Vanilla: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vanilla fruits

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. Etymologically, vanilla derives from the Spanish word "vainilla", little pod.[1] Originally cultivated by Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples, Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.[2] Attempts to cultivate the vanilla plant outside Mexico and Central America proved futile because of the symbiotic relationship between the tlilxochitl vine that produced the vanilla orchid and the local species of Melipona bee; it was not until 1837 that Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant. The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[3] In 1841, a 12-year-old French-owned slave by the name of Edmond Albius, who lived on Île Bourbon, discovered the plant could be hand pollinated, allowing global cultivation of the plant.[4]

There are currently three major cultivars of vanilla grown globally, all derived from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern day Mexico.[5] The various subspecies are Vanilla planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, Central and South America.[6] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia variety, more commonly known as "Madagascar-Bourbon" vanilla, which is produced in a small region of Madagascar and in Indonesia.[7][8]

Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron,[citation needed] due to the extensive labor required to grow the vanilla seed pods. Despite the expense, it is highly valued for its flavor, which author Frederic Rosengarten, Jr. described in The Book of Spices as "pure, spicy, and delicate" and its complex floral aroma depicted as a "peculiar bouquet."[9] Despite its high cost, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture and aromatherapy.[9]

Contents

History

The first to cultivate vanilla were the Totonac people, who inhabit the Mazantla Valley on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[3]

Drawing of Vanilla from the Florentine Codex (ca. 1580) and description of its use and properties written in the Nahuatl language.

In the fifteenth century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla bean. They named the bean "tlilxochitl", or "black flower", after the mature bean, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla beans to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.

Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, however, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla beans to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius, a 12-year-old slave from Réunion Island, discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion Island to the Comoros Islands and Madagascar along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production.[10]

The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s, after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram, but would rise sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April, 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500 per kilogram in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, has pushed the market price down to the $40 per kilo range in the middle of 2005.

Madagascar (mostly the fertile region of Sava) accounts for half of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual 500 tons, produced only 10 tons of vanilla in 2006. An estimated 95% of “vanilla” products actually contain artificial vanillin, produced from lignin.[11]

Etymology

Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Columbus. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early sixteenth century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in the 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary.[12] Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the way the pod must be split open to expose the seeds.[13]

Biology

Vanilla orchid

The main species harvested for vanillin is Vanilla planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Madagascar is the world's largest producer. Additional sources include Vanilla pompona and Vanilla tahitiensis (grown in Tahiti and Niue), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than Vanilla planifolia.[14]

Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downwards so that the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.

Vanilla planifolia - flower.

The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. One flower produces one fruit. Vanilla planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs; however, to avoid self-pollination, a membrane separates those organs. The flowers can only be naturally pollinated by a specific Melipone bee found in Mexico (abeja de monte or mountain bee). This bee provided Mexico with a 300 year long monopoly on Vanilla production, from the time it was first discovered by Europeans and the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies, until a substitute was found for the bees. The vines would grow, but would not fruit outside of Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. And today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.

In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours the flowers closed and several days later Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo,[15] an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollen from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, and so, growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.

The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, will ripen and open at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the beans a diamond-dusted appearance which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It will then release the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, flavorless seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks.

Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seed will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots will cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.

Cultivars

Nielsen-Massey's Vanilla extract
2006 Top Vanilla Producers
Country Production
(tonnes)
 %
 Madagascar 6,200 58%
 Indonesia 2,399 23%
 China 1,000 9%
 Mexico 306 2%
 Turkey 192 2%
 Tonga 144 1%
 Uganda 195 2%
 Comoros 65 0.6%
 French Polynesia 50 0.5%
 Réunion 23 0.2%
 Malawi 20 0.2%
 Portugal 10 0.09%
 Kenya 8 0.08%
 Guadeloupe 8 0.08%
 Zimbabwe 3 0.03%
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organization
[16]
Vanilla output in 2005.
  • Bourbon vanilla or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is the term used for vanilla from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon.
  • Mexican vanilla, made from the native V. planifolia, is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and is banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration.[17]
  • Tahitian vanilla is the name for vanilla from French Polynesia, made with the V. tahitiensis strain. Genetic analysis shows that this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid-cross of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.[18]
  • West Indian vanilla is made from the V. pompona strain grown in the Caribbean, Central and South America.[19]

