Var (department): Wikis

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Var
Coat of Arms of Var
Location
Location of Var in France
Administration
Department number: 83
Region: Provence-Alpes-
Côte d'Azur
Prefecture: Toulon
Subprefectures: Brignoles
Draguignan
Arrondissements: 3
Cantons: 43
Communes: 153
President of the General Council: Horace Lanfranchi
Statistics
Population Ranked 21st
 -2007
 -March 8, 1999 census
990,000
Population density: 377/km2
Land area¹: 5,087 km2
¹ French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2.


The Var is a French department in Provence, in southeast France. It takes its name from the river Var, which used to flow along its eastern boundary, but which now flows into the Mediterranean further to the east. The Var is bordered on the east by the department of Alpes-Maritimes; to the west by Bouches-du-Rhone to the north of the Verdon River by the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and to the south by the Mediterranean Sea.

Toulon is the largest city and administrative capital of the Var.

Other important towns in the Var are:

The Var is known for the harbor of Toulon, the main port of the French Navy; for its seaside resorts, the most famous of which is Saint-Tropez; for some fine examples of Romanesque and medieval architecture, such as the Le Thoronet Abbey and Frejus Cathedral; and for its wines, particularly the wines of Bandol.

Contents

History

(For the early history of the Var before the French Revolution, see Provence; the French Riviera; and Toulon.)

The Department of the Var was created at the time of the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, from a portion of the former Royal province of Provence. Its capital was originally Toulon, but this was moved to Grasse in 1793 to punish the Toulonnais for having handed the town to British in 1793. The capital was moved to Brignoles in 1795, then to Draguignan in 1797. It was not returned to Toulon until 1974.

  • 1854. The first railroad reaches Toulon.
  • 1860. With the creation of the new department of Alpes-Maritimes, following the annexation by France of Nice, the eastern part of the department, including Grasse, was moved to the new department. This move also shifted the Var River, which had given the department its name, to the new Department.
  • 1884. A cholera epidemic struck Toulon. The leader of the fight against the epidemic was Georges Clemenceau, a doctor and a member of the National Assembly for the Seine region. He was elected Deputy from the Var from 1888 to 1893 and Senator from 1902 to 1920, during which time he also served as Prime Minister
  • 1914-1918. The First World War stimulates growth in shipyards and military industries in the region, but weakens the agricultural and food industry.
  • 1942. The German Army moves from Occupied France into the Unoccupied Zone, including the Var. The French Fleet is sabotaged in Toulon Harbor to keep it from falling into German hands. The Maquis Vallier, a group of maquis resistance fighters, is active.

Geography

The Island of Porquerolles, Îles d'Hyères.
The Gorge of the Verdon River
Le Trayas (at Forêt Domaniale de l'Estérel and Mediterranean Sea coast)

The Department of the Var has a surface area of 6032 square kilometers, and 420 kilometers of coastline, including the offshore islands.

Over half (56 percent) of the Var is covered with forest. Its geological formations are divided into two regions; one composed of limestone to the west of a line between Toulon and Draguignan; and of crystalline rock (quartz) to the east.

The department is in the foothills of the Alps. is largely mountainous. The major mountain ranges are:

  • The Massif des Maures (highest point, 771 meters) and the Massif de l'Esterel, along the coast, (highest point - 618 meters) are made of quartz rock.
  • The Massif of Saint-Baume, lies in the west, with its highest point at 1,147 meters.
  • The mountain of Lachens (1,715 meters), is in the northwest of the department, and is the highest point in the Var. is in the north of the Department, To the west of the *The Mountain of Lachens (1,715 meters) .

The Plain of Cajuers is located in the north of the var, and gradually rises from 500 to 1000 meters. In the south and west there are several plateaus, such as the plateau of Siou Blac to the north of Toulon, which rise from 400 to 700 meters in altitude.

