Vegan: Wikis


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See also Vegetarianism and veganism and Ethics of eating meat
Simple example of many possible vegan lunch or dinner options: pumpkin seed-crusted lentil patties with roasted garlic mashed potatoes and salad.

Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.[1][2] Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind.[3] The most common reasons for becoming a vegan are ethical commitment or moral conviction concerning animal rights or welfare, the environment, human health, and spiritual or religious concerns.[2][4][5] Of particular concern to many vegans are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources for animal farming.

Vegan diets (sometimes called strict or pure vegetarian diets) are a form of vegetarianism. Properly planned vegan diets are healthful and have been found to satisfy nutritional needs.[6] Poorly planned vegan diets can be low in levels of calcium, iodine, vitamin B12, iron[7][8] and vitamin D. Vegans are therefore encouraged to plan their diet and take dietary supplements as appropriate.[6] Various polls have reported vegans to be between 0.2%[4] and 1.3%[9] of the U.S. population, and between 0.25%[5] and 0.4%[10] of the UK population.



The Vegan Society was founded in 1944 by Donald Watson and Elsie Shrigley, in response to the broadening of the term vegetarian to include the eating of dairy products.[11] The first vegan society in the United States was founded in California in 1948 by Dr. Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz[12] and was subsequently incorporated into the American Vegan Society after its founding in 1960 by Jay Dinshah.[13] In 1984, a "breakaway" group from the Vegan Society, the Movement for Compassionate Living, was founded by former Vegan Society secretary Kathleen Jannaway to promote sustainable living and self-sufficiency in addition to veganism.[14] Today, there are many vegan societies worldwide, including national societies in Australia, India, New Zealand, and South Africa.[nb 1] In 1993, the advocacy organization which would become Vegan Outreach was founded by Matt Ball and Jack Norris.[15]

In 1994, the annual World Vegan Day was established on November 1 by the then President and Chair of the Vegan Society, Louise Wallis.[16]


Donald Watson, creator of the term vegan, and founder of the Vegan Society.

The word vegan was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson, who combined the first three and last two letters of vegetarian to form "vegan," which he saw as "the beginning and end of vegetarian."[11][17] Vegan is pronounced /ˈviːɡən/[18] or /ˈvɛdʒən/,[19] although Watson considered the latter pronunciation to be incorrect.[20] The Vegan Society defines veganism in this way:

[T]he word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.[1]

Other vegan societies use similar definitions.[21][22][23]

Animal products

An animal product is any material derived from animals.[2] Notable animal products include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, honey, fur, leather, wool, and silk.[3] Common animal products also include gelatin, lanolin, rennet, whey, casein, beeswax, isinglass, and shellac.[3]

Animal products such as ground bone and powdered fish organs may be used in the production of a product although they may not appear as an ingredient in the final product.[24][25][26] Many of these ingredients are obscure,[27][28] may also have non-animal sources,[29] and may not even be identified.[24] Although the organisation Vegan Outreach has the opinion that "it can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to shun every minor or hidden animal-derived ingredient", [30][31] the Vegan Society will not certify a product as vegan unless its production does not involve, or have involved, the use of any animal product, by-product or derivative.[32]

Neither The Vegan Society or American Vegan Society consider the use of honey or other insect products to be suitable for vegans,[33][34] but both Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach question the ethical basis of such a position[nb 2] and therefore regard the consumption of honey as a matter of "personal choice."[35][36]


Data regarding the number of vegans is available in some countries.

United States

United States Representative Dennis Kucinich and his wife Elizabeth. The Kuciniches are known in part for their veganism and support of animal welfare.[37][38]

A 2002 Time/CNN poll found that 4% of American adults consider themselves vegetarians, and 5% of vegetarians consider themselves vegans, which implies that 0.2% of American adults are vegans.[4][nb 3] In 2008, Harris Interactive conducted a survey for Vegetarian Times which indicated that approximately 0.5% of Americans identify as vegan.[39] Harris Interactive also conducted surveys for the Vegetarian Resource Group in both 2006 and 2009 which listed specific foods and asked respondents to indicate which items they never eat, rather than asking respondents to self-identify as vegetarian or vegan. In 2006, 1.4% of respondents reported never eating meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy products, or eggs and were therefore essentially vegan in their eating habits.[9] In 2009, 1.3% of respondents reported never eating these products, including 0.8% of respondents who also avoided honey.[40] The 2006 survey found that about 1.4% of men and 1.3% of women have vegan diets.[9] According to an Aramark survey, one of out every four college students in the U.S. is seeking vegan options on campus.[41]

United Kingdom

In 2002, the UK Food Standards Agency carried out a National Diet and Nutrition Survey, which reported that 5% of respondents self-identified as vegetarian or vegan. Though 29% of that 5% said they avoided "all animal products", only 5% reported avoiding dairy products.[5] Based on these figures, approximately 0.25% of the UK population follow a vegan diet.[nb 4] In 2005, The Times estimated there were 250,000 vegans in Britain, which suggests around 0.4% of the UK population is vegan.[10][nb 5] A 2007 survey for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs into the UK population's attitudes and behaviour towards the environment found that 2.24% of the population identified themselves as vegan.[42] In the same study, vegetarians who did not also eat chicken or fish made up 2.7% of the population. The DEFRA study also indicated that slightly more men than women are vegan, that more vegans live in towns or cities than the country, and that people aged 16–29 were vegan more often than any other age group.

The Netherlands

The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimates there to be approximately 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.1% of the Dutch population.[43]


Various polls and research conducted during the 1990s put the overall percentage of Swedish residents being vegan at between 0.27% and 1.6%.[44] A study of the eating patterns of 2,538 Swedish children of ages 4, 8 and 11 by the Swedish National Food Administration found that about 1% of the children were vegetarian, less than 1% were lacto-vegetarians, but found no children to be vegans.[45] A 1996 study of over 67,000 Swedish students between the ages of 16 and 20 found 0.1% to be vegan,[46] and found a particularly high concentration of vegans in Umeå where 3.3% of the students were vegan.[47]


A 1996 study of 952 15-year old students in Bergen found 0.2% of females to be vegan, but found no male participants to be vegan.[46]


The German Federal Study on Food-Consumption reported 0.1% of female and 0.05% of male participants to be vegan.[48]


The central ethical question related to veganism is whether it is right for humans to use and kill animals. This question is essentially the same as the fundamental question of animal rights, so it has been animal rights ethicists who have articulated the philosophical foundations for veganism. The philosophical discussion also therefore reflects the division of viewpoints within animal rights theory between a rights-based approach, taken by both Tom Regan and Gary Francione, and a utilitarian one, promoted by Peter Singer. Vegan advocacy organizations generally adhere to some form of an animal rights viewpoint and oppose practices which violate these rights.