The term French vanilla is not a type of vanilla, but is often used to designate preparations that have a strong vanilla aroma, and contain vanilla grains. The name originates from the French style of making ice cream custard base with vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former or current French dependencies noted for their exports may in fact be a part of the flavoring, though it may often be coincidental. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.[18] Syrup labeled as French vanilla may include hazelnut, custard, caramel or butterscotch flavors in addition to vanilla.

Chemistry

Chemical structure of vanillin.

Though there are many compounds present in the extracts of vanilla, the compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is primarily responsible for the characteristic flavor and smell of vanilla. Another minor component of vanilla essential oil is piperonal (heliotropin). Piperonal and other substances affect the odor of natural vanilla. Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry.

Vanilla essence comes in two forms. Real seedpod extract is an extremely complicated mixture of several hundred different compounds. Synthetic essence, consisting basically of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol, is derived from phenol and is of high purity.[20]

Production

General guidelines

In general, good vanilla will only come from good vines. To achieve such high quality, much labor is required. Commercial vanilla production can be performed under open field and “greenhouse” operations. Both production systems share the following similarities:

  • Plant height and number of years before producing the first grains
  • Shade necessities
  • Amount of organic matter needed
  • A tree or frame to grow around (Bamboo, coconut or Erythrina lanceolata)
  • Labor intensity (pollination and harvest activities)[21]

Vanilla grows best under hot humid climate from sea level to an elevation of 1500 m. Most of its production is done 10 to 20 degrees above and below the equator. The ideal growing conditions are moderate rainfall, 150–300 cm, evenly distributed through 10 months of the year. The optimum temperatures for cultivation are 15–30 °C (59–86 °F) during the day and 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) during the night. Ideal humidity is around 80%, and under normal greenhouse conditions it can be achieved by an evaporative cooler. However, since greenhouse vanilla is grown near the equator and under polymer (HDPE) netting (shading of 50%), this humidity can be achieved by the environment.

Soils for vanilla cultivation should be loose with high organic matter content and loamy texture. They must be well drained, and a slight slope helps in this condition. Soil pH has not been well documented, but some researchers have indicated an optimum soil pH of around 5.3.[22] Mulch is very important for proper growth of the vine, and a considerable portion of mulch should be placed in the base of the vine.[23] Fertilization varies with soil conditions, but general recommendations are: 40 to 60g of N, 20 to 30g of P2O5 and 60 to 100g of K2O should be applied to each plant per year besides organic manures like vermicompost, oil cakes, poultry manure and wood ash. Foliar applications are also good for vanilla, and a solution of 1% NPK (17:17:17) can be sprayed on the plant once a month. Vanilla likes a lot of organic matter; therefore 3 to 4 applications of mulch a year are adequate for the plant.

Propagation, pre-plant preparation and type of stock

Dissemination of vanilla can be achieved either by stem cutting or by tissue culture. For stem cutting, a progeny garden needs to be established. Recommendations for establishing this garden vary, but in general trenches of 60 cm in width, 45 cm in depth and 60 cm spacing for each plant is necessary. All plants need to grow under 50% shade as well as the rest of the crop. Mulching the trenches with coconut husk and micro irrigation provide ideal micro climate for vegetative growth.[24] Cuttings between 60 and 120 cm should be selected for planting in the field or greenhouse. Cuttings below 60 cm need to be rooted and raised in a separate nursery before planting. Planting material should always come from unflowered portions of the vine. Wilting of the cuttings before planting provides better conditions for root initiation and establishment.[21]

Before planting the cuttings, trees that will support the vine must be planted at least three months before sowing the cuttings. Pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm are dug 30 cm away from the tree and filled with farm yard manure (FYM or Vermicompost), sand and top soil mixed well. An average of 2000 cuttings can be planted per hectare. One important consideration is that when planting the cuttings from the base 4 leaves should be pruned and the pruned basal point must be pressed into the soil in a way that the 4 nodes are in close contact with the soil, and are placed at a depth of 15 to 20 cm.[23] The top portion of the cutting is tied up to the tree using natural fibers like banana or hemp.

