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.Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its utility in providing happiness or pleasure as summed among all sentient beings.^ Behind such a veil of ignorance all individuals are specified as rational, free, and morally equal beings.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical utilitarian idea to calculate individual utility out of a utility function is discarded in the context of NU. Like prioritarianism, NU concentrates on the calculation of social welfare out of individual utilities.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome. .The most influential contributors to this ideology were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.^ La filosofia guispolitica di Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, John Stuart Mill .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ John Stuart Mill, Miscellaneous Writings , ed.
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ John Stuart Mill and the Catholic Question in 1825 .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Utilitarianism is often described by the phrase "the greatest good for the greatest number of people"[1], and is also known as "the greatest happiness principle". Utility, the good to be maximized, has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), although preference utilitarians define it as the satisfaction of preferences.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term preference-satisfaction relates to any kind of happiness, and the term preference-frustration to any kind of suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Utility corresponds to the net value of preference-satisfactions and preference-frustrations and (in contrast to classical utilitarianism) the concept of preference is not restricted to goods and services.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.It may be described as a life stance, with happiness or pleasure being of ultimate importance.^ Nevertheless (since a person may also die in an accident without being conscious of such a loss) the complete devaluation of happiness is a conceptual weakness.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Importance of Being Important: Euthanasia and Critical Interests in Dworkins Lifes Dominion .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Utilitarianism can be characterised as a quantitative and reductionist approach to ethics. .It can be contrasted with deontological ethics (which do not regard the consequences of an act as being a determinant of its moral worth) and virtue ethics (which focuses on character), as well as with other varieties of consequentialism.^ Well-being has several dimensions, some of which can be influenced, whereas others cant.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virtue Ethics vs. Rule-Consequentialism: A Reply to Brad Hooker .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Well-being and Morality: Essays in Honour of James Griffin .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

In general usage, the term utilitarian refers to a somewhat narrow economic or pragmatic viewpoint. Philosophical utilitarianism, however, is a much broader view that encompasses all aspects of people's lives.

Contents

History

Jeremy Bentham
.The origins of utilitarianism are often traced as far back as the Greek philosopher Epicurus, but, as a specific school of thought, it is generally credited to Jeremy Bentham.^ Greek philosopher Epicurus has sometimes been caricatured as crude hedonist .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Bentham found pain and pleasure to be the only intrinsic values in the world: "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure."^ Bentham found pain and pleasure to be the only intrinsic values in the world: "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure."
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The presence of pain is bad and the absence of pain is good, but whereas the presence of pleasure is good, the absence of pleasure is bad only if somebody is deprived of that pleasure ( Better if it had never been , David Benatar,) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham, J. , Value of a Pain or Pleasure (1778), in: B. Parekh (ed.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would compensate the number of unhappy people with the happy ones and valuate the situation positive.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NU would attempt to decrease the number of not at all happy people with first priority and valuate the situation negative as long as extremely suffering people exist.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bentham's foremost proponent was James Mill, a significant philosopher in his day and the father of John Stuart Mill.^ La filosofia guispolitica di Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, John Stuart Mill .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ John Stuart Mill, Miscellaneous Writings , ed.
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ John Stuart Mill and the Catholic Question in 1825 .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

The younger Mill was educated according to Bentham's principles, including transcribing and summarizing much of his father's work while still in his teens.[4]
.In his famous work, Utilitarianism, the younger Mill argues that cultural, intellectual and spiritual pleasures are of greater value than mere physical pleasure because the former would be valued higher than the latter by competent judges.^ We see that the weight we have to give to Pam in order to pull down the moral value of society 1 (below society 2) is much higher than in above example.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One extra unit of utility for a starving person is not seen to be of any greater value than an extra unit of utility for a millionaire.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The negative utilitarian position is functionally equivalent to a certain type of classical utilitarian position - a position where pleasure holds very little value ( Negativity , utilitarian.org).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

A competent judge, according to Mill, is anyone who has experienced both the lower pleasures and the higher. .His famous quote found in Utilitarianism (book) was, "it is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"[5] demonstrating Mill's distinction between higher and lower pleasures.^ Prioritarians would say that society 2 is better or more desirable than society 1 despite being lower than society 1 in terms of overall well-being.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The thesis in other words goes as follows: Human rights cause lower risks than a further restriction of those rights.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

He justified this distinction by the thought that "few human creatures would consent to be changed into any of the lower animals, for a promise of the fullest allowance of a beast's pleasures."[5] .In distinguishing between types of pleasure, Mill distanced himself from Bentham, who famously said[6] that the child's game of push-pin is as good as poetry (assuming that the two bring equal quantities of pleasure).^ Under a given GNP the maximum social welfare can be attained, if the goods are equally distributed among the two persons [Kleinewefers, 41].
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed that the utility (usefulness) of the two goods is the same for both persons.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lets assume the society consists of two persons P 1 and P 2 , who dispose of two goods G 1 and G 2 .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like Bentham's formulation, Mill's utilitarianism deals with pleasure and happiness.^ The failure of happiness-promoting philosophies like classical utilitarianism and Marxism .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Utilitarian Strategies in Bentham and John Stuart Mill .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.However John Stuart Mill made a clear distinction between happiness and pleasure; and made it evident that Weak Rule Utilitarianism was focused on maximising happiness rather than pleasure; for the naturalistic fallacy made it clear that what one desires and what is good are not always the same thing.^ John Stuart Mill, Miscellaneous Writings , ed.
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John M. Robson ( Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , volumes xxvi and xxvii) .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

For example a pleasure/desire may be to bully a lonely child, which may produce pleasure, however happiness comes from following virtues rather than desires.
John Stuart Mill
.The classic utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill influenced many other philosophers as well as the development of the broader concept of consequentialism.^ Well-being has several dimensions, some of which can be influenced, whereas others cant.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Utility corresponds to the net value of preference-satisfactions and preference-frustrations and (in contrast to classical utilitarianism) the concept of preference is not restricted to goods and services.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As well as classical utilitarianism, prioritarianism is a consequentialist theory: .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, there now exist many different accounts of the good, and, therefore, many different types of consequentialism besides utilitarianism.^ There are various interpretations of Rawls difference principle (besides Maximin ) so that a comparison is accordingly difficult.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What difference does it make, if global ethical priorities are based on the classical utilitarian approach to save as many lives as possible or the negative utilitarian approach to remove as much suffering as possible ?
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some philosophers Edward Westermarck The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas 2 Vol.^ Some theorists have developed a justification of prioritarianism , based on risk aversion in the original position [Atkinson / Stiglitz, 340; Hurley, 368-382].
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

- reject the sole importance of well-being, arguing that there are intrinsic values other than happiness or pleasure, such as knowledge and autonomy.
.Other past advocates of utilitarianism include William Godwin and Henry Sidgwick; modern-day advocates include R. M. Hare, Peter Singer and Torbjörn Tännsjö.^ Torbjörn Tännsjö, Hedonistic Utilitarianism .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The Coherence of Two-Level Utilitarianism: Hare vs. Williams .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Up to and including John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism was mainly the province of practical reformers.^ These included his secretary and collaborator on the utilitarian school of philosophy, James Mill ; James Mill's son John Stuart Mill ; and several political leaders including Robert Owen , who later became a founder of socialism () .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.The publication of Henry Sidgwick's The Methods of Ethics in 1874 can be viewed as the date utilitarianism began to be more commonly associated with academic philosophy.^ Henry Sidgwick, Essays on Ethics and Method , ed.
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry Sidgwicks Practical Ethics .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry Sidgwick's practical Ethics: A Defense .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Utilitarianism has been used as an argument for many different political views.^ Utilitarianism has been used as an argument for many different political views.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • yawiki.org entry for Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism.eu 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitarianism.eu [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Utilitarianism? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Utilitarianism had as its principle early function (by Bentham and his circle) been used to bring moral considerations as a measurement of then current economic policies and political agendas.
  • UTILITARIANISM: the ethical theory for all times. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least for myself if not many others, DP's account of other's views of utilitarianism is in no way accurate (nor I suspect made in good faith).

In his essay On Liberty, as well as in other works, John Stuart Mill argues that utilitarianism requires that political arrangements satisfy the "liberty principle" (or harm principle), according to which "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."[7] Prevention of self-harm by other persons was considered expressly forbidden. Instead, Mill states that only persuasion can be rightfully used to prevent self-harm.[citation needed]
Ludwig von Mises advocated libertarianism using utilitarian arguments. Likewise, some Marxist philosophers have used utilitarianism as arguments for communism and socialism.[citation needed]

Types

Act v rule

Act utilitarianism states that, when faced with a choice, we must first consider the likely consequences of potential actions and, from that, choose to do what we believe will generate most pleasure. .The rule utilitarian, on the other hand, begins by looking at potential rules of action.^ NU, on the other hand, considers skepticism as a principle which blocks action and perpetuates extreme suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.To determine whether a rule should be followed, he looks at what would happen if it were constantly followed.^ The welfare function according to Pigou would look as follows: .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The welfare function according to Bentham would look as follows: .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

If adherence to the rule produces more happiness than otherwise, it is a rule that morally must be followed at all times. .The distinction between act and rule utilitarianism is therefore based on a difference about the proper object of consequentialist calculation — specific to a case or generalized to rules.^ What difference does it make, if global ethical priorities are based on the classical utilitarian approach to save as many lives as possible or the negative utilitarian approach to remove as much suffering as possible ?
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relation between classical utilitarianism and NU can best be understood if the two ethics are seen as border cases within prioritarianism.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rule utilitarianism has been criticized for advocating general rules that will in some specific circumstances clearly decrease happiness if followed.^ However with rule utilitarianism, this criticism is sharpened.
  • Utilitarianism v. Objectivism: The Throwdown - Jolt Forums 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rule utilitarianism has been criticized for advocating general rules that will in some specific circumstances clearly decrease happiness if followed.
  • Ethics Text page 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pirate.shu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • yawiki.org entry for Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism.eu 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitarianism.eu [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Utilitarianism? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For the sake of argument, lets say we can attribute numbers to utility and that we are following the rules of utilitarianism as set forth by Mill when constructing the following utility table.
  • PsychoNoble - Mill, Utilitarianism, and Rights 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.psychonoble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Never to kill another human being may seem to be a good rule, but it could make self-defense against malevolent aggressors very difficult.^ He argued that animal pain is very similar to human pain and that the day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been withholden from them but by the hand of tyranny.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

Rule utilitarians add, however, that there are general exception rules that allow the breaking of other rules if such rule-breaking increases happiness, one example being self-defense. Critics argue that this reduces rule utilitarianism to act utilitarianism and makes rules meaningless. Rule utilitarians retort that rules in the legal system (i.e. laws) that regulate such situations are not meaningless. Self-defense is legally justified, while murder is not.
However there is within rule utilitarianism a distinction between the strictness and absolutism of this particular branch of utilitarianism. There is Strong Rule Utilitarianism which is an absolutist theory which frames strict rules which apply for all people and all time and may never be broken. Weak Rule utilitarianism however was the branch of utilitarianism that was proposed by John Stuart Mill and entailed that although rules should be framed on previous examples that benefit society; such as do not lie, it is possible under specific circumstances to do that which produces the greatest happiness and to break that rule. An example would be the Gestapo asking where your Jewish neighbours were... A strong rule utilitarian might say that the rule "Do not lie" can never be broken, whereas a weak rule utilitarian would argue that to lie would be the result that would produce the most happiness
Rule utilitarianism should not be confused with heuristics (rules of thumb), but many act utilitarians agree that it makes sense to formulate certain rules of thumb to follow if they find themselves in a situation whose consequences are difficult, costly or time-consuming to calculate exactly. If the consequences can be calculated relatively clearly and without much doubt, however, the rules of thumb can be ignored.

Collapse of rule utilitarianism into act utilitarianism

It has been argued[8] that rule utilitarianism collapses into act utilitarianism, because for any given rule, in the case where breaking the rule produces more utility, the rule can be sophisticated by the addition of a sub-rule that handles cases like the exception. This process holds for all cases of exceptions, and so the 'rules' will have as many 'sub-rules' as there are exceptional cases, which, in the end, makes an agent seek out whatever outcome produces the maximum utility.[9]

Two-level

.Two-level utilitarianism states that one should normally use 'intuitive' moral thinking, in the form of rule utilitarianism, because it usually maximizes happiness.^ The Coherence of Two-Level Utilitarianism: Hare vs. Williams .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

However there are some times when we must ascend to a higher 'critical' level of reflection in order to decide what to do, and must think as an act utilitarian would. Richard Hare supported this theory with his concept of the Archangel, which holds that if we were all 'archangels' we could be act utilitarians all the time as we would be able to perfectly predict consequences. However we are closer to 'proles' in that we are frequently biased and unable to foresee all possible consequence of our actions, and thus we require moral guidelines. When these principles clash we must attempt to think like an archangel in order to choose the right course of action.

Negative

.Most utilitarian theories deal with producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.^ The Greatest Happiness Principle and Other Early German Anticipations of Utilitarian Theory .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Negative utilitarianism (NU) requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. Proponents like Karl Popper, Christoph Fehige and Clark Wolf argue that this is a more effective ethical formula, since, they contend, the greatest harms are more consequential than the greatest goods. Karl Popper also referred to an epistemological argument: “It adds to clarity in the fields of ethics, if we formulate our demands negatively, i.e. if we demand the elimination of suffering rather than the promotion of happiness.” [10]. In the practical implementation of this idea the following versions can be distinguished:
1. R.N.Smart, an advocate of the utilitarian principle, was quick to suggest that the ultimate aim of NU would be to engender the quickest and least painful method of killing the entirety of humanity, as this ultimately would effectively minimize suffering. NU would seem to call for the destruction of the world even if only to avoid the pain of a pinprick [11].
2. Newer, moderate versions of NU do not attempt to minimize all kinds of suffering but only those kinds that are created by the frustration of preferences.[12] In most supporters of moderate NU the preference to survive is stronger than the wish to be freed from suffering, so that they refuse the idea of a quick and painless destruction of life. Some of them believe that, in time, the worst cases of suffering will be defeated and a world of minor suffering can be realized. The principal agents of this direction can be found in the environment of transhumanism and abolitionism (bioethics) [13].
Supporters of moderate NU who do not believe in the promises of technology would prefer a reduction of the world population (and in the extreme case an empty world). This seems to come down to the position of radical NU, but in moderate NU the world could only be sacrificed to prevent extreme suffering and not to avoid the pain of a pinprick. And from the claim that an empty world would be a preferable state of affairs, it does not follow that a political movement should be formed with the aim of achieving such a state of affairs. The latter would definitely (and in analogy to radical NU) be counterproductive. Pessimistic supporters of moderate NU therefore tend towards a retreat oriented way of living.
3. Finally there are theoreticians who see NU as a branch within classical utilitarianism, rather than an independent theory. This interpretation overlooks Derek Parfit's “Repugnant Conclusion[14]. NU is precisely characterized by overcoming this theoretical weakness of classical utilitarianism.

Average v total

Total utilitarianism advocates measuring the utility of a population based on the total utility of its members. .According to Derek Parfit, this type of utilitarianism falls victim to the Repugnant Conclusion, whereby large numbers of people with very low but non-negative utility values can be seen as a better goal than a population of a less extreme size living in comfort.^ On the Cross of Mere Utility: Utilitarianism, Sacrifices, and the Value of Persons .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

In other words, according to the theory, it is a moral good to breed more people on the world for as long as total happiness rises.[15]
Average utilitarianism, on the other hand, advocates measuring the utility of a population based on the average utility of that population. It avoids Parfit's repugnant conclusion, but causes other problems like the Mere Addition Paradox. For example, bringing a moderately happy person in a very happy world would be seen as an immoral act; aside from this, the theory implies that it would be a moral good to eliminate all people whose happiness is below average, as this would raise the average happiness[16].

Other species

Peter Singer
.Peter Singer, along with many animal rights activists, has argued that the well-being of all sentient beings, conscious ones who feel pain; including some non-humans,[citation needed] deserves equal consideration to that given human beings.^ Which Beings Deserve Ethical Consideration?
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization .
  • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Otherwise, it would be a case of speciesism. Bentham made a similar argument.
This view may be contrasted with deep ecology, which holds that an intrinsic value is attached to all forms of life and nature. According to utilitarianism, most forms of life are unable to experience anything akin to pleasure or discomfort, and are therefore denied moral status.[citation needed] Thus, the moral value of organisms that do not experience pleasure or discomfort, or natural entities like a river, is only in the benefit they provide to sentient beings. Similarly, utilitarianism places no intrinsic value on biodiversity.

Combinations with other ethical schools

In order to overcome the perceived shortcomings of both systems, several attempts have been made to reconcile utilitarianism with Kant's categorical imperative. James Cornman proposes that, in any given situation, we should treat as "means" as few people as possible and as "ends" as many as are consistent with those "means". He refers to this as the "Utilitarian Kantian Principle".
Other consequentialists may consider happiness an important consequence but argue in addition that consequences such as justice or equality should also be valued, regardless of whether or not they increase happiness.

Biological explanation

.It has been suggested that sociobiology, the study of the evolution of human society, provides support for the utilitarian point of view.^ Biological explanation for utilitarianism It has been suggested that sociobiology , the study of the evolution of human society, provides support for the utilitarian point of view.
  • yawiki.org entry for Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been suggested that that sociobiology , the study of the evolution of human society, provides support for the utilitarian point of view.
  • Ethics Text page 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pirate.shu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been suggested that sociobiology, the study of the evolution of human society, provides support for the utilitarian point of view.

.For example, in The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology, the utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer argues that fundamentally utilitarian ethical reasoning has existed from the time primitive foraging bands had to cooperate, compromise, and make group decisions to survive.^ UTILITARIANISM: the ethical theory for all times.
  • UTILITARIAN LINKS 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: Academic]
  • BENTHAM: ON THE RATIONAL OF REWARD 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC jeromekahn123.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, in The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology , the utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer argues that fundamentally utilitarian ethical reasoning has existed from the time primitive foraging bands had to cooperate, compromise, and make group decisions to survive.
  • Ethics Text page 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pirate.shu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • yawiki.org entry for Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Utilitarianism? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Another reason for an egoist to become a utilitarian was proposed by Peter Singer in Practical Ethics.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.He elaborates: "In a dispute between members of a cohesive group of reasoning beings, the demand for a reason is a demand for a justification that can be accepted by the group as a whole."^ He elaborates: "In a dispute between members of a cohesive group of reasoning beings, the demand for a reason is a demand for a justification that can be accepted by the group as a whole."
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
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.Thus, consideration of others' interests has long been a necessary part of the human experience.^ I care about the interests of other humans.
  • Environmental Economics: The Problems and Limitations of Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.env-econ.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, consideration of others' interests has long been a necessary part of the human experience.
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^ On a related note, utilitarianism avoids the charge of speciesism in ethical theory by using a moral foundation that is shared by other species, thus requiring their consideration.
  • http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~cp28/ethterm.htm 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Singer believes that reason now compels the equal consideration of all people's interests:
."If I have seen that from an ethical point of view I am just one person among the many in my society, and my interests are no more important, from the point of view of the whole, than the similar interests of others within my society, I am ready to see that, from a still larger point of view, my society is just one among other societies, and the interests of members of my society are no more important, from that larger perspective, than the similar interests of members of other societies… Taking the impartial element in ethical reasoning to its logical conclusion means, first, accepting that we ought to have equal concern for all human beings."^ The Importance of Being Important: Euthanasia and Critical Interests in Dworkins Lifes Dominion .
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^ Are Some Inequalities More Unequal than Others?
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^ Why We Ought to Accept the Repugnant Conclusion .
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This conclusion – that everybody's interests should be considered equally when making decisions – is a core tenet of utilitarianism.
.Singer elaborates that viewing oneself as equal to others in one's society and at the same time viewing one's society as fundamentally superior to other societies may cause an uncomfortable cognitive dissonance.^ Singer elaborates that viewing oneself as equal to others in one's society and at the same time viewing one's society as fundamentally superior to other societies may cause an uncomfortable cognitive dissonance .
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^ Singer elaborates that viewing oneself as equal to others in one's society and at the same time viewing one's society as fundamentally superior to other societies may cause an uncomfortable cognitive dissonance.

^ Egalitarian :  Jeremy Bentham incorporate the essential component of moral equality by means of the formula, "Each to count for one and none for more than one."  Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) expressed the same idea in the following statement: "The good of any individual is of more importance, from the point of view (if I may say so) of the Universe, than the good of any other.
  • Normative Ethics 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.tamucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This is the sense in which he means that reason may push people to accept a broader utilitarian stance.^ This is the sense in which he means that reason may push people to accept a broader utilitarian stance.
  • Ethics Text page 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC pirate.shu.edu [Source type: Original source]
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^ For to what to be skeptical about in a topic (especially one that is both logical and accepted by well educated people) one must know a more reasonable alternative.
  • UTILITARIANISM: the ethical theory for all times. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Act utilitarians, on the other hand, do not accept human rights as moral principles in and of themselves, but that does not mean they are rejected altogether.
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Critics (e.g., Binmore 2005) point out that this cognitive dissonance is apparently not very strong, since people often knowingly ignore the interests of faraway societies quite similar to their own. They also note that the "ought" of the quoted paragraph applies only to someone who has already accepted the premise that all societies are equally important. .Singer has responded that his argument in Expanding the Circle wasn't intended to provide a complete philosophical justification for a utilitarian categorical imperative, but merely to provide a plausible explanation for how some people come to accept utilitarianism.^ [FN5] Some people are persuaded by this argument.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some utilitarians accepted the force of the counterexample argument.

^ Singer has responded that his argument in Expanding the Circle wasn't intended to provide a complete philosophical justification for a utilitarian categorical imperative, but merely to provide a plausible explanation for how some people come to accept utilitarianism.

Criticism and defense

Aggregating utility

.John Rawls gives a critique of Utilitarianism in A Theory Of Justice that rejects the idea that the happiness of two distinct persons could be meaningfully counted together.^ John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement .
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^ The Greatest Happiness Principle and Other Early German Anticipations of Utilitarian Theory .
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He argues that this entails treating a group of many as if it were a single sentient entity, mistakenly ignoring the separation of consciousness.[17] Animal Rights advocate Richard Ryder calls this the 'boundary of the individual', through which neither pain nor pleasure may pass.[18] Thus the aggregation of utility becomes futile as both pain and happiness are intrinsic to and inseparable from the consciousness in which they are felt, rendering impossible the task of adding up the various pleasures of multiple individuals.
However, it should be noted that the apparent separation and consistency of individual consciousness, which is both a strong human intuition and an implicit premise in this critique, is itself a subject of debate and criticism in the philosophy of mind.

Predicting consequences

Daniel Dennett uses the case of the Three Mile Island accident as an example of the difficulty in calculating happiness.[19] .Was the near-meltdown that occurred at this nuclear power plant a good or a bad thing (according to utilitarianism)?^ Was the near-meltdown that occurred at this nuclear power plant a good or a bad thing (according to utilitarianism)?
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^ Second, Mill is not a preference utilitarian in the sense that things are good simply for the reason that people happen to prefer them.
  • The International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC libarts.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If one were substantially more affluent than this person, giving him money would cause less harm to oneself than good to him, and therefore would be the utilitarian thing to do.
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.He points out that its long-term effects on nuclear policy would be considered beneficial by many and might outweigh the negative consequences.^ He points out that its long-term effects on nuclear policy would be considered beneficial by many and might outweigh the negative consequences.
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^ This would be bad even if I never found out that there were no more rhinos left in the world - even if it had no effect whatsoever on my conscious life.
  • 20th WCP: Preference-utilitarianism and Past Preferences 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us consider a famous act, which we would suppose to have a lot of significant consequences, and a less famous act.
  • ACT UTILITARIANISM AND DECISION PROCEDURES 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC kant1.chch.ox.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

His conclusion is that it is still too early, 30 years after the event, for utilitarianism to weigh all the evidence and reach a definite conclusion. .Utilitarians note that utilitarianism seems to be the unspoken principle used by both advocates and critics of nuclear power.^ Utilitarians note that utilitarianism seems to be the unspoken principle used by both advocates and critics of nuclear power.
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^ From my experience, when they're not being used synonymously, people use the term 'ethics' to describe functional or utilitarian social principles, and 'morals' to describe authoritative or ideal principles.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Roots of Morality IV: The Theistic Rubber Stamp 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not having a firm background in philosophy, perhaps I am off the mark here, but The Gay Species seems to be refering to a form of Utilitarianism radically different to what Ebon has been advocating.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Roots of Morality IV: The Theistic Rubber Stamp 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] That something cannot be determined at the moment is common in science and frequently resolved with later advancements.
Utilitarians, however, are not required to have perfect knowledge; indeed, certain knowledge of consequences is impossible because consequences are in the unexperienced future. Utilitarians simply try their best to maximise happiness (or other forms of utility) and, to do this, make their best estimates of the consequences. If the consequences of a decision are particularly unclear, it may make sense to follow an ethical rule which has promoted the most utility in the past. Utilitarians also note that people trying to further their own interests frequently run into situations in which the consequences of their decisions are very unclear. This does not mean, however, that they are unable to make a decision; much the same applies to utilitarianism.
Anthony Kenny argues against utilitarianism on the grounds that determinism is either true or false: if it is true, we have no choice over our actions; if it is false, the consequences of our actions are unpredictable, not least because they depend upon the actions of others whom we cannot predict.[20]

Importance of intentions

Utilitarianism has been criticised for looking only at the results of actions, not at the desires or intentions that motivate them, which many consider important, too. An action intended to cause harm but which inadvertently causes good would be judged equal to the good result of an action done with the best intentions. Many utilitarians argue that utilitarianism applies not only to results but also to desires and dispositions, praise and blame, and rules, institutions and punishment. Bad intentions may cause harm (to the agent and to others) even if they do not result in bad acts. Once this is recognised, supporters argue that utilitarianism becomes a much more complex, and rich, moral theory, and may align far more closely with our moral intuitions.
Furthermore, many utilitarians view morality as a personal guide rather than a means to judge the actions of other people, or actions which have already been performed: morality is something to be looked at when deciding what to do. In this sense, intentions are all that matter, because the consequences cannot be known with certainty until the decision has been made.
.One philosopher to take this view is Henry Sidgwick, in his main work The Methods of Ethics (1874).^ Henry Sidgwick, Essays on Ethics and Method , ed.
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^ Henry Sidgwicks Practical Ethics .
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^ Henry Sidgwick's practical Ethics: A Defense .
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Human rights

Utilitarians argue that justification of slavery, torture or mass murder would require unrealistically large benefits to outweigh the direct and extreme suffering to victims. Utilitarianism would also require the indirect impact of social acceptance of inhumane policies to be taken into consideration, and general anxiety and fear could increase for all if human rights are commonly ignored.
Act and rule utilitarians differ in how they treat human rights themselves. .Under rule utilitarianism, a human right can easily be considered a moral rule.^ Under rule utilitarianism, a human right can easily be considered a moral rule.
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^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While it is natural to consider only the well being of humans when interpreting this doctrine, some utilitarians count the interests of any and all sentient beings when assessing overall utility.

