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Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1
Symbols VIPR1; II; FLJ41949; HVR1; PACAP-R-2; RDC1; VAPC1; VIPR; VIRG; VPAC1
External IDs OMIM192321 MGI109272 HomoloGene3399 IUPHAR: VPAC1 GeneCards: VIPR1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VIPR1 205019 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7433 22354
Ensembl ENSG00000114812 ENSMUSG00000032528
UniProt P32241 P97751
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004624 NM_011703
RefSeq (protein) NP_004615 NP_035833
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
42.52 - 42.55 Mb
Chr 9:
121.49 - 121.52 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VPAC1), is a human protein, encoded by the VIPR1 gene in humans [1]. VPAC1 is expressed in the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala), lung, prostate, peripheral blood leukocytes, liver, small intestine, heart, spleen, placenta, kidney, thymus and testis [2] [3] [4].

This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.[1]


See also


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: VIPR1 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1".  
  2. ^ Ishihara T, Shigemoto R, Mori K, Takahashi K, Nagata S. (1992). "Functional expression and tissue distribution of a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.". Neuron 8: 811–819. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(92)90101-I. PMID 1314625.  
  3. ^ Usdin TB, Bonner TI, Mezey E. (1994). "Two receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide with similar specificity and complementary distributions.". Endocrinology 135: 2662–2680. doi:10.1210/en.135.6.2662. PMID 7988457.  
  4. ^ Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ. (1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene.". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 2939–2943. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.7.2939. PMID 7708752.  

External links

Further reading

  • "[Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 222 (4): 997–1000. 1975. PMID 807467.  
  • Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ (1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (7): 2939–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.7.2939. PMID 7708752.  
  • Couvineau A, Gaudin P, Maoret JJ, et al. (1995). "Highly conserved aspartate 68, tryptophane 73 and glycine 109 in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the human VIP receptor are essential for its ability to bind VIP.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 206 (1): 246–52. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1034. PMID 7818527.  
  • Gagnon AW, Aiyar N, Elshourbagy NA (1994). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a human liver vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor.". Cell. Signal. 6 (3): 321–33. doi:10.1016/0898-6568(94)90037-X. PMID 7917790.  
  • Sreedharan SP, Patel DR, Xia M, et al. (1994). "Human vasoactive intestinal peptide1 receptors expressed by stable transfectants couple to two distinct signaling pathways.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 203 (1): 141–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2160. PMID 8074647.  
  • Couvineau A, Rouyer-Fessard C, Darmoul D, et al. (1994). "Human intestinal VIP receptor: cloning and functional expression of two cDNA encoding proteins with different N-terminal domains.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 200 (2): 769–76. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1517. PMID 8179610.  
  • Moody TW, Zia F, Draoui M, et al. (1993). "A vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (10): 4345–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.10.4345. PMID 8389448.  
  • Sreedharan SP, Patel DR, Huang JX, Goetzl EJ (1993). "Cloning and functional expression of a human neuroendocrine vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 193 (2): 546–53. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1658. PMID 8390245.  
  • Couvineau A, Fabre C, Gaudin P, et al. (1996). "Mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in the human vasoactive intestinal peptide 1 receptor. Evidence that asparagine 58 or 69 is crucial for correct delivery of the receptor to plasma membrane.". Biochemistry 35 (6): 1745–52. doi:10.1021/bi952022h. PMID 8639654.  
  • Pozo D, Guerrero JM, Segura JJ, Calvo JR (1997). "Thymosin alpha 1 interacts with the VIP receptor-effector system in rat and mouse immunocompetent cells.". Immunopharmacology 34 (2-3): 113–23. doi:10.1016/0162-3109(96)00131-2. PMID 8886855.  
  • Couvineau A, Maoret JJ, Rouyer-Fessard C, et al. (1999). "Cloning and functional characterization of the human VIP1/PACAP receptor promoter.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 865: 59–63. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb11163.x. PMID 9927997.  
  • Knudsen SM, Tams JW, Wulff BS, Fahrenkrug J (1999). "Importance of conserved cysteines in the extracellular loops of human PACAP/VIP1 receptor for ligand binding and stimulation of cAMP production.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 865: 259–65. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb11186.x. PMID 9928020.  
  • Marie J, Wakkach A, Coudray A, et al. (1999). "Functional expression of receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the human thymus and thymomas from myasthenia gravis patients.". J. Immunol. 162 (4): 2103–12. PMID 9973484.  
  • Mimuro H, Suzuki T, Suetsugu S, et al. (2000). "Profilin is required for sustaining efficient intra- and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (37): 28893–901. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003882200. PMID 10867004.  
  • Nicole P, Maoret JJ, Couvineau A, et al. (2000). "Tryptophan 67 in the human VPAC(1) receptor: crucial role for VIP binding.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276 (2): 654–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3375. PMID 11027527.  
  • Bajo AM, Juarranz MG, Valenzuela P, et al. (2001). "Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in human uterus.". Peptides 21 (9): 1383–8. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(00)00282-5. PMID 11072126.  
  • Lara-Marquez M, O'Dorisio M, O'Dorisio T, et al. (2001). "Selective gene expression and activation-dependent regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 and type 2 in human T cells.". J. Immunol. 166 (4): 2522–30. PMID 11160313.  
  • Martin Shreeve S (2002). "Identification of G-proteins coupling to the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VPAC(1) using immunoaffinity chromatography: evidence for precoupling.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 290 (4): 1300–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6342. PMID 11812005.  
  • Dorsam G, Goetzl EJ (2002). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VPAC-1) is a novel gene target of the hemolymphopoietic transcription factor Ikaros.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (16): 13488–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107922200. PMID 11812772.  
  • Branch DR, Valenta LJ, Yousefi S, et al. (2002). "VPAC1 is a cellular neuroendocrine receptor expressed on T cells that actively facilitates productive HIV-1 infection.". AIDS 16 (3): 309–19. doi:10.1097/00002030-200202150-00001. PMID 11834941.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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