broad valleys along the fault-lines and elsewhere, so that many of the blocks and portions of blocks are isolated from their neighbours. As a rule 1 The name is that of a Shoshonean .Indian tribe, more commonly called Ute.

the blocks have not been greatly tilted or deformed, but consist of nearly horizontal layers of sandstone, shales and limestone. In some cases these sedimentary rocks lie deeply buried under lavas poured out by volcanoes long extinct. The plateau summits rise to elevations of 9000, 10,000 and i i,000 ft., are generally forested, but are too difficult of access to be much inhabited. The people live along the streams in the valleys between the plateaus. In the southern part of the state the high plateaus are terminated by a series of giant terraces which descend to the general level of the Grand Canyon Platform in northern Arizona. The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the colour of the rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the Pink Cliffs (highest), White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs. A still lower terrace, terminating in the Shinarump Cliffs, is less conspicuous; but the higher ones afford magnificent scenery. The northernmost member of the high plateaus is a broad east-west trending arch known as the Uinta Mountains. Local glaciation has carved the higher levels of this range into a maze of amphitheatres containing lakes, separated from each other by aretes and alpine peaks. Among the peaks are King's Peaks (13,498 ft. and 13,496 ft.), the highest points in the state; Mt. Emmons (13,428 ft.); Gilbert Peak (13,422 ft.); Mt. Lovenia (13,250 ft.); and Tokewanna Peak (13,200 ft.). In the south-eastern part of the state are lower desert plateaus, and several mountain groups which do not properly belong to the plateau system. Most interesting among these are the Henry Mountains, formed by the intrusion of molten igneous rock between the layers of sediments, causing the overlying layers to arch up into dome mountains. Stream erosion has dissected these domes far enough to reveal the core of the igneous rock and to give a rugged topography. The highest peaks exceed 11,000 ft. By far the greater part of the high plateau district is drained by the Colorado river and its branches, the most important of which are the Green, Grand and San Juan, portions of whose courses lie in canyons of remarkable grandeur. The western members of the high plateaus drain into the Great Basin for the most part, and in this drainage system the Sevier river is perhaps most prominent. Inasmuch as the streams entering the basin have no outlet to the ocean, their waters disappear by evaporation, either directly from alluvial slopes over which they pass, or from saline lakes occupying depressions between the mountain ranges.

The lower basin portion of Utah is separated from the high plateaus by a series of great fault scarps, by which one descends abruptly to a level of but 5000 or 6000 ft. One of the fault scarps is known as the Hurricane Ledge, and continues as a prominent landmark from a point south of the Grand Canyon in Arizona to the central part of Utah, where it is replaced by other scarps farther east. The floor of the Basin Region is formed of alluvium washed from the high plateaus and mountain ranges, a part of which has accumulated in alluvial fans, and part in the greatly expanded lakes which existed here in the glacial period. This alluvium gives gently sloping or level desert plains, from which isolated mountain ranges rise like islands from the sea. The barren " mud flats," frequently found on the desert floor, result from the drying up of temporary shallow lakes, or playas. Lake Bonneville is the name given to the most important of the much greater lakes of the glacial period, whose old shore-lines are plainly visible on many mountain slopes. Great Salt Lake is a shrunken remnant of Lake Bonneville. The mountain ranges of the Basin Region are most frequently formed by faulted and tilted blocks of the earth's crust, which have been carved by stream erosion into rugged shapes. Oquirrh, Tintic, Beaver, House and Mineral Mountains are typical examples of these north-south " basin ranges," which rise abruptly from the desert plains and are themselves partial deserts. The Wasatch Mountain range constitutes the eastern margin of the Great Basin in central and northern Utah, and resembles the true basin ranges in that it is formed by a great block of the earth's crust uptilted along a north-south fault-line. Its steep fault scarp faces west, and rises from 4000 to 6000 ft. above the basin floor; the eastern slope is more gentle, but both slopes are much scored by deep canyons, some of which have been modified in form by ancient glaciers. Among the highest summits are Timpanogos Peak (11,957 ft.), Mt. Nebo (11,887 ft.), Twin Peak (11,563 ft.), and Lone Peak (11,295 ft.). At the western base of the Wasatch are Salt Lake City, Ogden, Provo and other smaller towns, situated where streams issue from the mountains, soon to disappear on the desert plains. In such places agriculture is made possible by irrigation, and the Mormon villages, both here and farther south along the base of the Hurricane Ledge, depend largely on this industry. Important mining operations are carried on in the Wasatch Mountains and in a number of the basin ranges. Mercur, Tintic, Bingham and Park City are well-known mining centres.

Fauna

In the open country the mule deer, the pronghorn antelope and the coyote are found, and the bison formerly ranged over the north-eastern part of the state; the side-striped groundsquirrel, Townsend's spermophile, the desert pack-rat and the desert pack-rabbit inhabit the flat country. In the mountainous districts and high plateaus are the grizzly, formerly more common, the black bear, the four-striped chipmunk and the yellow-haired porcupine. Various species of small native mice and voles are abundant.

In the marshes of the Salt Lake breed grebes, gulls and terns, and formerly the white pelican. Many ducks breed here, and many others pass through in migration :: of the former, the most numerous are mallard and teal; of the latter, pintail, shoveler, scaup, ring-neck ducks, and mergansers. Wood and glossy ibises are commonly seen, and the white ibis breeds in numbers; the sand-hill crane is less common than formerly. A few varieties of shore birds breed here, as the Western willet, the Bartramian sandpiper, and the longbilled curlew. Gambel's partridge is resident in the southern part of the state, and the sage-hen and sharp-tail grouse on the plains. The dusky grouse and grey ruffed grouse are confined to the mountains and plateaus. The California vulture is very rare; various species of hawks and golden and bald eagles are common. The burrowing owl is found on the plains, and various species of small birds are characteristic of the different physical divisions of the state. A few lizards are found in the arid districts. The trout of the Utah mountain streams is considered a distinct species.

Flora.-Western Utah and vast areas along the Colorado river in the east and south-east are practically treeless. The lower plateaus and many of the basin ranges, as well as the basins themselves, are deserts. The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of fir, spruce and pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with piiion, juniper, and scrub cedar. On the slopes of mountain valleys grow cedars, dwarf maples and occasional oaks. Willows and cottonwoods grow along streams. The west slope of the Wasatch has been largely denuded of its forests to supply the demands of the towns at its base. Among other plants common to the state are the elder, wild hop, dwarf sunflower, and several species of greasewood and cacti. The sagebrush, artemisia, is characteristic of the desert areas. Bunch grass is abundant on the hillsides the year round, and affords valuable pasturage.

Climate.-On account of its great diversity in topography, the state of Utah is characterized by a wide range in climatic conditions. Extremely cold weather may occur on the lofty plateaus and mountain ranges, while the intervening valleys and basins have a milder climate. The mean temperature of the state ranges from 58° in the extreme south to 42° in the north. Winter temperatures as low as 36° below zero are known for the higher altitudes; in the south, summer temperatures of 110° and higher have been recorded. At Salt Lake City the mean winter temperature is 31°, the mean summer temperature 73°. Corresponding figures for St George, in the south-western part of the state, are 38° and 80°. In general Utah may be said to have a true continental climate, although the presence of Great Salt Lake has a modifying effect on the climate of that portion of the Basin Region in which it lies. Killing frosts occur early in September and as late as the last of May, and in the higher valleys they may occur at any time. The mean annual precipitation is only I in., the greater part of which occurs in the form of snow in the winter months, summer being the dry season. At Salt Lake City the annual precipitation is 15.8 in., of which 2 in. fall in summer. For St George the figures are: annual precipitation, 6.6 in.; summer, 1.3 in. Both Salt Lake City and St George are near the boundary between the Basin Region and the high plateaus. Well out in the basin deserts the precipitation is still less; and the same holds true for the low desert plateaus in the south-eastern part of the state, where Hite has an annual precipitation of only 2.3 in., of which 0.4 in. falls in the summer. On the other hand, the precipitation on the high plateaus probably exceeds 30 in. in places. In the inhabited parts of the state, irrigation is generally necessary for agriculture.

Soil.-The alluvium of the desert basins furnishes much good soil, which produces abundant crops where irrigated. Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive. Very rich floodplain soils occur along the larger streams. Vast areas of unreclaimable desert exist in the west and south-east. In the protected valleys between the high plateaus alluvial soils are cultivated; but the plateau summits are relatively inaccessible, and, being subject to summer frosts, are not cultivated. Comparatively poor, sandy soil is found on the lower desert plateaus in the south-east, where population is scanty.

Forests.-The forest resources of Utah are of little value: the total wooded area was about 10,000 sq. m. in 1900, or about 121% of the land area of the state. The only timber of commercial importance is found in the Uinta Range in the north-eastern corner of the state, and is chiefly yellow pine. The timber of the Wasatch Range is small and scattering. In 1910 there were in the state fourteen national forests varying in size from 1,250,610 acres (the Uinta reserve), 947,490 acres (the Ashley reserve), and 786,080 acres (the Manti reserve), down to the smallest Pocatello (10,720) on the Idaho border. The total area of these reserves was 7,436,327 acres.

Irrigation.-Under the Federal Reclamation Fund, established in 1902, $830,000 was allotted to Utah in 1902-9, and $200,000 more in 1910, for the development of the Strawberry Valley project. This project, which was about one-third completed in the beginning of 1910, provides for the irrigation in Strawberry Valley (Utah and Wasatch counties, S. of Provo), of 60,000 acres, by a 6800-acre reservoir of iio,000 acre-feet capacity, on Strawberry river; by a tunnel, 19,000 ft. long, connecting the reservoir with Diamond Fork, a tributary of Spanish Fork river; by a storage dam, 50 ft. high, of 60,000 cub. yds. contents, diverting water from Spanish Fork river into two canals, one on each side of the river, for the irrigation of land in the valley of Utah lake; by a hydro-electric power plant about 3 m. below the diversion dam; and by the enlargement of existing canal systems. The diversion dam, the power canal, and the first unit of the power plant were completed in 1909. Irrigation of the arid western regions of the United States began in the Great Basin of Utah when the Mormon pioneers in 1847 diverted the waters of City Creek upon the parched soil of Salt Lake Valley. In 1900 nearly 90% of the land reclaimed by irrigation in the whole state lay within the Great Basin. Between 1889 and 1899 the number of irrigators in the state (exclusive of Indian reservations) increased from 9724 to 17,924, or 84.3%, and the number of acres irrigated from 263,473 to 629,293, or 138.8%. In 1900, of the total improved acreage (1,029,226 acres) 61.2% (629,293 acres) was irrigated; and in 1899, of the 686,374 acres in crops, 537,588 acres, or 78.3%.

Agriculture.-The number of farms in Utah (not including those of less than 3 acres and of small productivity) in 1880 was 945 2; in 1890, 10,517; and in 1900, 19,007: their average size in 1880 was 69.4 acres; in 1890, 125.9 acres; and in 1900, 216.6 acres. The total number of all farms in the state in 1900 was 19,387; and the number of white farmers, 19,144The greatest number of farms were between Ion acres and 500 acres-1916 in 1880, and 5565 in 1900. Other holdings were as follows: between 20 acres and 50 acres, 3688 in 1880, and 5261 in 1900; between 50 acres and Too acres, 2056 in 1880 and 3741 in 1900; less than To acres, 434 in 1880 and 1622 in 190o; woo acres and more, 9 in 1880 and 248 in 1900. The proportion of farms operated by owners decreased from 95.4% (9019 farms) in 1880 to 91.2% (17,674 farms) in 190o; those operated by cash tenants increased from o.6% (60 farms) in 1880 to 2.6% (506 farms) in 1900, and those operated by share tenants from 4% (373 farms) in 1880 to 6.2% (1207 farms) in 1900. The total area of farms increased from 655,524 acres in 1880 to 4,116,951 acres in 1900, but the proportion of improved land decreased from 63.5% (416,105 acres) in 1880 to 25.1% (1,032,117 acres) in 1900, indicating the great increase in land used for grazing.