Act utilitarians, on the other hand, do not accept human rights as moral principles in and of themselves, but that does not mean that they reject them altogether: first, most act utilitarians, as explained above, would agree that acts such as enslavement and genocide always cause great unhappiness and very little happiness; second, human rights could be considered rules of thumb so that, although torture might be acceptable under some circumstances, as a rule it is immoral; and, finally, act utilitarians often support human rights in a legal sense because utilitarians support laws that cause more good than harm.

Lack of convincing proof

Another criticism of utilitarianism is that it is not proven, either by science or by logic, to be the correct ethical system. Supporters claim that this is common to all ethical schools, and indeed the system of logic itself, and will always remain so unless the problem of the regress argument, or at least the is-ought problem, is satisfactorily resolved. .It might instead be argued that almost all political arguments about a future society use an unspoken utilitarian principle, all sides claiming that their proposed solution is the one that increases human happiness the most.^ Critical Review of Rawls's Political Liberalism : A Utilitarian and Decision-Theoretical Analysis of the Main Arguments .
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^ The Greatest Happiness Principle and Other Early German Anticipations of Utilitarian Theory .
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Mill's argument for utilitarianism holds that pleasure is the only thing desired and that, therefore, pleasure is the only thing desirable. Critics argue that this is like saying that things visible are things seen, or that the only things audible are things heard. A thing is "visible" if it can be seen and "desirable" if it ought to be desired. Thus the word "desirable" presupposes an ethical theory: we cannot infer what is desirable from what is desired. This criticism, however, reads the word "desirable" as "able to be desired" rather than "worth being desired", and does not take into account the moral assessment that must take place in order to categorise something as "desirable", which does not occur when categorising the same thing as "visible" or "audible".

Individual interests vs. a greater sum of lesser interests

Critics have also asked why one should follow utilitarianism instead of ethical egoism. The legal system might punish behavior that harms others, but this incentive is not active in a situation where one can personally gain by breaking it without punishment. One egoist, however, may propose means to maximise self-interest that conflict with the means proposed by another egoist. As a result, it behooves them to compromise with one another in order to avoid conflict, out of self-interest. The means proposed may incidentally coincide with those prescribed by utilitarianism, but the foundational ethical imperative would not, of course, be utilitarian.
.Another reason for an egoist to become a utilitarian was proposed by Peter Singer in Practical Ethics.^ Another reason for an egoist to become a utilitarian was proposed by Peter Singer in Practical Ethics .
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^ I do not propose that utilitarian ethics can sustain itself.
  • Further Thoughts on Ethics, Post Jesus « Carried The Cross 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC carriedthecross.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter Singer, Practical Ethics , 2d ed.
  • Between the Species - Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: RelativeNormative Guidance - Francione 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: Original source]

He presents the paradox of hedonism, which holds that, if your only goal in life is personal happiness, you will never be happy: you need something to be happy about. One goal that Singer feels is likely to bring about personal happiness is the desire to improve the lives of others; that is, to make others happy. .This argument is similar to the one for virtue ethics.^ This argument is similar to the one for virtue ethics .
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^ This argument is similar to the one for virtue ethics.

^ In virtue of such similarities, the objection Moore urges against Mill is equally applicable to Aristotle’s arguments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Infinitarian paralysis

Some modern cosmology theories predict an infinite Universe.[21] Philosopher Nick Bostrom claims that in an infinite universe there is an infinite number of planets and each of them has "non‐zero chance of giving rise to intelligent life". According to the philosopher, this means that in infinite universe there is (with probability of one) an infinite number of intelligent beings and therefore an infinite amount of pain and pleasure. However, we can affect only finite amount of pain and pleasure. Yet an infinite quantity can not be changed by adding or subtracting a finite quantity.[22]
According to Nick Bostrom, this means that "every possible act of ours therefore has the same net effect on the total amount of good and bad in a canonically infinite world: none whatsoever."[22] He further states that we can not use an ethical theory which combined with our current best scientific guesses means that it is always ethically indifferent what we do.[22]
Reasons why utilitarianism may remain useful include that the effects of actions might not be finite[23], the limitation to the possible utility on a single planet [24], and the argument that while the universe might be infinite, its mass, number of planets, useful energy and hence possible intelligent life all appear to be finite.[25]

Karl Marx's criticisms

Karl Marx, in Das Kapital, writes:
Not even excepting our philosopher, Christian Wolff, in no time and in no country has the most homespun commonplace ever strutted about in so self-satisfied a way. .The principle of utility was no discovery of Bentham.^ Utility and the Utility Principle: Hume Smith Bentham Mill .
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He simply reproduced in his dull way what Helvétius and other Frenchmen had said with esprit in the 18th century. To know what is useful for a dog, one must study dog-nature. This nature itself is not to be deduced from the principle of utility. Applying this to man, he that would criticise all human acts, movements, relations, etc., by the principle of utility, must first deal with human nature in general, and then with human nature as modified in each historical epoch. Bentham makes short work of it. With the driest naiveté he takes the modern shopkeeper, especially the English shopkeeper, as the normal man. Whatever is useful to this queer normal man, and to his world, is absolutely useful. This yard-measure, then, he applies to past, present, and future. The Christian religion, e.g., is "useful," "because it forbids in the name of religion the same faults that the penal code condemns in the name of the law." Artistic criticism is "harmful," because it disturbs worthy people in their enjoyment of Martin Tupper, etc. With such rubbish has the brave fellow, with his motto, "nulla dies sine line!," piled up mountains of books.[26]
Marx's accusation is twofold. In the first place, he says that the theory of utility is true by definition and thus does not really add anything meaningful. For Marx, a productive inquiry would have to investigate what sorts of things are good for people; that is, what our nature which is alienated under capitalism really is. Second, he says that Bentham fails to take account of the changing character of people, and hence the changing character of what is good for them. This criticism is especially important for Marx, because he believed that all important statements were contingent upon particular historical conditions.
Marx argues that human nature is dynamic, so the concept of a single utility for all humans is one-dimensional and not useful. When he decries Bentham's application of the 'yard measure' of now to 'the past, present and future', he decries the implication that society, and people, have always been, and will always be, as they are now; that is, he criticizes essentialism. As he sees it, this implication is conservatively used to reinforce institutions he regarded as reactionary. Just because in this moment religion has some positive consequences, says Marx, doesn't mean that viewed historically it isn't a regressive institution that should be abolished.
Marx's criticism is more a criticism of Bentham's views (or similar views) of utility, than utilitarianism itself. Utilitarians would not deny that different things make different people happy, and that what promotes happiness changes over time. Neither would utilitarians deny the importance of investigations into what promotes utility.
Marx's criticism applies to all philosophy which does not take explicit account of the movement of history (against dialectics). While he is right that all things change, and that it is necessary to take account of this when making practical judgements, this doesn't mean that it isn't useful to have a theory which gives some means to evaluate those changes themselves.
Also, utilitarianism was originally developed as a challenge to the status quo. The demand that everyone count for one, and one only, was anathema to the elitist society of Victorian Britain.[citation needed]
Although Marx criticized utilitarianism, some Marxist philosophers have used utilitarian principles as arguments for political socialism.

The Wittgensteinian Critique

Contemporary philosophers such as Matthew Ostrow have critiqued utilitarianism from a distinctly Wittgensteinian perspective. According to these philosophers, utilitarians have expanded the very meaning of pleasure to the point of linguistic incoherence. .The utilitarian groundlessly places pleasure as his or her first principle, and in doing so subordinates the value of asceticism, self-sacrifice or any other "secondary" desire.^ On the Cross of Mere Utility: Utilitarianism, Sacrifices, and the Value of Persons .
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^ Brink, Kagan, Utilitarianism and Self-Sacrifice .
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^ The Self-other Asymmetry and Act Utilitarianism .
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Of course, the utilitarian will deny this contention altogether, claiming that ascetics also seek pleasure, but have merely chosen an alternative path in which to achieve it.
Yet such an argument is implicitly tautological ("What is it that people want? Pleasure. But what is pleasure? What people want."). The utilitarian therefore has no ultimate justification for primarily valuing pleasure, other than to say that "this is the way it should be." In this critique, utilitarianism is thus ultimately reduced to a form of dishonest ethical intuitionism, unable to recognize or acknowledge its own groundlessness.

Criticism of other schools

.One utilitarian criticism of other schools is that many of them cannot even in theory solve real-world ethical problems when various inviolable principles collide, like triage or the rightness or otherwise of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ The Greatest Happiness Principle and Other Early German Anticipations of Utilitarian Theory .
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A criticism of Kantianism is levelled by R. M. Hare in Could Kant Have Been a Utilitarian? Hare argues that a number of different ethical positions could fit with Kant's description of his Categorical Imperative.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)
  2. ^ Rosen, Frederick (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-22094-7 "It was Hume and Bentham who then reasserted most strongly the Epicurean doctrine concerning utility as the basis of justice."
  3. ^ Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) Chapter I: On principle of Utility
  4. ^ Mill, John Stuart. 'On Liberty', ed. Himmelfarb. Penguin Classics, 1974, Ed.'s introduction, p.11.
  5. ^ a b John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism Chapter II: What Utilitarianism is. Citata: „Few human creatures would consent to changed into any of the lower animals for a promise of the fullest allowance of a beast pleasures“
  6. ^ Bentham, Jeremy, The Rationale of Reward (London: Robert Heward, 1830), p. 206
  7. ^ Mill, John Stuart. 'On Liberty', ed. Himmelfarb. Penguin Classics, 1974, 'Introductory' of main text, p. 68.
  8. ^ David Lyons, Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, 1965.
  9. ^ Allen Habib (2008), "Promises", in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  10. ^ Karl R.Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies, London 1945
  11. ^ utilitarianism.com: The pinprick argument
  12. ^ Fabian Fricke - Verschiedene Versionen des negativen Utilitarismus
  13. ^ Open Directory - Negative Utilitarianism
  14. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Repugnant Conclusion Authors: Jesper Ryberg, Torbjörn Tännsjö, Gustaf Arrhenius
  15. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Repugnant Conclusion
  16. ^ Shaw, William H. Contemporary Ethics: taking account of utilitarianism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1999. pp. 31-35
  17. ^ Rawls, John A Theory Of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971. pp. 22-27
  18. ^ Ryder, Richard D. Painism: A Modern Morality. Centaur Press, 2001. pp. 27-29
  19. ^ Dennett, Daniel (1995), Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-82471-X.
  20. ^ Anthony Kenny What I Believe p75–80
  21. ^ NASA: WMAP's Universe - Is the Universe Infinite?, Foundations of Big Bang Cosmology
  22. ^ a b c Nick Bostrom - The infinitarian challenge to aggregative ethics (2008)
  23. ^ Argument to Act Utilitarianism “infiniarian paralysis”, retrieved 29 Dec 2009
  24. ^ millongenerations
  25. ^ The Universe Might Last Forever, Astronomers Say, but Life Might Not, New York Times, Jan 1, 2002, Ultimate fate of the universe, Rüdiger Vaas: DARK ENERGY AND LIFE’S ULTIMATE FUTURE, arXiv:physics/0703183v1
  26. ^ Das Kapital Volume I Chapter 24 endnote 50

References and further reading

.
  • Cornman, James, et al.^ Cornman, James, et al.
    • Utilitarianism.eu 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitarianism.eu [Source type: Original source]
    • What is Utilitarianism? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Philosophical Problems and Arguments - An Introduction, 4th edition Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 1992.
  • Harwood, Sterling, "Eleven Objections to Utilitarianism," in Louis P. Pojman, ed., Moral Philosophy: A Reader, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 2003), and in Sterling Harwood, ed., Business as Ethical and Business as Usual, Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1996, Chapter 7.
  • Lyons, David, "Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • Martin, Michael, "A Utilitarian Kantian Principle," Philosophical Studies, (with H. Ruf), 21, 1970, pp. 90–91.
  • Rosen, Frederick (2003).^ Brad Hooker, ed., Rationality, Rules, and Utility: New Essays on the Moral Philosophy of Richard Brandt .
    • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ David Lyons, Rights, Welfare, and Mills Moral Theory and Necip Fikri Alican, Mills Principle of Utility: a Defense of John Stuart Mills Notorious Proof G.W. SMITH .
    • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ David Lyons, Moral Aspects of Legal Theory: Essays on Law, Justice and Political Responsibility .
    • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

    Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-22094-7
  • Silverstein, Harry S. A Defence of Cornman’s Utilitarian Kantian Principle, Philosophical Studies (Dordrecht u.a.) 23, 212–215. 1972
  • Singer, Peter. The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981. [ISBN 0-374-15112-1]
  • Singer, Peter. .Practical Ethics, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. [ISBN 0-521-43971-X]
  • Stokes, Eric.^ Cambridge University Press Last updated: October 2009 design by oxogen .
    • Utilitas - Journal contents: Vol.1 No.1 to current issue 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utilitas.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

    The English Utilitarians and India, Clarendon Press, 1963. [ASIN B0026QQ5GE]
  • Sumner, L. Wayne, Abortion: A Third Way, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes about utilitarianism

Sourced

.
  • Some forms of suffering are so horrific that a few patients may have to die against their preferences so that others will not have to undergo years of unremitting psychological agony.^ Agents and patients may be harmed or benefited and have a welfare in that their experiential life fares well or ill for them, independent of the utility that they have for others or the interest that others have in them.
    • Between the Species - Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: RelativeNormative Guidance - Francione 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Regan stresses that there is no nonarbitrary way to separate moral agents from moral patients, and that there is no way to differentiate human moral patients from nonhuman moral patients without relying on some form of speciesism.
    • Between the Species - Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: RelativeNormative Guidance - Francione 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To minimize the potential suffering they would otherwise cause others, some form of governing authority will be needed to prevent wrong behavior among those who cannot or will not control themselves.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

  • By utility is meant that property is any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness(all this in the present case come to the same thing) or (what comes again to the same thing) to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil or unhappiness to the party who whose is considered: if that party be the community in general, then the happiness of the community; if a particular individual; then the happiness of that individual
    • Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1798.
  • Perfect the Will, the Mind, Feeling, their corporeal organs and their material tools; be useful to yourselves, to your own ones, and to others; and Happiness, insofar as it exists on this earth, will come of itself.^ The principle of utility was no discovery of Bentham.
    • What is Utilitarianism? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The same want for happiness is then transferred to the community.
    • utilitarianism@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mill, like his influence Jeremy Bentham , equated goodness and happiness with pleasure, and badness and unhappiness with pain.
    • utilitarianism@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

  • It's the flock, the grove, that matters. .Our responsibility is to species, not to specimens; to communities, not to individuals.^ He is also aware that the beneficiary of our actions could be an individual or the community at large.
    • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Sara Stein, Noah's Garden, 1998.

External links

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Utilitarianism
by John Stuart Mill

Contents

Chapter 1: General Remarks

.There are few circumstances among those which make up the present condition of human knowledge, more unlike what might have been expected, or more significant of the backward state in which speculation on the most important subjects still lingers, than the little progress which has been made in the decision of the controversy respecting the criterion of right and wrong.^ Second, Bentham's view that there were no qualitative differences in pleasures also left him open to the complaint that on his view human pleasures were of no more value than animal pleasures and, third, committed him to the corollary that the moral status of animals, tied to their sentience, was the same as that of humans.
  • The History of Utilitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What is clear is that given Singer's view that the rightness or wrongness of action is determined by the consequences it has for the interests of all affected, he simply "cannot say that the interests of those humans involved in [factory farming], those whose quality of life presently is bound up in it, are irrelevant."  [29] The problem is that once the preference satisfaction of everyone involved in factory farming (humans and nonhumans) is deemed relevant, and counted equitably, Singer's claim that factory farming cannot be justified under utilitarian theory appears to be much more controversial than he allows.
  • Between the Species - Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: RelativeNormative Guidance - Francione 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: Original source]

.From the dawn of philosophy, the question concerning the summum bonum, or, what is the same thing, concerning the foundation of morality, has been accounted the main problem in speculative thought, has occupied the most gifted intellects, and divided them into sects and schools, carrying on a vigorous warfare against one another.^ In moral evaluation the main concern is that of character.
  • The History of Utilitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It simply addresses the moral problem raised by evil appetites elsewhere, in its account of the right.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.And after more than two thousand years the same discussions continue, philosophers are still ranged under the same contending banners, and neither thinkers nor mankind at large seem nearer to being unanimous on the subject, than when the youth Socrates listened to the old Protagoras, and asserted (if Plato's dialogue be grounded on a real conversation) the theory of utilitarianism against the popular morality of the so-called sophist.^ I am not slavishly following the philosophers of old; UU is not the same as previously proposed utilitarian moral theories.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Roots of Morality III: Universal Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The utilitarian theory of the good is a theory of the non-moral good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Bentham's view that there were no qualitative differences in pleasures also left him open to the complaint that on his view human pleasures were of no more value than animal pleasures and, third, committed him to the corollary that the moral status of animals, tied to their sentience, was the same as that of humans.
  • The History of Utilitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is true that similar confusion and uncertainty, and in some cases similar discordance, exist respecting the first principles of all the sciences, not excepting that which is deemed the most certain of them, mathematics; without much impairing, generally indeed without impairing at all, the trustworthiness of the conclusions of those sciences.^ First of all, this ethical system is not universal by virtue of existing independently of us.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus failure to conceive a child will put at risk the welfare of all those who might have been better off (or less badly off) if one's child had existed.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

An apparent anomaly, the explanation of which is, that the detailed doctrines of a science are not usually deduced from, nor depend for their evidence upon, what are called its first principles. .Were it not so, there would be no science more precarious, or whose conclusions were more insufficiently made out, than algebra; which derives none of its certainty from what are commonly taught to learners as its elements, since these, as laid down by some of its most eminent teachers, are as full of fictions as English law, and of mysteries as theology.^ Out of these elements there was born the Republican Party.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hume :- § "There is no method of reasoning more common, and yet none more blamable, than, in philosophical disputes, to endeavor the refutation of any hypothesis, by a pretense of its dangerous consequences to religion and morality."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The truths which are ultimately accepted as the first principles of a science, are really the last results of metaphysical analysis, practised on the elementary notions with which the science is conversant; and their relation to the science is not that of foundations to an edifice, but of roots to a tree, which may perform their office equally well though they be never dug down to and exposed to light.^ Or, in John Stewart Mill's words: "The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Actions are better or less-good depending on the "amount" of well-being in which they result.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus both principles operate on the good which has been identified in the first component (the theory of the good) as well-being.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.But though in science the particular truths precede the general theory, the contrary might be expected to be the case with a practical art, such as morals or legislation.^ In the case of abstinences indeed- of things which people forbear to do from moral considerations, though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial- it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious, and that this is the ground of the obligation to abstain from it.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He points out that even though a man believed that a certain action was of a sort which in general would be unjust, he would not regard that particular action as unjust if he believed that it would not be wrong to do it (259).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I stress that the purpose of this discussion is not to present and analyze critiques of utilitarianism in  general, or even Singer's utilitarian theory of animal liberation in particular.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.All action is for the sake of some end, and rules of action, it seems natural to suppose, must take their whole character and colour from the end to which they are subservient.^ Will not the knowledge of it, then, have a great influence on life?” 20 In a similar vein, as we have seen, Mill says, “All action is for the sake of some end, and rules of action, it seems natural to suppose, must take their whole character and colour from the end to which they are subservient.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They seem to come naturally.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Raphael contends that Mill holds that “all rules or precepts are aimed at the promotion of ends.” He is referring to Mill’s remark, “All action is for the sake of some end, and rules of action, it seems natural to suppose, must take their whole character and colour from the end to which they are subservient” (206).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.When we engage in a pursuit, a clear and precise conception of what we are pursuing would seem to be the first thing we need, instead of the last we are to look forward to.^ When we engage in a pursuit, a clear and precise conception of what we are pursuing would seem to be the first thing we need.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From this passage it might seem that Mill regards the claim that there is an obligation to do a certain thing as equivalent to the claim that it would be wrong not to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It then looks as if Mill contends that something should be done because it would cause more happiness, but that it is not only because of this that it should be done; that the reason in turn why what would cause more happiness should be done is that happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.A test of right and wrong must be the means, one would think, of ascertaining what is right or wrong, and not a consequence of having already ascertained it.^ Mill hereby points out that the claim that a man has a right to a certain thing does not imply that it would invariably be wrong for anyone to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One explanation is ruled out by the arguments above: the priority of the good cannot mean that principles of the right are derived from the good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The priority of the good, then, states nothing more than Sumner’s basic assumption about the goal of morality and one of its consequences, which means that the priority of the good is only as plausible as Sumner’s basic assumption about the goal of morality.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.The difficulty is not avoided by having recourse to the popular theory of a natural faculty, a sense or instinct, informing us of right and wrong.^ Having focussed on Mill’s analyses of four chief concepts—right and wrong, obligation, a right, justice—we have now to notice certain bearings of these analyses.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This line of reasoning naturally leads to the priority of the good, according to which a theory’s basic principles of the good do not presuppose any antecedent principles of the right.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Herbert Spencer: Evolutionary Ethics The ethical system sometimes called evolutionary ethics holds that human beings' sense of right and wrong originates from the process of natural selection that brought our species into existence.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.For- besides that the existence of such- a moral instinct is itself one of the matters in dispute- those believers in it who have any pretensions to philosophy, have been obliged to abandon the idea that it discerns what is right or wrong in the particular case in hand, as our other senses discern the sight or sound actually present.^ So in some sense one's analysis is _always_ judged right or wrong .
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The strength of the utilitarian approach, to oversimply (somewhat) is that it is consistent with accepting the primacy of a “comprehensive” moral view, whereas a Rawlsian approach is VERY friendly to the sort of “piecemeal social engineering” advocated by other “lefties” (Karl Popper), one which merely provides a gesture of feigned tolerance in the direction of those who believe a “good” financier is a “good” human being.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer's reply, "It's difficult to warm to parents who can take such a detached view, (but) they're not doing something really wrong in itself."