Tissue culture

Several methods have been proposed for vanilla tissue culture, but all of them begin from axillary buds of the vanilla vine.[25][26] In vitro multiplication has also been achieved through culture of callus masses, protocorns, root tips and stem nodes.[27] Description of any of these processes can be obtained from the references listed before, but all of them are successful in generation of new vanilla plants that first need to be grown up to a height of at least 30 cm before they can be planted in the field or greenhouse.[21]

Scheduling considerations

In the tropics, the ideal time for planting vanilla is from September to November, when the weather is neither too rainy nor too dry, but this recommendation varies with growing conditions. Cuttings take 1 to 8 weeks to establish roots, and show initial signs of growth from one of the leaf axils. A thick mulch of leaves should be provided immediately after planting as an additional source of organic matter. Three years are required for cuttings to grow enough to produce flowers and subsequent pods. As with most orchids, the blossoms grow along stems branching from the main vine. The buds, growing along the 6 to 10 inch stems, bloom and mature in sequence, each at a different interval.[24]

Pollination

Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. The only insect capable of pollinating the blossom is the Melipona, a bee, native only to Mexico. All vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so that the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self pollinate the vine. Generally one flower per raceme opens per day, and therefore the raceme may be in flowering for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year; however growers are careful to pollinate only 5 to 6 flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first 5 to 6 flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so that the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. It takes the fruits 5 to 6 weeks to develop, but it takes around 9 months for the bean to mature. Over-pollination will result in diseased and inferior bean quality.[23] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.

Pest and disease management

Most diseases come from the uncharacteristic growing conditions of vanilla. Therefore, conditions like excess water, insufficient drainage, heavy mulch, over-pollination and too much shade favor disease development. Vanilla is susceptible to many fungal and viral diseases. Fusarium sp, Sclerotium sp, Phytopthora sp and Collectrotricum sp cause rots of root, stem, leaf, bean and shoot apex. These diseases can be controlled by spraying Bordeaux mixture (1%), Bavistin (0.2%) and Copper oxychloride (0.2%).

Biological control of the spread of such diseases can be managed by applying to the soil Trichoderma (0.5 kg per plant in the rhizosphere) and foliar application of Pseudomonads (0.2%). Mosaic, leaf curl and Cymbidium mosaic potex virus are the common viral diseases. These diseases are transmitted through the sap; consequently affected plants have to be destroyed. The insect pests of vanilla include beetles and weevils that attack the flower, caterpillars, snakes and slugs that damage the tender parts of shoot, flower buds and immature beans, and grasshoppers that affect cutting shoot tips.[23][24] If organic agriculture is practiced, insecticides are avoided, and mechanical measures are adopted for pest management.[21] Most of these practices are implemented under greenhouse cultivation, since in the field such conditions are very difficult to achieve.

Vanilla Imitations

Most imitation vanillas contain vanillin, only one of 171 identified aromatic components of the real vanilla beans. Vanillin can be produced synthetically from lignin. Most synthetic vanillin is a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry, and is made from waste sulfate, which contains lignin-sulfonic acid.[28]

Stages of production

A vanilla plantation in a wood on Réunion Island.