The value of farm property, including land with improvements, implements and machinery, and live-stock was $19,333,569 in 1880 and $75,175,141 in 1900; the average value per farm was $2045 in T880 and $3878 in 1900; and the average value per acre of farm land was $29.49 in 1880 and $18.26 in 1900. The value of all farm products was $3,337,410 in 1879 and $16,502,051 in 1899, and the amount expended for fertilizers increased only from $11,394 to $14,300. In 1899 hay and grain furnished the principal income from 35.4% of all farms in the state, and live-stock from 28.1% of all farms. In 1899, 255,699 acres, or 37.3% of the acreage of all crops, was sown to cereals, which were valued at $2,386,789, or 29% of the value of all crops. The production of cereals (which grow chiefly in the northern counties of the state) was 130,842 bu. in 1849, 770,287 bu. in 186 9, 2 ,395,744 bu. in 1889, and 5,381,125 bu. in 1899. The principal cereal was wheat, the value of which was $1,575,064 (3,4 1 3,47 0 bu.) in 1899, and $5,481,000 (6,090,000 bu.) in 1909.1 The value and product of oats in 1899 was $553, 8 47 (1 ,43 6, 22 5 bu.), and in 1909, $1,319,000 (2,536,000 bu.); of Indian corn, in 1899, $121,872 (250,020 bu.), and in 1909, $355, 000 (408,000 bu.); of barley, in 1899, $121,826 (252,140 bu.), and in 1909, $343,000 (520,000 bu.); of rye in 1899, $13,761 (28,630 bu.), and in 1909, $46,000 (66,000 bu.) ,. The value of the hay and forage crop in 1899 was $3,862,820, or 46.9% of the value of all crops, and its acreage was 388,043 acres, or 56.5% of the acreage of all crops; in 1909, the acreage in hay was 375,000 acres, and its value was $9,792,000. Alfalfa (or lucerne) formed the principal part of the hay crop in 1899, and was produced chiefly in the counties of Utah (95,316 tons), Salt Lake (91,266 tons), Cache (64,543 tons) and Boxelder (50,019 tons), all in the northern part of the state.

The vegetable crop in 1899 occupied 24,042 acres, or 3.5% of the acreage of all crops, and its value was 81,250,713, or 15.2% of the value of all crops. The product of potatoes increased very rapidly from 519,497 bu. in 1889 to 1,483,570 bu. valued at $487,816 in 1899, and to 2,700,000 bu. valued at $1,161,000 in 1909. The production of other vegetables in 1899 was as follows: water-melons, 620,440; musk-melons, 516,500; tomatoes, 254,052 bu.; cabbages, 997, 6 9 0 heads, and sweet corn, 16,192 bu. For the important sugarbeet crop, see below under Manufactures. On Gunnison and Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens.

The value of live-stock on farms and ranges in 1890 was $9,914,766; on farms in 1900, $21,474,241. The number of neat cattle in 1900 was 343,690, valued at $7,152,844; on January I, 1910, 2 415,000, 1 1909 statistics are from the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

2 These 1910 figures for live-stock are taken from the Year Book (1909) of the United States Department of Agriculture.

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English Miles o ? % 3H `?.'titat Navajo Indian Reservation .1((?/f((!'!/1(C:??L'(4 A B Longitude c Vest of Greenwich D Ltd., valued at $8,976,00o, of which 88,000 were milch cows valued at $2,992,000. The number and value of other live-stock were as follows: sheep, in 1900, 3,818,423 ($10,256,488), and on January 1, 1910, 3,177,000 ($13,026,000); horses, in 1900, 115,884 ($3,396,313), and in 1910, 130,000 ($11,050,000); mules, in 1900, 2116 ($58,850), and in 1910, 3000 ($240,000); swine, in 1900, 6 5,73 2 ($ 2 93, 11 5), and in 1910, 61,000 ($549,000).

The total value of dairy products in 1899 was $1,522,932. The principal products were: milk, in 1890, 8,614,694 gals., and in 1899, 25,124,642 gals. (received from sales, $ 6 45,55 0); butter, in 1890, 1 ,759,354 lb and in 1899, 2,812,122 lb (received from sales, $214,910); cheese, in 1890, 163,539 lb, and in 1899, 169,215 lb (received from sales, $122,933). The value of all poultry raised in 1899 was $262,503; the product of eggs was 3,387,340 doz., and their value, $424,628.

The product of wool in 1890 (exclusive of wool shorn after the 1st of June) was 9,685,513 ib, in 1900, 17,050,977 ib, and in 1910, 14,850,000 lb. The value of the honey and wax produced in 1899 was $94,364. Honey was a large crop with the early settlers, who put a hive and honey-bees on the state-seal of Deseret and of Utah.

Mining.-The mineral resources of Utah are varied and valuable, but their development was retarded for many years by the policy of the Mormon Church, which practically forbade its members to do any mining; more recently the development has been slow because of inadequate transportation facilities, and the inaccessibility of some of the deposits. In 1902 the state ranked fourteenth among the states in the value of its mineral products, $12,378,350, and took thirteenth rank in 1907, with a product of $38,099,756, but dropped to the fifteenth rank in 1908, when the total value of its product was $26,422,121.1 The value of products manufactured from minerals in 1902 was $9,123,228, or 43-1% of all the manufactures in the state. The relative importance of mining and manufacturing may be shown thus: in 1902 the mines and quarries of the state employed 5712 wage-earners and paid to them $5,089,122, and in 1910 manufacturing industries employed 6615 wage-earners, who received $3,388,370 in wages.

Systematic prospecting for the precious metals did not begin in Utah until 1862, when Colonel Patrick E. Connor (1820-1891) of the Third California Infantry established Fort Douglas near Salt Lake City. He permitted many members of his regiment who had been prospectors in California to prospect the territory, with the result that mines were located at Stockton, Bingham Canyon, Little Cottonwood and elsewhere; but attempts to smelt lead-silver ore near Stockton about 1866 were not successful, and the mining of precious metals did not become an established industry in the Territory until about 1870. Ores of good quality are now known to be quite generally distributed throughout the state. In 1902 the state ranked third in the value of its gold and silver production, $8,500,904; in 1908 it ranked sixth in gold, $3,94 6 ,7 00 (a decrease of $1,174,900 since 1907), and fourth in silver, $4,520,600 (a decrease of $3,007,900 since 1907). In 1908 the richest producers of gold were Salt Lake (60,872.63 oz.), Juab (58,679.17 oz.) and Tooele (41,969.96 oz.) counties, which produced about nine-tenths of the total for the state; in Salt Lake and Juab counties the principal source was copper ore, but in Tooele county almost all the gold was from siliceous ores. For the whole state, of a total of 179,054.60 oz. in 1908, 111,086.12 were from copper ore, 47,439.15 from siliceous ores, and 19,986.36 from lead ores. In the same year the largest producing gold mines were the Centennial Eureka in Juab county, the Mercur in Tooele county, and the Utah Consolidated and the Utah Copper in Salt Lake county. The principal silver regions in 1908 were the Tintic, in Juab and Utah counties, and the Park City, in Summit and Wasatch counties. Of the total production, 8,451,338 oz. (valued at $4,479,209) in 1908, 2,748,289 oz. (of which more than two-thirds was from copper ores) were from Juab county; 2,463,735 oz. (all but 9586 oz., which were from lead zinc ore, being from lead ores) were from Summit and Wasatch counties; 1,561,983 oz. (all from lead ore, except 1158 oz. from copper ore) were from Utah county; 1,125,209 oz. (7 0 4,35 8 from copper ore, 329,276 from lead ore, 47,130 from copperlead ore and 44,445 from siliceous ore) were from Salt Lake county; and 378,373 oz. (of which 341,375 oz. were from lead ore) were from Tooele county. The principal source of the silver was the lead ores mined, from which in 1908 about two-thirds of the total of the silver was secured.

Far larger in value than either gold or silver, and larger than both together, was the output of copper in Utah in 1907 ($12,851,377) and in 1908 ($11,463,383). Up to 1905 the output of silver in the state was greater than that of copper. In the production of copper in 1908 Utah ranked fourth among the states. Most of the metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than 1,000,000 ib; the Tintic district in Juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district I The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States Geological Survey.

in Boxelder county. In 1908 more than two-thirds of the total output was from the low-grade porphyry ores mined at Newhouse, Beaver county, and at Bingham, Salt Lake county. There are copper smelters at Garfield, Copperton and Binghamton. An anti-smoke injunction in 1908 closed the furnaces in the immediate vicinity of Salt Lake City. The production of copper in 1883 was 341,885 lb; in 1890, 1,006,636 lb; in 1895, 2,184,708 lb; in 1900, 18 ,354,7 26 ib; in 1904, 4 6 ,4 1 7, 2 34 ib; in 1907, 64,256,884 ib; and in 1908, 81,843,812 lb.2 Third in value (less than copper or silver) in 1908, but usually equalling silver in value, was the state's output of lead. The maximum production, 125,342,836 lb, was in 1906; in 1908 the output was 88,777,498 lb (valued at $3,728,655). The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting rate. In 1908 the following mines produced more than 5,000,000 lb each of lead: Silver King at Park City, the Colorado in the Tintic district, the Daly West and the Daly Judge in the Park City district, and the Old Jordan and the Telegraph at Bingham, and there were fifteen other mines that produced between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 lb of lead.

Zinc has been produced in commercial quantities in Summit, Tooele and Beaver counties. In 1906 the output was 6,474,615 lb, valued at $394,952; in 1908 it was 1 ,4 60 ,554 ib, valued at $68,646, and almost the entire output was from Summit county.

The apparently inexhaustible supplies of iron ore in southern Utah, and especially in Iron county, had been little worked up to 1910 on account of their inaccessibility. The beds of magnetite and hematite, in the southern portion of the Wasatch Mountains, are the largest in the western United States; in 1902 the four productive mines in Milford, Juab and Utah counties produced 16,240 tons of ore, valued at $27,417. There are valuable manganese deposits in the sandstone of the eastern plateau.

Coal was first discovered in Utah in 1851 along Coal Creek near Cedar City (in what is now Iron county) in the south-western part of Utah, and there was some mining of coal at Wales, Sanpete county, as early as 1855, but there was no general mining until about twenty years later, and the industry was not well established until 1888. Thereafter its development was rapid, and the discovery of outcroppings throughout the central and southern parts of the state gave evidence of the existence of great bodies of the mineral. The only important region of coal mining in the state up to 1910 was in Carson county, where more than nine-tenths of the total output of the state was mined in 1907 and in 1908. The production in 1870 was 5800 tons; in 1880, 14,748 tons (probably an underestimate); in 1890, 318,159 tons; in 1900, 1,147,027 tons; in 1903, 1,681,409 tons; in 1907, 1,947,607 tons (the maximum); and in 1908, 1,846,792 tons. The total production from 1870 to 1908 was 20,683,974 tons, or allowing for coal lost, about 31,000,000 tons, which is estimated to represent 0.016% of the original supply. In 1909 the United States Geological Survey reported workable beds of coal aggregating 13,130 sq. m. in area, and 2000 sq. m. more in which it seemed probable that coal might be found. The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.

Salt is obtained by solar evaporation chiefly of the waters of Great Salt Lake and other brine found in that vicinity; at Nephi City, Juab county; near Gunnison, Sanpete county; in Sevier and Millard counties, and at Withee Junction in Weber county. The value of this product in 1907 was $ 1 99,779 (345,557 bbls.), and in 1908, $169,833 (242,678 bbls.).

Of other non-metallic products, among the most important were limestone-valued in 1902 at $186,663, and in 1908 at $253,088and sandstone-valued in 1902 at $105,011 and in 1908 at $25,097. Some marble is quarried at Beaver in Beaver county, and Utah onyx has been used for interior decoration, notably in the city and county building of Salt Lake City. The clay products of the state in the same year were valued at $658,517. There are considerable deposits of sulphur, of varying degrees of richness, near Black Rock in Beaver county. Many semi-precious and precious stones are found in Utah, including garnet (long sold to tourists by the Navaho Indians), amethyst, jasper, topaz, tourmaline, opal, variscite (or " Utahlite "), malachite, diopside and Smithsonite. In 1908 the reported value of precious stones from Utah was $20,350.

