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Vaishnavism (वैष्णव धर्म) is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or his associated avatars, principally as Rama and Krishna, as the original and supreme God.[1] This worship in different perspectives or historical traditions addresses God under the names of Narayana, Krishna, Vāsudeva or more often "Vishnu", and their associated avatars.[2][3] Its beliefs and practices, especially the concepts of Bhakti and Bhakti Yoga, are based largely on the Upanishads, and associated with the Vedas and Puranic texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, and the Padma, Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas.[4][5][6][7]

The followers of Vaishnavism are referred to as Vaishnava(s) or Vaishnavites. A large percentage of Hindus are Vaishnavas,[8] with the vast majority living in India. Awareness, recognition, and growth of the belief has significantly increased outside of India in recent years. The Gaudiya Vaishnava branch[9] of the tradition has significantly increased the awareness of Vaishnavism internationally, since the mid-1900s, largely through the activities and geographical expansion of the Hare Krishna movement, primarily through ISKCON and more recently, through several other Vaishnava organizations conducting preaching activities in the West.[10]

Contents

Etymology

The term Vaishnavism entered the English language in the 19th century. It was formed by attaching the suffix -ism to Sanskrit Vaishnava (IAST: vaiṣṇava), which is the vriddhi form of Vishnu meaning "relating, belonging, or sacred to Vishnu" or "a worshipper or follower of Vishnu".[11]

Principal historic branches

Bhagavatism, early Ramaism and Krishnaism, merged in historical Vishnuism,[12] a tradition of Historical Vedic religion, distinguished from other traditions by its primary worship of Vishnu.[1] Vaishnavism, is historically the first structured Vaishnava religion as "Vishnuism, in a word, is the only cultivated native sectarian native religion of India."[13] Although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names by which the god of Vaishnavism is known. The other names include Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna; each the name of a divine figure with attributed supremacy, which each associated tradition of Vaishnavism believes to be distinct.[2] For example, in the Krishnaism branch of Vaishnavism,[14] such as the Gaudiya Vaishnava, Nimbaraka and Vallabhacharya traditions, devotees worship Krishna as the supreme form of God, Svayam Bhagavan, in contrast to the belief of the devotees of the Vishnu tradition.[15]

Principal beliefs

Supreme God

Vishnu, as commonly depicted in his four-armed form

The principal belief of Vishnu-centered sects is the identification of Vishnu or Narayana as the one supreme God. This belief contrasts with the Krishna-centered traditions, such as Vallabha Sampradaya and Gaudiya Vaishnavas, in which Krishna is considered to be the supreme god and the source of all avataras.[16] The belief in the supremacy of Vishnu is based upon the many avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu listed in the Puranic texts, which differs from other Hindu deities such as Ganesh, Surya or Durga. The latter are instead classified as demi-gods or devas. Vaishnavites consider Shiva, one of the Hindu Trimurti (Trinity) as subservient to Vishnu,[16] and a Vaishnava himself.[17] Swaminarayan, founder of the Swaminarayan faith, differs with this view and holds that Vishnu and Shiva are different aspects of the same God.[18] Notably, the Swaminarayan view is a minority view among Vaishnavites.

A few Vaishnava schools also identify the God of the Abrahamic religions with Vishnu; this is problematic in instances where Yhwh/Allah is viewed as a single eternal being, outside, beyond and separate from his creation. Vishnu is viewed through the panentheistic lens of Hinduism where all existence is a part of God, and God includes all existence.[19] Another distinguishing feature of the Vaishnava teachings, is that God (Vishnu and/or Krishna) "is a real person and His variegated creation is also real".[20] This diffusion of God in creation is also evident in many Abrahamic traditions.

Worship

Vaishnava theology includes the central beliefs of Hinduism such as pantheism, reincarnation, samsara, karma, and the various Yoga systems, but with a particular emphasis on devotion (bhakti) to Vishnu through the process of Bhakti yoga, often including singing Vishnu's name's (bhajan), meditating upon his form (dharana) and performing deity worship (puja). The practices of deity worship are primarily based on texts such as Pañcaratra and various Samhitas.[21]

Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara

Within their worship Vaishnava devotees consider that Vishnu is within them, as the Antaryami or the God within and as the foundation of their being; which is a part of the definition of the name Narayana. Unlike other schools of Hinduism whose goal is liberation (moksha), or union with the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate goal of Vaishnava practice is an eternal life of bliss (ananda) in service to Vishnu, or one of his many avatars, in the spiritual realm of 'Vaikuntha', which lies beyond the temporary world of illusion (maya). The three features of the Supreme as described in the Bhagavata Purana--Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan--are viewed as the Universal Vishnu, Vishnu within the heart, and Vishnu the personality respectively.[22]

Initiation

Vaishnavas commonly follow a process of initiation (diksha), given by a guru, under whom they are trained to understand Vaishnava practices. At the time of initiation, the disciple is traditionally given a specific mantra, which the disciple will repeat, either out loud or within the mind, as an act of worship to Vishnu or one of his avatars. The practice of repetitive prayer is known as japa. The system of receiving initiation and training from a spiritual master is based on injunctions throughout the scriptures held as sacred within the Vaishnava traditions:

"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized souls can impart knowledge unto you because they have seen the truth."(Bhagavad Gita)[23]
"One who is initiated into the Vaishnava mantra and who is devoted to worshiping Lord Vishnu is a Vaishnava. One who is devoid of these practices is not a Vaishnava."(Padma Purana) [24]

The scriptures specific to the Gaudiya Vaishnava group also state that one who performs an act of worship as simple as chanting the name of Vishnu or Krishna can be considered a Vaishnava by practice:

"Who chants the holy name of Krishna just once may be considered a Vaishnava. Such a person is worshipable and is the topmost human being."(Chaitanya Charitamrita) [25]

Attitude toward scriptures

Vaishnava traditions refer to the writings of previous acharyas in their respective lineage or sampradya (see below) as authoritative interpretations of scripture.[16] While many schools like Smartism and Advaitism encourage interpretation of scriptures philosophically and metaphorically and not too literally, Vaishnavism stresses the literal meaning (mukhya vitti) as primary and indirect meaning (gauṇa vṛitti) as secondary: sākṣhād upadesas tu shrutih - "The instructions of the shruti-shāstra should be accepted literally, without fanciful or allegorical interpretations."[16][26]

Vaishnava sampradayas

Vaishnavite Brahmin students at a theological seminary in Tanjore. Source:The National Geographic Magazine, Nov 1909

Within Vaishnavism there are four main disciplic lineages (sampradayas),[27] each exemplified by a specific Vedic personality. The four sampradayas follow subtly different philosophical systems regarding the relationship between the soul (jiva) and God (Vishnu or Krishna), although the majority of other core beliefs are identical.[4][10][16][28]

Lakshmi-sampradaya
Philosophy: Vishishtadvaita ("qualified dualism"), espoused by Ramanujacharya
See Sri Vaishnavism.
Brahma sampradaya
Philosophies: Dvaita ("dualism"), espoused by Madhvacharya, and Achintya Bheda Abheda (literally "inconceivable difference and non-difference"), espoused by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see Gaudiya Vaishnavism).
Rudra sampradaya
Philosophy: Shuddhadvaita ("pure nondualism"), espoused by Vishnuswami and Vallabhacharya.
Kumara-sampradaya
Philosophy: Dvaitadvaita ("duality in unity"), espoused by Nimbarka.[29]

Other Branches and sects

Tilak styles

A Sri Vaishnava tilak

Vaishnavas mark their foreheads with tilaka, either as a daily ritual, or on special occasions. The different Vaishnava sampradayas each have their own distinctive style of tilak, which depicts the siddhanta of their particular lineage. The general tilak pattern is of two or more connected vertical lines on and another line on the nose resembling the letter Y, which usually represents the foot of Vishnu and the lotus flower.[30]

History

The worship of Vishnu was already well developed in the period of the Itihasas.[31] Hopkins says "Vishnuism, in a word, is the only cultivated native sectarian native religion of India."[13] Vaishnavism is expounded in a part of the Mahabharata known as the Bhagavad Gita, which contains a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna. Krishna is one of the avatars of Vishnu. In this dialogue, Krishna plays the role of Arjuna's charioteer.