Harvest

The vanilla bean grows quickly on the vine but is not ready for harvest until maturity — approximately ten months. Harvesting vanilla beans is as labor intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration which commences at the distal end of the beans is an indication of the maturity of pods. Each bean ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. To ensure the finest flavor from every bean, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Over matured beans are likely to split causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length of the pod. If the bean is more than 15 cm in length it belongs to first quality product. If the beans are between 10 to 15 cm long pods are under second quality and beans less than 10 cm in length are under third quality. Each of the beans has a considerable amount of seeds inside the pod which are covered by a dark red liquid from which the vanilla essence is extracted. Vanilla bean yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five year old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg pods and this production can increase up to 6 kg after a few years. The harvested green beans can be commercialized as such or cured in order to get a better market price.[21][23][24]

Curing

Several methods exist in the market for curing vanilla; nevertheless all of them consist of four basic steps: killing, sweating, slow-drying, and conditioning of the beans.[29][30]

Killing

The vegetative tissue of the vanilla pod is killed to prevent further growing. The method of killing varies, but may be accomplished by sun killing, oven killing, hot water killing, killing by scratching, or killing by freezing. Hot water killing consists of dipping the pods in hot water (63-65C) for three minutes to stop the vegetative growth of the pods and initiate enzymatic reactions responsible for the aroma.

Grading vanilla beans at Sambava, Madagascar.
Sweating

This method consists of wrapping the beans in woolen cloth to raise the temperature (45-65C, under high humidity) of the beans under sunlight conditions for one hour, for up to 10 days. During the remaining time, the pods are stored in wooden boxes under air-tight conditions. These conditions allow enzymes to catalyze the reactions involved in generating the characteristic vanilla color, flavor and aroma.

Drying

To prevent rotting and to lock the aroma in the pods, the pods are dried. Often, pods are laid out in the sun during the mornings and returned to their boxes in the afternoons. When 25-30% of the pods' weight is moisture (as opposed to the 60-70% they began drying with) they have completed the curing process and will exhibit their fullest aromatic qualities. This reduction in moisture content is achieved by spreading the beans on a wooden rack in a room for three to four weeks.

Conditioning of the bean

This step is performed by storing the pods for a few months in closed boxes where the fragrance develops. The processed beans are sorted, graded, bundled and wrapped in paraffin paper and preserved for the development of desired bean qualities, especially flavor and aroma. The cured vanilla beans contain an average of 2.5% vanillin.

Grading

Once fully cured, the vanilla is sorted by quality and graded.

Usage

Culinary uses

There are three main commercial preparations of natural vanilla:

  • whole pod
  • powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch or other ingredients)[31]
  • extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution, both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)[32]
Cook Flavoring Company's Pure Vanilla Powder

Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good quality vanilla has a strong aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.

A major use of vanilla is in flavoring ice cream. The most common flavor of ice cream is vanilla, and thus most people consider it to be the "default" flavor. By analogy, the term "vanilla" is sometimes used as a synonym for "plain". Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee and others.

The cosmetics industry uses vanilla to make perfume.

The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla;[33] however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[34]

Medicinal uses

In old medicinal literature, vanilla is described as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for fevers. These purported uses have never been scientifically proven, but it has been shown that vanilla does increase levels of catecholamines (including epinephrine, more commonly known as adrenaline), and as such can also be considered mildly addictive.[35][36]

In an in-vitro test vanilla was able to block quorum sensing in bacteria. This is medically interesting because in many bacteria quorum sensing signals function as a switch for virulence. The microbes only become virulent when the signals indicate that they have the numbers to resist the host immune system response.[37]

The essential oils of vanilla and vanillin are sometimes used in aromatherapy.