Philosophical foundations

A cow restrained for slaughter. Some ethicists consider the slaughter of animals to be an infringement upon the animals' rights.[49]

Tom Regan, professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, argues that animals are entities which possess "inherent value"[50] and therefore have "basic moral rights," and that the principal moral right they possess is "the right to respectful treatment."[51] Regan additionally argues that animals have a "basic moral right not to be harmed," which can be overridden only when the individual's right not to be harmed is "morally outweighed" by "other valid moral principles."[52][53] From this "rights view," Regan argues that "animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust" even when animals are raised "humanely."[49][54] Regan argues against various justifications for eating meat including that "animal flesh is tasty," that it is "habit" for "individuals and as a culture", that it is "convenient," that "meat is nutritious," that there is an obligation to the economic interests of farmers or to the economic interests of a country, or that "farm animals are legal property," and finds that all fail to treat animals with the respect due to them by their basic rights.[55] Regan therefore argues that "those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so" and that "the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life."[56]

Gary L. Francione, professor of Law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark, argues that animals are sentient, and that this is sufficient to grant them moral consideration.[57] Francione argues that "all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property" and that there is "no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes."[57] Francione further argues that adopting veganism should be regarded as the "baseline" action taken by people concerned with animal rights.[57]

Peter Singer, professor of bioethics at Princeton, argues that there is "no moral justification" for refusing to take sentient animal suffering into consideration in ethical decisions.[58] Singer argues that an animal's interests warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is "speciesist."[58] Based upon his evaluation of these interests, Singer argues that "our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity."[59] Singer does not contend that killing animals is always wrong, but that from a practical standpoint it is "better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive."[60] Singer therefore advocates both veganism and improved conditions for farm animals as practical means to reduce animal suffering.[61][62][63]

Advocacy organizations

Vegan advocacy organizations generally regard animals to have some form of rights, and therefore consider it unethical to use animals in ways that infringe those rights.[64][65][66][67] The Vegan Society, for example, maintains that "animals have the right not to be farmed,"[64] Vegan Action asserts that "animals are not ours to use,"[65] PETA states that "animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment,"[66] and Mercy for Animals writes that "non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights."[67]

Advocacy organizations regard practices such as factory farming,[68][69][70] animal testing,[3][71] and displaying animals for entertainment in circuses,[72] rodeos,[73] and zoos[74] as cruel to animals.


Steven Davis, a professor of animal science at Oregon State University, argues that following Tom Regan's "least harm principle" may not necessarily require the adoption of a vegan diet because there are non-vegetarian diets which "may kill fewer animals" than are killed in the intensive crop production necessary to support vegetarian diets. In particular, Davis calculates that a diet partially based on large grass-fed ruminants like cows, would kill fewer animals than a vegan diet.[75]

Davis's analysis has itself been criticized, such as by Gaverick Matheny, a Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics at the University of Maryland, College Park, and by Andy Lamey, a Ph.D. student at the University of Western Australia. Matheny argues that Davis miscalculates the number of animal deaths based on land area rather than per consumer, and incorrectly equates "the harm done to animals … to the number of animals killed." Matheny argues that per-consumer, a vegan diet would kill fewer wild animals than a diet adhering to Davis's model, and that vegetarianism "involves better treatment of animals, and likely allows a greater number of animals with lives worth living to exist."[76]

Lamey characterizes Davis's argument as "thought-provoking", but asserts that Davis's calculation of harvesting-related deaths is flawed because it is based upon two studies; one includes deaths from predation, which is "morally unobjectionable" for Regan, and the other examines production of a nonstandard crop, which Lamey argues has "little relevance" to the deaths associated with typical crop production. Lamey also argues, like Matheny, that accidental deaths are ethically distinct from intentional ones, and that if Davis includes accidental animal deaths in the moral cost of veganism he must also evaluate the increased human deaths associated with his proposed diet, which Lamey argues leaves "Davis, rather than Regan, with the less plausible argument."[77]

William Jarvis, writing for the Nutrition & Health Forum newsletter, attacks "ideologic vegetarians," whom he claims believe that "all life is sacred" and that "all forms of life have equal value," saying that these beliefs "can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises."[78] However, the ideas that all life is sacred or that all forms of life have equal value are not universal among vegans, many of whom do not grant moral standing to insects, for example. As the advocacy organization Vegan Action notes, "[m]any vegans, however, are not opposed to using insect products, because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain."[79] A similar view is expressed by Gary Varner, a vegan philosophy professor at Texas A&M University.[80] "The case for thinking that all vertebrates can feel pain is thus very strong, while the case for thinking that invertebrates can feel pain is extremely weak by comparison (with the possible exception of cephalopods like octopus and squid)."[81] Varner and other vegans who share his view do not feel obliged to respect the rights of mosquitoes, as they do not believe mosquitoes can suffer. Vegans and vegetarians also typically do not deny the moral right of self-defence.[82] They therefore are no more committed to allowing dangerous vipers to run loose in their homes than advocates of human rights are committed to not fighting back against human attackers.


Dietetic association positions

The American Dietetic Association annually publishes its position on vegan and vegetarian diets:

[A]ppropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes.[6]

In 2003, the Dietitians of Canada joined with the ADA to release a position paper to the same effect.[83] Similarly, the British Nutrition Foundation considers "well balanced" vegetarian diets to be nutritionally adequate,[84] and the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute considers "well planned" vegetarian diets to be "nutritionally balanced for both adults and children".[85]

In contrast, both the Swiss Federal Nutrition Commission and the German Society for Nutrition recommend against a vegan diet, particularly for children, the pregnant and the elderly.[86][87]

Nutritional benefits

A vegan version of the nutritional food pyramid which normally includes meat and animal products. Click to enlarge.