Many of the ancient kings, beginning with Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) were known as Parama Bhagavatas, or Bhagavata Vaishnavas.[32]

Vaishnavism flourished in predominantly Shaivite South India during the seventh to tenth centuries CE, and is still commonplace, especially in Tamil Nadu, as a result of the twelve Alvars, saints who spread the sect to the common people with their devotional hymns. The temples which the Alvars visited or founded are now known as Divya Desams. Their poems in praise of Vishnu and Krishna in Tamil language are collectively known as Naalayira (Divya Prabandha).[33][34]

In later years Vaishnava practices increased in popularity due to the influence of sages like Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, Manavala Mamunigal, Vedanta Desika, Surdas, Tulsidas, Tyagaraja, and many others.[35][36][37][38]

In his The Religions of India, Edward Washburn Hopkins presents an accepted distinction as to the assumption that Vishnuism is associated with Vedic brahmanism, and was part of brahmanism. Krishnaism was adopted much later, and it is for this reason, amongst others, that despite its modern iniquities Shiva has appealed more to the brahmans than Krishna. It's only later that Vishnuism merged with Krishnaism.[39]

Large Vaishnava communities now exist throughout India, and particularly in Western Indian states, such as western Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Important sites of pilgrimage for Vaishnavs include: Guruvayur Temple, Sri Rangam, Vrindavan, Mathura, Ayodhya, Tirupati, Puri, Mayapur, Nathdwara and Dwarka.[40]

Krishna murti(left) with Radha[41]
Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford, England

Since the 1900s Vaishnavism has spread from within India and is now practiced in many places around the globe, including America, Europe, Africa, Russia and South America.[42] This is largely due to the growth of the ISKCON movement, founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in 1966.[43][44][45]

Puranic Epics

Two great Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, are an important part of Vaishnava philosophy, theology, and culture.

The Ramayana describes the story of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, and is taken as a history of the 'ideal king', based on the principles of dharma, morality and ethics. Rama's wife Sita, his brother Lakshman and his devotee/follower Hanuman all play key roles within the Vaishnava tradition as examples of Vaishnava etiquette and behaviour. Ravana, the evil king and villain of the epic, plays the opposite role of how not to behave.

The Mahabharata is centered around Krishna, another avatar of Vishnu, and details the story of a dynastic war between two families of cousins, with Krishna and the Pandavas, five brothers, playing pivotal roles in the drama. The philosophical highlight of the work is the chapter covering a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna prior to the final battle, individually known as the Bhagavad Gita. The Bhagavad Gita, though influential in most philosophies of Hinduism, is of particular importance to Vaishnavas because it is believed to be an accurate record of the very words spoken by Krishna himself. Depending on the Sampradaya or Vaishnava group one follows, Krishna is regarded either as a full avatar of Vishnu, non-different from him, or as the source of all avatars including Vishnu himself,[46] a notion held only within the Gaudiya and Nimbarka branches of Vaishnavism.

Both works are often reenacted in part as dramas by followers of Vaishnavism, especially on festival days concerning each of the specific avatars. The Bhagavad Gita is widely studied as a theological textbook and is rendered in numerous English translations and world languages.

Western Academic study

Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study and debate for many devotees, philosophers and scholars within India for centuries. In recent decades this study has also been pursued in a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College. The Vaishnava scholars instrumental in this western discourse include Tamala Krishna Goswami, Hridayananda dasa Goswami, Graham Schweig, Kenneth R. Valpey, Guy Beck and Steven J. Rosen among others.