.Our moral faculty, according to all those of its interpreters who are entitled to the name of thinkers, supplies us only with the general principles of moral judgments; it is a branch of our reason, not of our sensitive faculty; and must be looked to for the abstract doctrines of morality, not for perception of it in the concrete.^ Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So observers as well as agents have adequate reasons to believe that such acts are morally wrong, according to act utilitarianism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But on Bentham's view the action (or trait) is morally good, right, virtuous in view of the consequences it generates, the pleasure or utility it produces, which could be completely independent of what our responses are to the trait.
  • The History of Utilitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The intuitive, no less than what may be termed the inductive, school of ethics, insists on the necessity of general laws.^ According to the law of diminishing marginal utility a rich person suffers less from an established redistribution than a poor person suffers from the lacking of such redistribution.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Atheists are human beings also, and we are no less moral simply because we ground our ethics in human nature and the happiness of others rather than unquestioning faith in a set of ancient writings.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They both agree that the morality of an individual action is not a question of direct perception, but of the application of a law to an individual case.^ He writes, “the morality of an individual action is not a question of direct perception, but of the application of a law to an individual case” (206).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill writes, “the morality of an individual action is .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.They recognise also, to a great extent, the same moral laws; but differ as to their evidence, and the source from which they derive their authority.^ Though intuitionists and members of Mills a posteriori or inductive school recognize to a great extent, the same moral laws, they differ as to their evidence and the source from which they derive their authority.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though intuitionists and members of Mill’s a posteriori or “inductive” school recognize “to a great extent, the same moral laws,” they differ “as to their evidence and the source from which they derive their authority.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Inasmuch as they give "a binding force to any law or rule of conduct" these sources may be termed "sanctions".
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to the one opinion, the principles of morals are evident a priori, requiring nothing to command assent, except that the meaning of the terms be understood.^ Addressing each person means that the moral principles .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the one opinion, the principles of morals are evident a priori , requiring nothing to command assent except that the meaning of the terms be understood.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the other doctrine, right and wrong, as well as truth and falsehood, are questions of observation and experience.^ According to the other doctrine, right and wrong, as well as truth and falsehood, are questions of observation and experience.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the other doctrine, right and wrong, as well as truth and falsehood, are questions of observation and experience.” ( CW , X.206).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But both hold equally that morality must be deduced from principles; and the intuitive school affirm as strongly as the inductive, that there is a science of morals.^ Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it doesn’t make sense to hold that two incompatible principles (5 and 5’) can both be derived from (4).
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Given your belief that there is no God, I think I am still confused as to why someone must comply with what others say is the morally correct thing to do.
  • Common Sense Atheism » What Is Morality? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC commonsenseatheism.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yet they seldom attempt to make out a list of the a priori principles which are to serve as the premises of the science; still more rarely do they make any effort to reduce those various principles to one first principle, or common ground of obligation.^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One explanation is ruled out by the arguments above: the priority of the good cannot mean that principles of the right are derived from the good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ But, of course, the rightness of actions can be derived from the goodness of their outcomes only if one accepts a principle of the right which allows this derivation in the first place.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.They either assume the ordinary precepts of morals as of a priori authority, or they lay down as the common groundwork of those maxims, some generality much less obviously authoritative than the maxims themselves, and which has never succeeded in gaining popular acceptance.^ Today, though the atheist movement is gaining strength in countries around the world, and though there is no indication that atheists as a whole are any less moral than believers, this old prejudice persists.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not imply that it would be wrong to do something if and only if it would cause less happiness than some alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To minimize the potential suffering they would otherwise cause others, some form of governing authority will be needed to prevent wrong behavior among those who cannot or will not control themselves.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet to support their pretensions there ought either to be some one fundamental principle or law, at the root of all morality, or if there be several, there should be a determinate order of precedence among them; and the one principle, or the rule for deciding between the various principles when they conflict, ought to be self-evident.^ But has relativity of fundamental moral principles also been proved?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conflict between different options should be decided based on the balance.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Beliefs in rules of precedence such as these are second-order moral beliefs.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.To inquire how far the bad effects of this deficiency have been mitigated in practice, or to what extent the moral beliefs of mankind have been vitiated or made uncertain by the absence of any distinct recognition of an ultimate standard, would imply a complete survey and criticism, of past and present ethical doctrine.^ One of the standard criticisms of telological ethical schemes, which all forms of utilitarianism essentialy are, is that they require at the present moment, the time at which the judgement as to what act to make or rule to follow, a knowledge of the future consequences of that act or rule.
  • Utilitarianism v. Objectivism: The Throwdown - Jolt Forums 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The killer may be impartial with respect to his victims' occupations, religious beliefs, and so forth, but it would be absurd to regard this as a form of moral impartiality ( Impartiality , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If so, then classical utilitarianism implies that it would not be morally wrong for the doctor to perform the transplant and even that it would be morally wrong for the doctor not to perform the transplant.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It would, however, be easy to show that whatever steadiness or consistency these moral beliefs have, attained, has been mainly due to the tacit influence of a standard not recognised.^ The killer may be impartial with respect to his victims' occupations, religious beliefs, and so forth, but it would be absurd to regard this as a form of moral impartiality ( Impartiality , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, the point is the same (or parallel): to describe what it would be to consistently apply egalitarian (or utilitarian, or whatever) principles, applied to bodily inequality.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, these moral considerations do not require the maximization of well-being but might instead require its equal distribution.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.Although the non-existence of an acknowledged first principle has made ethics not so much a guide as a consecration of men's actual sentiments, still, as men's sentiments, both of favour and of aversion, are greatly influenced by what they suppose to be the effects of things upon their happiness, the principle of utility, or as Bentham latterly called it, the greatest happiness principle, has had a large share in forming the moral doctrines even of those who most scornfully reject its authority.^ What principles can we draw upon to guide us?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in John Stewart Mill's words: "The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We find Bentham, in his 1789 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation , attacking non-utilitarian moral systems for just this reason: “They consist all of them in so many contrivances for avoiding the obligation of appealing to any external standard, and for prevailing upon the reader to accept of the author’s sentiment or opinion as a reason and that a sufficient one for itself.” ( IPML , II.14).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nor is there any school of thought which refuses to admit that the influence of actions on happiness is a most material and even predominant consideration in many of the details of morals, however unwilling to acknowledge it as the fundamental principle of morality, and the source of moral obligation.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in John Stewart Mill's words: "The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.I might go much further, and say that to all those a priori moralists who deem it necessary to argue at all, utilitarian arguments are indispensable.^ This enabled Mill to argue against those who tried to suggest that the subordination of women to men reflected a natural order that women were by nature incapable of equality with men.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some critics might say that to truly know what decision would minimize actual and potential suffering, we would need to know an unreasonable amount of background information, such as all the people a person will go on to interact with, what decisions that person will make in the future, how those decisions will in turn affect other people, and so on ad infinitum.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus failure to conceive a child will put at risk the welfare of all those who might have been better off (or less badly off) if one's child had existed.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is not my present purpose to criticise these thinkers; but I cannot help referring, for illustration, to a systematic treatise by one of the most illustrious of them, the Metaphysics of Ethics, by Kant.^ Most presentations of deontological ethics combine utilitarian with Kantian features.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the various answers to these questions have differed tremendously, most of them have one thing in common.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most systematic defense of Kantian ethics in our century is H.J. Paton, The Categorical Imperative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This remarkable man, whose system of thought will long remain one of the landmarks in the history of philosophical speculation, does, in the treatise in question, lay down a universal first principle as the origin and ground of moral obligation; it is this: "So act, that the rule on which thou actest would admit of being adopted as a law by all rational beings."^ How does one avoid being practical and remain reasonable?
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

^ ISUS X comprises a conference program of 4 plenaries, 39 panels and over 120 presenters offering original research on all aspects of utilitarian moral and political theory, and the development of utilitarianism and its connections with other speculative traditions.
  • Kadish Center Conference�ISUS 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.law.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Whatever we adopt as the fundamental principle of morality, we require subordinate principles to apply it by; the impossibility of doing without them, being common to all systems, can afford no argument against any one in particular; but gravely to argue as if no such secondary principles could be had, and as if mankind had remained till now, and always must remain, without drawing any general conclusions from the experience of human life, is as high a pitch, I think, as absurdity has ever reached in philosophical controversy.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.But when he begins to deduce from this precept any of the actual duties of morality, he fails, almost grotesquely, to show that there would be any contradiction, any logical (not to say physical) impossibility, in the adoption by all rational beings of the most outrageously immoral rules of conduct.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This status as a "thing" is a logical consequence of the institution of human slavery which treated all slave interests--including Shue's basic right of physical security--as tradable as long as there were perceived benefits for slaveowners.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.All he shows is that the consequences of their universal adoption would be such as no one would choose to incur.^ It is true that eminent divines, such as Bishop Butler, had adopted the principle, and that until it became the watchword of the Radicals, no one found it objectionable.
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only conceivable right-based theory would be a moral theory whose principles of the right make no reference at all to the non-moral good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if all the current religious systems were fatally self-contradictory, there could still be a ‘true’ religion no one has discovered yet.
  • Common Sense Atheism » What Is Morality? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC commonsenseatheism.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the present occasion, I shall, without further discussion of the other theories, attempt to contribute something towards the understanding and appreciation of the Utilitarian or Happiness theory, and towards such proof as it is susceptible of.^ I would say in her essence, my mother is a utilitarian, a school teacher promoting great happiness for many people including the students she educates and parents whom understand and appreciate her concern for their children.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is also true of any other moral system, including relativism, or for that matter, any scientific theory - even ones such as the sphericity of the Earth, the heliocentric solar system, or the germ theory of disease.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I stress that the purpose of this discussion is not to present and analyze critiques of utilitarianism in  general, or even Singer's utilitarian theory of animal liberation in particular.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is evident that this cannot be proof in the ordinary and popular meaning of the term.^ According to the one opinion, the principles of morals are evident a priori , requiring nothing to command assent except that the meaning of the terms be understood.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Questions of ultimate ends are not amenable to direct proof.^ He argues that (q)uestions of ultimate ends are not amenable to direct proof.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is all the proof we can give that happiness is our only ultimate end; it must rely on introspection and on careful and honest examination of our feelings and motives.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This conclusion Mill at once qualifies: “Questions of ultimate ends are not amenable to direct proof.” Mill still concedes that such questions are not amenable to what is “commonly understood by proof,” but he contends that they are amenable to a “larger meaning of the word proof.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever can be proved to be good, must be so by being shown to be a means to something admitted to be good without proof.^ He generalizes, “Whatever can be proved to be good, must be so by being shown to be a means to something admitted to be good without proof” (207-208).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Mill is saying two things: first, that whatever can be proved to be good can be so proved only by being shown conducive to something else that is good; second, that since something cannot be proved to be desirable for its own sake by being shown to be desirable as a means to something else, no proof can be given of what is desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.The medical art is proved to be good by its conducing to health; but how is it possible to prove that health is good?^ Mill writes, “The medical art is proved to be good, by its conducing to health.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill comes closest to this when he writes: “The hygienic and medical arts assume, the one that the preservation of health, the other that the cure of disease, are fitting and desirable ends.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The art of music is good, for the reason, among others, that it produces pleasure; but what proof is it possible to give that pleasure is good?^ Hedonism = the value of the consequences depends only on the pleasures and pains in the consequences (as opposed to other goods, such as freedom, knowledge, life, and so on).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham then made the next step and took it to denote the idea that actions are right (good = useful) in proportion to their tendency to produce pleasure and ultimately happiness.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It gives little guidance to monopolistic competitors and oligopolists, whose competitive strategies are based on differentiated goods, such as producers of automobiles, white goods, telephones and jewellery.
  • TIJ Articles: Accelerated Dynamics and Utilitarianism, Peter Gunther 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.innovation.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If, then, it is asserted that there is a comprehensive formula, including all things which are in themselves good, and that whatever else is good, is not so as an end, but as a mean, the formula may be accepted or rejected, but is not a subject of what is commonly understood by proof.^ But these supplementary explanations do not affect the theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded- namely, that pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things (which are as numerous in the utilitarian as in any other scheme) are desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves, or as means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This status as a "thing" is a logical consequence of the institution of human slavery which treated all slave interests--including Shue's basic right of physical security--as tradable as long as there were perceived benefits for slaveowners.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever you call them, the important point is that consequentialism and the other elements of classical utilitarianism are compatible with many different theories about which things are good or valuable.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

We are not, however, to infer that its acceptance or rejection must depend on blind impulse, or arbitrary choice. .There is a larger meaning of the word proof, in which this question is as amenable to it as any other of the disputed questions of philosophy.^ There are missing words, added words, "their"s for "there"s and other errors that sometimes made it hard to follow.
  • Political Crossfire Forums :: View topic - Are we better off without religion? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.politicalcrossfire.com [Source type: General]

^ In other words, you seem to dismiss anything not directly detectable through material means.
  • Common Sense Atheism » What Is Morality? 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC commonsenseatheism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word “freedom” has many meanings, and is commonly divided (among other ways) into “freedom from” (coercive acts of others) and “freedom to” (what one can do if one chooses).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The subject is within the cognisance of the rational faculty; and neither does that faculty deal with it solely in the way of intuition.^ Neither kind of theory is derivable from the theory of the good or does in any way depend on it.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.Considerations may be presented capable of determining the intellect either to give or withhold its assent to the doctrine; and this is equivalent to proof.^ All that can be done is to present considerations capable of determining the intellect either to give or withhold its assent to the doctrine; and this is equivalent to proof.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Considerations may be presented capable of determining the intellect either to give or withhold assent.” Moore recognizes that Mill does not claim to give a proof of what things are desirable for their own sake in terms of what is commonly understood by proof.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All that can be done is to present considerations “capable of determining the intellect either to give or withhold its assent to the doctrine; and this is equivalent to proof.” ( CW , X.208).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.We shall examine presently of what nature are these considerations; in what manner they apply to the case, and what rational grounds, therefore, can be given for accepting or rejecting the utilitarian formula.^ Not all principles of the contract apply to them and therefore they do not fulfill the conditions of an impartial contract.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While these do not constitute all those that could be derived from universal utilitarianism, they will hopefully at least represent a good start and show the potential this system possesses.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many utilitarians are happy to reject common moral intuitions in this case, like many others (cf.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

But it is a preliminary condition of rational acceptance or rejection, that the formula should be correctly understood. .I believe that the very imperfect notion ordinarily formed of its meaning, is the chief obstacle which impedes its reception; and that could it be cleared, even from only the grosser misconceptions, the question would be greatly simplified, and a large proportion of its difficulties removed.^ Even if the Negro is eligible to vote, he is very often barred, as in the South, from the primaries of the political party, in many cases the only significant process in the election of candidates.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The calculation that aims at "the greatest amount of happines for the greatest number of people " typically comes down to the notion of the "greatest average happiness" which means very little.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From a genetic point of view the differences in appearance could be so small (0.5%) that we would not even recognize them.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before, therefore, I attempt to enter into the philosophical grounds which can be given for assenting to the utilitarian standard, I shall offer some illustrations of the doctrine itself; with the view of showing more clearly what it is, distinguishing it from what it is not, and disposing of such of the practical objections to it as either originate in, or are closely connected with, mistaken interpretations of its meaning.^ ISUS X comprises a conference program of 4 plenaries, 39 panels and over 120 presenters offering original research on all aspects of utilitarian moral and political theory, and the development of utilitarianism and its connections with other speculative traditions.
  • Kadish Center Conference�ISUS 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.law.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Singer's reply, "It's difficult to warm to parents who can take such a detached view, (but) they're not doing something really wrong in itself."

^ Here I consider three common objections to views like ICTO that incorporate the more plausible negative utilitarianism represented by NPO and its role in ICTO. (i) The Marginalist Objection: Some economists and philosophers regard lexical orderings as intrinsically irrational.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Having thus prepared the ground, I shall afterwards endeavour to throw such light as I can upon the question, considered as one of philosophical theory.^ But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is also true of any other moral system, including relativism, or for that matter, any scientific theory - even ones such as the sphericity of the Earth, the heliocentric solar system, or the germ theory of disease.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative The philosopher Immanuel Kant's theory of the categorical imperative holds that one should not act in accordance with any principle that one cannot rationally will to be a universal law.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

Chapter 2: What Utilitarianism Is

.A passing remark is all that needs be given to the ignorant blunder of supposing that those who stand up for utility as the test of right and wrong, use the term in that restricted and merely colloquial sense in which utility is opposed to pleasure.^ He was using it afterwards consistently in this unrestricted sense despite the objections of many critics who have complained about the "dangerous" implications of the doctrine that something could be recommended without being supported by any independent standard of right and wrong.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus failure to conceive a child will put at risk the welfare of all those who might have been better off (or less badly off) if one's child had existed.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An apology is due to the philosophical opponents of utilitarianism, for even the momentary appearance of confounding them with any one capable of so absurd a misconception; which is the more extraordinary, inasmuch as the contrary accusation, of referring everything to pleasure, and that too in its grossest form, is another of the common charges against utilitarianism: and, as has been pointedly remarked by an able writer, the same sort of persons, and often the very same persons, denounce the theory "as impracticably dry when the word utility precedes the word pleasure, and as too practicably voluptuous when the word pleasure precedes the word utility."^ I agree that it is one of the more convincing arguments against utilitarianism.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Utilitarians have tended to include even sadistic enjoyments, relying on the injury that sadists inflict on their victims to ensure that their practices will be condemned.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on your attacks against a bizarre, extremist caricature of "utilitarianism", I have to wonder whether you've even read the article, or whether you simply seized the word "utilitarianism" out of the title and responded to that in a reflexive fashion.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Roots of Morality III: Universal Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those who know anything about the matter are aware that every writer, from Epicurus to Bentham, who maintained the theory of utility, meant by it, not something to be contradistinguished from pleasure, but pleasure itself, together with exemption from pain; and instead of opposing the useful to the agreeable or the ornamental, have always declared that the useful means these, among other things.^ He was using it afterwards consistently in this unrestricted sense despite the objections of many critics who have complained about the "dangerous" implications of the doctrine that something could be recommended without being supported by any independent standard of right and wrong.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ignoring or concealing the fundamental role of pleasure and pain is tantamount to dealing with moral issues in (1) sounds instead of sense, (2) in caprice instead of reason, (3) in darkness instead of light.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The concept of intrinsic goodness (“good for its own sake”) as opposed to instrumental goodness (“good for the same of something else”) is lucidly discussed, together with a defense of a plurality of intrinsic goods, by G.E. Moore in his Ethics, 23 Chapter.6, and developed by Brand Blanshard, in Reason & Goodness, 24 who concludes that fulfillment and satisfaction are the two intrinsic goods, all others being directly or indirectly reducible to these.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet the common herd, including the herd of writers, not only in newspapers and periodicals, but in books of weight and pretension, are perpetually falling into this shallow mistake.^ For them essentially the only question is does a book fit into the curriculum?
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

.Having caught up the word utilitarian, while knowing nothing whatever about it but its sound, they habitually express by it the rejection, or the neglect, of pleasure in some of its forms; of beauty, of ornament, or of amusement.^ Mill avoids this dilemma by rejecting Hamilton’s position that we know things outside as they really are.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever you call them, the important point is that consequentialism and the other elements of classical utilitarianism are compatible with many different theories about which things are good or valuable.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain some pains and no pleasures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Nor is the term thus ignorantly misapplied solely in disparagement, but occasionally in compliment; as though it implied superiority to frivolity and the mere pleasures of the moment. .And this perverted use is the only one in which the word is popularly known, and the one from which the new generation are acquiring their sole notion of its meaning.^ But in the last two centuries the word “duty” has come to mean anything at all which one is morally obliged to do, and in utilitarianism this means maximizing utility.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only consequences he mentions to be reckoned with against someone’s telling a certain lie are undermining reliance on his word, undermining his character, and impairing trust in men’s assertions generally.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ War, or (2) to keep a Freedman's Bureau for a generation, or (3) to use the Negro vote as the only force it had at hand to reconstruct the Southern states.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those who introduced the word, but who had for many years discontinued it as a distinctive appellation, may well feel themselves called upon to resume it, if by doing so they can hope to contribute anything towards rescuing it from this utter degradation.^ Singer's reply, "It's difficult to warm to parents who can take such a detached view, (but) they're not doing something really wrong in itself."

^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN9] Those who accept the second asymmetry thesis believe that people are not doing something wrong when they choose not to have a child who would be happy.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

1
.The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in John Stewart Mill's words: "The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [A]ctions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” ( ibid., 210).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.^ By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some add that "By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure."
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill writes, “By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure” (210).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.To give a clear view of the moral standard set up by the theory, much more requires to be said; in particular, what things it includes in the ideas of pain and pleasure; and to what extent this is left an open question.^ This kind of proposition simply asserts of a thing under a particular name, only what is asserted of it in the fact of calling it by that name; and which, therefore, either gives no information, or gives it respecting the name, not the thing.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first component of moral theory--the ideal level--requires that we ask what the theory envisions as the ideal state that would be achieved if the theory under consideration were accepted.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But these supplementary explanations do not affect the theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded- namely, that pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things (which are as numerous in the utilitarian as in any other scheme) are desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves, or as means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.^ As far as I know, it is the only utilitarian theory that possesses these virtues.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The utilitarian theory of the good is a theory of the non-moral good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill also writes, “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now, such a theory of life excites in many minds, and among them in some of the most estimable in feeling and purpose, inveterate dislike.^ Many consequentialists deny that all values can be reduced to any single ground, such as pleasure or desire satisfaction, so they instead adopt a pluralistic theory of value.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By it he understands the theory that it is intuitively self-evident what kinds of actions are wrong and what kinds are obligatory, and that all that is required to make out that some particular action would be wrong, or another obligatory, is to make out that it would be an action of some such kind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But such a connection is belied by the fact that there are many principles of the right which are compatible with any theory of the good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.To suppose that life has (as they express it) no higher end than pleasure- no better and nobler object of desire and pursuitthey designate as utterly mean and grovelling; as a doctrine worthy only of swine, to whom the followers of Epicurus were, at a very early period, contemptuously likened; and modern holders of the doctrine are occasionally made the subject of equally polite comparisons by its German, French, and English assailants.^ One misconception is that utilitarianism, by endorsing the Epicurean view that life hasno higher end than pleasure is a doctrine worthy only of swine.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One misconception is that utilitarianism, by endorsing the Epicurean view “that life has…no higher end than pleasure” is a “doctrine worthy only of swine.” ( CW , X.210).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When thus attacked, the Epicureans have always answered, that it is not they, but their accusers, who represent human nature in a degrading light; since the accusation supposes human beings to be capable of no pleasures except those of which swine are capable.^ Mill counters that “the accusation supposes human beings to be capable of no pleasures except those of which swine are capable.” ( CW , X.210).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill counters that the accusation supposes human beings to be capable of no pleasures except those of which swine are capable.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If this supposition were true, the charge could not be gainsaid, but would then be no longer an imputation; for if the sources of pleasure were precisely the same to human beings and to swine, the rule of life which is good enough for the one would be good enough for the other.^ He urges instead that men generally have such an intense interest in their enforcement that “if obedience to them were not the rule, and disobedience the exception, every one would see in every one else a probable enemy, against whom he must be perpetually guarding himself.” “It is their observance which alone preserves peace among human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor can personal revelation be a reliable guide - how, even in principle, could one ever distinguish a true communication of God from the prompting of one's own subconscious?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems that its major flaws could be fixed by grafting the doctrine of human rights onto it, but what would be the justification for such a forced coupling?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.The comparison of the Epicurean life to that of beasts is felt as degrading, precisely because a beast's pleasures do not satisfy a human being's conceptions of happiness.^ The Stoics and the Epicureans consider knowledge as a means of practical life, whose object is the happiness attainable only by reason freed from passion, that is, by virtue, according to the first, or by sense and pleasure aided by calculation, according to the second."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the contrary, I believe that morality is a concept created by humans for humans; morality exists because we exist.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Mill puts it, history should be seen as the unfolding of a great epic or dramatic action, which terminates in the happiness or misery, the elevation or degradation, of the human race.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Human beings have faculties more elevated than the animal appetites, and when once made conscious of them, do not regard anything as happiness which does not include their gratification.^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Atheists are human beings also, and we are no less moral simply because we ground our ethics in human nature and the happiness of others rather than unquestioning faith in a set of ancient writings.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.I do not, indeed, consider the Epicureans to have been by any means faultless in drawing out their scheme of consequences from the utilitarian principle.^ One explanation is ruled out by the arguments above: the priority of the good cannot mean that principles of the right are derived from the good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, Frey and Singer are both utilitarians, and they disagree over the consequences of abolishing factory farming.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Both egoism and utilitarianism are consequentialist theories: in egoism one considers the consequences of the act to oneself, in utilitarianism one considers the consequences of the act to everyone affected by it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

To do this in any sufficient manner, many Stoic, as well as Christian elements require to be included. .But there is no known Epicurean theory of life which does not assign to the pleasures of the intellect, of the feelings and imagination, and of the moral sentiments, a much higher value as pleasures than to those of mere sensation.^ From this Mill ventures also to generalize what sorts of experiences are more desirable of themselves, independent of whether they are more pleasant: “the pleasures of the intellect, of the feelings and imagination, and of the moral sentiments [have] a much higher value as pleasures than .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, though the atheist movement is gaining strength in countries around the world, and though there is no indication that atheists as a whole are any less moral than believers, this old prejudice persists.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.It must be admitted, however, that utilitarian writers in general have placed the superiority of mental over bodily pleasures chiefly in the greater permanency, safety, uncostliness, etc., of the former- that is, in their circumstantial advantages rather than in their intrinsic nature.^ It must be admitted, however, that utilitarian writers in general have placed the superiority of mental over bodily pleasures chiefly in the greater permanency, safety, uncostliness, etc., of the former- that is, in their circumstantial advantages rather than in their intrinsic nature.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The intuitionist doctrine conceives of nature as being largely or wholly constituted by the mind rather than more or less imperfectly observed by it.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In holding that some experiences are more desirable of themselves than others, although not more pleasant, Mill certainly admits that the intrinsic desirability of an experience may be enhanced by other components of it than the pleasure enjoyed in it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.And on all these points utilitarians have fully proved their case; but they might have taken the other, and, as it may be called, higher ground, with entire consistency.^ But, if these stages prove anything, they prove the truth of hedonism, not the truth of utilitarianism.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, some other clarifications are called for.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And on all these points utilitarians have fully proved their case; but they might have taken the other, and, as it may be called, higher ground, with entire consistency.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognise the fact, that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others.^ It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognise the fact, that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing other than happiness is desirable.” .
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If some people get more kicks from sex or babies or blond hair or religion than others, then utilitarian equality demands taxing and redistributing values on the basis of all those traits or activities, otherwise we will still be left with an unequal mess no better than what we started with.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

.It would be absurd that while, in estimating all other things, quality is considered as well as quantity, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone.^ It would be absurd that while, in estimating all other things, quality is considered as well as quantity, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In speaking of other tests as often more suitable, Mill claims that other ways are available for making out whether something ought to be done than by considering directly all the happiness and unhappiness it would cause and comparing this with all the happiness and unhappiness that would be caused by each alternative to it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is sometimes claimed that our theories should be person-affecting in their treatment of well-and-ill-being, but it is not always clear what this requirement is supposed to mean.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If I am asked, what I mean by difference of quality in pleasures, or what makes one pleasure more valuable than another, merely as a pleasure, except its being greater in amount, there is but one possible answer.^ One pleasure could be more valuable only if it yields more pleasure quantitatively.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If I am asked, what I mean by difference of quality in pleasures, or what makes one pleasure more valuable than another, merely as a pleasure, except its being greater in amount, there is but one possible answer.
  • 730_105_03: Utilitarianism I 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.livejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill speaks, instead, of “what makes one pleasure more valuable than another .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.^ For such a generalization that compares sorts of pleasures, the experiences of many are clearly relevant: “Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure” (211).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill would also hold that a desire by someone who had had such an experience would not qualify as evidence unless he was glad at what he experienced.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Against this others urge that while the pleasure is one element of what someone looks forward to when he desires a walk, a smoke, or a party, the walk or the smoke or the party is also a component of what he is desirous of.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If one of the two is, by those who are competently acquainted with both, placed so far above the other that they prefer it, even though knowing it to be attended with a greater amount of discontent, and would not resign it for any quantity of the other pleasure which their nature is capable of, we are justified in ascribing to the preferred enjoyment a superiority in quality, so far outweighing quantity as to render it, in comparison, of small account.^ Even if these studiesfail to dispel the belief that tall people have a better life than short people, it would end up making it harder for policymakers to determine the necessary taxation amount needed to counter-balance the utilitarian advantage tall people have, since they have to take these studies into accounts.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is convinced he is a philosopher king, a poet, a legislator, a person who knows what is good for others; one who is prepared to lie, (excuse me I should probably say maintain a myth) in the interests of order, -- necessary, if one is to deal with the "irrationality of the masses."
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, this is true even if we genuinely believe that we try to be open, because we are not the only ones conditioning students - and it only takes one or two teachers who will vouch no dissenting opinions to teach students the best way to get along in class.
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