Scientists such as Roger Segelken and T. Colin Campbell believe that some diets (such as the standard American diet) are detrimental to health, and they believe that a vegan diet represents an improvement,[88][89] in part because vegan diets are often high enough in fruit and vegetables to meet or exceed the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes.

According to the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, diets that avoid meat tend to have lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals.[6] People who avoid meat are reported to have lower body mass index than those following the average Canadian diet; from this follows lower death rates from ischemic heart disease; lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.[6]

A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in western countries found the mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease 26% lower among vegans compared to regular meat eaters, but 34% lower among ovolactovegetarians and those who ate fish but no other meat. No significant difference in mortality was found from other causes.[90] A 2003 review of three studies comparing mortality rates among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians found only a nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease, but noted that the findings were compatible with the significant reduction found in the 1999 review.[91]

A 2006 study found that in people with type 2 diabetes a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association.[92]

Nutritional concerns

Various fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains; some basic ingredients of a vegan diet.

Specific nutrients

The American Dietetic Association considers "appropriately planned" vegan diets "nutritionally adequate",[6] but poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B12,[93], iron,[8][7] vitamin D,[94] calcium,[94][95] iodine[96] and omega-3 fatty acids.[97] These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences, including anemia,[98] rickets[99] and cretinism[100] in children, and osteomalacia[99] and hypothyroidism[100] in adults.

Vitamin B12

Deficiencies in Vitamin B12, a bacterial product that cannot be reliably found in plant foods,[98][101][102] can have serious health consequences, including megaloblastic anemia and neurodegenerative disease (including subacute combined degeneration of the cord).[103] Although clinical B12 deficiency is rare in vegans,[98] if a person has not eaten more than the daily needed amount of B12 over a long period before becoming a vegan then they may not have built up any significant store of the vitamin.[104] In a 2002 laboratory study, more of the strict vegan participants' B12 and iron levels were compromised than those of lacto- or lacto-ovo-vegetarian participants.[105]

The Vegan Society and Vegan Outreach, among others, recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B12 or take a B12 supplement.[106][107][108] Tempeh, seaweed, spirulina, organic produce, soil on unwashed vegetables, and intestinal bacteria have not been shown to be reliable sources of B12 for the dietary needs of vegans.[98][109][110]


Iron deficiency may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Vegans and other vegetarians—especially menstruating, pregnant and breastfeeding women—are at increased risk of developing iron deficiency. Iron is less well absorbed from vegetarian diets (approximately ten percent absorption from vegetarian diets, versus approximately 18 percent absorption from an omnivorous diet); vegetarians who exclude all animal products may need almost twice as much dietary iron each day than non-vegetarians.[7][111]

Calcium, vitamin D

It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, almonds, hazelnuts, and take a calcium supplement as necessary.[6][94] The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over both meat eaters and vegetarians, likely due to lower dietary calcium intake, but that vegans consuming more than the UK's estimated average requirements for calcium of 525 mg/day had risk of bone fractures similar to other groups.[95][112] A study of bone density found that vegans have bones 6% less dense than omnivores but that this difference was "clinically insignificant".[113] Another study by the same researchers examined over 100 vegan post-menopausal women and found that “…although vegans have much lower intakes of dietary calcium and protein than omnivores, veganism does not have (an) adverse effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and does not alter body composition.”[114]

The authors of The China Study argue that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein because animal protein, unlike plant protein, increases the acidity of blood and tissues which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones.[115] The authors add that "in our rural China Study, where the animal to plant ratio [for protein] was about 10%, the fracture rate is only one-fifth that of the U.S.," where consumption of animal products including dairy, is higher.[116]

For light-skinned people, adequate amounts of vitamin D may also be obtained by spending 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight every few days. Dark-skinned people need significantly more sunlight to obtain the same amount of vitamin D, and sunlight exposure may be difficult for vegans in areas with low levels of sunlight during winter; in these cases supplementation is recommended.[99][101][117]


Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain or Ireland, animal products are used for iodine delivery.[96][106] Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or from regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.[96][106]

Pregnancies and children

The American Dietetic Association considers well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy and lactation,"[6] but recommends that vegan mothers supplement for iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.[118][119] Vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers has been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.[120][121] Some research suggests that the essential omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and its derivatives should also be supplemented in pregnant and lactating vegan mothers, since they are very low in most vegan diets, and the metabolically related docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential to the developing visual system.[122] A maternal vegan diet has also been associated with low birth weight,[123] and a five times lower likelihood of having twins than those who eat animal products.[124]

Several cases of severe infant malnutrition and some fatalities have been associated with a poorly planned vegan diet,[125][126][127][128][129] and provoked criticism of vegan diets for children.[130][131] Parents involved in these cases were convicted on charges ranging from assault to felony murder. Addressing criticism of veganism, Dr. Amy Lanou, an expert witness for the prosecution in one of the cases, asserted that the child in that particular case "was not killed by a vegan diet" but that "the real problem was that he was not given enough food of any sort."[132]

Eating disorders

The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder."[6] Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.[133][134][135]

Resources and the environment

Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been shown as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.

People who adopt veganism for environmental reasons do so on the basis that veganism is claimed to consume far fewer resources and causes less environmental damage than an animal-based diet.[136][137][138] Animal agriculture is linked to climate change, water pollution, land degradation, and a decline in biodiversity.[138][139][140] Additionally, an animal-based diet uses more land,[140][141] water,[142] and energy than a vegan diet.[140][143][144]

The predictable increase in animal product proportions on the plates of people living in developing countries will bring new challenges to global agriculture. Source: FAO.

