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Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Symbols VIP; MGC13587; PHM27
External IDs OMIM192320 MGI98933 HomoloGene2539 GeneCards: VIP Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VIP 206577 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7432 22353
Ensembl ENSG00000146469 ENSMUSG00000019772
UniProt P01282 P32648
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003381 NM_011702
RefSeq (protein) NP_003372 NP_035832
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
153.11 - 153.12 Mb
Chr 10:
4.7 - 4.71 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, also polypeptide) is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues and is produced in many areas of the human body including the gut, pancreas and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[1][2] In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[3]

VIP has a half-life (T1/2) in the blood of about two minutes.



VIP has an effect on several different parts of the body:

  • It also has the function of stimulating pepsinogen secretion by chief cells.[7]
  • It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.
  • VIP helps to regulate prolactin secretion[8]; it stimulates prolactin release.


VIP is overproduced in VIPoma.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (September 1982). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects". Br. Med. Bull. 38 (3): 265–70. PMID 6129023.  
  2. ^ Said SI (April 1986). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 9 (2): 191–200. PMID 2872248.  
  3. ^ Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (January 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMID 3025882. PMC 304259.  
  4. ^ a b c Bowen R (1999-01-24). "Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide". Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. Retrieved 2009-02-06.  
  5. ^ "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". General Practice Notebook. Retrieved 2009-02-06.  
  6. ^ Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. "Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)". Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. Retrieved 2009-02-06.  
  7. ^ Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (November 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". Am. J. Physiol. 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6. PMID 6195927.  
  8. ^ Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (July 2005). "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 142 (3): 267–73. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.12.024. PMID 15935152.  

Further reading

  • Fahrenkrug J (2002). "Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 234: 35–9. PMID 11713978.  
  • Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D (2004). "The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation". Pharmacol. Rev. 56 (2): 249–90. doi:10.1124/pr.56.2.7. PMID 15169929.  
  • Conconi MT, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer GG (2006). "Endogenous ligands of PACAP/VIP receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the adrenal gland". Int. Rev. Cytol. 249: 1–51. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(06)49001-X. PMID 16697281.  
  • Hill JM (2007). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential". Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1079–89. doi:10.2174/138161207780618975. PMID 17430171.  
  • Gonzalez-Rey E, Varela N, Chorny A, Delgado M (2007). "Therapeutical approaches of vasoactive intestinal peptide as a pleiotropic immunomodulator". Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1113–39. doi:10.2174/138161207780618966. PMID 17430175.  
  • "[Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 222 (4): 997–1000. 1975. PMID 807467.  
  • Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, et al. (1992). "Isolation and characterization of peptides which act on rat platelets, from a pheochromocytoma". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185 (1): 134–41. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80966-0. PMID 1318039.  
  • Glowa JR, Panlilio LV, Brenneman DE, et al. (1992). "Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". Brain Res. 570 (1-2): 49–53. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90562-N. PMID 1617429.  
  • Theriault Y, Boulanger Y, St-Pierre S (1991). "Structural determination of the vasoactive intestinal peptide by two-dimensional H-NMR spectroscopy". Biopolymers 31 (4): 459–64. doi:10.1002/bip.360310411. PMID 1863695.  
  • Gozes I, Giladi E, Shani Y (1987). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene: putative mechanism of information storage at the RNA level". J. Neurochem. 48 (4): 1136–41. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb05638.x. PMID 2434617.  
  • Yamagami T, Ohsawa K, Nishizawa M, et al. (1988). "Complete nucleotide sequence of human vasoactive intestinal peptide/PHM-27 gene and its inducible promoter". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 527: 87–102. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb26975.x. PMID 2839091.  
  • Bodner M, Fridkin M, Gozes I (1985). "Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (11): 3548–51. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.11.3548. PMID 2987932.  
  • DeLamarter JF, Buell GN, Kawashima E, et al. (1985). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide: expression of the prohormone in bacterial cells". Peptides 6 Suppl 1: 95–102. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(85)90016-6. PMID 2995945.  
  • Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, et al. (1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMID 3025882.  
  • Gotoh E, Yamagami T, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H (1989). "Chromosomal assignment of human VIP/PHM-27 gene to 6q26----q27 region by spot blot hybridization and in situ hybridization". Biochem. Int. 17 (3): 555–62. PMID 3202886.  
  • Yiangou Y, Di Marzo V, Spokes RA, et al. (1987). "Isolation, characterization, and pharmacological actions of peptide histidine valine 42, a novel prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide-derived peptide". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (29): 14010–3. PMID 3654650.  
  • Gozes I, Bodner M, Shani Y, Fridkin M (1986). "Structure and expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene in a human tumor". Peptides 7 Suppl 1: 1–6. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(86)90156-7. PMID 3748844.  
  • Tsukada T, Horovitch SJ, Montminy MR, et al. (1985). "Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene". DNA 4 (4): 293–300. PMID 3899557.  
  • Heinz-Erian P, Dey RD, Flux M, Said SI (1985). "Deficient vasoactive intestinal peptide innervation in the sweat glands of cystic fibrosis patients". Science 229 (4720): 1407–8. doi:10.1126/science.4035357. PMID 4035357.  
  • Bloom SR, Christofides ND, Delamarter J, et al. (1984). "Diarrhoea in vipoma patients associated with cosecretion of a second active peptide (peptide histidine isoleucine) explained by single coding gene". Lancet 2 (8360): 1163–5. PMID 6139527.  

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