Manufactures.-The manufacturing industry was long comparatively unimportant, being largely for local markets. It is still largely dependent on local raw material. But, with the growth of the mineral industry and of the cultivation of sugar beets, there was a remarkable growth in manufacturing between 1900 and 1905: the amount of capital increased from $13,219,039 to $26,004,011, or 96.7%; the average number of wage-earners from 54 1 3 to 8052, or 48.8; and the value of factory products from $17,981,648 to $38,926,464, or 116.5%. In the period under 2 These statistics for 1904, 1907 and 1908 are from Mineral Resources of the United States for 1908. discussion, urban establishments (i.e. those in the two municipalities - Salt Lake City and Ogden - having a population in 1900 of at least 8000), increased in number from 205 to 256 or 24.9%, and rural establishments decreased in number from 370 to 350 (5.4%); the capitalization of urban establishments increased from $4,212,972 to $7,700,750 (82.8%), and that of the rural from $9,006,067 to $18,303,361 (103.2%); the average number of wageearners in urban establishments increased from 2832 to 3859 (36.3%), and those in rural establishments from 2581 to 4193 (62.5%); the value of the products of urban establishments increased from $5,521,140 to $10,541,040 (90.9%) and that of rural establishments from $12,460,508 to $28,385,424 (127.8 (Y0). This unusual predominance of rural over urban manufacturing is further shown by the fact that in 1900, 64.3% of the establishments reporting, and 69.3% of the value of their products were from factories classified as rural, and in 1905 the proportion of rural factories was 58.8%, and the value of their products 72.9% of the total. This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.

The flour and grist mill industry was the most important in the state, with products valued at $1,659,223 in 1900, and $2,425,791 in 1905. The values of the products of other industries in 1900 and 1905, in the order of their importance, were as follows: Car and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, in 1900, $1,306,591, and in 1905, $1,886,651; printing and publishing, in 2900, $770,848, and in 1905, $1,466,549; confectionery, in 2900, $403,379, and in 1905, $1,004,601; canning and preserving fruit and vegetables in 2900, $300,349, and in 1905, $801,958. The value of the products of industries of lesser importance in 1905 were: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $653,314; malt liquors, $636,688; and foundry and machine shop products, $587,484.

The beet sugar industry is one of growing importance in Utah: there were in 2900 3 refineries, having a daily total capacity of 1100 tons of beets; in 1905, 4, with a daily total capacity of 2850 tons; and in 1909,' 5, which treated 455,064 tons of beets and produced 48,884 tons of sugar. In 1853 a sugar factory bought in England was erected at Provo, but no sugar was manufactured there, and none was successfully refined until 1889. Sugar beets were first grown by irrigation in Utah; under that system it becomes possible to estimate closely the tonnage of the product. Slicing stations established at distances of from 12 to 25 m. from a factory receive the beets, extract the juice and force it through pipes to the factory.

Transportation

The first trade route to be established by white men within the present boundaries of Utah was the old Spanish trail from Santa Fe to Los Angeles. The trail entered what is now Utah, just east of the Dolores river, crossed the Grand river near the Sierra La Salle and the Green river at the present crossing of the Denver & Rio Grande railway, proceeded thence to the Sevier river and southward along its valley to the headwaters of the Virgin river, which it followed southward, and then westward, so that its line' left the present state near its south-west corner. The presence of this and other trails to California was of great importance during the gold excitement of 1849, when many miners outfitted at Salt Lake City and the Mormons grew rich in this business. The first considerable railway enterprise in the territory was the Union Pacific, which was completed to Ogden in 1869. This system (which includes the Oregon Short line) has since been supplemented by the Denver & Rio Grande, the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, and various connecting lines. The railway mileage in 1870 was 257 m.; in 1890, 1265 m.; and in 1909, 1962.87 m.

Population

The population in 1850 was 11,380; in 1860, 40,273; in 1870, 86,786; in 1880, 143,963; in 1890, 207,905; in 1900, 276,749; and in 1910, 373,351. Of the population in 1900, 219,661 were native whites, 53,777, or 19.4%, were foreignborn, 2623 were Indians (of whom 1472 were not taxed), 672 were negroes, 572 were Chinese and 417 were Japanese. The reservation Indians in 1909 were chiefly members of the Uinta, Uncompahgre and White River Ute tribes on the Uinta Valley reservation (179,194 acres unallotted) in the north-eastern part of the state. 2 Of the 1900 native-born population 3870 were born in Illinois, 3032 in New York, 2525 in Ohio and 2 519 in Pennsylvania. Of the foreign-born by far the largest number, 18,879, were natives of England, 9132 were Danes, 7025 were Swedes; and natives of Scotland, Germany, Wales and Norway were next in numbers. The large English immigration is to be ascribed to the successful proselytizing efforts of the Mormons in England. The same influence may be traced in the other immigration figures. There was, however, a relative 1 Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture.

2 The Report of the commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives the following figures for the Indian population: under the Panguitch School, Kanab Kaibab, 81, Shivwitz Paiute, 118; under the Uinta and Puray Agency, Uinta Ute, 443, Uncompahgre Ute, 469, White River Ute, 296; not under agency, Paiute 370.

decrease in the number of foreign-born in the state from 1890 to 1900. Of the total igoo population 169,473 were of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born), and 42,735 were of English, 18,963 of Danish and 12,047 of Swedish parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side. The Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) are far more numerous than any other sect, this church having a membership in 1906 of 151,525 (of these 493 were of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) out of a total of 172,814 in all denominations; there were 479 members of this denomination to every 1000 of the population in the state, and the next largest sect, the Roman Catholics, had only 26 per 1000 of population and no Protestant body more than 6 per 1000. In the same year there were 8356 Roman Catholics, 1 9 02 members of the Northern Presbyterian Church, 1537 members of the Northern Methodist Episcopal Church, 1174 Congregationalists, and 987 Baptists (of the Northern Conference). The state in 1900 had 3.4 inhabitants to the sq. m. While this approached the average-3.5 for all the states west of the Rocky Mountains taken together, with the exception of Colorado, which had 5.2 - it was noticeably higher than that of its immediate neighbours, Idaho (1.9), Arizona (1.1) and Nevada (0.4). At the census of 1880 the density of the population was 1 8 and in 1890 it was 2.6. From 1890 to 2900 the urban population (i.e. the population of places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 69,456 to 82,480, or 17.3%, the urban population in 1900 being 29.4% of the total; the semi-urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places, or the approximate equivalent, having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 36,867 to 83,740, 71.1% of the total increase in population; while the rural population (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) increased from 104,456 to 111,529, 10.7% of the total increase. The principal cities of the state are: the capital, Salt Lake City, pop. (1910) 92,777; Ogden, 25,580; Provo, 8925; and Logan, 7522.

Administration

The state is governed under the first constitution adopted on the 5th of November 1895, and amended in November 1900, November 2906, and November 1908. An amendment may be submitted to the people at the next general election by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house of the legislature, and only a majority of the electors voting thereon is required for approval. By a two-thirds majority the legislature may recommend that a constitutional convention be called; and if a majority of the electors at the next general election approve, the legislature shall provide for the convention, but the approval of a majority of the electors voting is necessary for ratification of the work of the convention. Article III., which guarantees religious freedom, forbids sectarian control of public schools, prohibits polygamy and defines the relation of the state to the public lands of the United States, is irrevocable except by consent of the United States. Every citizen of the United States, male or female, twenty-one years old or over, who has lived one year within the state, four months within the county and sixty days within the precinct has the right of suffrage, except that idiots, insane, and those convicted of treason or crime against the elective franchise are disfranchised; but in elections levying a special tax, creating indebtedness or increasing the rate of state taxation, only those who have paid a property tax during the preceding year may vote. A form of the Australian ballot with party columns is provided at public expense. As in so many of the newer Western states, the constitution specifies minutely many details which in the older instruments are left to be fixed by statute. For example, the employment of women or of children under fourteen in mines and the leasing of convict labour by contract are forbidden, and eight hours must constitute a day's work in state, county or municipal undertakings.

Executive

The executive department consists of the governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, attorneygeneral and superintendent of public instruction, all elected by the people at the time of the presidential election, and holding office for four years from the first day of January following. All these officers must be qualified electors and must have resided within the state for five years preceding their election. The auditor and treasurer may not succeed themselves, and governor and secretary of state must be at least thirty years old. The governor may call the legislature in extraordinary session or may summon the Senate alone. With the consent of the Senate he appoints all officers whose election or appointment is not otherwise provided for, including the bank examiner, state chemist, dairy and food commissioners, the boards of labour and health; the directors of the state institutions, &c., and fills all vacancies in elective offices until new officers are chosen and qualified. The governor, justices of the supreme court and the attorney-general constitute a board of pardons. The governor and other state officers form other boards, but the legislature is given power to establish special boards of directors. The veto of the governor, which extends to separate items in appropriation bills, can be overcome only by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature; but if the bill is not returned to the legislature, within five days it becomes a law without the governor's approval. The governor may not be elected to the United States Senate during his gubernatorial term.

Legislative

The legislative power is vested in (I) the legislature, consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives, and (2) in the people of Utah. The legislature meets biennially on the second Monday in January of the odd-numbered years. No person is eligible to either house who is not a citizen of the United States, twenty-five years of age, a resident of the state for three years and of the district from which he is chosen for one year. Senators are elected for four years, but one-half the membership of the Senate retires every two years. The representatives are elected for two years. No person who holds any office of profit or trust under the state or the United States is eligible to the legislature, and no member, during the term for which he was chosen, shall be appointed or elected to any office created, or the emoluments of which have been increased during his term. Each house is the judge of the election and qualification of its own members. The membership of each house is fixed by law every five years, but the number of senators must never exceed thirty, and the number of representatives must never be less than twice nor more than three times the number of senators. In 1909 the Senate had eighteen and the House forty-five members. The legislature is forbidden to pass any special act where a general law can be made applicable, and is specifically forbidden to pass special acts on a number of subjects, including divorce, the rate of interest, and the incorporation of cities, towns or villages, or the amendment of their charters, &c. Neither the state nor any political subdivision may lend its credit or subscribe to the stock of any private corporation. The powers of the houses are the same, except that the Senate confirms or rejects the governor's nominations and sits as an impeachment court, while the Representatives initiate impeachments. By an amendment of 1900, the legislature was instructed to provide that a fixed fraction of the voters might cause any law to be submitted to the people, or that they might require any legislative act (except one passed by a two-thirds vote of each house) to be so submitted before going into effect, but up to 1910 no law had been passed putting the amendment into force.

Judiciary

The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in the Supreme Court, the district courts, in justices of the peace, and in " such inferior courts as may be established by law." The Supreme Court is composed of three justices (but the number may be increased to five whenever the legislature shall deem it expedient) each of whom must be thirty years old, learned in the law, and a resident of the state for five years preceding his election. They are elected by the people for a term of six years, but the term of one expires every two years, and that justice who shall have the shortest time to serve acts as chief justice. The court has original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, certiorari, prohibition, quo warranto and habeas corpus. Otherwise its jurisdiction is exclusively appellate, and every final decision of a district court is subject to review. The court holds three terms yearly in the capital. The state is divided into seven districts, in which from one to four judges are elected for terms of four years. They must be twenty-five years old, residents of the state for three years, and of the district in which they are chosen. They have original jurisdiction of civil, criminal and probate matters, not specifically assigned to other tribunals, and appellate jurisdiction from the inferior courts. At least three terms yearly must be held in each county. In cities of the second class (5000-30,00o inhabitants) municipal courts may be established. In cities of the first class (30,000 or more) a city court was established in 1901. Special juvenile courts may be established in cities of the first and second class. Each precinct elects a justice of the peace, who has civil jurisdiction when the debt or damage claimed does not exceed three hundred dollars, and has primary criminal jurisdiction.

Local Government

The county is the unit of local government. The chief fiscal and police authority is the Board of County Commissioners of three members, two elected every two years, one for two years and one for four. They create and alter subdivisions, levy taxes, care for the poor, construct, maintain and make regulations for roads and bridges, erect and care for public buildings, grant franchises, issue licences, supervise county officers, make and enforce proper police regulations (but the authority does not extend to incorporated towns or cities), and perform such other duties as may be authorized by law. Other county officers are the clerk (who is ex officio clerk of the district court and of the commissioners), sheriff, treasurer, auditor, recorder, surveyor, assessor, attorney and superintendent of district schools, but where the assessed valuation of any county is less than $20,000,000 the clerk is ex officio auditor, and the commissioners may consolidate offices. The precincts are laid off by the commissioners and each elects a justice of the peace and a constable. Cities are divided into classes (see above) according to population, and are governed by a mayor and a council. In cities of the first class fifteen, and of the second ten, councilmen are elected by wards, while in cities of the third class (all having less than 5000 inhabitants) five councilmen are elected on a general ticket.