The Livestock, Environment And Development Initiative, a joint effort of the World Bank, The European Union, The US Agency for International Development, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others, released a report in November 2006 linking animal agriculture to environmental damage. The report, Livestock's Long Shadow [145] concludes that the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). Those numbers are confirmed in a 2007 article in the British medical journal The Lancet, which concludes that reducing consumption of animal products should be a top priority, especially in developed countries where such a measure would also entail substantial health benefits.[146]

However, recent analysis by Goodland and Anhang, co-authors of “Livestock and Climate Change”[147] in the latest issue of World Watch magazine found that livestock and their byproducts actually account for at least 32.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, or 51 percent of annual worldwide GHG emissions.[147] The data presented in this study is the subject of an organised educational initiative, called 51percent, which is to be presented at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen ( COP 15).[148]

A 2006 study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin, assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago, found that a person switching from the average American diet to a vegan diet would reduce CO2 emissions by 1,485 kg per year.[149]

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis argues that while most meat production in industrialized countries uses inefficient grain feeding methods through intensive farming, meat production is not invariably a poor use of land, especially in countries like China and Brazil. Since a proportion of all grain crops produced are not suitable for human consumption, they can be fed to animals to turn into meat, thus improving efficiency.[150][151] Further, greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry; but also to several plant based sources such as rice cultivation.[152][153]

In the developing world, notably Asia and Africa, fossil fuels are seldom used to transport feed for farm animals. Sheep or goats, for example, require no fuel, since they graze on farmlands, while bales of hay for bovines are still transported mainly using bullock carts or similar devices. Few of the meat processing techniques that occur in developed countries takes place in the majority of developing countries. Animals are also often herded to the place of slaughter (with the exception of poultry) resulting in a very low use of fossil fuels.[154] In fact farm animals in developing world are used for multiple purposes from providing draught power, to transportation while also serving as meat once it reaches the end of its economic life.

A 2007 study which simulated various diets' land use for the geography of New York State concluded that although vegetarian diets used the smallest amount of land per capita, a low fat diet which included some meat and dairy (less than 2 oz of meat/eggs per day—significantly less than consumed by the average American) could support slightly more people on the same available land than could be fed on some high fat vegetarian diets, since animal food crops can be grown on lower quality land than crops for human consumption.[155][156]

Similar diets and lifestyles

Sample of vegan Buddhist cuisine from a Zen temple in Japan.

Diets such as raw veganism and fruitarianism are related to veganism, but have significant differences from standard veganism. There are also numerous religious groups that regularly or occasionally practice a similar diet, including adherents to some Buddhist traditions,[157] Hindus,[158] Jains,[159] Eastern Orthodox Christians,[160][161] Rastafari,[162] and Seventh-day Adventists.[163] Some small[164][165][166][167] Sikh,[168] Sects have Lacto-vegetarian lifestyles.


A vegan raspberry and pear tart.
Also see the Wikibooks Cookbook articles on vegan cuisine and vegan substitutions and its listing of vegan recipes.

The cuisines of most nations contain dishes suitable for a vegan diet, including ingredients such as tofu, tempeh and the wheat gluten-based product seitan in East Asian diets.[169][170][171][172] Many recipes that traditionally contain animal products can be adapted by substituting plant-based ingredients. For example, almond milk, grain milk, soy milk or other plant milk can be used to replace cow's milk[172][173] and eggs can be replaced by applesauce or commercial starch-based substitute products, depending upon the recipe.[172][173][174] Additionally, artificial "meat" products ("analogs" or "mock meats") made from non-animal derived ingredients such as soy or gluten including imitation sausages, ground beef, burgers, and chicken nuggets are widely available.[172][175]

See also


  1. ^ Countries with English as an official language and national-level vegan societies.
  2. ^ In particular, they question whether insects have the capacity to suffer and whether the harm done to bees during honey production is any worse than the harm done during production crops or production of other sweeteners.
  3. ^ 4% vegetarians of total population * 5% vegans of vegetarians = 0.2% vegans of total population
  4. ^ 5% vegetarians of total population * 5% avoiding dairy = 0.25% vegans of total population
  5. ^ 250,000 vegans of UK population / 58,789,194 UK population in 2001 = 0.425% vegans of total population


