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Valnoctamide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-ethyl-3-methyl-pentanamide
Identifiers
CAS number 4171-13-5
ATC code N05CM13
PubChem 20140
Chemical data
Formula C 8H17NO 
Mol. mass 143.227 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 94%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 10 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Not a controlled substance
Routes Oral, intravenous

Valnoctamide (INN, USAN) has been used in France as an sedative-hypnotic since 1964.[2] It is a structural isomer of valpromide, a valproic acid prodrug; unlike valpromide, however, valnoctamide is not transformed into its homologous acid, valnoctic acid, in vivo.[3]

Contents

Indications

In addition to being a sedative, valnoctamide has been investigated for use in epilepsy since 1969[4] and was still being investigated in 2000[5] and 2003.

It was studied for neuropathic pain in 2005 by Winkler et al., with good results: it had minimal effects on motor coordination and alertness at effective doses, and appeared to be equally effective as gabapentin.[6]

RH Belmaker, Yuly Bersudsky and Alex Mishory started a clinical trial of valnoctamide for prophylaxis of mania in lieu of the much more teratogenic valproic acid or its salts.[7]

Side effects

The side effects of valnoctamide are mostly minor and include somnolence[8] and the slight motor impairments mentioned above.

Interactions

Valnoctamide is known to increase through inhibition of epoxide hydrolase the serum levels of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, the active metabolite of carbamazepine, sometimes to toxic levels.[9]

Chemistry

Valnoctamide is a racemic compound with four stereoisomers, all of which were shown to be more effective than valproic acid in animal models of epilepsy and one of which [(2S,3S]-valnoctamide) was considered to be a good candidate by Isoherranen, et al. for an anticonvulsant in August 2003.[10]

References

  1. ^ Haj-Yehia, Abdullah; Meir Bialer (October 1988). "Pharmacokinetics of a valpromide isomer, valnoctamide, in dogs.". Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 77 (10): 831–4. doi:10.1002/jps.2600771003. PMID 3148708.  
  2. ^ (French) HARL, F. M. (March 1964). "[Clinical Study Of Valnoctamide On 70 Neuropsychiatric Clinic Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Treatment.]". La Presse Médicale 72: 753–4.. PMID 14119722.  
  3. ^ Haj-Yehia, Abdullah; Meir Bialer (August 1989). "Structure-pharmacokinetic relationships in a series of valpromide derivatives with antiepileptic activity". Pharmaceutical Research 6 (8): 683–9. doi:10.1023/A:1015934321764. PMID 2510141.  
  4. ^ (Portuguese) Mattos Nda, S. (May 1969). "[Use of Valnoctamide (nirvanil) in oligophrenic erethics and epileptics.]". Hospital (Rio J) 75 (5): 1701–4. PMID 5306499.  
  5. ^ Lindekens; Ilse Smolders, Ghous M. Khan, Meir Bialer, Guy Ebinger, and Yvette Michotte (November 2000). "In vivo study of the effect of valpromide and valnoctamide in the pilocarpine rat model of focal epilepsy". Pharmaceutical Research 17 (11): 1408–13. doi:10.1023/A:1007559208599. PMID 11205735. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=11205735&dopt=ExternalLink.  
  6. ^ Winkler, Ilan; Simcha Blotnik, Jakob Shimshoni, Boris Yagen, Marshall Devor, and Meir Bialer (September 2005). "Efficacy of antiepileptic isomers of valproic acid and valpromide in a rat model of neuropathic pain". British Journal of Pharmacology 146: 198. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706310. PMID 15997234. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=15997234&dopt=ExternalLink.  
  7. ^ RH Belmaker, Yuly Bersudsky, Alex Mishory and Beersheva Mental Health Center (2005). "Valnoctamide in Mania". ClinicalTrials.gov. United States National Institutes of Health. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/gui/show/NCT00140179?order=213. Retrieved 25 February 2006.  
  8. ^ VALNOCTAMIDE Biam French.
  9. ^ Pisani F, Fazio A, Artesi C, Oteri G, Spina E, Tomson T, Perucca E. "Impairment of carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide elimination by valnoctamide, a valpromide isomer, in healthy subjects." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1992 Jul;34(1):85-7. PMID 1352988
  10. ^ Isoherranen, Nina; H. Steve White, Brian D. Klein, Michael Roeder, José H. Woodhead, Volker Schurig, Boris Yagen, Meir Bialer (August 2003). "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of (2S,3S)-valnoctamide and its stereoisomer (2R,3S)-valnoctamide in rodent models of epilepsy". Pharmaceutical Research 8 (8): 1293–301. doi:10.1023/A:1025069519218. PMID 12948028. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=12948028&dopt=ExternalLink.  
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