Miscellaneous Laws. - Men and women may hold and dispose of property on the same terms, except that a husband cannot devise more than two-thirds of real estate away from his wife without her consent, and that a woman attains her majority at eighteen or when she' marries. The property of an intestate leaving a widow or widower, but no issue, goes to the survivor if not over $5000 in value; if over that amount, one-half the excess goes to the survivor and one-half to the father and mother of the deceased or to either of them. If neither father nor mother survives, their share goes to the brothers and sisters of the deceased or to their descendants. If there are no descendants, the whole goes to the surviving husband or wife. If a husband or wife and one child survive, they share the estate equally; if more than one child, the surviving husband or wife takes one-third and the children divide the remainder. If the intestate leaves issue but no husband or wife, the issue takes the whole. Failing all these, the estate goes to the next of kin. An illegitimate child is an heir of its mother and of the person who acknowledges himself to be its father. Estates exceeding $10,000 pay an inheritance tax of 5% on the excess. A homestead not exceeding $1500 for the head of the family and $500 additional for the husband or wife and $250 additional for each other member of the family is not subject to execution except for the purchase price, or mechanic's and labourer's liens, lawful mortgage or taxes. The district courts have exclusive jurisdiction in divorce, which may be granted because of impotency at time of marriage, adultery, wilful desertion for more than one year, wilful neglect to provide the necessities of life, habitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, intolerable cruelty, and permanent insanity which has existed for at least five years. An interlocutory decree is entered which becomes absolute at the end of six months, unless appeal is entered. The guilty party forfeits all rights acquired through marriage. Children over ten years of age may select the parent to whom they will attach themselves. A marriage may be annulled on ground of idiocy, insanity, bigamy, loathsome disease at time of marriage, epilepsy, miscegenation (white and negro or white and Mongolian), or when a male is less than sixteen or a female less than fourteen years of age. A marriage licence is required. No female and no male under fourteen may work in a mine. Eight hours is the limit of a day's work in mines and smelters. A person sentenced to death may choose one of two methods of execution - hanging or shooting.

Education

Before 1890 some districts in the state under a local option law had established free schools, but the general free school system was founded in 1890 by a law which consolidated all the districts in each city into one large school district and classified Salt Lake City as a city of the first class, and Ogden, Logan and Provo as cities of the second class for school purposes; in 1908-9 six county school districts of the first class were formed. In 1892-1893 text-books and supplies were first furnished free to pupils in the grades; and in the same year supervisory work was introduced. At the head of the public school system is a state superintendent of public instruction, elected for four years, and a board of education, composed of the state superintendent, the president of the state university, the president of the Agricultural College, and two appointees of the governor serving for four years. There is a county superintendent whose term is two years. And in each district there is a board of three trustees, one retiring each year. Two or more contiguous districts may unite to form a high school district. School attendance is compulsory for twenty weeks each year in rural districts and for thirty weeks each year in cities of the first and second class for all children between eight and sixteen years. In 1900 the percentage of illiterates at least ten years old was 3.1. In 1909 there were 685 public schools in the state; the total number of pupils of school age (six to eighteen years) was 102,050, the number enrolled in the public schools was 84,804, and the average daily attendance was 66,774; the total number of teachers was 2255 (1645 women), and the average monthly salary of men teachers was 888.13 and of women $57.44; and the total expenditure for public education was $2,762,581 for the year, being more than twice as much as was expended by the state ten years before. The laws of the state provide for a commission, in cities and counties, for the retirement of public school teachers on a pension. The university of Utah at Salt Lake City was opened in 1850 as the state university of the " state of Deseret." The State Agricultural College and Experiment Station (1888) is at Logan. At Cedar City, in Iron county, is a branch normal school, connected with the state university. There is a state school for the deaf and the blind (1884) at Ogden. The Art Institute at Salt Lake City has an annual art exhibit, a state art collection, and a course of public lectures on art. There is a state commission which promotes the establishment of free libraries and gymnasiums. The Mormons control Brigham Young University (1876) at Provo, Brigham Young College (1878) at Logan, the Latterday Saints University (1887) at Salt Lake City, and academies at Ogden, Ephraim, Castle Dale, Beaver and Vernal. Other denominational schools are: St Mary's Academy (1875; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City; All Hallows College (1886; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City; Westminster College (1897; Presbyterian) in Salt Lake City, and Presbyterian academies at Logan, Springville and Mt. Pleasant; Rowland Hall Academy (1880; Protestant Episcopal) for girls at Salt Lake City; and Gordon Academy (1870; Congregational) at Salt Lake City.

Charitable and Penal Institutions

The state supports a Mental Hospital (1884, with provision for feeble-minded and non-insane epileptics since 1907) at Provo, a state Industrial School (1889) at Ogden and a state prison (1850) at Salt Lake City. Under a law of 1905, amended in 1907 and 1909, provision is made for separate juvenile courts in all districts in which there are cities of the first (Salt Lake City) or the second class (Ogden, Logan and Provo) with jurisdiction over children under eighteen years of age; and similar jurisdiction is given to district courts elsewhere. In connexion with the juvenile court detention homes have been established, and in certain conditions justices of the peace are empowered to act as judges of the juvenile court in their respective precincts. There are many denominational charities, especially Mormon, the entire state being divided into ecclesiastical units or " stakes " for charity organization.

Finance

The principal source of public revenue is the property tax. An amendment of 1908 provides for the taxation of mines and mining property. The state assumed the Territorial debt of $700,000, and has added to it a bonded indebtedness of $200,000; the bonds, formerly 5%, have been refunded at 31 and 3%. There were only private banks until 1872, when Brigham Young organized a national bank. The first savings bank was organized in 1873, and state banks now outnumber national banks. The banking business for many years was largely in the hands of high Mormon officials, and the loyalty of church members built up a remarkable financial confidence, so that no Utah banks failed even in the panic of 1893.

History

Existing documents seem to indicate that Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the Spanish explorer, sent out an expedition of twelve men under Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas in 1540, which succeeded in reaching the Colorado river at a point now within the state of Utah. But more extended exploration was conducted by two Franciscan friars, Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who, on the 29th of July 1776, left Santa Fe with seven others to discover a direct route to Monterey on the coast of Alta, California. This party came in sight of Utah lake on the 23rd of August. Almost half a century later, in the winter of 1824-25, James Bridger, a trapper, discovered the Great Salt Lake while seeking the source of the Bear river. Many trappers in their skin boats followed his lead, notably William H. Ashley, of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, who, in 1825, at the head of about 120 men and a train of horses, left St Louis and established the fort named for him at Lake Utah. In 1843 General John C. Fremont with Kit Carson and three others explored the Great Salt Lake in a rubber boat. With Brigham Young and his little band of Mormon followers (between 140 and 150 members)., who entered the Great Salt Lake Valley in July 1847, begins the story of settlement and civilization (see Mormons). Before the end of 1848 about 5000 Mormons had settled in the Salt Lake Valley. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 2, 1848)1848) ceded to the United States the vast western territory which included Utah. Early in 1849 the Mormon community was organized as the state of Deseret 1 with Brigham Young as governor. Deseret then comprised not only the present state of Utah, but all Arizona and Nevada, together with parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and California. Application was made to Congress to admit it as a state or Territory, and on the 9th of September 1850 the Territory of Utah, then comprising the present state and portions of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, was established under an Act, which provided that it should be admitted as a state, with or without slavery, as the constitution adopted at the time of admission prescribed (see Compromise of 1850). The Republican party and (less violently) the Democratic in their national platforms and in Congress attacked and opposed the Mormon institution of polygamy. Statehood, therefore, was not granted until the 4th of January 1896, owing to the apparent hostility of the Mormon authorities to non-Mormon settlers and to repeated clashes between the Mormon Church and the United States government regarding extent of control, polygamous practices, &c. And even after the admission of the state these questions arose in the matter of seating prominent Mormons who were elected to Congress. For a detailed account of these difficulties and of the growth of the " Gentile " or nonMormon element see the article Mormons.

Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community. The waters of City Creek were at first diverted and a canal was built; and the results were encouraging, though in the summer of 1848 crops were destroyed by a swarm of black crickets; but in turn this pest was devoured by sea-gulls, and the phrase " gulls and crickets " has become one of peculiar historic significance in Utah. After 1849 the gold-fever horde bound for California furnished a source of revenue to the Mormons, as their settlement afforded an admirable post for supplies.

The division of land among the Mormons was singularly equitable. Each city block consisted of 10 acres divided into eight 14-acre lots, which were assigned to professional and business men. Then a tier of 5-acre lots was apportioned to mechanics, and ioand 20-acre parcels of land were given to farmers, according to the size of their families. As Great Salt Lake City grew all landholders benefited, either by the location of their property or because of its size, the smaller lots being closer to the business centre and the larger tracts being in the outlying districts.

In 1847 Brigham Young had succeeded Joseph Smith as president of the Mormons, and he held that position of veritable dictator until his death (1877); John Taylor succeeded him, and Wilford Woodruff in 1890 was chosen head of the organization; then Lorenzo Snow was president in 1898-1901, and Joseph Fielding Smith was elected in 1901.

From time to time the Indians have risen against the Mormons. Between 1857 and 1862 outbreaks were frequent, and on the 2 9 th of January 1863 occurred the battle of Bear river, where some 300 Shoshones and Bannocks and about 200 of Colonel P. E. Connor's command participated in a bloody engagement. In April 1865 an Indian war broke out under the leadership of Blackhawk, which lasted intermittently until the end of 1867. But in June 1865 treaties were concluded with the majority 'According to the Book of Mormon, " Deseret " means "land of the working bee." of Utah tribes, whereby they agreed to remove to Uinta Valley, where a reservation had been made for them. One other important reservation, the Uncompahgre, has also been opened for the Indians of the state.

The state has chosen Republican governors and, except in 1896, when it gave its electoral vote to W. J. Bryan, the Democratic candidate for the presidency, has voted for the Republican nominees in presidential elections.

GOVERNORS

State of Deseret

Brigham Young

1849-1 8 50

Territorial

Brigham Young

.

1850-1857

Alfred Cumming

.

1857-1861

John W. Dawson

.

1861

Frank Fuller (Acting Governor)

.

1861-1862

Stephen S. Harding. .

.

1862-1863

James Duane Doty. .

.

1863-1865

Charles Durkee.

.

1865-1869

Edwin Higgins (Acting Governor)

.

1869-1870

S. A. Mann (Acting Governor).

.

1870

J. Wilson Schaffer.. .

.

1870

Vernon H. Vaughan (Acting Governor)

.

1870-1871

George L. Woods

.

1871-1874

S. B. Axtell

.

1874-1875

George B. Emery

.

1875-1880

Eli H. Murray

.

1880-1886

Caleb W. West

.

1886-1889

Arthur L. Thoma

1889-1893

Caleb W. West

1893-1896

Heber M. Wells (Republican) .

. 1896-1905

John C. Cutler (Republican) .

.. 1905-1909

William Spry (Republican). .

. 1909-

State Governors Bibliography. - On the physiography of Utah see Henry Gannett, Gazetteer of Utah (Washington, 1900), being Bulletin 166 of the U.S. Geological Survey; J. W. Powell, Geology of the Uinta Mountains (ibid., 1876), Exploration of the Colorado River of the West (ibid., 1875), and The Lands of Utah (ibid., 1879); W. M. Davis, " An Excursion to the Plateau Province of Utah and Arizona " and " The Mountain Ranges of the Great Basin," in vol. 42 (1903) of Bulletin of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology; S. F. Emmons, " Uinta Mountains," in vol. 18 (1907) of the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America; C. E. Dutton, The High Plateaus of Utah (Washington, 1880); and G. K. Gilbert, Lake Bonneville (ibid., 1890), Monograph I. of the U.S. Geological Survey. On mineral wealth see Nichols, Mineral Resources of Utah (Pittsburg, 1873). For administration see James T. Hammond and Grant H. Smith (edd.), Compiled Laws of the State (Salt Lake City, 1908). The important titles for the history of the state are those given in the article Mormons, especially H. H. Bancroft, History of Utah (San Francisco, 1889), and 0. F. Whitney, History of Utah (4 vols., Salt Lake City, 1892-98).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Utah
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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

Spanish yuta from the Ute word entaw or yuta (“diggers of the mountain tops”).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Utah

Plural
-

Utah

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Salt Lake City.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ahtu
  • auth

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Utah
Flag of Utah State seal of Utah
Flag of Utah SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Beehive State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: "Industry"
Map of the United States with Utah highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Salt Lake City
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Salt Lake City
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Salt Lake City
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 13thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 84,889 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(219,887 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 270 miles (435 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 350 miles (565 km)
 - % water 3.25
 - Latitude 37° N to 42° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 3′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 34thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 2,233,169
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 27.2/sq mi 
10.50/km² (41st)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $50,614 (11th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Kings Peak[1]
13,528 ft  (4,126 m)
 - Mean 6,100 ft  (1,860 m)
 - Lowest point Beaver Dam Wash[2]
2,178 ft  (664 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  January 4, 1896 (45th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Jon Huntsman (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Orrin Hatch (R)
Bob Bennett (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations UTImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-UTImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.utah.gov


Utah (IPA: /ˈjutɑː/) is a U.S. state located in the western United States. It was the 45th state admitted to the union, on January 4 1896. Approximately 88 percent of Utah's 2,500,000 people, known as "Utahns," live in an urban concentration with Salt Lake City as the center, known as the Wasatch Front. In contrast, vast expanses of the state are nearly uninhabited, making the population the sixth most urbanized in the U.S.[3] The name "Utah" is derived from the Ute Indian language, meaning "people of the mountains".[4] Utah is known for its geological diversity ranging from snowcapped mountains to well-watered river valleys to rugged, stony deserts. It is also known for being one of the most religiously homogeneous states in the Union, with approximately 62 percent[5] of its inhabitants claiming membership in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which greatly influences Utah culture and daily life.