  1. ^ a b "Memorandum of Association of the Vegan Society" (PDF). About Us. Vegan Society. 1979-11-20. pp. 1. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "In this Memorandum the word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment." 
  2. ^ a b c Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). Being Vegan. McGraw-Hill Contemporary. pp. 2,6,17,148–150. ISBN 978-0737303230. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Criteria for Vegan food". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "vegan products must, as far as is possible and practical, be entirely free from animal involvement. … The development and/or manufacture of the product … must not involve, or have involved, testing of any sort on animals" 
  4. ^ a b c "Time/CNN Poll: Do you consider yourself a vegetarian?". Time Magazine. 2002-07-07. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "
    • Do you consider yourself a vegetarian? No 96% Yes 4%
    • As you know, there are many different types of vegetarians. Which best describes you? Semi-vegetarian 57% Ovo-lacto-vegetarian 36% Vegan 5% Other 2%" 
  5. ^ a b c "Types and quantities of food consumed: Vegetarian/vegan" (PDF). National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults aged 19 to 64, Volume 1 2002. Food Standards Agency. pp. 11, 23. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "Overall, 5% of respondents reported being vegetarian or vegan. … Asked why they became vegetarian or vegan, 51% said it was for moral or ethical reasons, 29% for health reasons, and 25% because they did not like the taste of meat. Other less frequently mentioned reasons included religious beliefs, and cost or convenience. … Types of foods avoided by respondents who said they were vegetarian or vegan … Milk 5%" 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.". J Am Diet Assoc 109 (7): 1266–1282. July 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. 
  7. ^ a b c Iron deficiency - adults, Better Health Channel (Victorian Government), 
  8. ^ a b John Murtagh (2007), General Practice (4th ed), McGraw Hill Australia, pp. 211-212, ISBN 9780070135963 
  9. ^ a b c "How Many Adults Are Vegetarian?". Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "Dietary Habits of Adults 18 and Older in the United States in 2006 … 1.4%Never eat meat, poultry, fish/seafood, dairy products/eggs (vegan, except for possibly honey) … Some 1.4 percent of men are vegan, while 1.3 percent of women are vegan, another almost even split between genders." 
  10. ^ a b "Donald Watson". Times Online. Times Newspapers Ltd.. 2005-11-16. Retrieved 2006-09-15. "The Vegan Society’s 25 members swelled steadily to the 5,000 of today. There are now an estimated 250,000 vegans in Britain." 
  11. ^ a b "Vegan Society: History". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "In August 1944, Elsie Shrigley and Donald Watson … agreed the desirability of coordinating 'non-dairy vegetarians' … it was decided to form a new society and adopt a new name to describe themselves - vegan derived from VEGetariAN." 
  12. ^ Messina, Virginia; Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). The vegan sourcebook. Los Angeles: Lowell House. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7373-0506-1. "As early as 1948, Dr. Catherine Nimmo … and Rubin Abramowitz established this country's first Vegan Society, in Oceano, California" 
  13. ^ "American Vegan Society: History". American Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "The American Vegan Society was founded February 1960, in Malaga New Jersey." 
  14. ^ Mather, Harry; Malcolm Horne (Spring 2003). "Kathleen Jannaway 1915-2003: A Life Well Lived". Vegan Views (96). Retrieved 2009-08-13. "In 1984 … She formed the Movement For Compassionate Living (The Vegan Way) dedicated to working non-violently for lifestyles possible for all the world's peoples, sustainable within the planet's resources and free from all animal exploitation.". 
  15. ^ "A History of Vegan Outreach and Our Influences". Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "1993 … We formed Animal Liberation Action (ALA) as a formal way of working together. … 1995 ALA changed our name to Vegan Outreach." 
  16. ^ "World Vegan Day". Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "The world has been celebrating World Vegan Day, 1st November since 1994." 
  17. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise interview with Donald Watson". Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise. 2004-08-11. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  18. ^ "vegan". Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  19. ^ Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM (v2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. 
  20. ^ "Vegan Community Mourns Donald Watson". Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise. 2005-12-01. Retrieved 2008-09-09. ""The pronunciation is "VEEGAN" not "VAI-GAN," "VEGGAN." or "VEEJAN." The stress is on the first syllable," Watson responded." 
  21. ^ "What is Vegan?". American Vegan Society. Retrieved 2006-09-15. "Vegans exclude flesh, fish, fowl, dairy products (animal milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, honey, animal gelatin, and all other foods of animal origin. Veganism also excludes animal products such as leather, wool, fur, and silk in clothing, upholstery, etc. Vegans usually make efforts to avoid the less-than-obvious animal oils, secretions, etc., in many products such as soaps, cosmetics, toiletries, household goods and other common commodities." 
  22. ^ "Introduction to Veganism". The Vegan Society of New Zealand. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "A Vegan is a person who knowingly chooses not to consume, use or wear any products produced from animals or contains animal by-products, and avoids products tested on animals." 
  23. ^ "About Vegana". The Danish Vegan Society. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "A vegan does not eat meat, poultry, fish, milk products, egg or other animal products - out of concern for people, animals, and the environment." 
  24. ^ a b "Vegan FAQs". Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2007-03-11. "Is refined sugar vegan? It depends on how you define 'vegan.' Refined sugars do not contain any animal products, and so by an ingredients-based definition of vegan, refined sugar is vegan. ... However, if one accepts a process-based definition of vegan, then many other familiar products would also not be considered vegan. For instance, steel and vulcanized rubber are produced using animal fats and, in many areas, groundwater and surface water is filtered through bone charcoal filters." 
  25. ^ "IVU FAQ: Drinks". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  26. ^ "Information Sheet: Alcohol". Vegetarian Society. Retrieved 2007-03-11. "The use of animal derived products in the production of alcoholic beverages is fairly widespread not because no alternatives exist, but because they always have been used and there is little demand from the consumer for an alternative. ... The main appearance of animal derived products is in the fining or clearing process, though others may be used as colorants or anti-foaming agents." 
  27. ^ "IVU FAQ: Ingredients". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  28. ^ "IVU FAQ: Animal Derived Ingredient List". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  29. ^ "IVU FAQ: Maybe Animal Derived". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  30. ^ "On Living With Compassion". Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "Our desire to oppose and help end cruelty to animals can help guide our choices, as well as provide a simple, easy-to-understand explanation of our actions. The question isn't, "Is this vegan?" but, "What is best for preventing suffering?"" 
  31. ^ "On Living With Compassion (Old version)". Vegan Outreach. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "We believe that framing veganism as the avoidance of a specific list of “bad” ingredients is not the best way to achieve results. When looked at closely, any ingredients-based definition of vegan collapses into inconsistencies. This is why we stress that the essence of being vegan is working to end cruelty to animals." 
  32. ^ "Trademark Standards". Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  33. ^ "Honey: Ain't so sweet for the bees". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-12-11. "Vegans use no bee products, preferring to forgo the doubtful benefits and well known risks [such as infant botulism] of substances stolen from bees." 