Notes

  1. ^ James D. Ackerman (June 2003). "Vanilla". Flora of South America 26 (4): 507. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=134375. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "Spanish vainilla, little pod or capsule, referring to long, podlike fruits". 
  2. ^ The Herb Society of Nashville (2008-05-21). "The Life of Spice". The Herb Society of Nashville. http://www.herbsocietynashville.org/gardening.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-23. "Following Montezuma’s capture, one of Cortés’ officers saw him drinking "chocolatl" (made of powdered cocoa beans and ground corn flavored with ground vanilla pods and honey). The Spanish tried this drink themselves and were so impressed by this new taste sensation that they took samples back to Spain.' and 'Actually it was vanilla rather than the chocolate that made a bigger hit and by 1700 the use of vanilla was spread over all of Europe. Mexico became the leading producer of vanilla for three centuries. - Excerpted from 'Spices of the World Cookbook' by McCormick and 'The Book of Spices' by Frederic Rosengarten, Jr" 
  3. ^ a b J. Hazen (1995). Vanilla. Chronicle Books. 
  4. ^ Silver Cloud Estates. "History of Vanilla". Silver Cloud Estates. http://www.silvercloudestates.com/vanilla_history.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-23. "In 1837 the Belgian botanist Morren succeeded in artificially pollinating the vanilla flower. On Reunion Morren's process was attempted, but failed. It was not until 1841 that a 12-year-old slave by the name of Edmond Albius discovered the correct technique of hand pollinating the flowers." 
  5. ^ Pesach Lubinsky; Séverine Bory, Juan Hernández Hernández, Seung-Chul Kim & Arturo Gómez-Pompa (2008-06-05). Origins and Dispersal of Cultivated Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. (Orchidaceae)). 62. Springer New York. pp. 127–138. ISSN 1874-9364. http://www.springerlink.com/content/6155g3043826q652/. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "Vanilla is a clonally propagated crop originating from Mesoamerica.". 
  6. ^ Pascale Besse; Denis Da Silvaa, Séverine Borya, Michel Grisonib, Fabrice Le Bellecc and Marie-France Duvald (2004-08-07). "RAPD genetic diversity in cultivated vanilla". Plant Science 167 (2): 379–385. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.04.007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TBH-4CB49VJ-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=39c32e648165b07b20fa9e6526eb5c42. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) and other humid tropical areas, cultivated vanilla is represented mainly by the species Vanilla planifolia G. Jackson, syn. V. fragrans (Salisb.) Ames...". 
  7. ^ "Vanilla growing regions". The Rodell Company. 2008-01-07. http://www.rodellevanilla.com/GrowingRegions.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "...Madagascar is the world's primary growing region, cured vanilla beans are produced in the Comoros Islands, French Polynesia, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Tonga and Uganda." 
  8. ^ The Nielsen-Massey Company (2007-09-17). "History of vanilla". The Nielsen-Massey Company. http://www.nielsenmassey.com/historyofvanilla.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-23. "Madagascar and Indonesia produce 90 percent of the world's vanilla bean crop." 
  9. ^ a b "Vanilla". JoyofBaking.com. http://www.joyofbaking.com/Vanilla.html. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "Pure vanilla, with its wonderful aromatic flavor, is the most widely used flavoring in pastries, confections, and other desserts. It is the second most expensive spice in the world, next to saffron, and as much as flavor chemists try with the glycoside found in the sapwood of certain conifers or from coal extracts..." 
  10. ^ Rasoanaivo P et al. (1998) Essential oils of economic value in Madagascar: Present state of knowledge. HerbalGram 43:31–39,58–59.
  11. ^ "Rainforest Vanilla Conservation Association". http://vanillaexchange.com/RVCA_Handout.htm. 
