The Full Wiki

Vande Mataram: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Typical depiction of Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore

Vande Mataram (Sanskrit: Vande Mātaram "I do homage to the mother";[1] Devanagari: वन्दे मातरं, Bengali script: বন্দে মাতরম্‌ ) is a poem in the 1882 novel by Anandamatha by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay. It is written in a mixture of Bengali and Sanskrit.[2] It is a hymn to the goddess Durga, identified as the national personification of Bengal. It came to be considered the "National Anthem of Bengal",[3] and it played a part in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress[4]. In 1950, its first two verses were given the official status of "national song" of the Republic of India[4], distinct from the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana. Many Muslim organizations in India have declared fatwas against singing Vande Mataram, due to the song giving a notion of worshipping Mother India, which they consider to be shirk (idolatry)[5]

A commonly cited English language translation of the poem, Mother, I bow to thee!, is due to Sri Aurobindo  (1909).[6] The poem has been set to a large number of tunes. The oldest surviving audio recordings date to 1907, and there have been more than a hundred different versions recorded throughout the 20th century. In 2002, ‏BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most famous songs of all time. Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the world. Vande Mataram, in a version by A. R. Rahman, was second in top 10 songs.[7]

Contents

History and significance

Composition

It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official under the British Raj, around 1876.

Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali. The poem was published in Chattopadhyay's book Anandamatha (pronounced Anondomôţh in Bengali) in 1882.[2] Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this song just after it was written.[2]

Indian independence movement

The flag raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907

"Vande Mataram" was the national cry for freedom from British rule during the freedom movement. Large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal, in the major metropolis of Calcutta, would work themselves up into a patriotic fervour by shouting the slogan "Vande Mataram", or "Hail to the Mother(land)!". The British, fearful of the potential danger of an incited Indian populace, at one point banned the utterance of the motto in public forums, and imprisoned many freedom fighters for disobeying the proscription. Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore.[2] Hiralal Sen made India's first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra's last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram[8]

In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) created the first version of India's national flag (the Tiranga) in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band.[9]

Adoption as "national song"

Tagore's Jana Gana Mana was chosen as the National Anthem of the 1947 Republic of India. Vande Mataram was rejected on the grounds that Muslims, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, Arya Samajis and others who opposed idol worship felt offended by its depiction of the nation as "Mother Durga", a Hindu goddess. Muslims also felt that its origin as part of Anandamatha, a novel they felt had an anti-Muslim message.

The designation as "national song" predates independence, dating to 1937. At this date, the Indian National Congress discussed at length the status of the song. It was pointed out then that though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references where the motherland is likened to the Hindu goddess Durga. Therefore, INC decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song.

The controversy becomes more complex in the light of Rabindranath Tagore's rejection of the song as one that would unite all communities in India. In his letter to Subhash Chandra Bose (1937), Rabindranath wrote:

"The core of Vande Mataram is a hymn to goddess Durga: this is so plain that there can be no debate about it. Of course Bankimchandra does show Durga to be inseparably united with Bengal in the end, but no Mussulman [Muslim] can be expected patriotically to worship the ten-handed deity as 'Swadesh' [the nation]. This year many of the special [Durga] Puja numbers of our magazines have quoted verses from Vande Mataram - proof that the editors take the song to be a hymn to Durga. The novel Anandamath is a work of literature, and so the song is appropriate in it. But Parliament is a place of union for all religious groups, and there the song cannot be appropriate. When Bengali Mussulmans show signs of stubborn fanaticism, we regard these as intolerable. When we too copy them and make unreasonable demands, it will be self-defeating."

In a postscript to this same letter, Rabindranath says:

"Bengali Hindus have become agitated over this matter, but it does not concern only Hindus. Since there are strong feelings on both sides, a balanced judgment is essential. In pursuit of our political aims we want peace, unity and good will - we do not want the endless tug of war that comes from supporting the demands of one faction over the other." [10]

Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950, made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue:

The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members. (Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950)

The two verses adopted as "national song" read as follows:

In Aurobindo Ghose's translation (1909): in IAST: Bengali romanization:

Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.
Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.

vande mātaram
sujalāṃ suphalāṃ
malayajaśītalām
śasya śyāmalāṃ mātaram
vande mātaram

śubhra jyotsnā
pulakita yāminīm
phulla kusumita
drumadalaśobhinīm
suhāsinīṃ
sumadhura bhāṣiṇīm
sukhadāṃ varadāṃ mātaram
vande mātaram

bônde matorom
shujolang shufolang
môloeôjoshitolam
shoshsho shêmolang matorom
bônde matorom

shubhro jotsna
pulokito jaminim
fullo kushumito
drumodôloshobhinim
shuhashining
shumodhuro bhashinim
shukhodang bôrodang matorom
bônde matorom