.Now it is an unquestionable fact that those who are equally acquainted with, and equally capable of appreciating and enjoying, both, do give a most marked preference to the manner of existence which employs their higher faculties.^ Thus Fehige concludes that those who never exist are always at least as well off as actual persons, who are sure to enjoy less than complete preference satisfaction.
  • PERSON-AFFECTING UTILITARIANISM AND POPULATION POLICY 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.public.iastate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The most conceptually penetrating, as well as fair and balanced, pair of essays on the subject (published together), both entitled “Equality,” are by Richard Wollheim and Isaiah Berlin.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This enabled Mill to argue against those who tried to suggest that the subordination of women to men reflected a natural order that women were by nature incapable of equality with men.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Few human creatures would consent to be changed into any of the lower animals, for a promise of the fullest allowance of a beast's pleasures; no intelligent human being would consent to be a fool, no instructed person would be an ignoramus, no person of feeling and conscience would be selfish and base, even though they should be persuaded that the fool, the dunce, or the rascal is better satisfied with his lot than they are with theirs.^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are not permitted to torture animals even if they are entirely deprived of intelligence.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancient Epicureans were ethical egoists, but held that the pursuit of the “higher pleasures” (primarily intellectual and aesthetic) would lead to personal happiness more than the pursuit of the more easily cultivated “lower pleasures” (food, drink, sex) which they thought would, in the end lead to frustration and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They would not resign what they possess more than he for the most complete satisfaction of all the desires which they have in common with him.^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In speaking of other tests as often more suitable, Mill claims that other ways are available for making out whether something ought to be done than by considering directly all the happiness and unhappiness it would cause and comparing this with all the happiness and unhappiness that would be caused by each alternative to it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of his principal goals was “to shew that there was a Radical philosophy, better and more complete than Bentham’s, while recognizing and incorporating all of Bentham’s which is permanently valuable.” ( CW , I.221).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If they ever fancy they would, it is only in cases of unhappiness so extreme, that to escape from it they would exchange their lot for almost any other, however undesirable in their own eyes.^ This would be the case if the consequences of any alternative to it would be more undesirable for their own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If that is so, then is God's word inherently worth following, or is it the case that theists obey only because of the consequences and would violate it freely if those consequences were removed?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Someone’s gladness at what he experienced counts as evidence only if he was glad at it on its own account, only, that is, if his gladness was unaffected by any beliefs he has about its relation to other things.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.A being of higher faculties requires more to make him happy, is capable probably of more acute suffering, and certainly accessible to it at more points, than one of an inferior type; but in spite of these liabilities, he can never really wish to sink into what he feels to be a lower grade of existence.^ That would certainly make me happy.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the rational point of view (b) is certainly more rational than (a) because (b) is more comprehensive.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancient Epicureans were ethical egoists, but held that the pursuit of the “higher pleasures” (primarily intellectual and aesthetic) would lead to personal happiness more than the pursuit of the more easily cultivated “lower pleasures” (food, drink, sex) which they thought would, in the end lead to frustration and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.We may give what explanation we please of this unwillingness; we may attribute it to pride, a name which is given indiscriminately to some of the most and to some of the least estimable feelings of which mankind are capable: we may refer it to the love of liberty and personal independence, an appeal to which was with the Stoics one of the most effective means for the inculcation of it; to the love of power, or to the love of excitement, both of which do really enter into and contribute to it: but its most appropriate appellation is a sense of dignity, which all human beings possess in one form or other, and in some, though by no means in exact, proportion to their higher faculties, and which is so essential a part of the happiness of those in whom it is strong, that nothing which conflicts with it could be, otherwise than momentarily, an object of desire to them.^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though our own character is formed by circumstances, among those circumstances are our own desires.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In being desired for its own sake it is, however, desired as part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whoever supposes that this preference takes place at a sacrifice of happiness- that the superior being, in anything like equal circumstances, is not happier than the inferior- confounds the two very different ideas, of happiness, and content.^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That may very well be, but there would be no difference in that circumstance from other situations in which unintended harm occurs.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Here too he regards an appeal to utility as being made where what are reckoned with are other desirable and undesirable consequences than happiness and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is indisputable that the being whose capacities of enjoyment are low, has the greatest chance of having them fully satisfied; and a highly endowed being will always feel that any happiness which he can look for, as the world is constituted, is imperfect.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once we recognize that animals are no longer "things," then we can no longer treat them as beings whose fundamental interests in their own lives may be sacrificed because we enjoy the taste of meat, or because we enjoy shooting pigeons, or because we enjoy the feel or look of fur or leather.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that pain is pain irrespective of "whatever other capacities, beyond the capacity to feel pain, the being may have," but those capacities may very well be relevant to an assessment of suffering and to the ultimate determination as to whose interests should be protected in the case of conflict.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.But he can learn to bear its imperfections, if they are at all bearable; and they will not make him envy the being who is indeed unconscious of the imperfections, but only because he feels not at all the good which those imperfections qualify.^ Punishing him may deter others but will neither rehabilitate him (since he needs no rehabilitation) nor protect others (because they need no protection from him).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All four sorts make the claim that something is desirable because it stands in a certain relation to something else.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only conceivable right-based theory would be a moral theory whose principles of the right make no reference at all to the non-moral good.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.^ In this vein he demanded to "rather be Socrates dissatisfied, than a pig satisfied".
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Raphael urges that although Socrates is dissatisfied and the fool not, it is consistent for Mill to maintain that Socrates is happier than the fool and his happiness more desirable, in so far as Socrates “enjoys a greater balance of pleasure over pain, than the fool.” Raphael does indeed show that in maintaining that it is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied, it would be consistent for Mill to hold that no experience is more desirable of itself than another unless it is more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In support of this, Raphael points out that when Mill remarks that it is “better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied,” Mill also denies that “this preference takes place at a sacrifice of happiness” (212).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question.^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This suggests that the reasons for subscribing to the consequentialist principle of the right do not depend on principles of the good: They do not depend on substantial principles of the good, because adherents of different substantial principles of the good subscribe to the same principle of the right.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It then looks as if Mill contends that something should be done because it would cause more happiness, but that it is not only because of this that it should be done; that the reason in turn why what would cause more happiness should be done is that happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The other party to the comparison knows both sides.
.It may be objected, that many who are capable of the higher pleasures, occasionally, under the influence of temptation, postpone them to the lower.^ Secondly, Moore urges that on many occasions there is no expectation of pleasure characterizing that which someone is desirous of.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He distinguished higher and lower qualities of pleasures according to the preferences of people who have experienced both kinds (Mill 1861, 56; compare Hutcheson 1755, 421-23).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It may also be objected that on occasion a man is well aware that he desires something for its own sake, but still does not think that it would be desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But this is quite compatible with a full appreciation of the intrinsic superiority of the higher.^ Reevaluating Mill’s Argument for the Intrinsic Superiority of Higher Pleasures .
  • Kadish Center Conference�ISUS 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.law.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Men often, from infirmity of character, make their election for the nearer good, though they know it to be the less valuable; and this no less when the choice is between two bodily pleasures, than when it is between bodily and mental.^ They have no choice but to do so.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, though the atheist movement is gaining strength in countries around the world, and though there is no indication that atheists as a whole are any less moral than believers, this old prejudice persists.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One reason often given in support of (5.1) is the plausible-sounding thought that more of a good is better than less: .
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.They pursue sensual indulgences to the injury of health, though perfectly aware that health is the greater good.^ He writes, “though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial—it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

It may be further objected, that many who begin with youthful enthusiasm for everything noble, as they advance in years sink into indolence and selfishness. .But I do not believe that those who undergo this very common change, voluntarily choose the lower description of pleasures in preference to the higher.^ He distinguished higher and lower qualities of pleasures according to the preferences of people who have experienced both kinds (Mill 1861, 56; compare Hutcheson 1755, 421-23).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who in theory oppose the self-evident statement that we seek out pleasure presuppose its validity in their attempts to refute it (they either enjoy opposing common views or simply enjoy pain).
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When we are evaluating whether or not an action is good by evaluating the happiness that we can expect to be produced by it, he argues that higher pleasures should be taken to be in kind (rather than by degree) preferable to lower pleasures.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.I believe that before they devote themselves exclusively to the one, they have already become incapable of the other.^ Yet if I should refrain from following a good rule simply because I know or believe that others will not, many good rules would never be followed, they would never even get off the ground.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, when some people are suffering while others are reasonably content already, it is morally required to help the former group before increasing the happiness of the latter.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each man is born with a predisposition to one or the other of these sides of nature, and it will easily happen that men will be found devoted to one or the other.
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

.Capacity for the nobler feelings is in most natures a very tender plant, easily killed, not only by hostile influences, but by mere want of sustenance; and in the majority of young persons it speedily dies away if the occupations to which their position in life has devoted them, and the society into which it has thrown them, are not favourable to keeping that higher capacity in exercise.^ But most contemporary writers on justice allow the free market only a very limited scope.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Respect requires that the moral principles must be such, that they can be justified to each person involved (not only the majority).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When masses of Negroes flocked into the camps of the Northern armies, not only were they rejected as soldiers, but the Union generals were informed they had to keep the Negros intact as slaves for their masters.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.Men lose their high aspirations as they lose their intellectual tastes, because they have not time or opportunity for indulging them; and they addict themselves to inferior pleasures, not because they deliberately prefer them, but because they are either the only ones to which they have access, or the only ones which they are any longer capable of enjoying.^ He here argues that the enforcement of such rules is desirable because it is necessary to maintaining relationships among men which in turn are desirable because they are a necessary condition of men achieving to any degree anything desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN43] Because animals have desires, beliefs, and the ability to act in pursuit of their goals, they may also be said to have preference autonomy, an important characteristic for the attribution of rights.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ One pleasure could be more valuable only if it yields more pleasure quantitatively.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It may be questioned whether any one who has remained equally susceptible to both classes of pleasures, ever knowingly and calmly preferred the lower; though many, in all ages, have broken down in an ineffectual attempt to combine both.^ Many consequentialists deny that all values can be reduced to any single ground, such as pleasure or desire satisfaction, so they instead adopt a pluralistic theory of value.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is admitted by Sumner who claims that even though the right can be derived from the good, the good “does not dictate how the right is to be derived from it”, and that therefore welfarism is compatible with many different principles of the right.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I claim that there is one true absolute, objective, universal moral code, by which I mean a moral code that is the same for all people, that applies equally to all people at all places and all times, and that returns the same results regardless of who performs the evaluation if it is performed correctly.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.From this verdict of the only competent judges, I apprehend there can be no appeal.^ [TOC] -I- Idealism : § Idealism is that belief that there is no reality, that reality subsists only in thought.
  • An Essay On Philosophy by blupete. 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even then the comparison is possible only under the assumption that there is no difference between sensuous and intellectual pleasures.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the consequentialist principle of the right, the rightness of actions is a function of the goodness of their outcomes: An action is right if and only if there is no other available action with a better outcome.
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

.On a question which is the best worth having of two pleasures, or which of two modes of existence is the most grateful to the feelings, apart from its moral attributes and from its consequences, the judgment of those who are qualified by knowledge of both, or, if they differ, that of the majority among them, must be admitted as final.^ The first two depend on the further assumption that justice is a moral good (in contrast to non-moral goods like pleasure or well-being).
  • Distributive Justice and Welfarism in Utilitarianism (Jörg Schroth) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.joergschroth.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Respect requires that the moral principles must be such, that they can be justified to each person involved (not only the majority).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a moral code produces adverse consequences when applied, then I argue that is indeed a sign that the moral code in question is faulty or deficient in some way.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.And there needs be the less hesitation to accept this judgment respecting the quality of pleasures, since there is no other tribunal to be referred to even on the question of quantity.^ Punishing him may deter others but will neither rehabilitate him (since he needs no rehabilitation) nor protect others (because they need no protection from him).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Ethics in the 20th Century: A Bibliographical Essay by John Hospers 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no room even for Thomas Paine in England.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since, according to moral relativism, any morality is as objectively good as any other, it follows that no society can be more moral than our own (in the case of societal relativism) or that no individual can be more moral than we are (in the case of individual relativism).
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.What means are there of determining which is the acutest of two pains, or the intensest of two pleasurable sensations, except the general suffrage of those who are familiar with both?^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For such a generalization that compares sorts of pleasures, the experiences of many are clearly relevant: “Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference, irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure” (211).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pain over pleasure, the pains are on the whole more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Neither pains nor pleasures are homogeneous, and pain is always heterogeneous with pleasure.^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pleasure over pain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pleasure over pain, of pain over pleasure, or an excess of neither, the pleasures and pains they contain are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are not more desirable than the pains are undesirable and such that the pains on the whole are not more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.What is there to decide whether a particular pleasure is worth purchasing at the cost of a particular pain, except the feelings and judgment of the experienced?^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pain over pleasure, the pains are on the whole more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If Mill held that the only relevant difference among pleasures and pains was whether one was greater than another, there would be only six possibilities for the total effects of an action.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pleasure over pain, the pleasures are on the whole more desirable than the pains are undesirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.When, therefore, those feelings and judgment declare the pleasures derived from the higher faculties to be preferable in kind, apart from the question of intensity, to those of which the animal nature, disjoined from the higher faculties, is suspectible, they are entitled on this subject to the same regard.^ Rawls concept is pluralistic and tolerant with regard to all religions and beliefs except for those which question human rights.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At least some scholars come to much the same conclusion about the supposedly unrealistic nature of animal rights theory--and the supposedly realistic nature of animal welfare reforms.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ When we are evaluating whether or not an action is good by evaluating the happiness that we can expect to be produced by it, he argues that higher pleasures should be taken to be in kind (rather than by degree) preferable to lower pleasures.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.I have dwelt on this point, as being a necessary part of a perfectly just conception of Utility or Happiness, considered as the directive rule of human conduct.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He holds that a rule of conduct is not part of the law of the land unless infractions of it incur punishment by the government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Humanity becomes an inspiration by being placed imaginatively within the drama of human history, which has a destination or point, namely the victory of good over evil.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But it is by no means an indispensable condition to the acceptance of the utilitarian standard; for that standard is not the agent's own greatest happiness, but the greatest amount of happiness altogether; and if it may possibly be doubted whether a noble character is always the happier for its nobleness, there can be no doubt that it makes other people happier, and that the world in general is immensely a gainer by it.^ VI) Mill agreed, “it is a misapprehension of the utilitarian mode of thought to conceive it as implying that people should fix their minds upon so wide a generality as the world, or society at large.” (1861, Chap.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To bolster my claim that universal utilitarianism offers the greatest probability for maximal happiness, I point out that no rational person wants to live in a world where others view them as only a means to advancing their own ends and are constantly seeking to take advantage of them.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that law was the best which brought the greatest happiness to the largest number of people.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.Utilitarianism, therefore, could only attain its end by the general cultivation of nobleness of character, even if each individual were only benefited by the nobleness of others, and his own, so far as happiness is concerned, were a sheer deduction from the benefit.^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In classical utilitarianism it is theoretically possible that the suffering of the Auschwitz victims could be outweighed by the happiness of the post war generations.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

But the bare enunciation of such an absurdity as this last, renders refutation superfluous.
.According to the Greatest Happiness Principle, as above explained, the ultimate end, with reference to and for the sake of which all other things are desirable (whether we are considering our own good or that of other people), is an existence exempt as far as possible from pain, and as rich as possible in enjoyments, both in point of quantity and quality; the test of quality, and the rule for measuring it against quantity, being the preference felt by those who in their opportunities of experience, to which must be added their habits of self-consciousness and self-observation, are best furnished with the means of comparison.^ And that law was the best which brought the greatest happiness to the largest number of people.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill also writes, “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This, being, according to the utilitarian opinion, the end of human action, is necessarily also the standard of morality; which may accordingly be defined, the rules and precepts for human conduct, by the observance of which an existence such as has been described might be, to the greatest extent possible, secured to all mankind; and not to them only, but, so far as the nature of things admits, to the whole sentient creation.^ Morality may be defined as “the rules and precepts for human conduct, by the observance of which an existence such as has been described might be, to the greatest extent possible, secured to all mankind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We find Bentham, in his 1789 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation , attacking non-utilitarian moral systems for just this reason: “They consist all of them in so many contrivances for avoiding the obligation of appealing to any external standard, and for prevailing upon the reader to accept of the author’s sentiment or opinion as a reason and that a sufficient one for itself.” ( IPML , II.14).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges instead that men generally have such an intense interest in their enforcement that “if obedience to them were not the rule, and disobedience the exception, every one would see in every one else a probable enemy, against whom he must be perpetually guarding himself.” “It is their observance which alone preserves peace among human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Against this doctrine, however, arises another class of objectors, who say that happiness, in any form, cannot be the rational purpose of human life and action; because, in the first place, it is unattainable: and they contemptuously ask, what right hast thou to be happy?^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the works of man, which human life is rightly employed in perfecting and beautifying, the first in importance surely is man himself.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN43] Because animals have desires, beliefs, and the ability to act in pursuit of their goals, they may also be said to have preference autonomy, an important characteristic for the attribution of rights.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

a question which Mr. Carlyle clenches by the addition, What right, a short time ago, hadst thou even to be? .Next, they say, that men can do without happiness; that all noble human beings have felt this, and could not have become noble but by learning the lesson of Entsagen, or renunciation; which lesson, thoroughly learnt and submitted to, they affirm to be the beginning and necessary condition of all virtue.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He here argues that the enforcement of such rules is desirable because it is necessary to maintaining relationships among men which in turn are desirable because they are a necessary condition of men achieving to any degree anything desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, they want to reconstruct all nursery rhymes and fairy tales to have lessons for children.
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

.The first of these objections would go to the root of the matter were it well founded; for if no happiness is to be had at all by human beings, the attainment of it cannot be the end of morality, or of any rational conduct.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My first objection to these statements is the oft touted claim that there is this untapped resource of medical discovery from which untold benefits are being obstructed by "narrow minded" moralists.

.Though, even in that case, something might still be said for the utilitarian theory; since utility includes not solely the pursuit of happiness, but the prevention or mitigation of unhappiness; and if the former aim be chimerical, there will be all the greater scope and more imperative need for the latter, so long at least as mankind think fit to live, and do not take refuge in the simultaneous act of suicide recommended under certain conditions by Novalis.^ The New England Journal of Medicine said he has had "more success in effecting changes in acceptable behavior" than any philosopher since Bertrand Russell.

^ Furthermore, since Harsanyi connected utilitarianism with the axiomatic basis of game theory, the comparison concentrates on the aspect of risk.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still easily the best extant treatment of Victorian moral philosophy; includes extremely valuable examination of the conflict between utilitarianism and intuitionism.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When, however, it is thus positively asserted to be impossible that human life should be happy, the assertion, if not something like a verbal quibble, is at least an exaggeration.^ As Mill puts it, history should be seen as the unfolding of a great epic or dramatic action, which terminates in the happiness or misery, the elevation or degradation, of the human race.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So why should the decision-maker in the original position assign a negative total utility to life?
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill also makes it clear that when he speaks of the promotion of happiness as “the test by which to judge of all human conduct,” the aspect of conduct of which he means that it is a test is whether it should be done.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

If by happiness be meant a continuity of highly pleasurable excitement, it is evident enough that this is impossible. .A state of exalted pleasure lasts only moments, or in some cases, and with some intermissions, hours or days, and is the occasional brilliant flash of enjoyment, not its permanent and steady flame.^ To this some retort that while sometimes a walk, sometimes a smoke, sometimes a party is desired, each is desired only for the sake of the pleasure it will afford, so that it is pleasure alone which is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He does indeed contend that nothing is desired for its own sake unless it is expected that it will be a state of affairs in which some pleasure will be experienced.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even the principle of asceticism , overtly opposed to the principle of utility, is in fact motivated by some real or expected pleasures (self-enjoyment).
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Of this the philosophers who have taught that happiness is the end of life were as fully aware as those who taunt them.^ Eudemonism = the view that happiness is the ultimate end of human life.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is counter-intuitive to most people and only becomes plausible, if we assume that the loss of happiness at the end of life creates a corresponding suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some philosophers deny that probability can be fully objective, but at least the consequences here are foreseeable by others who are more informed than Don can be at the time.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The happiness which they meant was not a life of rapture; but moments of such, in an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures, with a decided predominance of the active over the passive, and having as the foundation of the whole, not to expect more from life than it is capable of bestowing.^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pleasure over pain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.A life thus composed, to those who have been fortunate enough to obtain it, has always appeared worthy of the name of happiness.^ Nor is it enough to argue that species difference alone is morally relevant; after all, to rely on species alone as morally relevant is to assume a distinction that needs to be proved by those who hold such a view.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.And such an existence is even now the lot of many, during some considerable portion of their lives.^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He does not question that even if it involves both pleasure and pain, the whole of a man’s life, or some prolonged portion of it, may be desirable or undesirable of itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But even when moral considerations do not arise, Mill recognizes that men usually make out what ought to be done, and he urges that it is usually suitable for them to make out what ought to be done not by means of the supreme principle but by some intermediate principle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The present wretched education, and wretched social arrangements, are the only real hindrance to its being attainable by almost all.
.The objectors perhaps may doubt whether human beings, if taught to consider happiness as the end of life, would be satisfied with such a moderate share of it.^ Eudemonism = the view that happiness is the ultimate end of human life.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems that its major flaws could be fixed by grafting the doctrine of human rights onto it, but what would be the justification for such a forced coupling?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In speaking of other tests as often more suitable, Mill claims that other ways are available for making out whether something ought to be done than by considering directly all the happiness and unhappiness it would cause and comparing this with all the happiness and unhappiness that would be caused by each alternative to it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

But great numbers of mankind have been satisfied with much less. The main constituents of a satisfied life appear to be two, either of which by itself is often found sufficient for the purpose: tranquillity, and excitement. .With much tranquillity, many find that they can be content with very little pleasure: with much excitement, many can reconcile themselves to a considerable quantity of pain.^ In themselves, pleasure and the avoidance of pain are the ends ( intrinsic values ).
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus by drawing on considerations that implicitly affirm the priority of pleasure and pain they necessarily end up in inconsistencies.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is assuredly no inherent impossibility in enabling even the mass of mankind to unite both; since the two are so far from being incompatible that they are in natural alliance, the prolongation of either being a preparation for, and exciting a wish for, the other.^ There was no room even for Thomas Paine in England.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Atheists are human beings also, and we are no less moral simply because we ground our ethics in human nature and the happiness of others rather than unquestioning faith in a set of ancient writings.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, it grows up around us, emerging organically from our nature as sentient beings and our interactions with each other.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is only those in whom indolence amounts to a vice, that do not desire excitement after an interval of repose: it is only those in whom the need of excitement is a disease, that feel the tranquillity which follows excitement dull and insipid, instead of pleasurable in direct proportion to the excitement which preceded it.^ Many consequentialists deny that all values can be reduced to any single ground, such as pleasure or desire satisfaction, so they instead adopt a pluralistic theory of value.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If that is so, then is God's word inherently worth following, or is it the case that theists obey only because of the consequences and would violate it freely if those consequences were removed?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The point of moral Popperianism is that those ethical directives that can only be justified by appealing to falsehoods are wrong, and those ethical directives that can only be justified by appealing to inherently unfalsifiable statements should be permanently suspended.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.When people who are tolerably fortunate in their outward lot do not find in life sufficient enjoyment to make it valuable to them, the cause generally is, caring for nobody but themselves.^ [FN26] Singer states that he "can respect conscientious people who take care to eat only meat that comes from such animals."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ What makes it binding on people who refuse to give assent to its tenets?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Isn't it a truism that publishers, who are in it for the money and the money alone, will publish what they think the people with the money will want, thereby making them want more of it?
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

.To those who have neither public nor private affections, the excitements of life are much curtailed, and in any case dwindle in value as the time approaches when all selfish interests must be terminated by death: while those who leave after them objects of personal affection, and especially those who have also cultivated a fellow-feeling with the collective interests of mankind, retain as lively an interest in life on the eve of death as in the vigour of youth and health.^ For one of his railroad cases he collected $5,000 --- a really extraordinary amount at the time.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I mourn their loss and honor the heroism of those who gave their lives trying to save others.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