The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services and mining as well as a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. St. George was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000-2005[6] with Utah being the sixth fastest growing state overall in 2006.[7]

Contents

Geography

See also: List of Utah counties
Utah State Symbols
Living Symbols
 -Animal Rocky Mountain Elk
 -Bird California Gull
 -Butterfly
 -Fish Bonneville Cutthroat Trout
 -Flower Sego Lily
 -Furbearer
 -Grass Indian ricegrass
 -Insect European Honey Bee
 -Reptile
 -Tree Blue Spruce
 -Wildflower
Beverage
Capital Salt Lake City
Colors
Dance Square Dance
Fossil Allosaurus
Gemstone Topaz
Mineral Copper
Motto "Industry"
Musical Instrument
Neckwear
Nickname "Beehive State"
Rock Coal
Game Chess
Ship(s) USS Utah
Song Utah
Soil Mivida
Tartan Utah State Tartan
Waltz
Map of Utah
Delicate Arch, Arches National Park, Utah
Double Arch, a close-set pair of arches located in Arches National Park in Utah
Utah from space. The state is known for its diversity in geology, climate, and ecosystems.
Joshua Trees, yucca plants, and Jumping Cholla cactus occupy the far southwest corner of the state in the Mojave Desert.
Logan Canyon in northern Utah.
Mount Timpanogos in the Wasatch Range of the Rocky Mountains.

Utah is generally rocky with three distinct geological regions: the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau. Utah is known for its natural diversity and is home to features ranging from arid deserts with sand dunes to thriving pine forests in mountain valleys.

Utah is one of the Four Corners states, and is bordered by Idaho and Wyoming in the north; by Colorado in the east; at a single point by New Mexico to the southeast (at the Four Corners Monument); by Arizona in the south; and by Nevada in the west. It covers an area of 84,899 square miles (219,887 km²).

One of Utah's defining characteristics is the variety of its terrain. Running down the center of the state is the Wasatch Range, which rises to heights of about 12,000 feet (3,650 m) above sea level. Portions of these mountains receive more than 500 inches (12.7 m) of snow each year and are home to world-renowned ski resorts, made popular by the light, fluffy snow, which is considered good for skiing. In the northeastern section of the state, running east to west, are the Uinta Mountains, which rise to heights of 13,000 feet (3,950 m) or more. The highest point in the state, Kings Peak, at 13,528 feet (4,123 m),[1] lies within the Uinta Mountains.

At the western base of the Wasatch Range is the Wasatch Front, a series of valleys and basins that are home to the most populous parts of the state. The major cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, Layton, West Valley City, Sandy, West Jordan, Orem, and Provo are located within this region, which stretches approximately from Brigham City at the north end to Nephi at the south end. Approximately 75 percent of the population of the state lies in this corridor, and urban sprawl continues to expand along the edges of these valleys.

Western Utah is mostly arid desert with a basin and range topography. Small mountain ranges and rugged terrain punctuate the landscape. The Bonneville Salt Flats are an exception, being comparatively flat as a result of once forming the bed of Lake Bonneville. Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake and Little Salt Lake are all remnants of this ancient freshwater lake,[8] which once covered most of the eastern Great Basin. West of the Great Salt Lake, stretching to the Nevada border, lies the arid Great Salt Lake Desert.

Much of the scenic southern landscape is sandstone, specifically Kayenta sandstone and Navajo sandstone. The Colorado River and its tributaries wind their way through the sandstone, creating some of the world's most striking and wild terrain. Wind and rain have also sculpted the soft sandstone over millions of years. Canyons, gullies, arches, pinnacles, buttes, bluffs, and mesas are the common sight throughout south-central and southeast Utah. This terrain is the central feature of protected parks such as Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion national parks, Cedar Breaks, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Hovenweep, and Natural Bridges national monuments, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (site of the popular tourist destination, Lake Powell), Dead Horse Point and Goblin Valley state parks, and Monument Valley (a popular photographic and filming site).

Southwestern Utah is the lowest and hottest spot in Utah. It is known as Utah's Dixie because early settlers were able to grow limited amounts of cotton there. Beaverdam Wash in far southwestern Utah is the lowest point in the state, at 2,000 feet (610 m).[1] The northernmost portion of the Mojave Desert is also located in this area. Dixie is quickly becoming a popular recreational and retirement destination, and the population is growing rapidly. Just north of Dixie is the state's highest ski resort, Brian Head.

Eastern Utah is a high-elevation area covered mostly by plateaus and basins. Economies are dominated by mining, oil and natural gas-drilling, ranching, and recreation. Much of eastern Utah is part of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. The Navajo Nation also extends into southeastern Utah. The most popular destination within eastern Utah is Dinosaur National Monument near Vernal.

Like most of the Western and Southwestern states, the federal government owns much of the land in Utah. Over 70 percent of the land is either BLM land, Utah State Trustland, or U.S. National Forest, U.S. National Park, U.S. National Monument, National Recreation Area or U.S. Wilderness Area.

Climate

Most of Utah is arid and high in elevation. Much of eastern and southern Utah receives 12 inches (300 mm) or less of precipitation per year, while many mountain areas receive more than 40 inches (1 m) per year, with some areas receiving up to 60 in (1.5 m). Much of western Utah receives less than 10 inches (25 cm), while the Wasatch Front receives approximately 15 inches (38 cm). The Great Salt Lake Desert is especially dry, receiving less than 5 inches (13 cm) annually. Snowfall is common in winter everywhere except the southern border and the Great Salt Lake Desert. St. George averages about 3 inches (7.5 cm) of snow per year, while Salt Lake City receives almost 60 inches (1.5 m) annually (amplified by the lake effect from the Great Salt Lake). Many mountain areas receive in excess of 350 inches (9 m) of snow in a year, while portions of the Wasatch Range receive up to 500 inches (12.7 m). Snowfall is common from November through mid-April in the lower elevations and from October through May in the mountains. The mountains often remain snow-covered into July. Fog and haze caused by temperature inversions are common in the valleys and basins during winter, especially the Uinta Basin, just south of the Uinta Mountains.

The Great Salt Lake

During summer and fall, most of the precipitation is received from the storms coming from the south and consists of short, sporadic, and intense thunderstorms that can cause wildfires and flash floods. Most precipitation during the rest of the year is received from the Pacific Ocean. Spring is the wettest season across the north, while late summer and early fall are the wettest times in the south, and winter is the wettest season in most of the mountain areas.

Temperatures during the winter across most of Utah are below freezing. High temperatures average between 25 °F (-4 °C) and 50 °F (10 °C) across the state. Days below 0 °F (-18 °C) can be expected in many areas at least once a year, but in most of the populated areas, periods of subzero temperature are usually short in duration and not severe. Some mountain valleys are very cold in winter. The town of Randolph sees an average of about 50 days a year where temperatures drop below 0 °F (-18 °C).

Mountains to the north and east of the state sometimes serve as barriers to Arctic air. In the summer, high temperatures average between 85 °F (29 °C) and 100 °F (38 °C). Days over 100 °F (38 °C) can be expected in most areas below 5,000 feet (1,500 m) at least once per year and are the norm in the southern valleys. The record high temperature in Utah was 118 °F (47 °C), recorded south of St. George on July 4, 2007,[9] and the record low was -69 °F (-56 °C), recorded at Peter's Sink in the Bear River Mountains of northern Utah on February 1, 1985.[10]

Utah, like most of the western United States, has few days of thunderstorms. On average there are fewer than 40 days of thunderstorm activity during the year, although these storms can be briefly intense when they do occur. Tornadoes are uncommon in Utah, with an average of two striking the state yearly, rarely higher than F1 intensity.[11]

History

Main article: History of Utah

Mormon settlement

Following the assassination of Joseph Smith, in Carthage, Illinois, in 1844, the more than 11,000[12] Latter-Day Saints remaining in Nauvoo struggled in conflict with neighbors until Brigham Young, the President of the Council of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, emerged as their new leader. Brigham Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers came to the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers crossed the plains and settled in Utah.[13]

For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive. The barren desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable only because no one else would want it and they could practice their religion in peace - something they had not been afforded while the church migrated from one state to another, followed by persecution, during the first 20 years since the founding of the church in 1830.

It is not widely known that Utah was the source of many pioneer settlements located elsewhere in the West. From the beginning, Salt Lake City was seen as only the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth"[14] of Mormon settlements. Fed by a constant supply of church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders often assigned groups of church members to establish settlements throughout the West. Beginning with settlements along Utah's Wasatch front (Salt Lake City, then Bountiful and Weber Valley, then Provo and Utah Valley), irrigation enabled the establishment of fairly large pioneer populations in an area that Jim Bridger had advised Young would be inhospitable for the cultivation of crops because of frost.[15] Throughout the remainder of the 1800s, Mormon pioneers called by Brigham Young would leave Salt Lake City and establish hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Wyoming, California, Canada, and Mexico - including such notable places as Las Vegas, Nevada, Franklin, Idaho (the first white settlement in Idaho), San Bernardino, California, Star Valley, Wyoming, and Carson Valley, Nevada. Prominent settlements in Utah included St. George, Logan, and Manti (where settlers raised the three first temples in Utah, each built many years before the larger and better known temple built in Salt Lake City was completed in 1892), as well as Parowan, Cedar City, Bluff, Moab, Vernal, Fillmore (which served as the territorial capital between 1850 and 1856), Nephi, Levan, Spanish Fork, Springville, Provo Bench (now Orem), Pleasant Grove, American Fork, Lehi, Sandy, Murray, Jordan, Centerville, Farmington, Huntsville, Kaysville, Grantsville, Tooele, Roy, Brigham City, and many other smaller towns and settlements. At the time, Young had an expansionist's view of the territory he and the Mormon pioneers were settling, calling it Deseret - which church founder Smith had taught meant "honeybee" - hence the beehive which can still be found on the Utah flag, and the state's motto, "Industry."[16]

In 1847 when the first pioneers arrived, Utah was still Mexican territory. As a consequence of the Mexican-American War, the land became the territory of the United States upon the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on March 10. In 1850, the Utah Territory was created with the Compromise of 1850, and Fillmore was designated the capital. In 1856, Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital.

Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the US Government intensified due to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' practice of plural marriage among its members. The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. The U.S. Government, which was reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.

After news of their polygamous practices spread, the members of the LDS Church were quickly viewed as un-American and rebellious. In 1857, after news of a false rebellion spread, the government sent troops on the "Utah expedition" to quell the supposed rebellion and to replace Brigham Young as territorial governor with Alfred Cumming. The resulting conflict is known as the Utah War.

As troops approached Salt Lake in northern Utah, nervous Mormon settlers and Paiutes attacked and killed 120 immigrants from Arkansas in southern Utah. The attack became known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre. The massacre became a point of contention between LDS leaders and the federal government for decades. Only one person, John D. Lee, was ever convicted of the murders, and he was executed at the massacre site.

Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the unresponsiveness of their supposed territorial government. By agreement with Young, Johnston established Fort Floyd 40 miles (60 km) away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.

