The Full Wiki

Vasily Chuikov: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vasily Chuikov
February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982 (aged 82)
Nickname Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в
Place of birth Serebryanye Prudy, Moscow Governorate, Russian Empire
Place of death Moscow, Soviet Union
Allegiance Soviet Union
Years of service 1917-1972
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union
Unit Soviet 8th Guards Army
Commands held Red Army Ground Forces
Civil Defense
Battles/wars Great Patriotic War
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Berlin
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union (twice)
Other work 1961 until his death, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Contents

Early life and career

Born into a peasant family in Moscow province, he joined the Red Army during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and later attended the Frunze Military Academy. Chuikov commanded the 4th Army in the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, and during the Russo-Finnish War of 1940. He was then sent to China as an advisor to Chiang Kai-shek. In May 1942 the USSR recalled their military advisor, according to Chuikov's memoirs this was due to Nationalist China claiming the USSR was providing military aid as part of an attempt to draw the USSR into the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Second World War

On returning to Moscow, Chuikov was placed in command of the 64th Army, on the West bank of the Don river. The 64th Army took part in the fighting withdrawal to Stalingrad, and shortly before the Battle of Stalingrad itself began, Chuikov was made commanding general of the more important 62nd Army, which was to hold Stalingrad itself, with the 64th on its Southern flank.

It was at Stalingrad that Chuikov developed the important tactic of “hugging the enemy,” by which under-armed Soviet soldiers kept the German army so close to them as to minimize the superior firepower enjoyed by the Wehrmacht. Chuikov had witnessed firsthand the Blitzkrieg tactics the Nazis had used to sweep across the Russian steppe, so he used the Germans' carpet-bombing of the city to draw panzer units into the rubble and chaos where their progress was impeded. Here they could be destroyed with Molotov cocktails and Russian artillery operating at close range. This tactic also rendered the German Luftwaffe ineffective, since Stuka dive-bombers could not attack Red Army positions without firing upon their own forces.[1][2]

After the victory at Stalingrad, the 62nd was redesignated as the Soviet 8th Guards Army. Chuikov then commanded the 8th Guards as part of 1st Belorussian Front and led its advance through Poland, finally heading the Soviet offensive which conquered Berlin in April/May 1945.

Chuikov's advance through Poland was characterized by massive advances across difficult terrain (on several occasions, the 8th Guards Army advanced over 40 miles in a single day). On May 1, 1945, Chuikov, who commanded his army operating in central Berlin, was the first Allied officer to learn about Adolf Hitler's suicide, being informed by Hans Krebs who came to Chuikov's headquarters under a white flag. He accepted the surrender of Berlin's forces from General Helmuth Weidling.

Chuikov appeared in the documentary film Berlin (1945), directed by Yuli Raizman.

Later life

After the war ended Chuikov stayed in Germany, later serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany from 1949 until 1953, when he was made the Commanding General of the Kiev Military District. While serving at that post, on March 11, 1955 he was promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union. From 1960 to 1964 he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Army's Ground Forces. He also served as the Chief of the Civil Defense from 1961 until his retirement in 1972. From 1961 until his death, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

He was a major consultant for the design of the Stalingrad battle memorial on Mamayev Kurgan, and was buried there after his death at the age of 82.

Memoirs in translation

  • The Beginning of the Road: The Story of the Battle for Stalingrad, London, 1963.[3]

In popular culture

Dana Kramer-Rolls' novel, Home is the Hunter, has Star Trek character Pavel Chekov refer to Chuikov as his ancestor (although 'Vasily' is spelled as 'Vassily').

See also

References

  1. ^ Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: the Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books (ISBN 0-14-200000-0 & ISBN 1-56852-368-8).:90, 91
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad. New York: Viking (ISBN 0-14-024985-0).:128, 129
  3. ^ Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-fighting World War Two (Barbara Frum lecture series), Vintage Canada, Toronto, 1995. Republished by Vintage Books, New York, 1996.:121

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (February 12, 1900March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. He was a major consultant for the design of the Stalingrad battle memorial on Mamayev Kurgan, and was buried there after his death at the age of 82. He was the first Russian Marshal to be buried outside Moscow.

Sourced

  • Every German soldier must be made to feel that he is living under the muzzle of a Russian gun.
    • Quoted in "199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad" - Page 142 - by Edwin Palmer Hoyt - History - 1999
  • There are those who propose that both sides remove all their forces from Germany. That's a silly idea. The Germans hate us; we couldn't think of removing our forces from Germany.
    • Quoted in "president reagan and the world" - Page 251 - by Eric J. Schmertz, Natalie Datlof, Alexej Ugrinsky, Hofstra University - 1997
  • The Germans underestimated our artillery. And they underestimated the effectiveness of our infantry against their tanks. This battle showed that tanks forced to operate in narrow quarters are of limited value; they're just guns without mobility. In such conditions nothing can take the place of small groups of infantry, properly armed, and fighting with utmost determination. I don't mean barricade street fighting—there was little of that—but groups converting every building into a fortress and fighting for it floor by floor and even room by room. Such defenders cannot be driven out either by tanks or planes. The Germans dropped over a million bombs on us but they did not dislodge our infantry from its decisive positions. On the other hand, tanks can be destroyed from buildings used as fortresses.
    • Quoted in "the story of the second world war" - Page 167 - by henry steele commager
  • I would not have believed such an inferno could open up on earth. Men died but they did not retreat.
    • Quoted in "Europe in Our Time, 1914 to the Present" - Page 571 - by Robert Reinhold Ergang - Europe - 1953
  • He ordered us to stand fast and save Stalingrad. So we knew then that it was 'do or die.' We could not retreat.
    • Quoted in "Unconditional Surrender" - Page 139 - by Everett Holles - 1945
  • Our units were tired. There were many whining pessimists in the army. I threw these panicky people out of the army right away and set to work. I told our men we could not retreat beyond the Volga... I believe that nowhere else in this war was there such bloody hand-to-hand combat. Nowhere else were bayonets and hand grenades used so widely as in Stalingrad...Lieutenant General Rodimtzev's division was first to arrive there and received the fierce German blow. Rodimtzev told me: 'We will fight to the last man, but we shall not leave the city.' ...Our soldiers had only one idea. Stalin had ordered us not to retreat.
    • Quoted in "They Shall Not Sleep" - Page 318 - by Leland Stowe - 1944
  • The heavy casualties, the constant retreat, the shortage of food and munitions, the difficulty of receiving reinforcements... all this had a very bad effect on morale. Many longed to get across the Volga, to escape the hell of Stalingrad.
    • Quoted in "Ivan's War: Life and Death in the Red Army" - Page 174 - by Catherine Merridale - History - 2007
  • The battle of Kursk... the forcing of the Dnieper... and the liberation of Kiev, left Hitlerite Germany facing catastrophe.
    • Quoted in "The fall of Berlin" - by Vasiliĭ Ivanovich Chuĭkov - 1968

About Chuikov

  • One sanction, which Chuikov was never ashamed to use, was the threat of a bullet in the back. The discipline he maintained was savage even by the standars of Zhukov's Red Army.
    • Catherine Merridale

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

File:Stamp of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan commemorative postage Marshal Chuikov

Vasily Chuykov (February 12 1900 - March 18 1982) - Soviet military leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1955), during the World War II - commander 62nd army, which especially was outstanding himself in the Battle of Stalingrad. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945).

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message