  34. ^ "What is Vegan?". Retrieved 2010-01-03. "Vegans exclude flesh, fish, fowl, dairy products (animal milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, honey, animal gelatin, and all other foods of animal origin." 
  35. ^ "Is honey vegan?". Vegan FAQ's. Vegan Action. Retrieved 2007-10-03. "Many vegans, however, are not opposed to using insect products, because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain. Moreover, even if insects were conscious of pain, it's not clear that the production of honey involves any more pain for insects than the production of most vegetables, since the harvesting and transportation of all vegetables involves many 'collateral' insect deaths." 
  36. ^ "Vegan FAQ's". Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2009-12-11. "Insects (including bees) do have brains. But their brains are not highly developed, and they are likely not large enough to facilitate the consciousness of pain. So is honey vegan? Our best answer is “We don’t know.” If one is concerned about doing harm to insects, it’s not clear that the production of honey involves any more pain for insects than the production of most vegetables or alternative sweeteners, since the harvesting and transportation of all crops involves some insect deaths." 
  37. ^ "About Dennis Kucinich" (PDF). Dennis for President. Kucinich for President 2008. pp. 2. Retrieved 2008-04-23. "Congressman Kucinich is one of the few vegans in Congress, a dietary decision he credits not only with improving his health, but in deepening his belief in the sacredness of all species." 
  38. ^ Duck, Jennifer (2007-05-04). "Bringin' Home the Bacon, Vegan-Style". ABC News (ABCNews Internet Ventures). Retrieved 2008-08-16. "In fact, the self-proclaimed peace candidate doesn't eat any kind of animal by-product; Kucinich and his wife are both vegans, presenting what could be a formidable challenge in the meaty world of high stakes politics en route to the White House." 
  39. ^ Vegetarianism In America
  40. ^ "How Many Vegetarians Are There?". Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "Vegan (0.8% never eat meat, fish, fowl, dairy, eggs, or honey) … Would be Vegan, except for honey (Rounded from 1.3%)" 
  41. ^ Aramark. "One Out of Every Four College Students Wants Vegan Meals According to ARAMARK Survey". Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  42. ^ BMRB Social Research (2007-11-02). "Data tables" (PDF). Report, questionnaire and data tables following Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours toward the Environment: 2007. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. pp. 500–502. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  43. ^ "Wat is veganisme?". Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. Retrieved 2007-10-03. "Er zijn nu ongeveer 2,4 miljoen parttime vegetariërs en vleesverlaters, 300.000 vegetariërs en 16.000 veganisten in Nederland." 
  44. ^ Pettersson, Björn (June 2005) (in Swedish). Vegansk näringslära på vetenskaplig grund (2nd ed.). Orsa: HÄLSAböcker/Energica Förlag. pp. 17–19. ISBN 9185506796. 
  45. ^ Heléne Enghardt Barbieri; Wulf Becker (2004-12-15). "Svenska barns matvanor 2003" (in Swedish) (PDF). Livsmedelsverket. pp. 5. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  46. ^ a b Larsson, Christel (2001) (PDF). Young vegetarians and omnivores. Dietary habits and other health-related aspects. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University. p. 40. ISBN 91-7191-983-X. Retrieved 2009-08-27. "
    Country, city Study design Yeara Age(years) nb Ve
    Sweden (I)g Telephone interview with school matrons. 1996 16-20 67 370 0.1
    Sweden, Umeå (I)g Telephone interview with school matrons. 1996 16-20 3 450 2.1
  47. ^ Larsson, Christel; Klock K, Nordrehaug Åstrøm A, Haugejorden O, Johansson G (October 2001). "Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores.". Public Health Nutrition 4 (5): 1005–14. PMID 11784414. 
  48. ^ [1] German Federal Study on Food Consumption 2008
  49. ^ a b Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "Animal agriculture, as we know it, is wrong, not only when farm animals are raised in close confinement in factory farms, but also when they are raised "humanely," since even in this case their lives are routinely brought to an untimely end because of human interests" 
  50. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 244–245. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "…moral patients (e.g., animals in the wild)…For these reasons, the subject-of-a-life criterion can be defended as citing a relevant similarity between moral agents and patients, one that makes the attribution of equal inherent value to them both intelligible and nonarbitrary." 
  51. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 327. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "The principal conclusion reached in the present chapter is that all moral agents and patients have certain basic moral rights. … The principal basic moral right possessed by all moral agents and patients is the right to respectful treatment." 
  52. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 328. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "It was also argued that all moral agents and patients have a prima facie basic moral right not to be harmed." 
  53. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 287. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "To say this right is a prima facie right is to say that (1) consideration of this right is always a morally relevant consideration, and (2) anyone who would harm another, or allow others to do so, must be able to justify doing so by (a) appealing to other valid moral principles and by (b) showing that these principles morally outweigh the right not to be harmed in a given case." 
  54. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "This chapter traced some of the implications of the rights view. On this view, animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust (9.1), and it is unjust because it fails to treat farm animals with the respect they are due" 
  55. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 333–334. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "The argument just given is sound only if the case can be made that raising animals to eat and eating them satisfies all the requirements of the liberty principle. Once we examine the matter more closely, we shall see that it fails to do so." 
  56. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "Those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so. … the rights view holds that the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life" 
  57. ^ a b c Francione, Gary (2006-12-27). "Mission Statement". Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "We have no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes. … A shorthand way of describing the view presented here is to say that all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property. … This site also seeks to make clear that the moral baseline of an animal rights movement is veganism." 
  58. ^ a b Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Equality for Animals?". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience…is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call 'speciesists' give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species." 
  59. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Equality for Animals?". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 62. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "The use of animals for food is probably the oldest and most widespread form of animal use. There is also a sense in which it is the most basic form of animal use, the foundation stone on which rests the belief that animals exist for our pleasure and convenience. If animals count in their own right, our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity." 
  60. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Taking Life: Animals". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 134. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "In any case, at the level of practical moral principles, it would be better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive." 
  61. ^ Clyne, Catherine (October 2006). "Singer Says". Satya. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "If you read the book, it does make clear that going vegan is a good solution to a lot of the ethical problems." 
  62. ^ Gilson, Dave (2006-05-03). "Chew the Right Thing". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "In 1975 he published Animal Liberation, a pioneering defense of the rights of animals that concluded that veganism is the most ethically justifiable diet." 