Next to selfishness, the principal cause which makes life unsatisfactory is want of mental cultivation. .A cultivated mind- I do not mean that of a philosopher, but any mind to which the fountains of knowledge have been opened, and which has been taught, in any tolerable degree, to exercise its faculties- finds sources of inexhaustible interest in all that surrounds it; in the objects of nature, the achievements of art, the imaginations of poetry, the incidents of history, the ways of mankind, past and present, and their prospects in the future.^ Negative utilitarianism makes this tolerance dependent on the future prospects: In a pessimistic scenario negative utilitarianism promotes childlessness in order to avoid extreme suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The desire to treat the will as an object, like ice or gunpowder, open to natural scientific study falls within Mill’s broader claim that the moral sciences, which include economics, history, and psychology among others, are fundamentally similar to the natural sciences.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The desire to treat the will as an object, like ice or gunpowder, open to natural scientific study falls within Mills broader claim that the moral sciences, which include economics, history, and psychology among others, are fundamentally similar to the natural sciences.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible, indeed, to become indifferent to all this, and that too without having exhausted a thousandth part of it; but only when one has had from the beginning no moral or human interest in these things, and has sought in them only the gratification of curiosity.^ Regan stresses that there is no nonarbitrary way to separate moral agents from moral patients, and that there is no way to differentiate human moral patients from nonhuman moral patients without relying on some form of species bias or speciesism.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently no judgment of one of these sorts is one in which a desire for what is judged desirable is evidence of the correctness of the judgment.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now there is absolutely no reason in the nature of things why an amount of mental culture sufficient to give an intelligent interest in these objects of contemplation, should not be the inheritance of every one born in a civilised country.^ Nor does exploring the reason something works give me a giddy sense of mastery, although it's often fairly interesting.
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Mill’s view, these proper names should have the same meaning because they denote the same object.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ People gradually realize that the color of the skin is no reason for the mistreatment of different races (for degrading some to the "class of things").
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As little is there an inherent necessity that any human being should be a selfish egotist, devoid of every feeling or care but those which centre in his own miserable individuality.^ Among such rules he mentions those “which protect every individual from being harmed by others, either directly or by being hindered in his freedom of pursuing his own good,” which prevent anyone from “wrongfully withholding from” another “something which is his due,” or from depriving him “of some good which he had reasonable ground .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle he employs in taking this step is that if there is one sort of thing which is alone desirable for its own sake, then the promotion of it is the test of all human conduct.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While it implies that an inanimate thing, a human being, or justice or liberty or peace or life is not desirable for its own sake, it does not imply that none of these can be desirable for what will come of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Something far superior to this is sufficiently common even now, to give ample earnest of what the human species may be made.^ But in many cases in which there is a purported conflict between animal and human interests, the differences may not be as obvious and their use may be far more controversial.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It is often argued that clothing made of nonanimal products, such as synthetics, may have unintended, but nevertheless serious, consequences for humans and animals alike.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.Genuine private affections and a sincere interest in the public good, are possible, though in unequal degrees, to every rightly brought up human being.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the ability to reason were the criterion, many human beings, including babies and disabled people, would also have to be treated as though they were things ( Jeremy Bentham , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle writes, “Every action and pursuit is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In a world in which there is so much to interest, so much to enjoy, and so much also to correct and improve, every one who has this moderate amount of moral and intellectual requisites is capable of an existence which may be called enviable; and unless such a person, through bad laws, or subjection to the will of others, is denied the liberty to use the sources of happiness within his reach, he will not fail to find this enviable existence, if he escape the positive evils of life, the great sources of physical and mental suffering- such as indigence, disease, and the unkindness, worthlessness, or premature loss of objects of affection.^ The happiness of every period in ones life is equally weighed and accumulated.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As an example of when it would not be wrong for someone to tell a certain lie, Mill cites an occasion in which “the withholding of some fact (as of information from a malefactor, or of bad news from a person dangerously ill) would preserve some one (especially a person other than oneself) from great and unmerited evil, and when the withholding can only be effected by denial” (223).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham thought that the interests of the individual were so much at one with society that the question of justifying the effort to increase the general happiness did not deserve any special discussion as the general happiness followed automatically from the happiness of all individuals involved.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

The main stress of the problem lies, therefore, in the contest with these calamities, from which it is a rare good fortune entirely to escape; which, as things now are, cannot be obviated, and often cannot be in any material degree mitigated. .Yet no one whose opinion deserves a moment's consideration can doubt that most of the great positive evils of the world are in themselves removable, and will, if human affairs continue to improve, be in the end reduced within narrow limits.^ We have no evidence that there is another life beyond this one, that a higher power is letting wrongs happen to serve the greater good, or that there is a guarantee that justice will be done in the end.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand there was a great growth of the national debt, concurrent with a large increase in taxation, and a huge State apparatus honeycombed with the most flagrant corruption.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet, no sooner was Napoleon out of the way than the consequences of the war increasingly made themselves felt on the British social system.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.Poverty, in any sense implying suffering, may be completely extinguished by the wisdom of society, combined with the good sense and providence of individuals.^ Since, according to moral relativism, any morality is as objectively good as any other, it follows that no society can be more moral than our own (in the case of societal relativism) or that no individual can be more moral than we are (in the case of individual relativism).
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even that most intractable of enemies, disease, may be indefinitely reduced in dimensions by good physical and moral education, and proper control of noxious influences; while the progress of science holds out a promise for the future of still more direct conquests over this detestable foe.^ He does not even urge that as a proactive measure, animal advocates should assess the competing options and pick the one that will reduce suffering the most.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ When I watch television, I always (or almost always) could do more good by helping others, but it does not seem morally wrong to watch television.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since, according to moral relativism, any morality is as objectively good as any other, it follows that no society can be more moral than our own (in the case of societal relativism) or that no individual can be more moral than we are (in the case of individual relativism).
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.And every advance in that direction relieves us from some, not only of the chances which cut short our own lives, but, what concerns us still more, which deprive us of those in whom our happiness is wrapt up.^ Among such rules he mentions those “which protect every individual from being harmed by others, either directly or by being hindered in his freedom of pursuing his own good,” which prevent anyone from “wrongfully withholding from” another “something which is his due,” or from depriving him “of some good which he had reasonable ground .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.As for vicissitudes of fortune, and other disappointments connected with worldly circumstances, these are principally the effect either of gross imprudence, of ill-regulated desires, or of bad or imperfect social institutions.^ Men, alternatively, either become brutal through their relationships with women or turn away from projects of self-improvement to pursue the social consideration that women desire.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Men, alternatively, either become brutal through their relationships with women or turn away from projects of self-improvement to pursue the social “consideration” that women desire.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All the grand sources, in short, of human suffering are in a great degree, many of them almost entirely, conquerable by human care and effort; and though their removal is grievously slow- though a long succession of generations will perish in the breach before the conquest is completed, and this world becomes all that, if will and knowledge were not wanting, it might easily be made- yet every mind sufficiently intelligent and generous to bear a part, however small and unconspicuous, in the endeavour, will draw a noble enjoyment from the contest itself, which he would not for any bribe in the form of selfish indulgence consent to be without.^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He points out that even though a man believed that a certain action was of a sort which in general would be unjust, he would not regard that particular action as unjust if he believed that it would not be wrong to do it (259).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal utilitarianism, for example, cannot justify human suffering, or withhold action to correct wrongs, on the grounds that all will be set right in the world to come.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

And this leads to the true estimation of what is said by the objectors concerning the possibility, and the obligation, of learning to do without happiness. .Unquestionably it is possible to do without happiness; it is done involuntarily by nineteen-twentieths of mankind, even in those parts of our present world which are least deep in barbarism; and it often has to be done voluntarily by the hero or the martyr, for the sake of something which he prizes more than his individual happiness.^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In speaking of other tests as often more suitable, Mill claims that other ways are available for making out whether something ought to be done than by considering directly all the happiness and unhappiness it would cause and comparing this with all the happiness and unhappiness that would be caused by each alternative to it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But this something, what is it, unless the happiness of others or some of the requisites of happiness?^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I hold this proposition to be axiomatic and foundational, and I further hold that any ethical system that has as its highest aim something other than producing happiness is completely missing the point.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not imply that it would be wrong to do something if and only if it would cause less happiness than some alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is noble to be capable of resigning entirely one's own portion of happiness, or chances of it: but, after all, this self-sacrifice must be for some end; it is not its own end; and if we are told that its end is not happiness, but virtue, which is better than happiness, I ask, would the sacrifice be made if the hero or martyr did not believe that it would earn for others immunity from similar sacrifices?^ The sacrifice would prove self- defeating."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If some people get more kicks from sex or babies or blond hair or religion than others, then utilitarian equality demands taxing and redistributing values on the basis of all those traits or activities, otherwise we will still be left with an unequal mess no better than what we started with.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham thought that the interests of the individual were so much at one with society that the question of justifying the effort to increase the general happiness did not deserve any special discussion as the general happiness followed automatically from the happiness of all individuals involved.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Would it be made if he thought that his renunciation of happiness for himself would produce no fruit for any of his fellow creatures, but to make their lot like his, and place them also in the condition of persons who have renounced happiness?^ The person is made, or thinks he would be made, happy by its mere possession.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That would certainly make me happy.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.All honour to those who can abnegate for themselves the personal enjoyment of life, when by such renunciation they contribute worthily to increase the amount of happiness in the world; but he who does it, or professes to do it, for any other purpose, is no more deserving of admiration than the ascetic mounted on his pillar.^ If some people get more kicks from sex or babies or blond hair or religion than others, then utilitarian equality demands taxing and redistributing values on the basis of all those traits or activities, otherwise we will still be left with an unequal mess no better than what we started with.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham thought that the interests of the individual were so much at one with society that the question of justifying the effort to increase the general happiness did not deserve any special discussion as the general happiness followed automatically from the happiness of all individuals involved.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the law of diminishing marginal utility a rich person suffers less from an established redistribution than a poor person suffers from the lacking of such redistribution.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.He may be an inspiriting proof of what men can do, but assuredly not an example of what they should.^ Mill does not maintain that the only motive from which men act is interest in maximizing happiness or that the only principle by which they should test whether something should be done is by whether it would maximize happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Though it is only in a very imperfect state of the world's arrangements that any one can best serve the happiness of others by the absolute sacrifice of his own, yet so long as the world is in that imperfect state, I fully acknowledge that the readiness to make such a sacrifice is the highest virtue which can be found in man.^ If this comparative evaluation must be agent-neutral, then, if an observer judges that the world with the transplant is better, the agent must make the same judgment, or else one of them is mistaken.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Someone’s gladness at what he experienced counts as evidence only if he was glad at it on its own account, only, that is, if his gladness was unaffected by any beliefs he has about its relation to other things.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor, he argues, is anyone, who has had experience of two occasions in which only pain of the same sort was felt, sorrier on its own account about one than the other unless more pain was felt in it; and no one is led by such experiences to prefer one to another of that sort unless he expects it would be less painful.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.I will add, that in this condition the world, paradoxical as the assertion may be, the conscious ability to do without happiness gives the best prospect of realising, such happiness as is attainable.^ Another objection that might be urged against this system is that, without an objective scale to measure happiness and suffering, it will be impossible to reach a decision that is best.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In such a world, pure self-interest would always lead one to the decision that was best for everyone, and anyone would be irrational - crazy - to do anything else.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless (since a person may also die in an accident without being conscious of such a loss) the complete devaluation of happiness is a conceptual weakness.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.For nothing except that consciousness can raise a person above the chances of life, by making him feel that, let fate and fortune do their worst, they have not power to subdue him: which, once felt, frees him from excess of anxiety concerning the evils of life, and enables him, like many a Stoic in the worst times of the Roman Empire, to cultivate in tranquillity the sources of satisfaction accessible to him, without concerning himself about the uncertainty of their duration, any more than about their inevitable end.^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges that no one who has ever actually had experience of two occasions in which only pleasure of the same sort was felt is gladder on its own account about one than the other unless it was more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, let utilitarians never cease to claim the morality of self devotion as a possession which belongs by as good a right to them, as either to the Stoic or to the Transcendentalist.^ Together these claims imply that an act is morally right if and only if that act causes "the greatest happiness for the greatest number," as the common slogan says.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rollin claims that in the United States, "we have never had a social and moral revolution that was not incremental."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case, all maximizing consequentialists, whether or not they are pluralists, must decide whether moral rightness depends on total good or on average good.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The utilitarian morality does recognise in human beings the power of sacrificing their own greatest good for the good of others.^ Moore does not question that whatever is desired for its own sake is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

It only refuses to admit that the sacrifice is itself a good. .A sacrifice which does not increase, or tend to increase, the sum total of happiness, it considers as wasted.^ Happiness is the sum total of pleasures.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the main reason why the dogmatic and rigid utilitarianism that considers only the sum total of the tally ( Act-Utilitarianism ) has to be modified and replaced by a more flexible kind of utilitarianism.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But insofar as happiness is just a sum total of pleasures it denotes only a more comprehensive level of calculation, not a different quality.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The only self-renunciation which it applauds, is devotion to the happiness, or to some of the means of happiness, of others; either of mankind collectively, or of individuals within the limits imposed by the collective interests of mankind.^ God guarantees that an individual’s self-interest lies in virtue, in furthering the happiness of others.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God guarantees that an individuals self-interest lies in virtue, in furthering the happiness of others.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All ideals were here dissolved into a sensationalist, sensualist approach in which the only binding nexus was self-interest and cash payment.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.I must again repeat, what the assailants of utilitarianism seldom have the justice to acknowledge, that the happiness which forms the utilitarian standard of what is right in conduct, is not the agent's own happiness, but that of all concerned.^ This form of utilitarianism holds that what matters is the aggregate happiness, i.e.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To do the right thing, in other words, we do not need to be constantly motivated by concern for the general happiness.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The utilitarian candidate is the principle of utility, which holds that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator.^ He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinion of others, to do so would be wise, or even right.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rule utilitarians, however, require that moral rules be publicly known (Gert 2005; cf.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He is not using his own credentials, true, but he is predicting that others with credentials would agree with him.
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility.^ But the idea of moral impartiality is much older and can be found in many religions under the term Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.To do as you would be done by, and to love your neighbour as yourself, constitute the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality.^ The first component of moral theory--the ideal level--requires that we ask what the theory envisions as the ideal state that would be achieved if the theory under consideration were accepted.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If so, then classical utilitarianism implies that it would not be morally wrong for the doctor to perform the transplant and even that it would be morally wrong for the doctor not to perform the transplant.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, a utilitarian criterion of right implies that it would not be morally right to use the principle of utility as a decision procedure in cases where it would not maximize utility to try to calculate utilities before acting.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As the means of making the nearest approach to this ideal, utility would enjoin, first, that laws and social arrangements should place the happiness, or (as speaking practically it may be called) the interest, of every individual, as nearly as possible in harmony with the interest of the whole; and secondly, that education and opinion, which have so vast a power over human character, should so use that power as to establish in the mind of every individual an indissoluble association between his own happiness and the good of the whole; especially between his own happiness and the practice of such modes of conduct, negative and positive, as regard for the universal happiness prescribes; so that not only he may be unable to conceive the possibility of happiness to himself, consistently with conduct opposed to the general good, but also that a direct impulse to promote the general good may be in every individual one of the habitual motives of action, and the sentiments connected therewith may fill a large and prominent place in every human being's sentient existence.^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have the power to alter our own character.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He would therefore agree with Moore that such components “may be good .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the, impugners of the utilitarian morality represented it to their own minds in this its, true character, I know not what recommendation possessed by any other morality they could possibly affirm to be wanting to it; what more beautiful or more exalted developments of human nature any other ethical system can be supposed to foster, or what springs of action, not accessible to the utilitarian, such systems rely on for giving effect to their mandates.^ Evolution developed systems more intelligent..."
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the former case the person is an elected official with the authority of dispensing pleasure or pain, in the case of morality it is any human person possessing spontaneous disposition to react with approbation or disapprobation.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though the Benthamite “philosophic radicals,” including Mill, took Christianity to be a particularly pernicious superstition that fostered indifference or hostility to human happiness (the keystone of utilitarian morality), Mill also thought that religion could potentially serve important ethical needs by supplying us with “ideal conceptions grander and more beautiful than we see realized in the prose of human life.” ( CW , X.419).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The objectors to utilitarianism cannot always be charged with representing it in a discreditable light.^ For example, opponents often charge that classical utilitarians cannot explain our obligations to keep promises and not to lie when no pain is caused or pleasure is lost.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the contrary, those among them who entertain anything like a just idea of its disinterested character, sometimes find fault with its standard as being too high for humanity.^ Mill counters that “the accusation supposes human beings to be capable of no pleasures except those of which swine are capable.” ( CW , X.210).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if Singer would maintain this position, the humanocentric evaluation of consequences is likely to be evaluated differently when nonhumans are involved, for a number of reasons, including that it is humans who do the evaluating.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Bentham's idea that we should determine the character of an action solely by assessing the overall value of the consequences of the 'act' is sometimes labeled as "act-utilitarianism".
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They say it is exacting too much to require that people shall always act from the inducement of promoting the general interests of society.^ A second objection to the principle of utility is that it is exacting too much to require that people shall always act from the inducement of promoting the general interest of society.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply > “I’ve never heard any economist say theory should always trump data, nor that legal acts are beyond criticism.” .
  • Overcoming Bias : Defending Mankiw 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill notices that very often when people say that a certain thing ought not to be done they would not also be prepared to say that it would be wrong to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But this is to mistake the very meaning of a standard of morals, and confound the rule of action with the motive of it.^ Mill remarks that it is a mistake to “confound the rule of action with the motive of it,” and continues, “ninety-nine hundredths of all our actions are done from other motives.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, individuals are not taken to be motivated by self-interest but rather by a commitment to publicly justify the standards of morality to which each will be held.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill does not maintain that to claim that there is a rule of morality against a certain action is simply to claim that it is an action of a kind which generally ought not to be done.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is the business of ethics to tell us what are our duties, or by what test we may know them; but no system of ethics requires that the sole motive of all we do shall be a feeling of duty; on the contrary, ninety-nine hundredths of all our actions are done from other motives, and rightly so done, if the rule of duty does not condemn them.^ Mill remarks that it is a mistake to “confound the rule of action with the motive of it,” and continues, “ninety-nine hundredths of all our actions are done from other motives.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has duties to his children which he does not owe to other children.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethics is supposed to tell us what our duties are, but no system of ethics requires that the sole motive of all we do shall be a feeling of duty; on the contrary, ninety-nine hundredths of all our actions are done from other motives, and rightly so done if the rule of duty does not condemn them.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is the more unjust to utilitarianism that this particular misapprehension should be made a ground of objection to it, inasmuch as utilitarian moralists have gone beyond almost all others in affirming that the motive has nothing to do with the morality of the action, though much with the worth of the agent.^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He points out that even though a man believed that a certain action was of a sort which in general would be unjust, he would not regard that particular action as unjust if he believed that it would not be wrong to do it (259).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ W. D. Ross (1930, 34-35) argued that, if breaking a promise created only slightly more happiness overall than keeping the promise, then the agent morally ought to break the promise according to classic utilitarianism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He who saves a fellow creature from drowning does what is morally right, whether his motive be duty, or the hope of being paid for his trouble; he who betrays the friend that trusts him, is guilty of a crime, even if his object be to serve another friend to whom he is under greater obligations.^ Mill hereby points out that the claim that a man has a right to a certain thing does not imply that it would invariably be wrong for anyone to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He contends that it is not even possible to make out the morality of a certain action without taking account of whether it accords with a rule of morality.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinion of others, to do so would be wise, or even right.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But to speak only of actions done from the motive of duty, and in direct obedience to principle: it is a misapprehension of the utilitarian mode of thought, to conceive it as implying that people should fix their minds upon so wide a generality as the world, or society at large.^ The large majority of actions intend the good of individuals (including ourselves) rather than the good of the world.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How appropriate for the consumption of the world at large was the program that the only true interests were individual interests, when the capitalist alone of all individuals was the most able to take care of himself.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When it is said that something should be done, it is not only implied that it is one of a number of alternatives; it is also implied that it stands in a certain relation to the others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The great majority of good actions are intended not for the benefit of the world, but for that of individuals, of which the good of the world is made up; and the thoughts of the most virtuous man need not on these occasions travel beyond the particular persons concerned, except so far as is necessary to assure himself that in benefiting them he is not violating the rights, that is, the legitimate and authorised expectations, of any one else.^ The large majority of actions intend the good of individuals (including ourselves) rather than the good of the world.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill does not acknowledge that this assertion ever bears this sense, for when it is asserted that a man has a certain right, it is implied that his right is capable of being violated by others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The multiplication of happiness is, according to the utilitarian ethics, the object of virtue: the occasions on which any person (except one in a thousand) has it in his power to do this on an extended scale, in other words to be a public benefactor, are but exceptional; and on these occasions alone is he called on to consider public utility; in every other case, private utility, the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to.^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is this in accord with other utilitarian principles?
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges instead that men generally have such an intense interest in their enforcement that “if obedience to them were not the rule, and disobedience the exception, every one would see in every one else a probable enemy, against whom he must be perpetually guarding himself.” “It is their observance which alone preserves peace among human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those alone the influence of whose actions extends to society in general, need concern themselves habitually about large an object.^ In other words, social facts are reducible to facts about individuals: “The laws of the phenomena of society are, and can be, nothing but the laws of the actions and passions of human beings united together in the social state.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Essays on Religion Mills criticism of traditional religious doctrines and institutions and his promotion of the Religion of Humanity, also depended largely on concerns about human cultivation and education.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To do the right thing, in other words, we do not need to be constantly motivated by concern for the general happiness.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the case of abstinences indeed- of things which people forbear to do from moral considerations, though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial- it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious, and that this is the ground of the obligation to abstain from it.^ He also writes, “it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial—it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently if a certain action would violate a rule of morality, but it is not the case that it ought not to be done, it would then not be wrong to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The amount of regard for the public interest implied in this recognition, is no greater than is demanded by every system of morals, for they all enjoin to abstain from whatever is manifestly pernicious to society.^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ From the time they can look at a board book they are presented with moralizing tales (aren't Potter's after all?
  • FCL: Discussion -- Utilitarian View of Children's Literature 20 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.fairrosa.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed--at least under the law of most countries and at least in the moral views of most people--that people have certain rights, or, at least, that they have certain interests that cannot be compromised irrespective of consequence.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.The same considerations dispose of another reproach against the doctrine of utility, founded on a still grosser misconception of the purpose of a standard of morality, and of the very meaning of the words right and wrong.^ He was using it afterwards consistently in this unrestricted sense despite the objections of many critics who have complained about the "dangerous" implications of the doctrine that something could be recommended without being supported by any independent standard of right and wrong.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When does Mill think that it is in place to appeal to the principle of utility to determine what it is right or wrong to do?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle of utility—that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness”—was the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is often affirmed that utilitarianism renders men cold and unsympathising; that it chills their moral feelings towards individuals; that it makes them regard only the dry and hard consideration of the consequences of actions, not taking into their moral estimate the qualities from which those actions emanate.^ Mill writes, “the morality of an individual action is .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the only consequences of an action that are relevant are pleasures and pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It presented each individual for moral consideration as someone capable of suffering and enjoyment.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If the assertion means that they do not allow their judgment respecting the rightness or wrongness of an action to be influenced by their opinion of the qualities of the person who does it, this is a complaint not against utilitarianism, but against having any standard of morality at all; for certainly no known ethical standard decides an action to be good or bad because it is done by a good or a bad man, still less because done by an amiable, a brave, or a benevolent man, or the contrary.^ In all that time no man's right of person was invaded under the forms of law.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They thereby acknowledge that for it to be wrong to do a particular action, it is not sufficient that it be contrary to a rule of morality.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They cannot respect anyone else's rights.
  • Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These considerations are relevant, not to the estimation of actions, but of persons; and there is nothing in the utilitarian theory inconsistent with the fact that there are other things which interest us in persons besides the rightness and wrongness of their actions.^ Other considerations governed the scope of rights that these "new" persons may have had.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill also contends that it is not claimed that a man has a right to a certain thing unless it is implied that others have an obligation not to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill hereby points out that the claim that a man has a right to a certain thing does not imply that it would invariably be wrong for anyone to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Stoics, indeed, with the paradoxical misuse of language which was part of their system, and by which they strove to raise themselves above all concern about anything but virtue, were fond of saying that he who has that has everything; that he, and only he, is rich, is beautiful, is a king.^ Mill is particularly concerned about virtue.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill seeks to show that only happiness is intrinsically desirable by arguing that when anything else—virtue, fame, power, money—once desired as a means to happiness, comes to be desired for its own sake, it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN47] The difficulties with making such assessments are obvious, it is difficult to compare pain intensity when we are concerned only with humans who can give detailed verbal reports of the sensation that they are experiencing--it becomes virtually impossible to make even imprecise assessments when animals are involved.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.But no claim of this description is made for the virtuous man by the utilitarian doctrine.^ If the happiness of a country is best realized by slavery, it is claimed that any appeal to the injustice of slavery or to men’s right to freedom are considerations of which utilitarianism can take no account.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One misconception is that utilitarianism, by endorsing the Epicurean view “that life has…no higher end than pleasure” is a “doctrine worthy only of swine.” ( CW , X.210).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Utilitarians are quite aware that there are other desirable possessions and qualities besides virtue, and are perfectly willing to allow to all of them their full worth.^ The implications of this are nothing short of monstrous when taken to their full and logical conclusions, something that Singer has indicated that he is all too willing to do.