2006 controversy

On August 22, 2006, there was a row in the Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament over whether singing of Vande Mataram in schools should be made mandatory. The ruling United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition and Opposition members debated the Government's stance that singing the national song Vande Mataram on September 7, 2006, to mark the 125th year celebration of its creation should be voluntary. This led to the House being adjourned twice. Human Resources Development Minister Arjun Singh noted that it was not binding on citizens to sing the song. Arjun Singh had earlier asked all state governments to ensure that the first two stanzas of the song were sung in all schools on that day. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Deputy Leader V. K. Malhotra wanted the Government to clarify whether singing the national song on September 7 in schools was mandatory or not. On August 28, targeting the BJP, Congress spokesman Abhishek Singhvi said that in 1998 when Atal Behari Vajpayee of the BJP was the Prime Minister, the BJP supported a similar circular issued by the Uttar Pradesh government to make the recitation compulsory. But Vajpayee had then clarified that it was not necessary to make it compulsory.[11]

On September 7, 2006, the nation celebrated the national song. Television channels showed school children singing the song at the notified time.[12] Some Muslim groups had discouraged parents from sending their wards to school on the grounds, after the BJP had repeatedly insisted that the national song must be sung. However, many Muslims did participate in the celebrations[12].

Muslim institutions and Vande Mataram

Muslim institutions in general, see Vande Mataram in a negative light.[5] Though a number of Muslim organizations and individuals have opposed Vande Mataram being used as a "national song" of India, citing many religious reasons, some Muslim personalities have admired and even praised Vande Mataram as the "National Song of India" . Arif Mohammed Khan, a former Union Minister in the Rajiv Gandhi government, wrote an Urdu translation of Vande Mataram which starts as Tasleemat, maan tasleemat.[13]

All India Sunni Ulema Board on Sept 6, 2006, issued a fatwa that the Muslims can sing the first two verses of the song. The Board president Moulana Mufti Syed Shah Badruddin Qadri Aljeelani said that "If you bow at the feet of your mother with respect, it is not shirk but only respect."[14] Shia scholar and All India Muslim Personal Law Board vice-president Maulana Kalbe Sadiq stated on Sept 5, 2006 that scholars need to examine the term "vande." He asked, "Does it mean salutation or worship?"[15]

Christian institutions and Vande Mataram

Fr. Cyprian Kullu from Jharkhand stated in an interview with AsiaNews: "The song is a part of our history and national festivity and religion should not be dragged into such mundane things. The Vande Mataram is simply a national song without any connotation that could violate the tenets of any religion."[16] However, some Christian institutions such as Our Lady of Fatima Convent School in Patiala did not sing the song on its 100th anniversary as mandated by the state.[17] Christians make a distinction between "veneration" and "worship," and even though the song falls into neither of these categories, some Christians may have declined to sing the national song because of their understanding of its intention and content.

Performances and interpretations

A number of lyrical and musical experiments have been carried out, and many versions of the song were created and released throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century. Many of these versions have employed traditional South Asian classical ragas. Versions of the song have been visualized on celluloid in a number of films, including Leader, Amar Asha, and Anandamath. It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar.[2]

See also

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

References

  1. ^ Sanskrit vandate (1st class, atmanepadam) "to praise, celebrate, laud, extol; to show honour, do homage, salute respectfully or deferentially, venerate, worship , adore" (Monier Williams)
  2. ^ a b c d e Suresh Chandvankar, Vande Mataram (2003) at Musical Traditions (mustrad.org.uk)
  3. ^ Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem with "It is difficult to translate the National Anthem of Bengal into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force." cited after Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  4. ^ a b "National Symbols of India". Government of India. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_song.php. Retrieved 2008-04-29.  
  5. ^ a b [1] "Fatwa against Vande Mataram"
  6. ^ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram and a lecture on the hidden meaning of that song (1908, 1909).
  7. ^ The Worlds Top Ten — BBC World Service
  8. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (1997). Local Politics and Indian Nationalism: Midnapur (1919-1944). New Delhi: Manohar. pp. 167.  
  9. ^ p2
  10. ^ (Letter #314, Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore, edited by K. Datta and A. Robinson, Cambridge University Press)
  11. ^ "BJP vs Congress: It’s Vande vs Kandahar". Asian Age. 2006-08-28. http://www.asianage.com/main.asp?layout=2&cat1=5&cat2=154&newsid=243846&RF=DefaultMain.  
  12. ^ a b BBC NEWS | South Asia | Indians celebrate national song
  13. ^ outlookindia.com
  14. ^ Now, a fatwa to sing Vande Mataram-Hyderabad-Cities-The Times of India
  15. ^ Muslims will sing, but omit Vande
  16. ^ INDIA India: fatwa against national song celebrating motherland - Asia News
  17. ^ PunjabNewsline.com - Sikhs and christians in Punjab stayed away from 'Vande Matram'
  • Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Vande mataram, the biography of a song, Penguin Books, 2003, ISBN 9780143030553.