  • The Canyon du Verdon, the gorge of the Verdon River, is a popular place for hikers, kayakers, and nature lovers.
  • The Îles d'Hyères (or Porquerolles) is a group of three islands off Hyères The islands are named Porquerolles, Port-Cros, and Île du Levant. Together, they make up an area of 26 km². They can be reached by boat from either Hyeres or Toulon.

Climate

Toulon - the Place de la Liberté
the Vieux Port of Saint-Tropez
The beach of la Courtade in the Iles d'Hyeres.

The Department of the Var has a Mediterranean climate, slightly warmer, dryer and sunnier than Nice and the Alpes-Maritime, but also less sheltered from the wind. Toulon has an average of 2899.3 hours of sunshine a year, making it the sunniest city in metropolitan France,[1] The average maximum daily temperature in August is 29.1 degrees C., and the average daily minimum temperature in January is 5.8 degrees C. The average annual rainfall is 665 millimeters, with the most rain from October to November. Strong winds blow an average of 118 days a year in Toulon, compared with 76 days at Frejus further east. The strongest Mistral wind recorded in Toulon was 130 kilometers an hour.[2]

Population

In 2007, the population of the Var was estimated at 990,000, of whom nearly half live in and around Toulon.

In 2004-2005, the population of the urban area of Toulon was estimated at 403,743 persons, of whom 160,639 lived in Toulon itself: 60,188 in La Seyne-sur-Mer; 52,500 in Hyères; and 32,742 in Six-Fours-les-Plages.

The population of other important towns, according to the 2004-2005 estimate:

  • Frejus - 49,100
  • Saint-Raphael - 32,200
  • Draguignan - 35,500
  • Brignoles - 15,540

Industry and Agriculture

The principal industry of the Var is tourism, thanks largely to the enormous summer influx of tourists to the Mediterranean coastal towns, and to the Verdon River Canyon and hilltop villages of the Var.

800 km² or 13% of the total area is dedicated to agriculture, on which 40,000 people (14% of the Var working population) depend for their livelihoods. The department also has 10 km² of horticultural land (of which 4 km² are covered). The Var is France's largest grower of cut flowers, producing some 500 million stems a year. Livestock farming is mainly sheep (50,000 head) and goats (4,200 head). Vines and viticultural related activities account for 345 km² of farmland. The 450 domaines / cooperatives and the 4 AOCs (appellation d'origine controlleé) produce 150 million litres (3.3 m UK gallons) of wine a year. The Var leads the world in the production of rose wine.

Other important agricultural products include olives (42 km², a quarter of all French olive groves, and some 40 mills), figs - the Var produces 80% of France's figs, and honey (800 tonnes a year). There are also 9 km² of market gardens.

Agricultural turnover in the Var is 610 million euros per year, of which 45% is sales of wines and 42% of horticultural products.[3]

The construction industry employs 28,000 workers in the Var of which 4,000 work alone. 4,500 companies employ the 24,000 salaried employees. The industry generates an annual turnover of 2.5 billion euros. Of this 500 million euros is derived from public works.[4].

Wines of the Var Department

  • AOC Coteaux varois en Provence is a recent AOC in Provence. The name Coteaux Varois was first used in 1945, and became an AOC in 1993. the name was changed to Couteaux Varois en Provence in 2005. The red wines principally use the grenache, cinsaut, mourvèdre and syrah grapes. White wines use the clairette,grenache blanc, rolle blanc, Sémillon Blanc, and Ugni Blanc. There are 2200 hectares in this AOL. It produces 80 percent rosés, 17 percent red wines, and 3 percent white wines.

Tourism in the Var

Popular tourist attractions in the Var include:

References and sources

  1. ^ source: infoclimat.fr precipitations a Toulon.
  2. ^ Météo-France. site
  3. ^ Var Matin and Le Magazin du Conseil General du Var.
  4. ^ Var Matin. Monday 9 June 2008.

See also

External links

Var at the Open Directory Project

Coordinates: 43°30′N 06°20′E / 43.5°N 6.333°E / 43.5; 6.333

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