^ A full use of the principle of utility requires reckoning with all intrinsically desirable and undesirable consequences to all sentient beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the fact of something’s being desired cannot serve as evidence for the correctness of all judgments of what is desirable, it may still be the case that there are some such judgments for which it alone can serve as evidence.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are also aware that a right action does not necessarily indicate a virtuous character, and that actions which are blamable, often proceed from qualities entitled to praise.^ The principle of utility—that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness”—was the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The utilitarian candidate is the principle of utility, which holds that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He does not maintain that all these are but different ways of saying that a certain action ought or ought not to be done, or that they are not different from each other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.When this is apparent in any particular case, it modifies their estimation, not certainly of the act, but of the agent.^ Cases like these lead some consequentialists to deny that moral rightness is any function of the values of particular effects of acts.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial—it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other cases, such as competitions, it might maximize the good from an agent's perspective to do an act, while maximizing the good from an observer's perspective to stop the agent from doing that very act.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.I grant that they are, notwithstanding, of opinion, that in the long run the best proof of a good character is good actions; and resolutely refuse to consider any mental disposition as good, of which the predominant tendency is to produce bad conduct.^ When we are evaluating whether or not an action is good by evaluating the happiness that we can expect to be produced by it, he argues that higher pleasures should be taken to be in kind (rather than by degree) preferable to lower pleasures.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The timid character of Lincoln's views stands out in bold relief when they are contrasted to the opinions even of bourgeois Radicals such as Charles Sumner.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.This makes them unpopular with many people; but it is an unpopularity which they must share with every one who regards the distinction between right and wrong in a serious light; and the reproach is not one which a conscientious utilitarian need be anxious to repel.^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He regards consequences such as these as undesirable only because they in turn would make for less happiness and he speaks of “weighing these conflicting utilities against one another” (223).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If animals are to have any rights at all (other than merely legalistic or abstract ones to which Shue refers), they must have certain basic rights that would then necessarily protect them from being used for food, clothing, or experiments.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.If no more be meant by the objection than that many utilitarians look on the morality of actions, as measured by the utilitarian standard, with too exclusive a regard, and do not lay sufficient stress upon the other beauties of character which go towards making a human being lovable or admirable, this may be admitted.^ We find Bentham, in his 1789 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation , attacking non-utilitarian moral systems for just this reason: “They consist all of them in so many contrivances for avoiding the obligation of appealing to any external standard, and for prevailing upon the reader to accept of the author’s sentiment or opinion as a reason and that a sufficient one for itself.” ( IPML , II.14).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With the jettisoning of the Judeo-Christian system of ethics and morality Singer understands the need to replace it with a new system and in his view this system must be based upon the utilitarian premise of "whatever works" rather than "what is right"or more accurately "what God says is right."

^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Utilitarians who have cultivated their moral feelings, but not their sympathies nor their artistic perceptions, do fall into this mistake; and so do all other moralists under the same conditions.^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rule utilitarians, however, require that moral rules be publicly known (Gert 2005; cf.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In so doing, religion elevates our feelings, cultivates sympathy with others, and imbues even our smallest activities with a sense of purpose.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.What can be said in excuse for other moralists is equally available for them, namely, that, if there is to be any error, it is better that it should be on that side.^ Whenever someone could make better use of another’s house or clothing or other possession, there would be nothing wrong in his stealing it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And almost the same thing may be said of Mr. Lincoln,-that if he had been a traitor, he could not have worked better to strengthen one side and hazard the success of the other."
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When it is said that something should be done, it is not only implied that it is one of a number of alternatives; it is also implied that it stands in a certain relation to the others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a matter of fact, we may affirm that among utilitarians as among adherents of other systems, there is every imaginable degree of rigidity and of laxity in the application of their standard: some are even puritanically rigorous, while others are as indulgent as can possibly be desired by sinner or by sentimentalist.^ There are some other topics covered in the System of Logic that are of interest.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other Topics of Interest There are some other topics covered in the System of Logic that are of interest.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be presumed that Mill likewise holds that someone’s desire for something of a certain sort does not qualify as evidence unless it rests on experience of matters of that sort.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But on the whole, a doctrine which brings prominently forward the interest that mankind have in the repression and prevention of conduct which violates the moral law, is likely to be inferior to no other in turning the sanctions of opinion again such violations.^ Law was no longer to be fused with morals.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is true, the question, What does violate the moral law?^ It can (but does not have to) lead to compassion and to the acceptance of corresponding moral laws.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the rejection of institutionalized animal exploitation does resolve many of the moral questions that confront us.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “the morality of an individual action is not a question of direct perception, but of the application of a law to an individual case” (206).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

is one on which those who recognise different standards of morality are likely now and then to differ. .But difference of opinion on moral questions was not first introduced into the world by utilitarianism, while that doctrine does supply, if not always an easy, at all events a tangible and intelligible mode of deciding such differences.^ All such views differ from Mill’s principle in but one respect.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill holds that if there is such a general answer, it will apply not only to moral questions, but also wherever the question of what ought to be done arises and where moral considerations do not.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note that the view that utilitarianism is the necessary all-encompassing criterion was, in the West, restricted to English-language scholars influenced by Bentham who introduced this view for a political reason.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.It may not be superfluous to notice a few more of the common misapprehensions of utilitarian ethics, even those which are so obvious and gross that it might appear impossible for any person of candour and intelligence to fall into them; since persons, even of considerable mental endowments, often give themselves so little trouble to understand the bearings of any opinion against which they entertain a prejudice, and men are in general so little conscious of this voluntary ignorance as a defect, that the vulgarest misunderstandings of ethical doctrines are continually met with in the deliberate writings of persons of the greatest pretensions both to high principle and to philosophy.^ On the one hand, he wants to declare that we have access to things as they are, thereby aligning himself with Reid’s project of avoiding the fall into (Humean) skepticism—a fall prompted by the Lockean “way of ideas.” On the other hand, he wants to follow Kant in limiting our knowledge of things-in-themselves, thereby reigning in the pretensions of metaphysical speculation.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this usage is not uniform, since even non-welfarist views are sometimes called utilitarian.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

We not uncommonly hear the doctrine of utility inveighed against as a godless doctrine. .If it be necessary to say anything at all against so mere an assumption, we may say that the question depends upon what idea we have formed of the moral character of the Deity.^ The killer may be impartial with respect to his victims' occupations, religious beliefs, and so forth, but it would be absurd to regard this as a form of moral impartiality ( Impartiality , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is precisely the idea that our character is formed for us, not by us, that Mill thinks is a “grand error.” ( System , VI.ii.3).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter was preferable because it turned all the workers into entrepreneurs, calling upon many of the faculties that mere labor for pay left to atrophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If it be a true belief that God desires, above all things, the happiness of his creatures, and that this was his purpose in their creation, utility is not only not a godless doctrine, but more profoundly religious than any other.^ Mill also writes, “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If it be meant that utilitarianism does not recognise the revealed will of God as the supreme law of morals, I answer, that a utilitarian who believes in the perfect goodness and wisdom of God, necessarily believes that whatever God has thought fit to reveal on the subject of morals, must fulfil the requirements of utility in a supreme degree.^ It can (but does not have to) lead to compassion and to the acceptance of corresponding moral laws.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Respect requires that the moral principles must be such, that they can be justified to each person involved (not only the majority).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Radicals, such as Bentham, warned Parliament that there must not be too great a gap between law and morals, and that the social problems of the day had to be solved by legislation.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.But others besides utilitarians have been of opinion that the Christian revelation was intended, and is fitted, to inform the hearts and minds of mankind with a spirit which should enable them to find for themselves what is right, and incline them to do it when found, rather than to tell them, except in a very general way, what it is; and that we need a doctrine of ethics, carefully followed out, to interpret to us the will God.^ VI) Mill agreed, “it is a misapprehension of the utilitarian mode of thought to conceive it as implying that people should fix their minds upon so wide a generality as the world, or society at large.” (1861, Chap.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whether this opinion is correct or not, it is superfluous here to discuss; since whatever aid religion, either natural or revealed, can afford to ethical investigation, is as open to the utilitarian moralist as to any other.^ Whatever you call them, the important point is that consequentialism and the other elements of classical utilitarianism are compatible with many different theories about which things are good or valuable.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens discuss whether their country should reduce certain import tariffs, withdraw its troops from a troubled region, or increase its aid to another country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Mill’s biography reveals his openness to intellectual exploration, his most basic philosophical commitment—to naturalism—never seriously wavers.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He can use it as the testimony of God to the usefulness or hurtfulness of any given course of action, by as good a right as others can use it for the indication of a transcendental law, having no connection with usefulness or with happiness.^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, social facts are reducible to facts about individuals: “The laws of the phenomena of society are, and can be, nothing but the laws of the actions and passions of human beings united together in the social state.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Again, Utility is often summarily stigmatised as an immoral doctrine by giving it the name of Expediency, and taking advantage of the popular use of that term to contrast it with Principle.^ A full use of the principle of utility requires reckoning with all intrinsically desirable and undesirable consequences to all sentient beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Traditional hedonistic utilitarians who prefer the latter outcome often try to justify egalitarian distributions of goods by appealing to a principle of diminishing marginal utility.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Use of the principle of utility as a test requires reckoning only with intrinsically desirable and undesirable consequences—only happiness and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the Expedient, in the sense in which it is opposed to the Right, generally means that which is expedient for the particular interest of the agent himself; as when a minister sacrifices the interests of his country to keep himself in place.^ It is assumed--at least under the law of most countries and at least in the moral views of most people--that people have certain rights, or, at least, that they have certain interests that cannot be compromised irrespective of consequence.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ But again, the overruling of human rights (under certain conditions) is not a particularity of NU; it applies to utilitarianism in general.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “though the consequences in the particular case might be beneficial—it would be unworthy of an intelligent agent not to be consciously aware that the action is of a class which, if practised generally, would be generally injurious.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.When it means anything better than this, it means that which is expedient for some immediate object, some temporary purpose, but which violates a rule whose observance is expedient in a much higher degree.^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill does not mention whether someone need ever reckon whether to violate a rule whose general observance and enforcement would cause more happiness, but which is not also generally observed and enforced by moral sanctions.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Expedient, in this sense, instead of being the same thing with the useful, is a branch of the hurtful.^ If Mill is construed as using “desirable” in the sense of “capable of being desired” in his premise, Moore contends that his argument then becomes fallacious, since Mill does not use “desirable” in this sense in the conclusion.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, it would often be expedient, for the purpose of getting over some momentary embarrassment, or attaining some object immediately useful to ourselves or others, to tell a lie.^ These activities would include using animals for food, experiments, product testing, clothing, entertainment, or in any other way that fails to respect the inherent value of the animal.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever someone could make better use of another’s house or clothing or other possession, there would be nothing wrong in his stealing it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But inasmuch as the cultivation in ourselves of a sensitive feeling on the subject of veracity, is one of the most useful, and the enfeeblement of that feeling one of the most hurtful, things to which our conduct can be instrumental; and inasmuch as any, even unintentional, deviation from truth, does that much towards weakening the trustworthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal support of all present social well-being, but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilisation, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends; we feel that the violation, for a present advantage, of a rule of such transcendant expediency, is not expedient, and that he who, for the sake of a convenience to himself or to some other individual, does what depends on him to deprive mankind of the good, and inflict upon them the evil, involved in the greater or less reliance which they can place in each other's word, acts the part of one of their worst enemies.^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he speaks of such rules as grounded in “general utility” and as “more vital to human well-being than any” others, Mill does not feel called upon to show that use of compulsion to enforce them generally would make for more happiness than would absence of enforcement.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not depend on A or B being a set of consequences.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet that even this rule, sacred as it is, admits of possible exceptions, is acknowledged by all moralists; the chief of which is when the withholding of some fact (as of information from a malefactor, or of bad news from a person dangerously ill) would save an individual (especially an individual other than oneself) from great and unmerited evil, and when the withholding can only be effected by denial.^ As an example of when it would not be wrong for someone to tell a certain lie, Mill cites an occasion in which “the withholding of some fact (as of information from a malefactor, or of bad news from a person dangerously ill) would preserve some one (especially a person other than oneself) from great and unmerited evil, and when the withholding can only be effected by denial” (223).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The attribution of at least several of these mental states reveals that it is perfectly sensible to regard certain nonhumans as psychophysical individuals who "fare well or ill during the course of their life, and the life of some animals is, on balance, experientially better than the life of others."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Among such rules he mentions those “which protect every individual from being harmed by others, either directly or by being hindered in his freedom of pursuing his own good,” which prevent anyone from “wrongfully withholding from” another “something which is his due,” or from depriving him “of some good which he had reasonable ground .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But in order that the exception may not extend itself beyond the need, and may have the least possible effect in weakening reliance on veracity, it ought to be recognised, and, if possible, its limits defined; and if the principle of utility is good for anything, it must be good for weighing these conflicting utilities against one another, and marking out the region within which one or the other preponderates.^ He regards consequences such as these as undesirable only because they in turn would make for less happiness and he speaks of “weighing these conflicting utilities against one another” (223).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Quite another error is that of overlooking that though it is effective, its “success itself may conflict with some other end, which may possibly chance to be more desirable.” 71 Where conflicting desirable ends are affected, Mill speaks of appeal to the principle of utility as called for.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Against this others urge that while the pleasure is one element of what someone looks forward to when he desires a walk, a smoke, or a party, the walk or the smoke or the party is also a component of what he is desirous of.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Again, defenders of utility often find themselves called upon to reply to such objections as this- that there is not time, previous to action, for calculating and weighing the effects of any line of conduct on the general happiness.^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In virtue of these it is contended that it is very often morally incumbent on a man to do a certain thing whether or not it would maximize the general happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he speaks of such rules as grounded in “general utility” and as “more vital to human well-being than any” others, Mill does not feel called upon to show that use of compulsion to enforce them generally would make for more happiness than would absence of enforcement.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is exactly as if any one were to say that it is impossible to guide our conduct by Christianity, because there is not time, on every occasion on which anything has to be done, to read through the Old and New Testaments.^ The principle he employs in taking this step is that if there is one sort of thing which is alone desirable for its own sake, then the promotion of it is the test of all human conduct.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is impossible to avoid participation in institutionalized animal exploitation completely since virtually every aspect of our lives is involved in some way with the institutionalized exploitation of animals.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

The answer to the objection is, that there has been ample time, namely, the whole past duration of the human species. .During all that time, mankind have been learning by experience the tendencies of actions; on which experience all the prudence, as well as all the morality of life, are dependent.^ In any case, all maximizing consequentialists, whether or not they are pluralists, must decide whether moral rightness depends on total good or on average good.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal Consequentialism = moral rightness depends on the consequences for all people or sentient beings (as opposed to only the individual agent, present people, or any other limited group).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To be well informed also means to dispose of the complete emotional experience of all individuals.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.People talk as if the commencement of this course of experience had hitherto been put off, and as if, at the moment when some man feels tempted to meddle with the property or life of another, he had to begin considering for the first time whether murder and theft are injurious to human happiness.^ From this, he derived the rule of utility: the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people, human beings ( Utilitarianism , Wikipedia) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He then holds that the ultimate evidence that one portion of a man’s life was intrinsically more desirable than another is that he who had experience of both was gladder on the whole at it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Mill puts it, history should be seen as the unfolding of a great epic or dramatic action, which terminates in the happiness or misery, the elevation or degradation, of the human race.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Even then I do not think that he would find the question very puzzling; but, at all events, the matter is now done to his hand.^ In other words, recognition of the basic right to physical security is a right as a matter of law irrespective of whether the state enforces this right in an even-handed manner.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN19] A right serves as a type of protection that cannot be sacrificed even if the consequences of doing so would be very desirable.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ But even if the uncertainty was reduced, and the controversy diminished, the question of animal use would still have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is truly a whimsical supposition that, if mankind were agreed in considering utility to be the test of morality, they would remain without any agreement as to what is useful, and would take no measures for having their notions on the subject taught to the young, and enforced by law and opinion.^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They would hold that the reason it is wrong to do any action is that it violates God’s law.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These activities would include using animals for food, experiments, product testing, clothing, entertainment, or in any other way that fails to respect the inherent value of the animal.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.There is no difficulty in proving any ethical standard whatever to work ill, if we suppose universal idiocy to be conjoined with it; but on any hypothesis short of that, mankind must by this time have acquired positive beliefs as to the effects of some actions on their happiness; and the beliefs which have thus come down are the rules of morality for the multitude, and for the philosopher until he has succeeded in finding better.^ There is no universal answer.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Regan stresses that there is no nonarbitrary way to separate moral agents from moral patients, and that there is no way to differentiate human moral patients from nonhuman moral patients without relying on some form of species bias or speciesism.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.That philosophers might easily do this, even now, on many subjects; that the received code of ethics is by no means of divine right; and that mankind have still much to learn as to the effects of actions on the general happiness, I admit, or rather, earnestly maintain.^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ III.) And even if act consequentialists cannot argue in this way, it still might work for rule consequentialists (such as Hooker 2000).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The corollaries from the principle of utility, like the precepts of every practical art, admit of indefinite improvement, and, in a progressive state of the human mind, their improvement is perpetually going on.^ The practical principle that guides the majority “to their opinions on the regulation of human conduct, is the feeling in each person’s mind that everybody should be required to act as he, and those with whom he sympathizes, would like them to act.” ( On Liberty [ OL ], 48).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ History of the Principle of Utility By Mills time, the principle of utility possessed a long history stretching back to the 1730s (with roots going further back to Hobbes, Locke, and even to Epicurus).
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By assigning lexical priority to human rights they become a side constraint for every theory that seeks a quantitative optimization of the state of affairs.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.But to consider the rules of morality as improvable, is one thing; to pass over the intermediate generalisations entirely, and endeavour to test each individual action directly by the first principle, is another.^ Mill writes, “the morality of an individual action is .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill implies that if an action would satisfy this test, it should be done, and that if it would not, it is not one that should be done.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [H]appiness is the sole end of human action, and the promotion of it the test by which to judge of all human conduct; from whence it necessarily follows that it must be the criterion of morality, since a part is included in the whole.” Morality consists of “the rules .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

It is a strange notion that the acknowledgment of a first principle is inconsistent with the admission of secondary ones. To inform a traveller respecting the place of his. ultimate destination, is not to forbid the use of landmarks and direction-posts on the way. .The proposition that happiness is the end and aim of morality, does not mean that no road ought to be laid down to that goal, or that persons going thither should not be advised to take one direction rather than another.^ Addressing each person means that the moral principles .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.Men really ought to leave off talking a kind of nonsense on this subject, which they would neither talk nor listen to on other matters of practical concernment.^ In what he maintains is the supreme test, Mill is making three claims: (1) that something ought to be done if and only if it would maximize happiness, (2) that the ultimate reason why something ought to be done is because it would maximize happiness, and (3) that other tests are sound or suitable only if they would yield results compatible with it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Subjection of Women and Other Social and Political Writings Many volumes of Mills writings deal with topics of social and political concern.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But rights theory does not really concern the particular rights that animals have; rather, it asks whether animals should be in the class of rightholders as an initial matter.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

Nobody argues that the art of navigation is not founded on astronomy, because sailors cannot wait to calculate the Nautical Almanack. .Being rational creatures, they go to sea with it ready calculated; and all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill hereby points out that the claim that a man has a right to a certain thing does not imply that it would invariably be wrong for anyone to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

And this, as long as foresight is a human quality, it is to be presumed they will continue to do. .Whatever we adopt as the fundamental principle of morality, we require subordinate principles to apply it by; the impossibility of doing without them, being common to all systems, can afford no argument against any one in particular; but gravely to argue as if no such secondary principles could be had, and as if mankind had remained till now, and always must remain, without drawing any general conclusions from the experience of human life, is as high a pitch, I think, as absurdity has ever reached in philosophical controversy.^ All such views differ from Mill’s principle in but one respect.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges instead that men generally have such an intense interest in their enforcement that “if obedience to them were not the rule, and disobedience the exception, every one would see in every one else a probable enemy, against whom he must be perpetually guarding himself.” “It is their observance which alone preserves peace among human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor, he argues, is anyone, who has had experience of two occasions in which only pain of the same sort was felt, sorrier on its own account about one than the other unless more pain was felt in it; and no one is led by such experiences to prefer one to another of that sort unless he expects it would be less painful.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The remainder of the stock arguments against utilitarianism mostly consist in laying to its charge the common infirmities of human nature, and the general difficulties which embarrass conscientious persons in shaping their course through life.^ Though human nature can be thought of as something living, it is also, like an English garden, something amenable to improvement through effort.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Theoretically limping after England, it was only in the late nineteenth century that American Individualism, dropping the theory of "Natural Rights," was supported by the arguments of the Utilitarians.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.We are told that a utilitarian will be apt to make his own particular case an exception to moral rules, and, when under temptation, will see a utility in the breach of a rule, greater than he will see in its observance.^ If this claim is correct, then rule utilitarianism implies that it is morally wrong for a particular doctor to use an unwilling donor, even for a particular transplant that would have better consequences than any alternative even from the doctor's own perspective.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rule utilitarians, however, require that moral rules be publicly known (Gert 2005; cf.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But is utility the only creed which is able to furnish us with excuses for evil doing, and means of cheating our own conscience?^ When it is claimed that a man has a right to worship in accord with the dictates of his own conscience, it is not implied that if someone were to prevent him from worshipping in this manner, he would be doing something unjust.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And these two assertions are only reconcileable, if relativity to us is understood in the altogether trivial sense, that we know them only so far as our faculties permit.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They are afforded in abundance by all doctrines which recognise as a fact in morals the existence of conflicting considerations; which all doctrines do, that have been believed by sane persons.^ All that can be done is to present considerations “capable of determining the intellect either to give or withhold its assent to the doctrine; and this is equivalent to proof.” ( CW , X.208).
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But even when moral considerations do not arise, Mill recognizes that men usually make out what ought to be done, and he urges that it is usually suitable for them to make out what ought to be done not by means of the supreme principle but by some intermediate principle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is not the fault of any creed, but of the complicated nature of human affairs, that rules of conduct cannot be so framed as to require no exceptions, and that hardly any kind of action can safely be laid down as either always obligatory or always condemnable.^ Men, however, in a state of society, are still men; their actions and passions are obedient to the laws of individual human nature.
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [H]appiness is the sole end of human action, and the promotion of it the test by which to judge of all human conduct; from whence it necessarily follows that it must be the criterion of morality, since a part is included in the whole.” Morality consists of “the rules .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he also speaks of these as sanctioned by “moral coercion,” 44 it might be thought that he holds that when anyone claims that there is a rule of morality against a certain action, all that he is claiming is that it is an action of a kind which incurs general condemnation.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is no ethical creed which does not temper the rigidity of its laws, by giving a certain latitude, under the moral responsibility of the agent, for accommodation to peculiarities of circumstances; and under every creed, at the opening thus made, self-deception and dishonest casuistry get in.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently there are no responses.