  12. ^ Correll D (1953) Vanilla: its botany, history, cultivation and economic importance. Econ Bo 7(4): 291–358.
  13. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=vanilla&searchmode=none
  14. ^ Brockman, Terra Types of Vanilla June 11, 2008 Chicago Tribune
  15. ^ "The Hindu: Flower with money power". http://www.hindu.com/edu/2004/05/10/stories/2004051000900300.htm. 
  16. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567
  17. ^ [www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048613.htm "IMPORT ALERT IA2807: "DETENTION WITHOUT PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF COUMARIN IN VANILLA PRODUCTS (EXTRACTS - FLAVORINGS - IMITATIONS)""]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Regulatory Affairs. January. www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048613.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  18. ^ a b "wwww.geneticarchaeology.com Tahitian vanilla originated in Maya forests, says botanist". http://www.geneticarchaeology.com/research/Tahitian_vanilla_originated_in_Maya_forests_says_botanist.asp. 
  19. ^ USDA publication. "Vanilla pompona Schiede/West Indian vanilla". United Dept. of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VAPO2. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  20. ^ "www.baktoflavors.com/pdf/vanilla%20dafna%20ishs.pdf" (PDF). http://www.baktoflavors.com/pdf/vanilla%20dafna%20ishs.pdf. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Anilkumar, A. S., 2004. Vanilla cultivation: A profitable agriculture-based enterprise. Kerala Calling, February, pages 26 to 30.
  22. ^ Berninger, F., Salas, E., 2003. Biomass dynamics of Erythrina lanceolata as influenced by shoot-pruning intensity in Costa Rica. Agro-forestry Systems, 57:19-28.
  23. ^ a b c d e Davis E. W., 1983. Experiences with growing vanilla (Vanilla planifolia). Acta Horticulturae, 132:23-29.
  24. ^ a b c d Elizabeth, K. G., 2002. Vanilla – An orchid spice. Indian Journal of Arecanut, spices and medical plants 4(2):96-98.
  25. ^ George, P. S., Ravishankar, G. P., 1997. In vitro multiplication of Vanilla planifolia using axillary bud explants. Plant cell reports, 16:490-494.
  26. ^ Kononowicz, H., Janick, J., 1984. In vitro propagation of Vanilla planifolia. HortScience, 19(1): 58-59.
  27. ^ Ravishankar, G. P., 2004. Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andrews under influence of thidiazuron and coconut milk. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 3(1):113-118.
  28. ^ http://www.cooksvanilla.com/about.html
  29. ^ Havkin-Frenkel, D., French, J. C., Graft, N. M., 2004. Interrelation of curing and botany in vanilla (vanilla planifolia) bean. Acta Horticulturae 629:93-102.
  30. ^ Havkin-Frenkel, D., French, J. C., Pak, F. E., Frenkel, C., 2003. Botany and during of vanilla. Journal of Aromatic medicinal plants.
  31. ^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires at least 12.5% of pure vanilla (ground pods or oleoresin) in the mixture [1]
  32. ^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires at least 35% vol. of alcohol and 13.35 ounces of pod per gallon [2]
  33. ^ "Vanilla Essence VS Imitation Vanilla Essence - Discuss Cooking Forum". http://www.discusscooking.com/forums/f10/vanilla-essence-vs-imitation-vanilla-essence-37259.html. 
  34. ^ "Tasting lab: The Scoop on Vanilla Ice Cream". http://www.cooksillustrated.com/tasting.asp?tastingid=388&bdc=4656&position=3&type=homepagefeature. 
  35. ^ [http://www.organicmd.org/faq.html "www.organicmd.org/faq.html[3]"]. http://www.organicmd.org/faq.html[4]. 
  36. ^ [http://wwwwww.nwcr.ws/adam/healthillustratedencyclopedia/1/003561.html "wwwwww.nwcr.ws/adam/healthillustratedencyclopedia/1/003561.html[5]"]. http://wwwwww.nwcr.ws/adam/healthillustratedencyclopedia/1/003561.html[6]. 
  37. ^ Choo JH, Rukayadi Y, Hwang JK. (June 2006). "Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract.". Lett Appl Microbiol. 42 (6): 637–41. PMID 16706905 : 16706905. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