  63. ^ Broudy, Oliver (2006-05-08). "The practical ethicist". Salon Media Group, Inc.. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "If you can be vegetarian or vegan that's ideal. If you can buy organic and vegan that's better still, and organic and fair trade and vegan, better still, but if that gets too difficult or too complicated, just ask yourself, Does this product come from intensive animal agriculture?" 
  64. ^ a b "Animal Farming". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "Vegans believe that animals have the right not to be farmed." 
  65. ^ a b "About Veganism: For the Animals". Vegan Action. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Veganism emerges as the lifestyle most consistent with the philosophy that animals are not ours to use." 
  66. ^ a b "PETA's History: Compassion in Action". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "PETA operates under the simple principle that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment." 
  67. ^ a b "About Mercy for Animals". Mercy for Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Mercy For Animals is a 501(c)(3) non-profit animal advocacy organization that believes non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights, including the right to live free of unnecessary suffering." 
  68. ^ "Factory Farms". Why Vegan. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  69. ^ "Cruelty to Animals: Mechanized Madness". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  70. ^ "Exploitation". Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "The vast majority of these animals will have spent their brief lives in the cramped, distressing conditions of the factory farm. Their close confinement and the overworking of their bodies will have led to increased susceptibility to injury and disease. They will have been reared on an unnatural diet designed to increase productivity and many will have undergone various painful and traumatic procedures." 
  71. ^ "Testing". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "Every year, millions of animals are subjected to the most horrifically painful experiments just so people can have a new brand of shampoo or a differently scented perfume." 
  72. ^ "Circuses: Three Rings of Abuse". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Colorful pageantry disguises the fact that animals used in circuses are captives who are forced, under threat of punishment, to perform confusing, uncomfortable, repetitious, and often-painful acts." 
  73. ^ "Rodeo: Cruelty for a Buck". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "In reality, rodeos are nothing more than manipulative displays of human domination over animals, thinly disguised as entertainment." 
  74. ^ "Animal Rights Uncompromised: Zoos". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "PETA opposes zoos because zoo cages and cramped enclosures deprive animals of their most basic needs. The zoo community regards the animals it keeps as commodities, and animals are regularly bought, sold, borrowed, and traded without any regard for established relationships." 
  75. ^ Davis, Steven L. (2003). "The Least Harm Principle May Require that Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4): 387–394. "the LHP may actually be better served using food production systems that include both plant-based agriculture and a forage-ruminant-based agriculture as compared to a strict plant-based (vegan) system.". 
  76. ^ Gaverick Matheny (2003). "Least harm: a defense of vegetarianism from Steven Davis’s omnivorous proposal". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5): 505–511. doi:10.1023/A:1026354906892. "While eating animals who are grazed rather than intensively confined would vastly improve the welfare of farmed animals given their current mistreatment, Davis does not succeed in showing this is preferable to vegetarianism. First, Davis makes a mathematical error in using total rather than per capita estimates of animals killed; second, he focuses on the number of animals killed in ruminant and crop production systems and ignores important considerations about the welfare of animals under both systems; and third, he does not consider the number of animals who are prevented from existing under the two systems. After correcting for these errors, Davis’s argument makes a strong case for, rather than against, adopting a vegetarian diet.". 
  77. ^ Lamey, Andy (2007). "Food Fight! Davis versus Regan on the Ethics of Eating Beef". Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (2): 331–348. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2007.00382.x. Retrieved 2009-02-22. "To start with, the scientific studies on which Davis relies actually document two different forms of harm to field animals: there are those directly killed by harvesting equipment and those that become the prey of other animals. ... Davis also overlooks philosophically significant forms of harm to human beings that are present in beef production but not vegetable harvesting. Finally, he bases his argument on the implausible assumption that there is no difference between deliberate and accidental killing—either of an animal or a person.". 
  78. ^ Jarvis, William T. (1997-04-01). "Why I Am Not a Vegetarian". ACSH Newsletter "Priorities" (American Council on Science and Health) 9 (2). Retrieved 2008-04-22. "The belief that all life is sacred can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises. Inherent in the idea that all life is sacred is the supposition that all forms of life have equal value.". 
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  85. ^ "A guide to vegetarian eating" (PDF). Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute. Retrieved 2009-09-30. "A well planned vegetarian diet can be nutritionally balanced for both adults and children" 
  86. ^ Walter, Paul; Kurt Baerlocher, Esther Camenzind-Frey, Renato Pichler, Kathrin Reinli, Yves Schutz, Caspar Wenk (2006-01-11). "[Health Advantages and Disadvantages of a Vegetarian Diet: Summary]". Gesundheitliche Vor- und Nachteile einer vegetarischen Ernährung: Zusammenfassung. Bern: Eidgenössische Ernährungskommission, Bundesamt für Gesundheit. pp. 5. Retrieved 2009-08-27. "Therefore, a vegan diet is not recommended for the population in general, and in particular not for children and other vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and elderly people. German: Deshalb ist die veganische Ernährungsweise generell für breitere Bevölkerungskreise insbesondere für Kinder und andere Risikogruppen wie Schwangere und ältere Leute nicht zu empfehlen.". 
  87. ^ "[Is a vegetarian diet suitable for children?]" Ist vegetarische Ernährung für Kinder geeignet?. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung. Archived from the original on 2005-04-05. Retrieved 2009-10-04. "The strict vegetarian / vegan diet is not recommended for any age group because of the risks. The DGE warns against it especially for infants, children and young people. German: Die streng vegetarische/ vegane Ernährung wird aufgrund ihrer Risiken für keine Altersgruppe empfohlen. Die DGE rät besonders für Säuglinge, Kinder und Jugendliche dringend davon ab.". 
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  125. ^ Retsinas, Greg (April 5, 2003). "Couple Guilty Of Assault In Vegan Case". New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  126. ^ "Vegan Parents Get Prison In Infant's Death". KSBW 8. May 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  127. ^ Susannah Nesmith; David Kidwell (2003-06-07). "Parents jailed in baby's death". Miami Herald (Miami Herald Media Co.). Archived from the original on 2003-12-17. Retrieved 2007-09-17. "A Miami-Dade medical examiner's office autopsy concluded Woyah died of severe malnutrition, according to an arrest report." 
  128. ^ [ Couple face questioning after vegan daughter suffers bone disease By Rob Davies] 08/06/2008 The Telegraph
  129. ^ How our vegan diet made us ill By Natasha Mann, 17 June 2008 - The Independent
  130. ^ Planck, Nina (May 21, 2007). "Death by Veganism". New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  131. ^ Nipps, Emily (June 25, 2007). "Custody battle over quints questions vegan lifestyle". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  132. ^ Amy Joy Lanou (2007-06-25). "Just the facts: A vegan diet is safe, healthy for infants". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  133. ^ Dedyna, Katherine (2004-01-30). "Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?". Victoria Times Colonist (CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc.). Retrieved 2006-10-30. "Vesanto Melina, a B.C. registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat."" 