^ Regan stresses that there is no nonarbitrary way to separate moral agents from moral patients, and that there is no way to differentiate human moral patients from nonhuman moral patients without relying on some form of species bias or speciesism.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.There exists no moral system under which there do not arise unequivocal cases of conflicting obligation.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Animals are not persons in either moral theory or under the law; they are property in that they exist solely as means to human ends.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If we want to account for the NU protection of non-contractual cases then there are no such privileges: a contractor could be reincarnated as an insane child or as a laboratory animal.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

These are the real difficulties, the knotty points both in the theory of ethics, and in the conscientious guidance of personal conduct. .They are overcome practically, with greater or with less success, according to the intellect and virtue of the individual; but it can hardly be pretended that any one will be the less qualified for dealing with them, from possessing an ultimate standard to which conflicting rights and duties can be referred.^ He regards consequences such as these as undesirable only because they in turn would make for less happiness and he speaks of “weighing these conflicting utilities against one another” (223).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If animals are to have any rights at all (other than merely legalistic or abstract ones to which Shue refers), they must have certain basic rights that would then necessarily protect them from being used for food, clothing, or experiments.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, Singer himself refers to his theory as one of "animal liberation" and states that claims of right are "irrelevant."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.If utility is the ultimate source of moral obligations, utility may be invoked to decide between them when their demands are incompatible.^ Chapter Three addresses the topic of motivation again by focusing on the following question: What is the source of our obligation to the principle of utility?
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Mill, John Stuart [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ T he law of diminishing marginal utility and the logarithmic effect of absolute income on happiness (see Easterlin Paradox ) may have their reason in the psychological asymmetry between suffering and happiness .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though the application of the standard may be difficult, it is better than none at all: while in other systems, the moral laws all claiming independent authority, there is no common umpire entitled to interfere between them; their claims to precedence one over another rest on little better than sophistry, and unless determined, as they generally are, by the unacknowledged influence of considerations of utility, afford a free scope for the action of personal desires and partialities.^ Other considerations governed the scope of rights that these "new" persons may have had.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There are thus thirteen ways in which any two actions may stand to one another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he does not claim that no one desires one thing more than another unless he expects that it will be more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.We must remember that only in these cases of conflict between secondary principles is it requisite that first principles should be appealed to.^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing incompatible between Mill’s principle and the view that something should be done if and only if it would bring about a greater realization of men’s capacities than would any alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first, Mill sets out the problem, distinguishes between the intuitionist and inductive schools of morality, and also suggests limits to what we can expect from proofs of first principles of morality.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is no case of moral obligation in which some secondary principle is not involved; and if only one, there can seldom be any real doubt which one it is, in the mind of any person by whom the principle itself is recognised.^ For one of his railroad cases he collected $5,000 --- a really extraordinary amount at the time.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill’s third point is that when it is asserted that it would be unjust for someone to do a certain thing, it is implied that if he were to do it he would be violating an obligation that he has to some other assignable person (247).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They all agree that there is some feature which not only holds of every action that should be done and only of such, but which also constitutes the reason why it should be done.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Chapter 3: Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility

.The question is often asked, and properly so, in regard to any supposed moral standard- What is its sanction?^ He suggests, for example, that as a test of conduct, it is often helpful for a man to ask himself whether a morally perfect being would approve of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

what are the motives to obey it? or more specifically, what is the source of its obligation? whence does it derive its binding force? .It is a necessary part of moral philosophy to provide the answer to this question; which, though frequently assuming the shape of an objection to the utilitarian morality, as if it had some special applicability to that above others, really arises in regard to all standards.^ The killer may be impartial with respect to his victims' occupations, religious beliefs, and so forth, but it would be absurd to regard this as a form of moral impartiality ( Impartiality , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rawls concept is pluralistic and tolerant with regard to all religions and beliefs except for those which question human rights.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

It arises, in fact, whenever a person is called on to adopt a standard, or refer morality to any basis on which he has not been accustomed to rest it. .For the customary morality, that which education and opinion have consecrated, is the only one which presents itself to the mind with the feeling of being in itself obligatory; and when a person is asked to believe that this morality derives its obligation from some general principle round which custom has not thrown the same halo, the assertion is to him a paradox; the supposed corollaries seem to have a more binding force than the original theorem; the superstructure seems to stand better without, than with, what is represented as its foundation.^ Addressing each person means that the moral principles .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some critics charge him with introducing an extraneous consideration when he adds Bentham’s dictum, “everybody to count for one, nobody for more than one.” Mill, however, points out that when this dictum is understood as asserting that “equal amounts of happiness are equally desirable, whether felt by the same or by different persons,” and that “one person’s happiness, supposed equal in degree (with the proper allowance made for kind), is counted for exactly as much as another’s,” all that is spelled out by it is that the preponderance of happiness over unhappiness be “both in point of quantity and quality” and in nothing else (257, 214).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he holds that it is often sufficient for men to resolve a conflict by means of such a belief, without appealing to the principle of utility, Mill urges that men cannot in the end be assured that they are correct in believing that one kind of obligation takes precedence in general over another without reckoning whether neglect of it would in general be more detrimental to human happiness than neglect of the other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He says to himself, I feel that I am bound not to rob or murder, betray or deceive; but why am I bound to promote the general happiness?^ On this point he writes, “No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since Mill himself mentions that each person desires his own happiness, he acknowledges that men are capable of desiring something other than the general happiness for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Granted that this duty may be outweighed on occasion by a more stringent obligation, it is argued that it does not cease whenever the general happiness would be more effectively promoted by neglecting it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If my own happiness lies in something else, why may I not give that the preference?^ It then looks as if Mill contends that something should be done because it would cause more happiness, but that it is not only because of this that it should be done; that the reason in turn why what would cause more happiness should be done is that happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In desiring his own happiness henceforth, moreover, it is then reasonable for a man to rate any experience that may befall him not in terms of its intrinsic desirability but in terms of its desirability as enhancing the desirability of his life on the whole.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If it is interpreted in this way, it may be objected that people often believe that others desire something, and desire it for its own sake, without thinking that it would be desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the view adopted by the utilitarian philosophy of the nature of the moral sense be correct, this difficulty will always present itself, until the influences which form moral character have taken the same hold of the principle which they have taken of some of the consequences- until, by the improvement of education, the feeling of unity with our fellow-creatures shall be (what it cannot be denied that Christ intended it to be) as deeply rooted in our character, and to our own consciousness as completely a part of our nature, as the horror of crime is in an ordinarily well brought up young person.^ We have the power to alter our own character.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though our own character is formed by circumstances, among those circumstances are our own desires.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle of utilitythat actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happinesswas the centerpiece of his ethical philosophy.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime, however, the difficulty has no peculiar application to the doctrine of utility, but is inherent in every attempt to analyse morality and reduce it to principles; which, unless the principle is already in men's minds invested with as much sacredness as any of its applications, always seems to divest them of a part of their sanctity.^ But even when moral considerations do not arise, Mill recognizes that men usually make out what ought to be done, and he urges that it is usually suitable for them to make out what ought to be done not by means of the supreme principle but by some intermediate principle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill agrees with the intuitive theory that no one can make out by the principle of utility alone whether a certain action would be wrong or another obligatory.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ T he positive utilitarian imperative to "maximize happiness" is insatiable, while the negative utilitarian command to "minimize misery" is satiable: no matter how much happiness we have, the positive principle tells us that more would always be better.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.The principle of utility either has, or there is no reason why it might not have, all the sanctions which belong to any other system of morals.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Those sanctions are either external or internal. Of the external sanctions it is not necessary to speak at any length. .They are, the hope of favour and the fear of displeasure, from our fellow creatures or from the Ruler of the Universe, along with whatever we may have of sympathy or affection for them, or of love and awe of Him, inclining us to do his will independently of selfish consequences.^ Individuals are rational if they act optimally in pursuit of their goals, whatever those goals may be .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is evidently no reason why all these motives for observance should not attach themselves to the utilitarian morality, as completely and as powerfully as to any other.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ So observers as well as agents have adequate reasons to believe that such acts are morally wrong, according to act utilitarianism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, those of them which refer to our fellow creatures are sure to do so, in proportion to the amount of general intelligence; for whether there be any other ground of moral obligation than the general happiness or not, men do desire happiness; and however imperfect may be their own practice, they desire and commend all conduct in others towards themselves, by which they think their happiness is promoted.^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though our own character is formed by circumstances, among those circumstances are our own desires.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With regard to the religious motive, if men believe, as most profess to do, in the goodness of God, those who think that conduciveness to the general happiness is the essence, or even only the criterion of good, must necessarily believe that it is also that which God approves.^ Utilitarianism is a shining example of a "false pretension" that opposes not only God's truth but humanity in general and Christians must take seriously the task of equipping themselves with an "answer" that is capable of competing in the broader intellectual arena.

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This enabled Mill to argue against those who tried to suggest that the subordination of women to men reflected a natural order that women were by nature incapable of equality with men.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The whole force therefore of external reward and punishment, whether physical or moral, and whether proceeding from God or from our fellow men, together with all that the capacities of human nature admit of disinterested devotion to either, become available to enforce the utilitarian morality, in proportion as that morality is recognised; and the more powerfully, the more the appliances of education and general cultivation are bent to the purpose.^ Singer argues that as a general matter, rights theory possesses weak normative force and is incapable (or more incapable than utilitarianism) of proving specific normative guidance in concrete situations.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Animals are not persons in either moral theory or under the law; they are property in that they exist solely as means to human ends.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

So far as to external sanctions. .The internal sanction of duty, whatever our standard of duty may be, is one and the same- a feeling in our own mind; a pain, more or less intense, attendant on violation of duty, which in properly cultivated moral natures rises, in the more serious cases, into shrinking from it as an impossibility.^ It seems that R.N.Smart more or less criticized his own interpretation of negative utilitarianism.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Granted that this duty may be outweighed on occasion by a more stringent obligation, it is argued that it does not cease whenever the general happiness would be more effectively promoted by neglecting it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the passage cited Mill continues: “It is a part of the notion of Duty in every one of its forms, that a person may rightfully be compelled to fulfil it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This feeling, when disinterested, and connecting itself with the pure idea of duty, and not with some particular form of it, or with any of the merely accessory circumstances, is the essence of Conscience; though in that complex phenomenon as it actually exists, the simple fact is in general all encrusted over with collateral associations, derived from sympathy, from love, and still more from fear; from all the forms of religious feeling; from the recollections of childhood and of all our past life; from self-esteem, desire of the esteem of others, and occasionally even self-abasement.^ Though our own character is formed by circumstances, among those circumstances are our own desires.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Compassion is a rational answer to the fact that a significant part of our self exists in the others.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.This extreme complication is, I apprehend, the origin of the sort of mystical character which, by a tendency of the human mind of which there are many other examples, is apt to be attributed to the idea of moral obligation, and which leads people to believe that the idea cannot possibly attach itself to any other objects than those which, by a supposed mysterious law, are found in our present experience to excite it.^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ As between two pleasant states of different sorts he holds that regardless of whether one was more pleasant than the other, the ultimate evidence that it was more desirable of itself is that someone who experienced both was gladder at the one and is led by this to prefer, in the future, experiences like the one to experiences like the other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its binding force, however, consists in the existence of a mass of feeling which must be broken through in order to do what violates our standard of right, and which, if we do nevertheless violate that standard, will probably have to be encountered afterwards in the form of remorse.^ Now, if we assume that an act must be such a proximate cause of a harm in order for that harm to be a consequence of that act, then consequentialists can claim that the moral rightness of that act is determined only by such proximate consequences.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this doctor can reply that he is willing to give everyone the right to violate the usual rules in the rare cases when they do know that violating those rules really maximizes utility.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Our attention to the public well-being usually needs to extend only so far as is required to know that we arent violating the rights of others.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

Whatever theory we have of the nature or origin of conscience, this is what essentially constitutes it.
.The ultimate sanction, therefore, of all morality (external motives apart) being a subjective feeling in our own minds, I see nothing embarrassing to those whose standard is utility, in the question, what is the sanction of that particular standard?^ Though our own character is formed by circumstances, among those circumstances are our own desires.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Behind such a veil of ignorance all individuals are specified as rational, free, and morally equal beings.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.We may answer, the same as of all other moral standards- the conscientious feelings of mankind.^ Morality may be defined as “the rules and precepts for human conduct, by the observance of which an existence such as has been described might be, to the greatest extent possible, secured to all mankind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal Consequentialism = moral rightness depends on the consequences for all people or sentient beings (as opposed to only the individual agent, present people, or any other limited group).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And almost the same thing may be said of Mr. Lincoln,-that if he had been a traitor, he could not have worked better to strengthen one side and hazard the success of the other."
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.Undoubtedly this sanction has no binding efficacy on those who do not possess the feelings it appeals to; but neither will these persons be more obedient to any other moral principle than to the utilitarian one.^ Addressing each person means that the moral principles .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The average utility would be higher with the contraceptive program than without it, so average utilitarianism yields the more plausible result—that the government should adopt the contraceptive program.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.On them morality of any kind has no hold but through the external sanctions.^ Since he also speaks of these as sanctioned by “moral coercion,” 44 it might be thought that he holds that when anyone claims that there is a rule of morality against a certain action, all that he is claiming is that it is an action of a kind which incurs general condemnation.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN20] Singer claims not to be "the kind of moral absolutist who holds that the end can never justify the means," and he has denied arguing that "no animal experimentation is ever of use to humans" or that "all animal experimentation involves suffering."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ From this it might be thought that Mill holds that all that is contained in the claim that there is a rule of morality against a certain action is that it is an action of a kind which generally ought not to be done.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile the feelings exist, a fact in human nature, the reality of which, and the great power with which they are capable of acting on those in whom they have been duly cultivated, are proved by experience.^ Mill maintains not merely that those rules which should generally be observed would in fact cause more happiness, but also that it is because their general observance would cause more happiness that they should be observed.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The practical principle that guides the majority to their opinions on the regulation of human conduct, is the feeling in each persons mind that everybody should be required to act as he, and those with whom he sympathizes, would like them to act.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, the human sciences can be understood as themselves natural sciences with human objects of study.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.No reason has ever been shown why they may not be cultivated to as great intensity in connection with the utilitarian, as with any other rule of morals.^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ So observers as well as agents have adequate reasons to believe that such acts are morally wrong, according to act utilitarianism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is, I am aware, a disposition to believe that a person who sees in moral obligation a transcendental fact, an objective reality belonging to the province of "Things in themselves," is likely to be more obedient to it than one who believes it to be entirely subjective, having its seat in human consciousness only.^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor, he argues, is anyone, who has had experience of two occasions in which only pain of the same sort was felt, sorrier on its own account about one than the other unless more pain was felt in it; and no one is led by such experiences to prefer one to another of that sort unless he expects it would be less painful.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges that no one who has ever actually had experience of two occasions in which only pleasure of the same sort was felt is gladder on its own account about one than the other unless it was more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But whatever a person's opinion may be on this point of Ontology, the force he is really urged by is his own subjective feeling, and is exactly measured by its strength.^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, Mill points out that no one feels pleased to some measure at the thought of a certain state of affairs, without feeling some desire for its occurrence (237).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this point he writes, “No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.No one's belief that duty is an objective reality is stronger than the belief that God is so; yet the belief in God, apart from the expectation of actual reward and punishment, only operates on conduct through, and in proportion to, the subjective religious feeling.^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges that no one who has ever actually had experience of two occasions in which only pleasure of the same sort was felt is gladder on its own account about one than the other unless it was more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet, no sooner was Napoleon out of the way than the consequences of the war increasingly made themselves felt on the British social system.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.The sanction, so far as it is disinterested, is always in the mind itself; and the notion therefore of the transcendental moralists must be, that this sanction will not exist in the mind unless it is believed to have its root out of the mind; and that if a person is able to say to himself, This which is restraining me, and which is called my conscience, is only a feeling in my own mind, he may possibly draw the conclusion that when the feeling ceases the obligation ceases, and that if he find the feeling inconvenient, he may disregard it, and endeavour to get rid of it.^ This kind of proposition simply asserts of a thing under a particular name, only what is asserted of it in the fact of calling it by that name; and which, therefore, either gives no information, or gives it respecting the name, not the thing.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In support of the conclusion that only happiness is desirable for its own sake, Mill urges that only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Quite another error is that of overlooking that though it is effective, its “success itself may conflict with some other end, which may possibly chance to be more desirable.” 71 Where conflicting desirable ends are affected, Mill speaks of appeal to the principle of utility as called for.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

But is this danger confined to the utilitarian morality? .Does the belief that moral obligation has its seat outside the mind make the feeling of it too strong to be got rid of?^ He does not deny that such occasions recur and that men encounter them with their minds made up as to what kinds of obligation take precedence over others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But his belief does not also imply that men in general are capable of understanding the description of action which he has in mind or that they are capable of avoiding such actions through having such a description in mind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The fact is so far otherwise, that all moralists admit and lament the ease with which, in the generality of minds, conscience can be silenced or stifled. The question, Need I obey my conscience? is quite as often put to themselves by persons who never heard of the principle of utility, as by its adherents. .Those whose conscientious feelings are so weak as to allow of their asking this question, if they answer it affirmatively, will not do so because they believe in the transcendental theory, but because of the external sanctions.^ Harsanyi argues that all informed, rational people whose impartiality is ensured because they do not know their place in society would favor a kind of consequentialism.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill maintains not merely that those rules which should generally be observed would in fact cause more happiness, but also that it is because their general observance would cause more happiness that they should be observed.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If utilitarians want their theory to allow more moral knowledge, they can make a different kind of move by turning from actual consequences to expected or expectable consequences.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

It is not necessary, for the present purpose, to decide whether the feeling of duty is innate or implanted. .Assuming it to be innate, it is an open question to what objects it naturally attaches itself; for the philosophic supporters of that theory are now agreed that the intuitive perception is of principles of morality and not of the details.^ Though we may have difficulty running experiments in the human realm, that realm and its objects are, in principle, just as open to the causal explanations we find in physics or biology.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He writes, “the morality of an individual action is not a question of direct perception, but of the application of a law to an individual case” (206).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Theoretically limping after England, it was only in the late nineteenth century that American Individualism, dropping the theory of "Natural Rights," was supported by the arguments of the Utilitarians.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.If there be anything innate in the matter, I see no reason why the feeling which is innate should not be that of regard to the pleasures and pains of others.^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one who considers the matter dispassionately regards it as desirable of itself that the virtuous suffer and the evil be meted out happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It then looks as if Mill contends that something should be done because it would cause more happiness, but that it is not only because of this that it should be done; that the reason in turn why what would cause more happiness should be done is that happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If there is any principle of morals which is intuitively obligatory, I should say it must be that.^ Another popular charge is that classic utilitarianism demands too much, because it requires us to do acts that are or should be moral options (neither obligatory nor forbidden).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Respect requires that the moral principles must be such, that they can be justified to each person involved (not only the majority).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Radicals, such as Bentham, warned Parliament that there must not be too great a gap between law and morals, and that the social problems of the day had to be solved by legislation.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.If so, the intuitive ethics would coincide with the utilitarian, and there would be no further quarrel between them.^ Mill agrees with the intuitive theory that no one can make out by the principle of utility alone whether a certain action would be wrong or another obligatory.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would contend that there is no evidence that it is desirable as a means unless there is evidence that it would have a certain effect.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who holds that an action is wrong because it violates a rule laid down by God is committed to holding that if there is no god or if he lays down no rules for men, then there is nothing which it would be wrong to do or wrong not to do.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even as it is, the intuitive moralists, though they believe that there are other intuitive moral obligations, do already believe this to one; for they unanimously hold that a large portion of morality turns upon the consideration due to the interests of our fellow-creatures.^ Or one could hold that an act is right if it maximizes respect for (or minimizes violations of) certain specified moral rights.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not call anything wrong, unless we mean to imply that a person ought to be punished in some way or other for doing it; if not by law, by the opinion of his fellow creatures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, if the belief in the transcendental origin of moral obligation gives any additional efficacy to the internal sanction, it appears to me that the utilitarian principle has already the benefit of it.^ The respect principle is a type of Kantian "transcendental" principle that Kant regarded as unifying moral judgments.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Many utilitarians still want to avoid the claim that we morally ought to give so much to charity.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since classic utilitarianism reduces all morally relevant factors (Kagan 1998, 17-22) to consequences, it might appear simple.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, if, as is my own belief, the moral feelings are not innate, but acquired, they are not for that reason the less natural.^ Someone’s gladness at what he experienced counts as evidence only if he was glad at it on its own account, only, that is, if his gladness was unaffected by any beliefs he has about its relation to other things.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand parenthood can be morally justified (according to NU) if the children contribute to the reduction of suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the aid of this theory, every inveterate belief and every intense feeling, of which the origin is not remembered, is enabled to dispense with the obligation of justifying itself by reason, and is erected into its own all-sufficient voucher and justification.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is natural to man to speak, to reason, to build cities, to cultivate the ground, though these are acquired faculties.^ In one passage Mill speaks as if one portion of a man’s life is happier and more desirable so long as these conditions alone are fulfilled.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The moral feelings are not indeed a part of our nature, in the sense of being in any perceptible degree present in all of us; but this, unhappily, is a fact admitted by those who believe the most strenuously in their transcendental origin.^ But the basic right not to be treated as property is a right that does not and cannot admit of degrees, at least in this sense.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Although we may regard some animals as having certain "interests," we regard all of those interests to be tradable and dependent on our judgment that the sacrifice of the interest(s) will benefit us.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Prioritarianism is rational for those who agree with the encoded degree of sympathy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like the other acquired capacities above referred to, the moral faculty, if not a part of our nature, is a natural outgrowth from it; capable, like them, in a certain small degree, of springing up spontaneously; and susceptible of being brought by cultivation to a high degree of development.^ If animals are to have any rights at all (other than merely legalistic or abstract ones to which Shue refers), they must have certain basic rights that would then necessarily protect them from being used for food, clothing, or experiments.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill does not acknowledge that this assertion ever bears this sense, for when it is asserted that a man has a certain right, it is implied that his right is capable of being violated by others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The close genetic relationship between all humans which says that a significant part of our self exists in the others.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unhappily it is also susceptible, by a sufficient use of the external sanctions and of the force of early impressions, of being cultivated in almost any direction: so that there is hardly anything so absurd or so mischievous that it may not, by means of these influences, be made to act on the human mind with all the authority of conscience.^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When it is said that something ought to be done, it is implied that there is some respect in which it stands in contrast to anything capable of being done instead of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer may respond that, as a utilitarian, he believes that all human interests are able to be traded away for consequential reasons alone.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.To doubt that the same potency might be given by the same means to the principle of utility, even if it had no foundation in human nature, would be flying in the face of all experience.^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there are severely retarded humans who cannot speak or reason (or, at least, can do so no better than many nonhumans), and most of us would be appalled if those humans were used in experiments, or for food or clothing.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ A full use of the principle of utility requires reckoning with all intrinsically desirable and undesirable consequences to all sentient beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But moral associations which are wholly of artificial creation, when intellectual culture goes on, yield by degrees to the dissolving force of analysis: and if the feeling of duty, when associated with utility, would appear equally arbitrary; if there were no leading department of our nature, no powerful class of sentiments, with which that association would harmonise, which would make us feel it congenial, and incline us not only to foster it in others (for which we have abundant interested motives), but also to cherish it in ourselves; if there were not, in short, a natural basis of sentiment for utilitarian morality, it might well happen that this association also, even after it had been implanted by education, might be analysed away.^ If so, classical utilitarianism leads to moral skepticism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a moral duty to help a suffering individual, but there is no moral duty to make an individual happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.But there is this basis of powerful natural sentiment; and this it is which, when once the general happiness is recognised as the ethical standard, will constitute the strength of the utilitarian morality.^ In virtue of these it is contended that it is very often morally incumbent on a man to do a certain thing whether or not it would maximize the general happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many utilitarians are happy to reject common moral intuitions in this case, like many others (cf.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Mill is concerned to show that the principle of utility is the supreme test of conduct generally, in Utilitarianism he is largely occupied with its role in coping with moral problems.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This firm foundation is that of the social feelings of mankind; the desire to be in unity with our fellow creatures, which is already a powerful principle in human nature, and happily one of those which tend to become stronger, even without express inculcation, from the influences of advancing civilisation.^ One alternative to Mill’s principle is the view that something should be done because it would maximize human happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One view already noted is that which maintains that something should be done because it would maximize fulfilment of human wants.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle he employs in taking this step is that if there is one sort of thing which is alone desirable for its own sake, then the promotion of it is the test of all human conduct.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The social state is at once so natural, so necessary, and so habitual to man, that, except in some unusual circumstances or by an effort of voluntary abstraction, he never conceives himself otherwise than as a member of a body; and this association is riveted more and more, as mankind are further removed from the state of savage independence.^ Mill argues, however, that pleasures and pains differ in a further respect which is relevant—some are more desirable than others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Accordingly, the main principle which Mill maintains is that something should be done if and only if it would cause more happiness than would any alternative, and that something should not be done if and only if it would fail to cause as much happiness as would some alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He maintains that some experiences are desired for their own sake more than others although not more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Any condition, therefore, which is essential to a state of society, becomes more and more an inseparable part of every person's conception of the state of things which he is born into, and which is the destiny of a human being.^ Once we recognize that animals are not "things," we can no longer justify the use of animals in experiments any more than we could justify the use of humans.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Men, however, in a state of society, are still men; their actions and passions are obedient to the laws of individual human nature.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Our treatment of nonhuman animals reflects a distinction that we make between humans, whom we regard as persons, and nonhumans, whom we regard as things.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.Now, society between human beings, except in the relation of master and slave, is manifestly impossible on any other footing than that the interests of all are to be consulted.^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ This status as a "thing" is a logical consequence of the institution of human slavery which treated all slave interests--including Shue's basic right of physical security--as tradable as long as there were perceived benefits for slaveowners.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Rawls concept is pluralistic and tolerant with regard to all religions and beliefs except for those which question human rights.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Society between equals can only exist on the understanding that the interests of all are to be regarded equally.^ How appropriate for the consumption of the world at large was the program that the only true interests were individual interests, when the capitalist alone of all individuals was the most able to take care of himself.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All ideals were here dissolved into a sensationalist, sensualist approach in which the only binding nexus was self-interest and cash payment.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The close genetic relationship between all humans which says that a significant part of our self exists in the others.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.And since in all states of civilisation, every person, except an absolute monarch, has equals, every one is obliged to live on these terms with somebody; and in every age some advance is made towards a state in which it will be impossible to live permanently on other terms with anybody.^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every one of the forty-eight States requires a previous residence period for voting; six require two years in the state, the others a year or less, with a proportionate time requirement in the county and election districts.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coleridge expressed this in his contrast of mere civilization with cultivation: The permanency of the nationand its progressiveness and personal freedomdepend on a continuing and progressive civilization.
  • Mill, John Stuart -- a. Overview [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In this way people grow up unable to conceive as possible to them a state of total disregard of other people's interests.^ If it is interpreted in this way, it may be objected that people often believe that others desire something, and desire it for its own sake, without thinking that it would be desirable for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are under a necessity of conceiving themselves as at least abstaining from all the grosser injuries, and (if only for their own protection) living in a state of constant protest against them.^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed--at least under the law of most countries and at least in the moral views of most people--that people have certain rights, or, at least, that they have certain interests that cannot be compromised irrespective of consequence.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ A non-violent strategy (like Mahajana Buddhism ) is correct according to NU, if and only if it can be shown, that all violent actions (including the monopoly of power of the state) are counterproductive.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are also familiar with the fact of co-operating with others and proposing to themselves a collective, not an individual interest as the aim (at least for the time being) of their actions.^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Other consequentialists are more skeptical about moral intuitions, so they seek foundations outside morality, either in non-normative facts or in non-moral norms.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed--at least under the law of most countries and at least in the moral views of most people--that people have certain rights, or, at least, that they have certain interests that cannot be compromised irrespective of consequence.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.So long as they are co-operating, their ends are identified with those of others; there is at least a temporary feeling that the interests of others are their own interests.^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All "persons" must have at least one interest that is protected from being sacrificed merely for consequential purposes; the interest in continued existence, without which all other interests would be meaningless.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed--at least under the law of most countries and at least in the moral views of most people--that people have certain rights, or, at least, that they have certain interests that cannot be compromised irrespective of consequence.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.Not only does all strengthening of social ties, and all healthy growth of society, give to each individual a stronger personal interest in practically consulting the welfare of others; it also leads him to identify his feelings more and more with their good, or at least with an even greater degree of practical consideration for it.^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elsewhere he writes that in most cases in which someone appeals to the principle of utility “the interest or happiness of some few persons, is all he has to attend to” (220).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When I watch television, I always (or almost always) could do more good by helping others, but it does not seem morally wrong to watch television.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He comes, as though instinctively, to be conscious of himself as a being who of course pays regard to others.^ Here too he regards an appeal to utility as being made where what are reckoned with are other desirable and undesirable consequences than happiness and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, a new class of industrialists had arrived who had profited greatly from the war, who refused to pay for it, and who demanded their place in the political sun of the British Parliament.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His examples show that he regards an appeal to utility as being made where what are reckoned with are other desirable and undesirable consequences than happiness and unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The good of others becomes to him a thing naturally and necessarily to be attended to, like any of the physical conditions of our existence.^ Mill also contends that it is not claimed that a man has a right to a certain thing unless it is implied that others have an obligation not to deprive him of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever you call them, the important point is that consequentialism and the other elements of classical utilitarianism are compatible with many different theories about which things are good or valuable.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When we think that it would be unjust for someone to do a certain thing, we imply that it would not in general be wrong for others to compel him not to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now, whatever amount of this feeling a person has, he is urged by the strongest motives both of interest and of sympathy to demonstrate it, and to the utmost of his power encourage it in others; and even if he has none of it himself, he is as greatly interested as any one else that others should have it.^ Against this others urge that while the pleasure is one element of what someone looks forward to when he desires a walk, a smoke, or a party, the walk or the smoke or the party is also a component of what he is desirous of.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To say that man was motivated only by egoistic interests was but another way of idealizing the brutal piggishness and irresponsible criminality by which the industrialists had crashed the gates to power.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He does not even urge that as a proactive measure, animal advocates should assess the competing options and pick the one that will reduce suffering the most.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