'VANILLA, a flavouring agent largely used in the manufacture of chocolate, in confectionery and in perfumery. It consists of the fermented and dried pods of several species of orchids belonging to the genus Vanilla. The great bulk of the commercial article is the produce of V. planifolia, a native of south-eastern Mexico, but now largely cultivated in several tropical countries, especially in Bourbon, the Seychelles, Tahiti and Java. The plant has a long fleshy stem and attaches itself by its aerial rootlets to trees; the roots also penetrate the soil and derive a considerable portion of their nourishment from 1 Span. vainilla, dim. of vaina, a pod.

it. The leaves are alternate, oval-lanceolate and fleshy; the light greenish flowers form axillary spikes. The fruit is a pod Vanilla Plant (Vanilla planifolia). A, shoot with flower, leaf and aerial rootlets; B, pod or fruit.

from 6 to io in. long, and when mature about half an inch in diameter. The wild plant yields a smaller and less aromatic fruit, distinguished in Mexico as Baynilla cimarona, the cultivated vanilla being known as B. corriente. Vanilla was used by the Aztecs of Mexico as an ingredient in the manufacture of chocolate before the discovery of America by the Spaniards, who adopted its use. The earliest botanical notice is given in 1605 by Clusius (Exoticorum Libri Decem), who had received fruits from Hugh Morgan, apothecary to Queen Elizabeth; but he seems to have known nothing of its native country or uses. The Mexican vanilla had been introduced to cultivation before the publication of the second edition of Philip Miller's Gardeners' Dictionary (1739). It was reintroduced by the marquis of Blandford, and in 1807 a flowering specimen was figured and described by R. A. Salisbury (Paradisus, London, t. 82). Mexican vanilla is regarded as the best. It is principally consumed in the United States. In Bourbon about 3000 acres are under cultivation; the crop is sent to Bordeaux, the chief centre of the trade in France. Its odour is said to differ from the Mexican variety in having a suggestion of tonqua bean. The Seychelles produce large quantities of exceedingly fine quality; the produce of these islands goes chiefly to the London market. The Java vanilla, grown chiefly in Krawang and the Preanger Regencies, is shipped to Holland. The Tahiti produce is inferior in quality.

Mr Hermann Mayer Senior, in the Chemist and Druggist, June 30, 1906, gives the following figures, which approximately represent the world's output of vanilla during the seasons 1905-1906: Bourbon, 70 tons; Seychelles, 45 tons; Mauritius, 5 tons; Comores, Mayotte, Madagascar, &c., 120 tons; Guadeloupe, Java, Ceylon and Fiji, 10 tons; Mexica, 70 tons; Tahiti, loo tons - total, about 420 tons.

The best varieties of vanilla pods are of a very dark chocolate brown or nearly black colour, and are covered with a crystalline efflorescence technically known as givre, the presence of which is taken as a criterion of quality. The peculiar fragrance of vanilla is due to vanillin, C 8 H 8 0 3, which forms this efflorescence. Chemically speaking, it is the aldehyde of methyl-protocatechuic acid. It is not naturally present in the fleshy exterior of the pod, but is secreted by hair-like papillae lining its three internal angles, and ultimately becomes diffused through the viscid oily liquid surrounding the seeds. The amount of vanillin varies according to the kind: Mexican vanilla yields 1.69, Bourbon or Reunion 1.9 to 2.48, and Java 2.75%. Besides vanillin, the pods contain vanillic acid (which is odourless), about 11% of fixed oil, 2.3% of soft resin, sugar, gum and oxalate of lime.