Salt Lake City was the last link of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, completed in October of 1861. Brigham Young was among the first to send a message, along with Abraham Lincoln and other officials.

Bonneville Salt Flats

Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory, leaving the territory in LDS hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. Connor established Fort Douglas just three miles (5 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the state. Minerals were discovered in Tooele County, and miners began to flock to the territory.

Beginning in 1865, Utah's Black Hawk War developed into the deadliest conflict in the territory's history. Chief Antonga Black Hawk died in 1870, but fights continued to break out until additional federal troops were sent in to suppress the Ghost Dance of 1872. The war is unique among Indian Wars because it was a three-way conflict, with mounted Timpanogos Utes led by Antonga Black Hawk exploited by federal and LDS authorities.

On May 10, 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, north of the Great Salt Lake. The railroad brought increasing numbers of people into the state, and several influential businesspeople made fortunes in the territory.

During the 1870s and 1880s, laws were passed to punish polygamists, and in the 1890 Manifesto, the LDS Church banned polygamy. When Utah applied for statehood again, it was accepted. One of the conditions for granting Utah statehood was that a ban on polygamy be written into the state constitution. This was a condition required of other western states that were admitted into the Union later. Statehood was officially granted on January 4, 1896. Utah was the last state admitted in the Nineteenth century.

Alpine Loop near Sundance in the fall.

1900s to present

Beginning in the early 1900s, with the establishment of such national parks as Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park, Utah began to become known for its natural beauty. Southern Utah became a popular filming spot for arid, rugged scenes, and such natural landmarks as Delicate Arch and "the Mittens" of Monument Valley are instantly recognizable to most national residents. During the 1950s, '60s, and '70s, with the construction of the Interstate highway system, accessibility to the southern scenic areas was made easier.

Beginning in 1939, with the establishment of Alta Ski Area, Utah has become world-renowned for its skiing. The dry, powdery snow of the Wasatch Range is considered some of the best skiing in the world. Salt Lake City won the bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics in 1995, and this has served as a great boost to the economy. The ski resorts have increased in popularity, and many of the Olympic venues scattered across the Wasatch Front continue to be used for sporting events. This also spurred the development of the light-rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, and the re-construction of the freeway system around the city.

During the late 20th century, the state grew quickly. In the 1970s, growth was phenomenal in the suburbs. Sandy was one of the fastest-growing cities in the country at that time. Today, many areas of Utah are seeing phenomenal growth. Northern Davis, southern and western Salt Lake, Summit, eastern Tooele, Utah, Wasatch, and Washington counties are all growing very quickly. Transportation and urbanization are major issues in politics as development consumes agricultural land and wilderness areas.

Demographics

Utah Population Density Map

The center of population of Utah is located in Utah County in the city of Lehi.[17] As of 2005, Utah has an estimated population of 2,469,585, which is an increase of 48,877, or 2.0 percent, from the prior year and an increase of 236,387, or 10.6 percent, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 186,411 people (that is 254,433 births minus 68,022 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,173 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 49,995 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 33,822 people.

Much of the population lives in cities and towns along the Wasatch Front, a metropolitan region that runs north-south with the Wasatch Mountains rising on the eastern side. The rest of the state is mostly rural or wilderness. Utah has a higher percentage of people sharing a single religious denomination than any other state.

Utah county boundaries

Utah contains 5 metropolitan areas (Logan, Ogden-Clearfield, Salt Lake City, Provo-Orem, and St. George), and 5 micropolitan areas (Brigham City, Heber, Vernal, Price, and Cedar City).

The St. George metropolitan area is currently the second-fastest growing in the country after the Las Vegas metropolitan area, while the Heber micropolitan area is also the second-fastest growing in the country (behind Palm Coast).[18] Rural agricultural areas of Juab and Millard counties have seen rapid-growth in population as well.

Race and ancestry

{{US DemogTable|Utah|03-49.csv|= | 95.20| 1.14| 1.84| 2.20| 0.97|= | 8.62| 0.16| 0.26| 0.08| 0.05|= | 95.01| 1.32| 1.69| 2.40| 0.95|= | 10.39| 0.23| 0.26| 0.10| 0.05|= | 10.37| 28.78| 2.04| 21.00| 8.53|= | 8.09| 23.37| 0.78| 20.69| 8.43|= | 33.30| 61.74| 9.53| 28.88| 10.45}} The largest ancestry groups in the state are:

Most Utahns are of Northern European descent.[19] The state has the largest percentage of residents who claim British ancestry and the largest percentage of residents of Danish ancestry in the nation. Anglo-Utahns are the largest group in every county except for San Juan County, which has a large Navajo Indian population. Chinese form the largest Asian group followed by other Asian groups (i.e. Japanese-Americans, Koreans, Indians and Pakistanis), and Tongans form the largest Pacific Islander group, the majority are Mormons converted in the south Pacific under LDS missionary work programs. Hispanics are rapidly growing in the state, especially in Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Orem/Provo area from recent immigration from Latin America, mostly from Mexico but some Central American and South American groups. Despite its relatively scarce black population, Utah does have African-Americans and a sizable proportion of new Utah residents are blacks, usually made up of middle-class professionals from California, while there's a small black community in southern Salt Lake City and Ogden near Hill Air Force Base.

Religion

A majority of the state's residents are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, sometimes called the Mormons or the LDS Church. As of 2004, the percentage of Utahns that are counted as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is 62.4 percent of the state's population,[5] which represent less than 50 percent of the population in urban areas and over 90 percent in rural areas. The only other state in the nation in which a majority of the population belongs to a single religious body is Rhode Island. There is a large and increasing number of Catholics in Utah as a result of immigration from Mexico, along with previous waves of Catholics from Italy, Austria, Germany and Ireland. Other Christian faiths in the state are mostly made up of Protestants, including Baptists, Lutherans and Methodists, which comprise about one-quarter of Utah's population. The Salt Lake Tribune has projected that Latter-day Saints may no longer be a majority in the state, not just the case in Salt Lake City, as early as 2030.[5]

Cathedral of the Madeline, Salt Lake City.
LDS Temple in Monticello.

The LDS Church has historically had a strong regional influence and has contributed to the state's restrictive attitude towards alcohol and gambling, while also contributing to its high birth rate (25 percent higher than the national average; the highest for a state in the U.S.).[20] Before the 1890 Manifesto, the Church's teachings of plural marriage had led to confrontation with the U.S. federal government in the Utah War.[21] The Mormons in Utah tend to have conservative views when it comes to most political issues and the majority of Utahns are registered Republicans.

The self identified religious affiliations of adults (note that numbers below do not include children, thus the disparity with the percentage identified above) living in Utah are:

Totals are rounded. Pentecostal, Judaism, Church of Christ, Non-denominational, United Church of Christ, Jehovah's Witness, Assemblies of God, Buddhist, Church of God, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church each represent less than .5 percent of the population.

Age and sex

Due to its high total birth rate (highest of any state in the U.S.), Utah has the youngest population of any state.

The age distribution in Utah is:

  • 9.4 percent under age 5
  • 32.2 percent under age 18
  • 59.3 percent ages 18 through 64
  • 8.5 percent 65 or older

The gender makeup of Utah is:

  • 49.9 percent female
  • 50.1 percent male

Economy

File:Bryce Canyon Amphitheater Hoodoos Panorama.jpg
Bryce Canyon National Park is a major tourist attraction

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the gross state product of Utah in 2004 was $82.6 billion. The per capita personal income was $26,606 in 2004. Major industries of Utah include: mining, cattle ranching, salt production, and government services.

According to the 2007 State New Economy Index, Utah is ranked the top state in the nation for Economic Dynamism, determined by
"The degree to which state economies are knowledge-based, globalized, entrepreneurial, information technology-driven and innovation-based."

In eastern Utah petroleum production is a major industry.[22] Near Salt Lake City, petroleum refining is done by a number of oil companies. In central Utah, coal production accounts for much of the mining activity.

Tourism is a major industry in Southern Utah, with Utah's five national parks (Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef, and Zion) and many other attractions. In Moab mountain biking is a popular sport. Research, information technology development, and service based industries are important economic activities along the Salt Lake City-Ogden-Provo corridor. Utah is also noted for its ski resorts, near Salt Lake City, Park City, Ogden, Provo, and Cedar City (Brian Head).

Utah collects personal income tax within 6 income brackets. The state sales tax has a base rate of 5.75 percent, with cities and counties levying additional local sales taxes that vary among the municipalities. Property taxes are assessed and collected locally. Utah does not charge intangible property taxes and does not impose an inheritance tax.

Tourism

Utah has a large tourism business and was host to the 2002 Winter Olympics. The ski resorts in the northern Wasatch Range, the Bonneville Salt Flats, the Great Salt Lake, the five national parks in the south, such as Arches, Zion and Bryce Canyon, and cultural attractions such as Temple Square, Sundance Film Festival, and the Utah Shakespearean Festival are among the most visited. For more information on Utah parks, outdoor recreation, lodging, and much more, please visit the official site of tourism for the state of Utah at Utah.com.

Bridal Veil Falls in Provo Canyon between Orem and Heber City.

Mining

Beginning in the late 19th century with the state's mining boom (including the Bingham Canyon Mine, among the world's largest open pit mines), companies attracted large numbers of immigrants (of diverse faiths) with job opportunities. Since the days of the Utah Territory mining has played a major role in Utah's economy. Historical mining towns include Mercur in Tooele County, Silver Reef in Washington County, Eureka in Juab County, and Park City in Summit County were characteristic of the boom and bust cycle that dominated mining towns of the American West. During the early part of the Cold War era, uranium was mined in eastern Utah. Today mining activity still plays a major role in the state's economy. Minerals mined in Utah include copper, gold, silver, molybdenum, zinc, lead, and beryllium. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.[23]

Bingham Canyon Mine southwest of Salt Lake City.
Coal mine near Price, Utah.

Transportation

Further information: List of Utah State RoutesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif and Utah Transit AuthorityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif

Interstate 15 is the main interstate highway in the state, entering from Arizona and spanning the state north-south, entering Idaho near Portage. It serves the primary population centers of the state, running past St. George and its suburbs (collectively known as Dixie) and Cedar City, and then spans the length of the Wasatch Front north-south, past such major cities as Provo, Orem, Sandy, West Jordan, Salt Lake City, Layton, and Ogden.

Interstate 80 spans the northern portion of the state west-east. It enters from Nevada at Wendover, traverses Salt Lake City (briefly merging with I-15 west of Downtown), then crosses the Wasatch Range, entering Wyoming just before reaching Evanston. Interstate 84 splits from I-80 at Echo, heading west through the Wasatch Range and joining I-15 southwest of Ogden. The two interstates stay merged until Tremonton, where I-84 heads northwest, entering Idaho near Snowville.

Interstate 70 splits from I-15 at Cove Fort, heading east through the mountains, past Richfield, and then east into Colorado west of Grand Junction, traversing desolate desert terrain and serving the various national parks and national monuments of southern Utah. The stretch of I-70 between Salina and Green River is the longest stretch of interstate in the country without any services.

U.S. Highway 6 in Emery County.

A light rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, consists of two lines, one providing access from Downtown Salt Lake City south to Sandy, and the other heading east to the University of Utah. The Utah Transit Authority (UTA), which operates TRAX, also operates a bus system that stretches across the Wasatch Front and into Tooele, and also provides winter service to the ski resorts east of Salt Lake City. Several bus companies provide access to the ski resorts in winter, and local bus companies also serve Logan, St. George and Cedar City. The Legacy Highway is a freeway that is currently under construction in southern Davis County to relieve congestion on I-15 through the area. A commuter rail line, named FrontRunner, is under construction between Salt Lake City and Pleasant View, north of Ogden. Both of these projects are expected to be completed in spring 2008. FrontRunner is expected to eventually span the Wasatch Front from Brigham City in the north to Payson in the south.

Salt Lake City International Airport is the only international airport in the state and serves as a hub of Delta Airlines. In 2005 it was ranked 1st in on-time departures and 2nd in on-time arrivals in the country, and consistently ranks in the top 10 for customer service. Canyonlands Field (near Moab), Cedar City Regional Airport, St. George Municipal Airport, and Vernal-Uintah County Airport all provide limited commercial air service to various regional destinations, as well (Vernal-Uintah County is only served by Salt Lake International). Ground has recently been broken on creating a new, larger regional airport for St. George, due to the rapidly-growing population and the lack of room for expansion for the current airport. Completion is expected in 2010. SkyWest Airlines is also based in St. George.