In 1992 Steven Rosen founded The Journal of Vaishnava Studies[47] as an academic journal of Hindu studies, and of Vaishnava, and Gaudiya Vaishnava studies in particular.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Goswami, B.K. (1965). The Bhakti Cult in Ancient India. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office.  
  2. ^ a b Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.   p. 4
  3. ^ Page 1–Ramanuja and Sri Vaisnavism "In general, the Vaisnava Agamas describe Visnu is the Supreme Being and the foundation of all existence."
  4. ^ a b Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions 26 (3): 333–335. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198702)26%3A3%3C333%3APOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  5. ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub.  
  6. ^ Heart of Hinduism - Vaishnavism
  7. ^ Explanation of different scriptural texts within Hinduism
  8. ^ Major Branches - Hinduism from adherents.com
  9. ^ Dimock Jr, E.C. (1963). "Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal". History of Religions 3 (1): 106–127. doi:10.1086/462474. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(196322)3%3A1%3C106%3ADAPATV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  10. ^ a b Contemporary Theological Trends in the Hare Krishna Movement "Until the last fifteen years or so, there had been a lack of scholarship in the West on Vaishnavism, and this was seen by Hare Krishna devotees as a situation which must be changed."
  11. ^ Vaishnavism in Simpson, John (Ed); Weiner, Edmund (Ed.) (1989). Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198611862.  
  12. ^ Gonda, J. (1993). Aspects of Early Visnuism. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. p. 163. http://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&id=b8urRsuUJ9oC&dq=Visnuism&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=MvlIR28h_H&sig=1FM3YEPh1-uchS98VLbWxOrrip8&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA163,M1.  
  13. ^ a b Hopkins,The Religions of India, p.690
  14. ^ Review: by Kenneth Scott Latourette India and Christendom: The Historical Connections between Their Religions. by Richard Garbe; Lydia Gillingham Robinson Pacific Affairs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Autumn, 1961), pp. 317-318.
  15. ^ Page 1–Ramanuja and Sri Vaisnavism "In general, the Vaisnava Agamas describe Visnu is the Supreme Being and the foundation of all existence."
  16. ^ a b c d e Gupta, Ravi M.; Edited by Gavin Flood, University of Stirling (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami: When knowledge meets devotion. Routledge. ISBN 0415405483.  
  17. ^ Brahma-Samhita 5.45 "The supremacy of Sambhu [Shiva] is subservient to that of Govinda [Vishnu]; hence they are not really different from each other... He is the lord of jiva but yet partakes of the nature of a separated portion of Govinda."
  18. ^ According to this site, http://www.kakaji.org/shikshapatri_verses.asp?catid=viewAll], verses 47, 84, of their scripture, Shikshapatri, [1] states, "And the oneness of Narayana and Shiva should be understood, as the Vedas have described both to be brahmaroopa, or form of Brahman, i.e., Saguna Brahman, indicating that Vishnu and Shiva are different forms of the one and same God.
  19. ^ krishna.com "The names can be generic terms, such as “God” or “the Absolute Truth.” They can be in Sanskrit, such as Govinda, Gopala, or Shyamasundara.
  20. ^ Richard Thompson, Ph. D. (December 1994). Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism. http://www.iskcon.com/icj/1_2/12thompson.html. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  21. ^ Tantric Literature And Gaudiya Vaishnavism
  22. ^ Bhag-P 1.2.11 "Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan."
  23. ^ Bhag Gita 4:34
  24. ^ Caitanya Caritamrta: Madhya-lila, 15.106, 16.72, 16.74
  25. ^ Chaitanya Charitamrita: Madhya-lila, 15.106
  26. ^ Jiva Goswami, Kṛiṣhna Sandarbha 29.26-27
  27. ^ The Sampradaya of Sri Caitanya, by Steven Rosen and William Deadwyler III "the word sampradaya literally means 'a community'. A text from the Padma Purana quoted widely in Vaisnava writings speaks directly about these authorised communities. It says that 'Those mantras which are not received within a sampradaya are fruitless; they have no potency'. The text then specifically names the sampradayas. 'In the Kali-yuga, there will be four sampradayas.' ― we are talking about Vaisnava sampradayas ― 'They are the Brahma Sampradaya, originating with Brahma; Sri Sampradaya, starting with Laksmi; Rudra Sampradaya, starting with Siva; there's another one starting from Sanaka and the others, the Kumaras'. Those are the four recognised Vaisnava sampradayas."
  28. ^ Guy L. Beck (2005). "Krishna as Loving Husband of God". Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=0SJ73GHSCF8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA65&dq=Four+sampradayas+Vaisnava&ots=i1jmhQSG6y&sig=6cvXm0mutdpRStXY46qIjiEH3Sw. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  29. ^ Klostermaier, K.K. (1998). A concise encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oneworld.  Vaisnavism and the founders of the four Vaishnava sampradayas are presented in separate entries. The Encyclopedia gives explanations about Gaudiya Vaisnavism, Caitanya Mahaprabhu, bhakti and bhakti-marga.
  30. ^ britannica.com - Vaishnavism
  31. ^ britannica.com
  32. ^ Kalyan Kumar Ganguli: (1988). Sraddh njali, Studies in Ancient Indian History: D.C. Sircar Commemoration: Puranic tradition of Krishna. Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 8185067104.  p.36
  33. ^ Annangaracariyar, P.B. (1971). Nalayira tivviyap pirapantam. Kanci: VN Tevanatan.  
  34. ^ Seth, K.P. (1962). "Bhakti in Alvar Saints". The University Journal of Philosophy.  
  35. ^ Jackson, W.J. (1992). "A Life Becomes a Legend: Sri Tyagaraja as Exemplar". Journal of the American Academy of Religion 60 (4): 717–736. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7189(199224)60%3A4%3C717%3AALBALS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  36. ^ Jackson, W.J. (1991). Tyagaraja: Life and Lyrics. Oxford University Press, USA.  
  37. ^ Ayyappapanicker, K.; Akademi, S. (2000). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi.  
  38. ^ Roy Chaudhury, H.C.; Prajnananda, S. (2002). "Further Reading". Encyclopedia of Modern Asia.  
  39. ^ Hopkins,The Religions of India, p.530 "When, however, pantheism, nay, even Vishnuism, or still more, Krishnaism, was an accepted fact upon what, then, was the wisdom of the priest expended?"
  40. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2000), Hinduism: A Short History, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, ISBN 1-85168-213-9  
  41. ^ Valpey, K.R. (2004). The Grammar and Poetics of Murti-Seva: Caitanya Vaisnava Image Worship as Discourse, Ritual, and Narrative. University of Oxford.  
  42. ^ Snell, M.M. (1895). "Evangelical Hinduism". The Biblical World 6 (4): 270–277. doi:10.1086/471739. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-3578(189510)6%3A4%3C270%3AEH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  
  43. ^ Selengut, Charles (1996), "Charisma and Religious Innovation:Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON", ISKCON Communications Journal 4 (2), http://www.iskcon.com/icj/4_2/4_2charisma.html  
  44. ^ Herzig, T.; Valpey, K. (2004). "Re—visioning Iskcon". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=mBMxPdgrBhoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA416&dq=meanings+name+Krishna+Gopala&ots=r4RWN60zbX&sig=z-K7a_FrubZRZmzf1RLdkZpWGKY. Retrieved 2008-01-10.  
  45. ^ Prabhupada - He Built a House, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1983, ISBN 0-89213-133-0 p. xv
  46. ^ Bhag-P 1.3.28 "krishnas tu bhagavan svayam"
  47. ^ Journal of Vaishnava studies - note, contains commercial link, better ref required