Consequently the smallest germs of the feeling are laid hold of and nourished by the contagion of sympathy and the influences of education; and a complete web of corroborative association is woven round it, by the powerful agency of the external sanctions.
.This mode of conceiving ourselves and human life, as civilisation goes on, is felt to be more and more natural.^ We would be confronted with copies of ourselves in different stages of life and probably develop a more compassionate behaviour.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Every step in political improvement renders it more so, by removing the sources of opposition of interest, and levelling those inequalities of legal privilege between individuals or classes, owing to which there are large portions of mankind whose happiness it is still practicable to disregard.^ Mill would not be troubled by this qualification, for he can still maintain that happiness or what includes happiness is invariably intrinsically more desirable than that which does not.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In one passage Mill speaks as if one portion of a man’s life is happier and more desirable so long as these conditions alone are fulfilled.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The asymmetry between suffering and happiness seems to be an individual perception at first sight.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.In an improving state of the human mind, the influences are constantly on the increase, which tend to generate in each individual a feeling of unity with all the rest; which, if perfect, would make him never think of, or desire, any beneficial condition for himself, in the benefits of which they are not included.^ This status as a "thing" is a logical consequence of the institution of human slavery which treated all slave interests--including Shue's basic right of physical security--as tradable as long as there were perceived benefits for slaveowners.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to make NU compatible with Rawls theory, human rights would have to be guaranteed as side constraints of welfare maximization [Noczick].
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not all principles of the contract apply to them and therefore they do not fulfill the conditions of an impartial contract.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.If we now suppose this feeling of unity to be taught as a religion, and the whole force of education, of institutions, and of opinion, directed, as it once was in the case of religion, to make every person grow up from infancy surrounded on all sides both by the profession and the practice of it, I think that no one, who can realise this conception, will feel any misgiving about the sufficiency of the ultimate sanction for the Happiness morality.^ There is no moral duty to be happy.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges that no one who has ever actually had experience of two occasions in which only pleasure of the same sort was felt is gladder on its own account about one than the other unless it was more pleasant.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

To any ethical student who finds the realisation difficult, I recommend, as a means of facilitating it, the second of M. Comte's two principle works, the Traite de Politique Positive. .I entertain the strongest objections to the system of politics and morals set forth in that treatise; but I think it has superabundantly shown the possibility of giving to the service of humanity, even without the aid of belief in a Providence, both the psychological power and the social efficacy of a religion; making it take hold of human life, and colour all thought, feeling, and action, in a manner of which the greatest ascendancy ever exercised by any religion may be but a type and foretaste; and of which the danger is, not that it should be insufficient but that it should be so excessive as to interfere unduly with human freedom and individuality.^ He contends that it is not even possible to make out the morality of a certain action without taking account of whether it accords with a rule of morality.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if consequentialists can accommodate or explain away common moral intuitions, that might seem only to answer objections without yet giving any positive reason to accept consequentialism.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The killer may be impartial with respect to his victims' occupations, religious beliefs, and so forth, but it would be absurd to regard this as a form of moral impartiality ( Impartiality , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Neither is it necessary to the feeling which constitutes the binding force of the utilitarian morality on those who recognise it, to wait for those social influences which would make its obligation felt by mankind at large.^ If so, then classical utilitarianism implies that it would not be morally wrong for the doctor to perform the transplant and even that it would be morally wrong for the doctor not to perform the transplant.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, a utilitarian criterion of right implies that it would not be morally right to use the principle of utility as a decision procedure in cases where it would not maximize utility to try to calculate utilities before acting.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This Conscription Act had the infamous provision that those who could procure a substitute or Pay $300 in cash would be exempted from the draft.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the comparatively early state of human advancement in which we now live, a person cannot indeed feel that entireness of sympathy with all others, which would make any real discordance in the general direction of their conduct in life impossible; but already a person in whom the social feeling is at all developed, cannot bring himself to think of the rest of his fellow creatures as struggling rivals with him for the means of happiness, whom he must desire to see defeated in their object in order that he may succeed in his.^ All that is implied is that there is a presumption that it would be wrong for him not to be generous.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges instead that men generally have such an intense interest in their enforcement that “if obedience to them were not the rule, and disobedience the exception, every one would see in every one else a probable enemy, against whom he must be perpetually guarding himself.” “It is their observance which alone preserves peace among human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also affirmed as basic the principle that, though the State may be called on to secure happiness-here Bentham and Adam Smith were at odds-the greatest good to the greatest number could be attained by letting each man follow his egotistic instincts which would lead him to find pleasure and to avoid pain.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

.The deeply rooted conception which every individual even now has of himself as a social being, tends to make him feel it one of his natural wants that there should be harmony between his feelings and aims and those of his fellow creatures.^ Among such rules he mentions those “which protect every individual from being harmed by others, either directly or by being hindered in his freedom of pursuing his own good,” which prevent anyone from “wrongfully withholding from” another “something which is his due,” or from depriving him “of some good which he had reasonable ground .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Third, account must be taken of the degree to which his readiness to lie upon one occasion may “enfeeble” his “sensitive feeling on the subject of veracity,” thereby making him less reluctant to lie on other occasions and further damaging his trustworthiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Social welfare turns negative, if there is a single suffering person, even if the degree of suffering is minimal.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.If differences of opinion and of mental culture make it impossible for him to share many of their actual feelings- perhaps make him denounce and defy those feelings- he still needs to be conscious that his real aim and theirs do not conflict; that he is not opposing himself to what they really wish for, namely their own good, but is, on the contrary, promoting it.^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor is it enough to argue that species difference alone is morally relevant; after all, to rely on species alone as morally relevant is to assume a distinction that needs to be proved by those who hold such a view.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If utilitarians want their theory to allow more moral knowledge, they can make a different kind of move by turning from actual consequences to expected or expectable consequences.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

This feeling in most individuals is much inferior in strength to their selfish feelings, and is often wanting altogether. But to those who have it, it possesses all the characters of a natural feeling. .It does not present itself to their minds as a superstition of education, or a law despotically imposed by the power of society, but as an attribute which it would not be well for them to be without.^ Not questioning the belief he is employing, a certain kind of action presents itself to his mind as wrong in itself (227).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may also be objected that on occasion a man is well aware that he desires something for its own sake, but still does not think that it would be desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Prioritarians would say that society 2 is better or more desirable than society 1 despite being lower than society 1 in terms of overall well-being.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

This conviction is the ultimate sanction of the greatest happiness morality. .This it is which makes any mind, of well-developed feelings, work with, and not against, the outward motives to care for others, afforded by what I have called the external sanctions; and when those sanctions are wanting, or act in an opposite direction, constitutes in itself a powerful internal binding force, in proportion to the sensitiveness and thoughtfulness of the character; since few but those whose mind is a moral blank, could bear to lay out their course of life on the plan of paying no regard to others except so far as their own private interest compels.^ He writes, “all rational creatures go out upon the sea of life with their minds made up on the common questions of right and wrong, as well as on many of the far more difficult questions of wise and foolish.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The attribution of at least several of these mental states reveals that it is perfectly sensible to regard certain nonhumans as psychophysical individuals who "fare well or ill during the course of their life, and the life of some animals is, on balance, experientially better than the life of others."
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Singer claims that speciesism is no more morally defensible than racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination that arbitrarily exclude humans from the scope of moral concern.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

Chapter 4: Of what sort of Proof the Principle of Utility is Susceptible

.It has already been remarked, that questions of ultimate ends do not admit of proof, in the ordinary acceptation of the term.^ This conclusion Mill at once qualifies: “Questions of ultimate ends are not amenable to direct proof.” Mill still concedes that such questions are not amenable to what is “commonly understood by proof,” but he contends that they are amenable to a “larger meaning of the word proof.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.To be incapable of proof by reasoning is common to all first principles; to the first premises of our knowledge, as well as to those of our conduct.^ The principle he employs in taking this step is that if there is one sort of thing which is alone desirable for its own sake, then the promotion of it is the test of all human conduct.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason is that hedonism overlooks the value of real friendship, knowledge, freedom, and achievements, all of which are lacking for deluded people on the experience machine.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle of fair equality of opportunity requires not merely that offices and positions are distributed on the basis of merit, but that all have reasonable opportunity to acquire the skills on the basis of which merit is assessed.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the former, being matters of fact, may be the subject of a direct appeal to the faculties which judge of fact- namely, our senses, and our internal consciousness.^ Although the fact of something’s being desired cannot serve as evidence for the correctness of all judgments of what is desirable, it may still be the case that there are some such judgments for which it alone can serve as evidence.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A second sort of occasion on which Mill speaks of appeal to the principle of utility being called for is one in which someone is subject to conflicting rules.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless (since a person may also die in an accident without being conscious of such a loss) the complete devaluation of happiness is a conceptual weakness.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

Can an appeal be made to the same faculties on questions of practical ends? Or by what other faculty is cognisance taken of them?
.Questions about ends are, in other words, questions what things are desirable.^ Mill also asserts, “Questions about ends are .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Someone’s gladness at what he experienced counts as evidence only if he was glad at it on its own account, only, that is, if his gladness was unaffected by any beliefs he has about its relation to other things.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill also writes, “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The utilitarian doctrine is, that happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things being only desirable as means to that end.^ Mill also writes, “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief support Mill offers for this principle is that “happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as an end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.What ought to be required of this doctrine- what conditions is it requisite that the doctrine should fulfil- to make good its claim to be believed?^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A related position rests on the claim that what is good is desire satisfaction or the fulfillment of preferences; and what is bad is the frustration of desires or preferences.
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It implies that whenever anyone judges that a certain action should be done, this is a condition that must be fulfilled for the judgment to be true.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible, is that people actually see it.^ The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible, is that people actually see it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only that which is capable of being desired for its own sake ought to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only that which is desired for its own sake is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only proof that a sound is audible, is that people hear it: and so of the other sources of our experience.^ The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible, is that people actually see it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal Consequentialism = moral rightness depends on the consequences for all people or sentient beings (as opposed to only the individual agent, present people, or any other limited group).
  • Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable, is that people do actually desire it.^ The “sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable, is that people do actually desire it” (234).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, what he affirms is that the sole evidence that anything is desirable is that it is desired.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Section II examines his dictum that the sole evidence that anything is desirable is that people desire it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the end which the utilitarian doctrine proposes to itself were not, in theory and in practice, acknowledged to be an end, nothing could ever convince any person that it was so.^ An unhappy person has nothing to lose and is therefore better off at the end of life.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness.^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this point he writes, “No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This, however, being a fact, we have not only all the proof which the case admits of, but all which it is possible to require, that happiness is a good: that each person's happiness is a good to that person, and the general happiness, therefore, a good to the aggregate of all persons.^ Mill, however, mentions saving a person’s life as the only consequence to be reckoned with in the example he gives of breaking a rule of precedence.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill urges that the happiness of all is more effectively promoted by each pursuing his own happiness, subject to rules required by the good of others, than by each making the good of others his object.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill, however, does not here infer that the general happiness is desired.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Happiness has made out its title as one of the ends of conduct, and consequently one of the criteria of morality.^ If there is a general answer as to what ought to be done, the answers to moral questions can be made out.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet, no sooner was Napoleon out of the way than the consequences of the war increasingly made themselves felt on the British social system.
  • Chapter Four, Utilitarianism, Laissez Faire and Individualism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we assume that the moral weight of suffering people is higher than the one of happy people then it becomes difficult to compensate severe cases of suffering.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

But it has not, by this alone, proved itself to be the sole criterion. .To do that, it would seem, by the same rule, necessary to show, not only that people desire happiness, but that they never desire anything else.^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He here argues that the enforcement of such rules is desirable because it is necessary to maintaining relationships among men which in turn are desirable because they are a necessary condition of men achieving to any degree anything desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now it is palpable that they do desire things which, in common language, are decidedly distinguished from happiness.^ Mill acknowledges that men desire for their own sake “things which, in common language, are decidedly distinguished from happiness” (235).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the second step Mill acknowledges that men actually “do desire things which, in common language, are decidedly distinguished from happiness” (235).
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They desire, for example, virtue, and the absence of vice, no less really than pleasure and the absence of pain.^ They contain some pains and no pleasures.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain some pleasures and no pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The desire of virtue is not as universal, but it is as authentic a fact, as the desire of happiness.^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a man desires to be virtuous because it will enhance his happiness, he falls short of being genuinely virtuous just as when he desires to be virtuous as a means to happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this passage he certainly claims that the fact that each desires his own happiness is evidence that the happiness of each is desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.And hence the opponents of the utilitarian standard deem that they have a right to infer that there are other ends of human action besides happiness, and that happiness is not the standard of approbation and disapprobation.^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In states where human rights are respected we can measure the subjective perception of suffering by means of surveys (see happiness economics ).
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the happiness of a country is best realized by slavery, it is claimed that any appeal to the injustice of slavery or to men’s right to freedom are considerations of which utilitarianism can take no account.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But does the utilitarian doctrine deny that people desire virtue, or maintain that virtue is not a thing to be desired?^ He does not maintain that whatever is desired ought to be desired; he speaks rather of the only evidence that something is desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While it implies that an inanimate thing, a human being, or justice or liberty or peace or life is not desirable for its own sake, it does not imply that none of these can be desirable for what will come of it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not denied that by doing what is right a man very often does what will in fact promote the general happiness, but it is urged that utilitarianism is guilty of gross oversimplification, disregarding the diversity of considerations determining what is the right thing to do.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The very reverse. .It maintains not only that virtue is to be desired, but that it is to be desired disinterestedly, for itself.^ He does not maintain that whatever is desired ought to be desired; he speaks rather of the only evidence that something is desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill maintains that only happiness or what includes happiness is intrinsically desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He urges that the only evidence that is offered is that virtue, money, power, and fame are desired for their own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever may be the opinion of utilitarian moralists as to the original conditions by which virtue is made virtue; however they may believe (as they do) that actions and dispositions are only virtuous because they promote another end than virtue; yet this being granted, and it having been decided, from considerations of this description, what is virtuous, they not only place virtue at the very head of the things which are good as means to the ultimate end, but they also recognise as a psychological fact the possibility of its being, to the individual, a good in itself, without looking to any end beyond it; and hold, that the mind is not in a right state, not in a state conformable to Utility, not in the state most conducive to the general happiness, unless it does love virtue in this manner- as a thing desirable in itself, even although, in the individual instance, it should not produce those other desirable consequences which it tends to produce, and on account of which it is held to be virtue.^ Individuals are rational if they act optimally in pursuit of their goals, whatever those goals may be .
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [FN21] Garner has noted that Singer does "talk as if the killing of animals for food and their use for experimental purposes should be morally condemned per se because the infliction of pain means that they lead miserable lives" and that "[s]uch a view could be taken to mean that he thinks they have a right to have pain inflicted on them[,] [but] Singer is clear .
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, when deluded and tempted by Maya the soul becomes the individual being which identifies itself with the finite body-frame and worldly objects.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

This opinion is not, in the smallest degree, a departure from the Happiness principle. .The ingredients of happiness are very various, and each of them is desirable in itself, and not merely when considered as swelling an aggregate.^ He then removes his ground for arguing that the “ingredients of happiness are very various, and each of them is desirable in itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The principle of utility does not mean that any given pleasure, as music, for instance, or any given exemption from pain, as for example health, is to be looked upon as means to a collective something termed happiness, and to be desired on that account.^ Mill also does not claim that whatever is desired as a means to happiness is desired as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because something is desired it does not follow that it is desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill does not state that the only evidence that something is desirable as a means is that it is desired.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are desired and desirable in and for themselves; besides being means, they are a part of the end.^ Finally, Raphael ascribes to Mill the view that “the ultimate end or criterion of human action is what human beings desire.” 18 Accordingly, Raphael maintains that what Mill means by his dictum that “the sole evidence .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a man desires to be virtuous because it will enhance his happiness, he falls short of being genuinely virtuous just as when he desires to be virtuous as a means to happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Virtue, according to the utilitarian doctrine, is not naturally and originally part of the end, but it is capable of becoming so; and in those who love it disinterestedly it has become so, and is desired and cherished, not as a means to happiness, but as a part of their happiness.^ Mill also does not claim that whatever is desired as a means to happiness is desired as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill is similarly concerned to determine whether there is evidence that anything other than happiness is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The solution Mill adopts is that when a man desires virtue for its own sake, he desires it only as a part of happiness, that is, in the belief that it will enhance his happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.To illustrate this farther, we may remember that virtue is not the only thing, originally a means, and which if it were not a means to anything else, would be and remain indifferent, but which by association with what it is a means to, comes to be desired for itself, and that too with the utmost intensity.^ And even if he is successful in showing that each comes to be desired only as a part of happiness, this in no way establishes that each is desirable as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

What, for example, shall we say of the love of money? .There is nothing originally more desirable about money than about any heap of glittering pebbles.^ This premise affords support only in conjunction with the added premise, that something should be done if and only if it would have more desirable consequences than any alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill argues, however, that pleasures and pains differ in a further respect which is relevant—some are more desirable than others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its worth is solely that of the things which it will buy; the desires for other things than itself, which it is a means of gratifying.^ Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet the love of money is not only one of the strongest moving forces of human life, but money is, in many cases, desired in and for itself; the desire to possess it is often stronger than the desire to use it, and goes on increasing when all the desires which point to ends beyond it, to be compassed by it, are falling off.^ But there are severely retarded humans who cannot speak or reason (or, at least, can do so no better than many nonhumans), and most of us would be appalled if those humans were used in experiments, or for food or clothing.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ But he does not--and cannot--oppose all animal experimentation because if a particular animal use would, for example, lead directly to a cure for a disease that affected many humans, Singer would be committed to approving that animal use.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Once we recognize that animals are not "things," we can no longer justify the use of animals in experiments any more than we could justify the use of humans.
  • Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.It may, then, be said truly, that money is desired not for the sake of an end, but as part of the end.^ What is desirable for its own sake he speaks of as desirable as an end.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The solution Mill adopts is that when a man desires virtue for its own sake, he desires it only as a part of happiness, that is, in the belief that it will enhance his happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of virtue, pleasure, money, power, and fame, “once desired as an instrument for the attainment of happiness, has come to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.From being a means to happiness, it has come to be itself a principal ingredient of the individual's conception of happiness.^ Thus, when deluded and tempted by Maya the soul becomes the individual being which identifies itself with the finite body-frame and worldly objects.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that a certain individual desires money because “it has come to be itself a principal ingredient of the individual’s conception of happiness” or because he “thinks he would be made happy by its mere possession” does not show that his happiness would in fact be enhanced thereby.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The same may be said of the majority of the great objects of human life- power, for example, or fame; except that to each of these there is a certain amount of immediate pleasure annexed, which has at least the semblance of being naturally inherent in them; a thing which cannot be said of money.^ He cites virtue, money, power, fame.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From this passage it might seem that Mill regards the claim that there is an obligation to do a certain thing as equivalent to the claim that it would be wrong not to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If such an assertion carried only these two implications, it would not be inconsistent for someone to hold that it would be wrong for him to do a certain thing but deny that he ought not to do it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Still, however, the strongest natural attraction, both of power and of fame, is the immense aid they give to the attainment of our other wishes; and it is the strong association thus generated between them and all our objects of desire, which gives to the direct desire of them the intensity it often assumes, so as in some characters to surpass in strength all other desires.^ Each of virtue, pleasure, money, power, and fame, “once desired as an instrument for the attainment of happiness, has come to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pleasure over pain, of pain over pleasure, or an excess of neither, the pleasures and pains they contain are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are not more desirable than the pains are undesirable and such that the pains on the whole are not more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In these cases the means have become a part of the end, and a more important part of it than any of the things which they are means to.^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Prioritarianism assigns more moral weight to suffering people than to happy people so that compensation becomes accordingly difficult.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.What was once desired as an instrument for the attainment of happiness, has come to be desired for its own sake.^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only that which is desired for its own sake ought to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of virtue, pleasure, money, power, and fame, “once desired as an instrument for the attainment of happiness, has come to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In being desired for its own sake it is, however, desired as part of happiness.^ Only that which is capable of being desired for its own sake ought to be desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only happiness is desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only that which is desired for its own sake is capable of being desired for its own sake.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The person is made, or thinks he would be made, happy by its mere possession; and is made unhappy by failure to obtain it.^ The person is made, or thinks he would be made, happy by its mere possession.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A would cause an excess of happiness but B would cause an excess of unhappiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A would cause an excess of unhappiness but B would cause an excess of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The desire of it is not a different thing from the desire of happiness, any more than the love of music, or the desire of health.^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He argues that it is because happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake that the test of conduct generally is its promotion of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This premise affords support only in conjunction with the added premise, that something should be done if and only if it would have more desirable consequences than any alternative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

They are included in happiness. .They are some of the elements of which the desire of happiness is made up.^ Even if that which is desired is in fact a part of “an existence made up of few and transitory pains, many and various pleasures,” this does not show that it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is indeed logically possible that the greater the preponderance of intrinsically desirable experiences comprising a man’s life the more it would also be made up of component experiences which enhanced its desirability on the whole.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Happiness is not an abstract idea, but a concrete whole; and these are some of its parts.^ But he endeavours to show that “Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, he seeks to show that when any of these is desired for its own sake, it is desired only as a part of happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

And the utilitarian standard sanctions and approves their being so. .Life would be a poor thing, very ill provided with sources of happiness, if there were not this provision of nature, by which things originally indifferent, but conducive to, or otherwise associated with, the satisfaction of our primitive desires, become in themselves sources of pleasure more valuable than the primitive pleasures, both in permanency, in the space of human existence that they are capable of covering, and even in intensity.^ They contain both pleasures and pains; neither the pleasures nor pains are of sorts such that the pleasures on the whole are more desirable than the pains are undesirable or such that the pains on the whole are more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable; but there is an excess of pain over pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pain over pleasure, the pains are on the whole more undesirable than the pleasures are desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain both pleasures and pains, and regardless of whether there is an excess of pleasure over pain, the pleasures are on the whole more desirable than the pains are undesirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Virtue, according to the utilitarian conception, is a good of this description.^ Utility corresponds to the net value of preference-satisfactions and preference-frustrations and (in contrast to classical utilitarianism) the concept of preference is not restricted to goods and services.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Utility corresponds to the net value of preference-satisfactions and preference-frustrations but (in contrast to classical utilitarianism) the concept of preference is not restricted to goods and services.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was no original desire of it, or motive to it, save its conduciveness to pleasure, and especially to protection from pain.^ They contain no pleasures or pains.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, while he holds that there is no happiness without pleasure, he does not think that when someone desires happiness for its own sake, what he desires is to be described as a pleasure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill argues, however, that pleasures and pains differ in a further respect which is relevant—some are more desirable than others.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.But through the association thus formed, it may be felt a good in itself, and desired as such with as great intensity as any other good; and with this difference between it and the love of money, of power, or of fame, that all of these may, and often do, render the individual noxious to the other members of the society to which he belongs, whereas there is nothing which makes him so much a blessing to them as the cultivation of the disinterested love of virtue.^ He cites virtue, money, power, fame.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among such rules he mentions those “which protect every individual from being harmed by others, either directly or by being hindered in his freedom of pursuing his own good,” which prevent anyone from “wrongfully withholding from” another “something which is his due,” or from depriving him “of some good which he had reasonable ground .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to illustrate decision under uncertainty we take the same example as above but we assume that there is a choice between society 1 and 2.
  • Negative Utilitarianism and Justice 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.socrethics.com [Source type: Original source]

.And consequently, the utilitarian standard, while it tolerates and approves those other acquired desires, up to the point beyond which they would be more injurious to the general happiness than promotive of it, enjoins and requires the cultivation of the love of virtue up to the greatest strength possible, as being above all things important to the general happiness.^ By the principle of utility, something ought to be done if and only if its consequences would be intrinsically more desirable than those of any alternative; and they would be intrinsically more desirable if and only if it would cause more happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It implies that if A are the consequences of one action, X, and B the consequences of another action, Y, A would be more desirable for their own sake than B if and only if they would contain more happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He maintains that the consequences of an action would be more desirable only if it would cause more happiness.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It results from the preceding considerations, that there is in reality nothing desired except happiness.^ If the happiness of a country is best realized by slavery, it is claimed that any appeal to the injustice of slavery or to men’s right to freedom are considerations of which utilitarianism can take no account.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing in these objections put by Moore which Mill does not agree with or which is incompatible with the evidence he adduces for what is desirable.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Mill's Utilitarianism - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X - Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society 16 January 2010 10:010 UTC<