Law and government

Further information: List of Utah GovernorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifList of Utah State LegislaturesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifUtah State SenateImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif, and Utah State House of RepresentativesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif

Utah government, like most U.S. states, is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor of Utah is Jon Huntsman The governor is elected for a four year term. The Utah State Legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. State senators serve four year terms and representatives two year terms. The Utah Legislature meets each year in January for an annual forty-five day session. The Utah Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Utah. It consists of five justices, who are appointed by the governor, and then subject to retention election. The Utah Court of Appeals handles cases from the trial courts.[24] Trial level courts are the district courts and justice courts. All justices and judges, like those on the Utah Supreme Court, are subject to retention election after appointment.

Early suffrage

Utah granted full voting rights to women in 1870, 26 years before becoming a state. Among all U.S. states, only Wyoming granted suffrage to women earlier.[25] However, in 1887 the Edmunds-Tucker Act was passed by Congress in an effort to curtail excessive Mormon influence in the territorial government. One of the provisions of the Act was the repeal of suffrage; full suffrage was not returned until Utah was admitted to the Union in 1896.

Constitution

The constitution of Utah was enacted in 1895. Notably, the constitution outlawed polygamy and reestablished the territorial practice of women's suffrage. Utah's Constitution has been amended many times since its inception.[26]

Other laws

Utah is also one of only two states in the United States to outlaw all forms of gambling; the other is Hawaii. Utah is an alcoholic beverage control state. The Utah Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control regulates the sale of alcohol; wine and spirituous liquors may only be purchased at state liquor stores, and local laws may prohibit the sale of beer and other alcoholic beverages on Sundays.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 71% 663,742 26% 241,199
2000 67% 512,168 26% 201,734
1996 54% 361,911 33% 221,633
1992 43% 322,632 25% 183,429
1988 66% 428,442 32% 207,343

Historically, politics in Utah have been controversial, such as the Federal government versus the LDS Church on the issue of polygamy. The LDS Church renounced polygamy in 1890, and in 1896 Utah gained admission to the Union. Many new people settled the area soon after the Mormon pioneers. Relations have often been strained between the LDS population and the non-LDS population.[27] These tensions played a large part in Utah's history, such as (Liberal Party vs. People's Party).

The Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City.
The Scott Matheson Courthouse is the seat of the Utah Supreme Court

The current governor of Utah is Jon M. Huntsman,[28] a member of the Republican Party. He is a proponent of a flat tax,[29] an opponent to same-sex marriage, while supporting the creation of a reciprocal beneficiary status for same-sex couples,[30] and an opponent to intelligent design being taught in the classroom.[31] He also receives high approval ratings from across the Utah political spectrum.[32]

Both of Utah's U.S. Senators, Orrin Hatch and Robert Foster Bennett, are Republican. Two more Republicans, Rob Bishop and Chris Cannon, as well as one member of the Democratic Party, Jim Matheson, represent Utah in the United States House of Representatives.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the religion of the majority of Utahns, and the majority of politicians in Utah from both political parties are LDS. While the Church maintains an official policy of neutrality in regards to political parties and candidates,[33] Utah votes predominately Republican. Self-identified Latter-day Saints are more likely to vote for Republican ticket than non-Mormons, and Utah is one of the most Republican states in the nation.[34] The connection between the LDS Church and the Republican Party of Utah is controversial.

In the 1970s, then-Apostle Ezra Taft Benson was quoted by the Associated Press that it would be difficult for a faithful Latter-day Saint to be a liberal Democrat.[35] For example, the Republican Party of Utah opposes almost all abortions while Utah Democrats take a more liberal approach, although more conservative than their national counterparts. On Second Amendment issues, the state GOP has been at odds with the LDS Church position opposing concealed firearms in places of worship.

The LDS Church itself has been troubled by the perception of political bias in the wake of Massachusetts Republican Mitt Romney's prospective presidential run.[36] In 1998 the Church expressed concern that Utahns perceived the Republican Party as an LDS institution and authorized lifelong Democrat and Seventy Marlin Jensen to promote LDS bipartisanship.[35]

Governor elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 57% 473,814 42% 350,841
2000 56% 422,357 43% 320,141
1996 75% 500,293 24% 155,294

The state's leadership is run by the Republican Party. State governors are usually centrist on social issues and favor free trade on economic policies, while the state senate and house are much more polarized with Republican members passing very socially conservative policies on party-line and partisan votes. Many of these bills have been subsequently vetoed by the governors.

While the people of the state are generally more tolerant of gay rights and polls indicate that a majority of residents support some form of legal recognition for same-sex couples, the state legislature is markedly more hostile. About 80 percent of Utah's Legislature are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[37] while they account for 62 percent of the population.[5]

In 2006, the legislature passed legislation aimed at banning joint-custody for a non-biological parent of a child. The custody measure passed the legislature and was vetoed by the governor, a reciprocal benefits supporter.

Senator Bennett results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 69% 626,640 28% 258,955
1998 64% 33%

Prayers are commonplace in Utah politics, and lawmakers of both parties, whether liberal or conservative, speak of their relationship with God or their religious beliefs in ordinary conversation.

Utah's liberal areas include Carbon County, Grand County, Salt Lake County, and Summit County. Currently, both Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County have Democratic Party mayors and are home to about one million of the state's two and a half million residents. Salt Lake City's Mayor Rocky Anderson supports same-sex marriage and the Kyoto Treaty, while the county mayor Peter Corroon is a relative of Howard Dean and shares similar views. Salt Lake City has not voted for a Republican mayor since the 1970s. Salt Lake County's Democrats tend to favor the economic policies of free trade while being socially liberal, particularly with gay rights and less so with abortion.

Senator Hatch results
Year Republican Democratic
2006 NA NA
2000 66% 501,925 32% 241,129

Carbon County's Democrats are generally made up of members of the large Greek, Italian,and Southeastern European communities, whose ancestors migrated in the early 1900s to work in the extensive mining industry. The views common amongst this group are heavily influenced by labor politics, particularly of the New Deal Era.[38]

Grand County's politics are heavy on environmentalism and being socially liberal. The county has a large hippie community situated in the popular tourist destination, Moab, in red rock country between Arches National Park and Canyonlands National Park.

The Democrats of Summit County are the by-product of the migration of wealthy families from California in the 1990s to the ski resort town of Park City; their views are generally supportive of the economic policies favored by unions and the social policies favored by the liberals.

Salt Lake County Mayor
Year Republican Democratic
2004 44% 144,928 48% 157,287
2000 52% 158,787 47% 144,011

The state's most Republican areas tend to be Utah County, which is the home to Brigham Young University and Provo, and nearly all the rural counties.[39][40] These areas generally hold socially conservative views in line with that of the national Religious Right.

The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964. Historically, Republican presidential nominees score one of their best margins of victory here. Utah was the Republicans' best state in the 1976,[41] 1980,[42] 1984,[43] 1988,[44] 1996,[45] 2000,[46] and 2004[47] elections. In 1992, Utah was the only state in the nation where Democratic candidate Bill Clinton finished behind both Republican candidate George H. W. Bush and Independent candidate Ross Perot.[48] In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won every county in the state and Utah gave him his largest margin of victory of any state. He won the state's 5 electoral votes by a margin of 46 percentage points with 71.5 percent of the vote. In the 1996 Presidential elections the Republican candidate received a smaller 54 percent of the vote while the Democrat earned 34 percent.[49]

Important cities and towns

Main articles: List of cities in Utah and List of cities in Utah (by population)
See also: Utah locations by per capita income
Salt Lake City
Ogden
Provo
Sandy
Park City
St. George
Logan

Utah's population is concentrated in two areas, the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, with a population of approximately 2 million; and southwestern Utah, locally known as "Dixie", with nearly 150,000 residents.

According the 2000 Census, Utah was the fourth fastest growing state (at 29.6 percent) in the United States between 1990 and 2000. St. George, in the southwest, is the second-fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States, trailing Greeley.

The state's two fastest growing counties are: Summit (at 91.6 percent; ranking it 8th in the country) and Washington (at 86.1 percent; ranking it 12th). The cities (defined as having at least 9,000 residents in 2000) that saw the greatest increases between 1990 and 2000 were: Draper (248 percent), South Jordan (141 percent), Lehi (125 percent), Riverton (122 percent), and Syracuse (102 percent). Between 1990 and 2000 the five fastest-growing cities of any size were Cedar Hills (302 percent), Draper (248 percent), Woodland Hills (213 percent), Ivins (173 percent), and South Jordan (141 percent). According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the five fastest-growing cities of any size between 2000 and 2005 were Herriman (637 percent), Saratoga Springs (548 percent), Eagle Mountain (380 percent), Cedar Hills (152 percent), and Syracuse (91 percent).

Utah
Rank
City Population
(2005)
within
city limits
Land
area
Population
density
(/mi²)
Population
density
(/km²)
County
1 Salt Lake City 178,097 109.1 sq mi (283 km2) 1,632.4 630 Salt Lake
2 Provo 113,459 39.6 sq mi (103 km2) 2,865.1 1106 Utah
3 West Valley City 113,300 35.4 sq mi (92 km2) 3,200.5 1236 Salt Lake
4 West Jordan 91,444 30.9 sq mi (80 km2) 2,959.3 1143 Salt Lake
5 Orem 89,713 18.4 sq mi (48 km2) 4,875.7 1881 Utah
6 Sandy 89,664 22.3 sq mi (58 km2) 4,020.8 1551 Salt Lake
7 Ogden 78,309 26.6 sq mi (69 km2) 2,943.9 1137 Weber
8 St. George 64,201 64.4 sq mi (167 km2) 996.9 385 Washington
9 Layton 61,782 20.7 sq mi (54 km2) 2,984.6 1153 Davis
10 Taylorsville 58,009 10.7 sq mi (28 km2) 5,421.4 2094 Salt Lake
Combined statistical area Population
(2004)
Salt Lake City-Ogden-Clearfield
comprised of:
Salt Lake City and Ogden-Clearfield Metropolitan Areas and
Brigham City and Heber Micropolitan Areas (as listed below)
1,559,230
Utah
Rank
Metropolitan area Population
(2004)
U.S.
Rank
Counties
1 Salt Lake City* 1,018,826 50 Salt Lake, Tooele, Summit
2 Ogden-Clearfield* 477,455 101 Weber, Davis, Morgan
3 Provo-Orem 412,361 112 Utah
4 St. George 109,924 318 Washington
5 Logan 109,666 320 Cache, Franklin (Idaho)
  • Until 2003, the Salt Lake City and Ogden-Clearfield metropolitan areas were considered as a single metropolitan area.[50]
Utah
Rank
Micropolitan area Population
(2004)
U.S.
Rank
1 Brigham City 44,810 280
2 Cedar City 36,285 386
3 Vernal 26,671 495
4 Price 19,689 550
5 Heber 18,139 560

Colleges and Universities

Sports

The Utah Jazz of the National Basketball Association play in the EnergySolutions Arena[51] in Salt Lake City. Utah is the least populous U.S. state to have a major professional sports league franchise, although the District of Columbia has fewer people. Other teams include the Utah Blaze of the Arena Football League.

See also List of professional sports teams in Utah

Miscellaneous


Panoramic view of the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert.
Panoramic view of the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert.

Famous Utahns

Branding

The state of Utah relies heavily on income from tourists and travelers taking advantage of the state's ski resorts and natural beauty, and thus the need to "brand" Utah and create an impression of the state throughout the world has led to several state slogans, the most famous of which being "The Greatest Snow on Earth," which has been in use in Utah officially since 1975 (although the slogan was in unofficial use as early as 1962) and now adorns nearly 50 percent of the state's license plates. In 2001, Utah Governor Mike Leavitt approved a new state slogan, "Utah! Where Ideas Connect," which lasted until March 10, 2006, when the Utah Travel Council and the office of Governor Jon Huntsman announced that "Life Elevated" would be the new state slogan.[62]

At Dream Theater's Salt Lake City show, Governor Jon Huntsman signed a proclamation making July 30, 2007 "Dream Theater Day" in the state of Utah.

In entertainment

Utah is the setting of or the filming location for many books, films,[63] and television series.[63] A selective list of each appears below.