External links


Simple English

File:Tirumala
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara

Vaishnavism (वैष्णव धर्म) is a tradition of Hinduism. Its followers worship Vishnu or its avatars, mainly Rama and Krishna as the highest, or original God.[1] This worship in different perspectives or historical traditions addresses God under the names of Narayana, Krishna, Vāsudeva or more often "Vishnu", and their associated avatars.[2][3] Its beliefs and practices, especially the concepts of Bhakti and Bhakti Yoga, are based largely on the Upanishads, and associated with the Vedas and Puranic texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, and the Padma, Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas.[4][5][6][7]

The followers of Vaishnavism are referred to as Vaishnava(s) or Vaishnavites. A large percentage of Hindus are Vaishnavas,[8] with the vast majority living in India. Awareness, recognition, and growth of the belief has significantly increased outside of India in recent years. The Gaudiya Vaishnava branch[9] of the tradition has significantly increased the awareness of Vaishnavism internationally, since the mid-1900s, largely through the activities and geographical expansion of the Hare Krishna movement, primarily through ISKCON and more recently, through several other Vaishnava organizations conducting preaching activities in the West.[10]

References

  1. Goswami, B.K. (1965). The Bhakti Cult in Ancient India. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office. 
  2. Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.  p. 4
  3. Page 1–Ramanuja and Sri Vaisnavism "In general, the Vaisnava Agamas describe Vishnu is the Supreme Being and the foundation of all existence."Template:Verify source
  4. Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions 26 (3): 333–335. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198702)26%3A3%3C333%3APOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  5. Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. 
  6. Heart of Hinduism - Vaishnavism
  7. Explanation of different scriptural texts within Hinduism
  8. Major Branches - Hinduism from adherents.com
  9. Dimock Jr, E.C. (1963). "Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal". History of Religions 3 (1): 106–127. doi:10.1086/462474. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(196322)3%3A1%3C106%3ADAPATV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  10. Contemporary Theological Trends in the Hare Krishna Movement "Until the last fifteen years or so, there had been a lack of scholarship in the West on Vaishnavism, and this was seen by Hare Krishna devotees as a situation which must be changed."







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