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1950, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 50 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

Mother, I bow to thee! (Vande Mataram)
by Aurobindo Ghose
Wikipedia logo Wikipedia has more on:
Vande Mataram.

Aurobindo Ghose's English translation (1909) of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's Bengali-Sanskrit poem Vande Mataram from the novel Anandamath (1882). The first 2 stanzas of the original full version have the official status as "national song" in the Republic of India.


Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.

Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.

Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Thou who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free.

Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Thou art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nerves the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine.

Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her
swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleams,
Dark of hue O candid-fair

In thy soul, with jeweled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Loveliest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free!


Simple English

Vande Mataram is the national song of India. It is not to be confused with the national anthem of India. The lyrics were written by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, in a mix of Sanskrit and Bengali. The song was written in 1876 [1], but published in 1882. The title means "Long live the Mother[land]". The first version of the Flag of India had "वन्दे मातरम्" (Vande Mataram) written on it.[2]

Contents

Controversy

Jana Gana Mana was chosen over Vande Mataram as the National Anthem of independent India in January 24, 1950, although before this date, Vande Mataram was treated as such. Vande Mataram was rejected because Muslims offended by calling India "Mother Durga" (a Hindu goddess) equating the nation with Hinduism, and by its origin as part of Anandamatha, a book they felt had an anti-Muslim message.

Lyrics

Sanskrit

Full version

सुजलां सुफलां मलयजशीतलाम्
सस्य श्यामलां मातरंम् .
शुभ्र ज्योत्सनाम् पुलिकत यािमनीम्
फुल्ल कुसुिमत द्रुमदलशोभिनीम्,
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम् .
सुखदां वरदां मातरम् ॥

सप्त कोटि कण्ठ कलकल निनाद कराले
द्विसप्त कोटि भुजैर्ध्रत खरकरवाले
के बोले मा तुमी अबले
बहुबल धारिणीम् नमामि तारिणीम्
रिपुदलवारिणीम् मातरम् ॥

तुमि विद्या तुमि धर्म, तुमि ह्रदि तुमि मर्म
त्वं हि प्राणाः शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारै प्रतिमा गडि मन्दिरे-मन्दिरे ॥

त्वं हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
कमला कमलदल विहारिणी
वाणी विद्यादायिनी, नमामि त्वाम्
नमामि कमलां अमलां अतुलाम्
सुजलां सुफलां मातरम् ॥

श्यामलां सरलां सुस्मितां भूषिताम्
धरणीं भरणीं मातरम् ॥

Translation

Mother, I salute thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Green fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.

Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.

Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When swords flash out in seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Thou who saves, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foe drove
Back from plain and sea
And shook herself free.

Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Though art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nerves the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine.

Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her
swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-tone,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair

In thy soul, with jewelled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Loveliest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free!

translated by Sri Aurobindo

Official version

वन्दे मातरम् सुजलां सुफलां मलयजशीतलाम्
सस्य श्यामलां मातरम् |
शुभ्र ज्योत्स्ना पुलकित यामिनीम्
फुल्ल कुसुमित द्रुमदलशोभिनीम्,
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदां वरदां मातरम् ||

Translation

Mother, I salute thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Green fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.

Bengali

Full version

সুজলাং সুফলাং মলয়জশীতলাম্
শস্যশ্যামলাং মাতরম্॥
শুভ্রজ্যোত্স্না পুলকিতযামিনীম্
পুল্লকুসুমিত দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্
সুহাসিনীং সুমধুর ভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্॥

কোটি কোটি কণ্ঠ কলকলনিনাদ করালে
কোটি কোটি ভুজৈর্ধৃতখরকরবালে
কে বলে মা তুমি অবলে
বহুবলধারিণীং নমামি তারিণীম্
রিপুদলবারিণীং মাতরম্॥

তুমি বিদ্যা তুমি ধর্ম, তুমি হৃদি তুমি মর্ম
ত্বং হি প্রাণ শরীরে
বাহুতে তুমি মা শক্তি
হৃদয়ে তুমি মা ভক্তি
তোমারৈ প্রতিমা গড়ি মন্দিরে মন্দিরে॥

ত্বং হি দুর্গা দশপ্রহরণধারিণী
কমলা কমলদল বিহারিণী
বাণী বিদ্যাদায়িনী ত্বাম্
নমামি কমলাং অমলাং অতুলাম্
সুজলাং সুফলাং মাতরম্॥

শ্যামলাং সরলাং সুস্মিতাং ভূষিতাম্
ধরণীং ভরণীং মাতরম্॥

Official version

বন্দে মাতরম্
সুজলাং সুফলাং মলযজশীতলাম্
শস্য শ্যামলাং মাতরম্ |
শুভ্র জ্যোত্স্ন পুলকিত যামিনীম্
ফুল্ল কুসুমিত দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্,
সুহাসিনীং সুমধুর ভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্ ||

References

Other websites


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message