Books

Film

See also: Category:Films shot in Utah



  • "Joy Ride" Filmed in Utah though not in Salt Lake City according to the movie

Television

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  2. ^ {{cite web | last=Arave | first=Lynn | title=Utah's basement — Beaver Dam Wash is state's lowest elevation | publisher=Deseret Morning News | date=[[2006-08-31|]]
  3. ^ MSN Encarta
  4. ^ Utah Quick Facts at Utah.gov
  5. ^ a b c d Mormon portion of Utah population steadily shrinking. Matt Canham, [[Salt Lake Tribune|]].
  6. ^ [[U.S. Census Bureau|]], "State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006", Appendix E. - Ranking Tables
  7. ^ U.S. Census Bureau News, "Louisiana Loses Population; Arizona Edges Nevada as Fastest-Growing State", Press Release CB06-187, 22 December, 2006
  8. ^ Morgan, Dale L. (1947). The Great Salt Lake. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-478-7 p.22
  9. ^ Deseret Morning News - Utahns feeling hot, hot, hot.
  10. ^ Utah Cold Weather Facts - Snow and Winter Storms. KSL.com.
  11. ^ NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006. [1]
  12. ^ Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton: "The Mormon Experience," page 22. Vintage/Random House, 1979.
  13. ^ William W. Slaughter and Michael Landon: "Trail of Hope - The Story of the Mormon Trail." Shadow Mountain, 1997.
  14. ^ Arrington and Bitton, p. 118
  15. ^ William Clayton, edited by George D. Smith: "An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton," p. 300. Signature Books, 1991.
  16. ^ Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: "Church History in the Fullness of Times." 1989.
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Population and Population Centers by State: 2000
  18. ^ Deborah Bulkeley, "St. George growth 2nd fastest in U.S.", Deseret Morning News
  19. ^ Demographics & Statistics. Utah.gov.
  20. ^ Utah holds onto No.1 birth rate
  21. ^ Hinckley, Gordon B. “What Are People Asking about Us?” Ensign, Nov. 1998, 70, Q4
  22. ^ Utah oil & gas production (map) as found at Utah.gov
  23. ^ Utah Department of Community and Culture, Mining Heritage Alliance, Highlights as found at Utah.gov
  24. ^ Utah State Courts, Utah Court of Appeals
  25. ^ National Constitution Center, Map: States grant women the right to vote
  26. ^ Constitutional Amendments, Initiatives & Referendums. State of Utah Elections Office.
  27. ^ James B. Allen, "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", Utah History Encyclopedia, University of Utah, 1994
  28. ^ State of Utah: Office of the Governor [2]
  29. ^ "5% flat tax urged for Utah", Deseret Morning News
  30. ^ "Marriage Measure Dividing Utah Race", Deseret Morning News
  31. ^ "Huntsman opposes 'design' as science", Deseret Morning News
  32. ^ Hunstman approval 3/17/2006
  33. ^ Political Neutrality. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved on 2006 October 19.
  34. ^ {{cite news |title=Mormon, GOP Link Doomed Democrats; Religion statistics paint a bleak picture for party; LDS-GOP Link Dooms Democrats |last=Harrie |first=Dan |date=[[Deseret Morning News|]]
  35. ^ a b {{cite news |title= GOP Dominance Troubles Church; It hurts Utah, says general authority, disavowing any perceived Republican-LDS Link; LDS Official Calls for More Political Diversity |last=Harrie |first=Dan |date=[[Salt Lake Tribune|]]
  36. ^ {{cite news |title=LDS officials distance church from Romney |url=http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,650201262,00.html |last=Speckman |first=Stephen |date=[[Deseret Morning News|]]
  37. ^ {{cite news |title=Letter by LDS leaders cheers Utah Democrats |url=http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,635191859,00.html |last=Bernick, Jr.|first=Bob |date=[[Deseret Morning News|]]
  38. ^ Allan Kent Powell, "United Mine Workers of America", Utah History Encyclopedia, University of Utah, 1994
  39. ^ Roster of Utah State Legislators, Utah State Legislature
  40. ^ 2001 Redistricting of Utah: Official maps of district boundaries, Utah State Legislature
  41. ^ 1976 Presidential Election Data - National by State [3]
  42. ^ 1980 Presidential Election Data - National by State [4]
  43. ^ 1984 Presidential Election Data - National by State [5]
  44. ^ 1988 Presidential Election Data - National by State [6]
  45. ^ 1996 Presidential Election Data - National by State [7]
  46. ^ 2000 Presidential Election Data - National by State [8]
  47. ^ 2004 Presidential Election Data - National by State [9]
  48. ^ 1992 Presidential Election Data - National by State [10]
  49. ^ President Elect - 1996
  50. ^ An Economist's Perspective on Urban Sprawl, Part 1
  51. ^ Speckman, Stephen and Smeath, Doug "What's in a name? Bit of a hassle", [[2006-11-22|]].
  52. ^ Real Salt Lake Breaks Ground For Sandy Stadium. [[KUTV|]].com.
  53. ^ Brenda Motheral, et al, Prescription Drug Atlas, [[Deseret News|]], May 12, 2006
  54. ^ "Teenage Abortion and Pregnancy Statistics by State, 1992"
  55. ^ "Contraception Counts: State-by-State Information"
  56. ^ a b "Sampling of Latter-day Saint/Utah Demographics and Social Statistics from National Sources"
  57. ^ "Utah loves Jell-O - official", February 6, 2001, BBC News
  58. ^ Membership Distribution. LDS.org Newsroom.
  59. ^ Mexican Census: Religion (Spanish), Instito Nacional de Estadistica Georafia e Informatica (INEGI), México.
  60. ^ http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,600151418,00.html
  61. ^ [11] Biography at www.lds.org
  62. ^ As found at utah.travel, official site of the Utah Office of Tourism
  63. ^ a b Internet Movie Database ([[IMBd|]]), Filming Locations in Utah

External links

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Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Utah

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 39.5° N 111.5° W

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Simple English

State of Utah
File:Flag of File:Seal of
Flag of Utah Seal of Utah
Also called: Beehive State
Saying(s): Industry
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Utah highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Salt Lake City
Largest city Salt Lake City
Area  Ranked 13th
 - Total 84,876 sq mi
(219,887 km²)
 - Width 270 miles (435 km)
 - Length 350 miles (565 km)
 - % water 3.25
 - Latitude 37°N to 42°N
 - Longitude 109°W to 114°W
Number of people  Ranked 34th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (41st)
 - Average income  $50,614 (11th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Kings Peak[1]
13,528 ft  (4,126 m)
 - Average 6,100 ft  (1,860 m)
 - Lowest point Beaverdam Wash[1]
2,000 ft  (610 m)
Became part of the U.S.  January 4, 1896 (45th)
Governor Gary R. Herbert (R)
U.S. Senators Orrin Hatch (R)
Bob Bennett (R)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations UT US-UT
Web site www.utah.gov

Utah is a state in the United States. The capital and largest city is Salt Lake City.

Contents

Geography

Utah is bordered by Idaho and Wyoming in the north and Colorado in the east. It touches a single point of New Mexico to the southeast at Four Corners. Utah is bordered by Arizona in the south, and by Nevada in the west. It covers an area of 84,899 square miles (219,887 km²). [[File:|180px|left|thumb|An arche Arches National Park, Utah]] Utah is mostly rocky with three distinct geological regions: the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau. Utah is a great geographical tourism place. Utah is known for its natural diversity and is home to features ranging from arid deserts with sand dunes to thriving pine forests in mountain valleys.

Climate

Utah has a dry, semi-arid to arid climate, although its many mountains has large, wide, differences of climates, with the highest points in the Uinta Mountains being above the timberline. The dry weather results from the state lying mostly in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada in California. The eastern half of the state lies in the rain shadow of the Wasatch Mountains. The primary source of rain for the state is the Pacific Ocean, with the state normally lying in the path of large Pacific storms from mid-October through April, although northern Utah often sees these large storms earlier and later. In summer, the state, normally southern and eastern Utah, lies in the path of monsoon moisture from the Gulf of California. Most of the lowland areas get less than 12 inches (300 mm) of rain a year. The Great Salt Lake Desert is the driest area of the state, with less than 5 inches (125 mm). Snowfall is common in all but the far southern valleys. Although St. George only gets about 3 inches (7.5 cm) per year, Salt Lake City sees about 60 inches (150 cm), enhanced by the lake-effect snow from the Great Salt Lake, which increases snowfall totals to the south, southeast, and east of the lake. Some areas of the Wasatch Range in the path of the lake-effect get up to 700 inches (1,770 cm) per year. The consistently dry, fluffy, snow led Utah's ski industry to get the slogan "the Greatest Snow on Earth" in the 1980s. In the winter, temperature inversions are a phenomenon across Utah's low basins and valleys, leading to thick humidity and fog that can sometimes last for weeks at a time, normally in the Uintah Basin.

Population

The center of population of Utah is located in Utah County in the city of "Lehi."[2] As of July 1, 2008 the Census Bureau thought Utah had a population of 2,736,424.[3] In 2008, the US Census Bureau determined Utah to be the fastest growing state in the country in terms of population growth.[4]


Much of the population lives in cities and towns along the Wasatch Front, a metropolitan region that runs north-south with the Wasatch Mountains rising on the eastern side. Growth outside the Wasatch Front is also increasing. The St. George metropolitan area is right now the second-fastest growing in the country after the Las Vegas metropolitan area, while the Heber metropolitan area is also the second-fastest growing in the country (right in front of Palm Coast, Florida).

Economy

File:Bingham Canyon April
Bingham Canyon Mine southwest of Salt Lake City.

The University of Utah says that the gross state product of Utah in 2005 was $92 billion, or 0.74% of the total United States GDP of $12.4 trillion for the same year. The per capital personal income was $24,977 in 2005. Major companies of Utah are: mining, cattle ranching, salt production, and government services.

In eastern Utah petroleum making is a big industry. Near Salt Lake City, petroleum refining is done by a number of oil companies. In central Utah, coal making accounts for much of the mining activity.

Age and Gender

Utah has a high total birth rate, and the youngest population of any U.S. state. It is also one of the few non-Southern states that has more males than females.

In 2000, the gender percents of Utah were estimated as:

  • 49.9 percent female
  • 50.1 percent male

Religion

Most of the state's people are members of "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", commonly referred to as the Mormons or the LDS Church. As of 2007, the percentage of Utahns that are counted as members of "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" was 60.7 percent of the state's population.[5] Mormons are now a minority in Salt Lake City, while rural areas normally to be almost all Mormon. Though the LDS Church officially has a policy of neutrality in regards to political parties,[6] the church's doctrine has a strong regional liking on politics. In the past, a majority of Utah's lawmakers have been church members; the effect has contributed to the state's restrictiveness towards alcohol (sales and content) and gambling. Another effect can be seen in Utah's high birth rate (25 percent higher than the national normal; the highest for a state in the U.S.). The Mormons in Utah normally have conservative views when it comes to most political issues and the majority of voter-age Utahns are unaffiliated voters (60%) who vote almost all Republican. John McCain polled 62.5% in the 2008 Presidential Election while 70.9% of people of Utah liked for George W. Bush in 2004.

Popular towns and cities

File:Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City

Utah's population is concentrated in two areas, the Wasatch Front in the North-Central part of the state, with a population of over 2 million; and southwestern Utah, locally known as "Dixie", with nearly 150,000 people who live there.

According to the 2000 Census, Utah was the fourth fastest growing state (at 29.6 percent) in the United States between 1990 and 2000. St. George, in the southwest, is the second-fastest growing metropolitan area in the United States, right behind Greeley, Colorado.

The state's two fastest growing counties are: "Summit" (at 91.6 percent; ranking it 8th in the country) and "Washington" (at 86.1 percent; ranking it 12th). The cities (defined as having at least 9,000 people living there in 2000) that saw the greatest increases between 1990 and 2000 were: "Draper" (248 percent), "South Jordan" (141 percent), "Lehi" (125 percent), "Riverton" (122 percent), and "Syracuse" (102 percent). Between 1990 and 2000 the five fastest-growing cities of any size were "Cedar Hills" (302 percent), "Draper" (248 percent), "Woodland Hills" (213 percent), "Ivins" (173 percent), and "South Jordan" (141 percent). The U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the five fastest-growing cities of any size between 2000 and 2008 were "Saratoga Springs" (1,501%), "Herriman" (1,061%), "Eagle Mountain" (934%), "Cedar Hills" (209%), and "Lehi" (146%).

References

frr:Utah








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