Vanillin forms crystalline needles, fusible at 81° C., and soluble in alcohol, ether and oils, hardly soluble in cold, but more so in water. Like other aldehydes, it forms a compound with the alkaline bisulphites, and can by this means be extracted from bodies containing it. Vanillin has been found in Siam benzoin and in raw sugar, and has been prepared artificially from coniferin, a glucoside found in the sapwood of fir-trees, from asafoetida, and from a constituent of oil of cloves named eugenol. It is from the last-named that vanillin is now prepared on a commercial scale, chiefly in Germany. Vanillin does not appear to have any physiological action on human beings when taken in small doses, as much as Jo to 15 grains having been administered without noxious results. On small animals, however, such as frogs, it appears to act as a convulsive. It has been suggested as a stimulant of an excitomotor character in atonic dyspepsia. It is a constituent of Giinzburg's reagent (phloro-vanillin-glucin) for the detection of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric contents. The poisonous effects that have on several occasions followed from eating ices flavoured with vanilla are not to be attributed to the vanilla, but probably to the presence of tyrotoxicon (Pharm. Journ. [3], xvii. p. 150), a poison found in milk which has undergone certain putrefactive changes, and producing choleraic effects, or perhaps to the presence of microscopic fungi in the vanilla, the plantations being liable to the attack of Bacterium putredinis. Workmen handling the beans in the Bordeaux factories are subject to itching of the hands and face; but this is caused by an Acarus which occupies the end of the pod. In some cases, however, symptoms of dizziness, weariness and malaise, with muscular pains, have been felt, due possibly to the absorption of the oily juice by the hands of the workmen.

See also R. A. Rolfe, "Vanillas of Commerce," in Kew Bulletin (1895), p. 169, and "Revision of the Genus Vanilla," in Journal of The Linnean Society (Botany), xxxii. 439 (1896); also S. J. Galbraith, on "Cultivation in the Seychelles," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Botany, Bulletin 21 (1898).


<< Sir William Cornelius Van Horne

Lucilio Vanini >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also vanilla

Contents

Translingual

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

Proper noun

Vanilla

  1. A taxonomic genus, within subtribe Vanillinae - the vanilla orchid
Wikispecies-logo.svg
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

See also

  • Vanilla planifolia
  • See Wikipedia for other species

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales
Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamiliae: Vanilloideae
Tribus: Vanilleae
Subtribus: Vanillinae
Genus: Vanilla
Species: V. aphylla - V. barbellata - V. planifolia - V. abundiflora - V. acuminata - V. acuta - V. africana - V. albida - V. andamanica - V. angustipetala - V. annamica - V. aphylla - V. appendiculata - V. bahiana - V. bakeri - V. bampsiana - V. barbellata - V. barrereana - V. bertoniensis - V. bicolor - V. borneensis - V. bradei - V. calopogon - V. calyculata - V. carinata - V. chalottii - V. chamissonis - V. claviculata - V. columbiana - V. correllii - V. coursii - V. cristagalli - V. cristatocallosa - V. cucullata - V. decaryana - V. denticulata - V. diabolica - V. dilloniana - V. dubia - V. duckei - V. dungsii - V. edwallii - V. fimbriata - V. francoisii - V. gardneri - V. giulianettii - V. grandiflora - V. grandifolia - V. griffithii - V. hallei - V. hamata - V. hartii - V. havilandii - V. helleri - V. heterolopha - V. hostmannii - V. humblotii - V. imperialis - V. inodora - V. insignis - V. kaniensis - V. kempteriana - V. kinabaluensis - V. latisegmenta - V. leprieurii - V. lindmaniana - V. madagascariensis - V. marowynensis - V. methonica - V. mexicana - V. moonii - V. nigerica - V. ochyrae - V. odorata - V. organensis - V. ovalis - V. ovata - V. palembanica - V. palmarum - V. parvifolia - V. penicillata - V. perexilis - V. perrieri - V. phaeantha - V. phalaenopsis - V. pierrei - V. pilifera - V. planifolia - V. platyphylla - V. poitaei - V. polylepis - V. porteresiana - V. purusara - V. ramosa - V. ribeiroi - V. rojasiana - V. roscheri - V. ruiziana - V. schwackeana - V. seranica - V. seretii - V. siamensis - V. sprucei - V. sumatrana - V. surinamensis - V. tahitensis - V. trigonocarpa - V. uncinata - V. utteridgei - V. vellozii - V. walkeriae - V. wariensis - V. weberbaueriana - V. wightii

Name

Vanilla Plumier ex Mill., 1754

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Vanilla on Wikimedia Commons.

Vernacular Name

English: Vanilla
日本語: バニラ属
Türkçe: Vanilya







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message