  134. ^ O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust 147 (11–12): 540–2. PMID 3696039. "In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.". 
  135. ^ Davis, Brenda; Vesanto Melina (2002). Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet. Healthy Living Publications. pp. 224. ISBN 1-57067-103-6. "Research indicates that the large majority of vegetarian or vegan anorexics and bulimics chose this eating pattern after the onset of their disease. The "restricted" vegetarian or vegan eating pattern legitimizes the removal of numerous high-fat, energy-dense foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, … However the eating pattern chosen by those with anorexia or bulimia nervosa is far more restrictive than a healthful vegan diet, eliminating nuts, seeds, nut butters, avocados, and limiting overall caloric intake." 
  136. ^ Brown LR (1981). "World food resources and population: the narrowing margin". Population bulletin 36 (3): 1–44. PMID 12263473. 
  137. ^ "About Veganism: For the Environment". Vegan Action. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Animal agriculture takes a devastating toll on the earth. It is an inefficient way of producing food, since feed for farm animals requires land, water, fertilizer, and other resources that could otherwise have been used directly for producing human food." 
  138. ^ a b "Environmental Destruction". Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  139. ^ Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O, Minami K and Johnson DE, (1998). "Mitigating Agricultural Emissions of Methane". Climatic Change 40 (1): 39–80. doi:10.1023/A:1005338731269. 
  140. ^ a b c "Factory Farming: Mechanized Madness". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Factory farms are harmful to the environment as well. Each day, factory farms produce billions of pounds of manure, which ends up in lakes, rivers, and drinking water. ... Of all the agricultural land in the U.S., 80 percent is used to raise animals for food and grow the grain to feed them—that’s almost half the total land mass of the lower 48 states. ... it takes more than 1,250 gallons of water to produce a pound of cow flesh, whereas it takes about 235 gallons of water to grow 1 pound of wheat." 
  141. ^ "Environment: Land". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "In all, the raising of livestock takes up more than two-thirds of agricultural land, and one third of the total land area." 
  142. ^ "Environment: Water". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "If we put all of these figures together, we find that whilst wheat provides us with an average 27.5 kcal for each litre of water used, beef provides only 0.76 kcal per litre. This means that - based on the data presented to show that other figures were "overstated" - beef still requires 36 times as much water per calorie as wheat." 
  143. ^ "Environment: Energy". Vegan Society. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "A plant-based vegan diet uses substantially less energy than a diet based on animal products. This energy is virtually all derived from fossil fuels, making meat and dairy consumption a contributing factor in air pollution, acidification, oil spills, habitat destruction and global warming." 
  144. ^ "Resources". Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  145. ^ "Livestock’s Long Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options". Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
  146. ^ McMichael AJ, Powles JW, Butler CD, Uauy R (October 2007). "Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health" (PDF). Lancet 370 (9594): 1253–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61256-2. PMID 17868818. 
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  149. ^ Eshel, G., and P.A. Martin (2006). "Diet, Energy and Global Warming" (PDF). Earth Interactions 10 (9): 1–17. doi:10.1175/EI167.1. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "We conclude that a person consuming a mixed diet with the mean American caloric content and composition causes the emissions of 1,485 kg CO2-equivalent above the emissions associated with consuming the same number of calories, but from plant sources. Far from trivial, nationally this difference amounts to over 6% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.". 
  150. ^ NSW Department of Primary Industries - Feeding frosted cereal grain to ruminants
  151. ^ How harmful is animal protein consumption for the environment?
  152. ^ Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue
  153. ^ Plants revealed as methane source By Tim Hirsch 11 January 2006 -BBC
  154. ^ Food for all - World food summit - Agricultural machinery worldwide
  155. ^ Peters, Christian J.; Jennifer L. Wilkinsa and Gary W. Ficka (2007). "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (Cambridge University Press) 22 (02): 145–153. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  156. ^ Lang, Susan (2007-10-04). "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report". Cornell Chronicle Online (Cornell University). Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  157. ^ Karma Lekshe Tsomo (2006). Into the Jaws of Yama, Lord of Death: Buddhism, Bioethics, and Death. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791468313. "Buddhists in China, Korea, and Vietnam express their concern for animals by maintaining a vegetarian (often vegan) diet." 
  158. ^ Barker, Helen M. (2002). Nutrition and Dietetics for Health Care. Churchill Livingstone. p. 167. ISBN 0443070210. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Most Hindus are vegetarian and some vegan." 
  159. ^ "The role of religion in protecting the Earth (Jainism and the environment: precursors of modern ecology)". Forum 2004: Parliament of the World's Religions. Universal Forum of Cultures. 2004. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Naresh Jain, Co-Chair of the Interfaith Committee of Jainism Associations in North America, said that the difference lies in Jainists’ strict approach to the vegetarian (or vegan) diet. “Jainism is the only religion that materialises the ideal of non-violence through the vegan diet” he said." 
  160. ^ "The Fasting Rule of the Orthodox Church". God is Wonderful in His Saints: Orthodox Resources. Retrieved 2007-11-15. "Unless a fast-free period has been declared, Orthodox Christians are to keep a strict fast every Wednesday and Friday. The following foods are avoided: Meat, including poultry, and any meat products such as lard and meat broth. Fish (meaning fish with backbones; shellfish are permitted). Eggs and dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, etc.)" 
  161. ^ Melik, Ella MacLeod (November 1991). "Georgia on my Mind". Vegetarian Times (171): 56. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "As part of their orthodox Christian religion, Georgians eat vegan foods nearly six months out of the year.". 
  162. ^ Yntema, Sharon; Christine H. Beard (2000). New Vegetarian Baby. McBooks Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-935526-63-3. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Many Rastafarians eat a restricted vegan diet without supplementation" 
  163. ^ Fraser, Gary (August 1, 1999). "Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 532S. 532S-538S. PMID 10479227. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Only 2–3% of Seventh-day Adventists are vegans.". 
  164. ^ "Misconceptions About Eating Meat - Comments of Sikh Scholars," at The Sikhism Home Page
  165. ^ Sikhs and Sikhism by I.J. Singh, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 9788173040580 Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism. Certainly Sikhs do not think that a vegetarian's achievements in spirituality are easier or higher. It is surprising to see that vegetarianism is such an important facet of Hindu practice in light of the fact that animal sacrifice was a significant and much valued Hindu Vedic ritual for ages. Guru Nanak in his writings clearly rejected both sides of the arguments—on the virtues of vegetarianism or meat eating—as banal and so much nonsense, nor did he accept the idea that a cow was somehow more sacred than a horse or a chicken. He also refused to be drawn into a contention on the differences between flesh and greens, for instance. History tells us that to impart this message, Nanak cooked meat at an important Hindu festival in Kurukshetra. Having cooked it he certainly did not waste it, but probably served it to his followers and ate himself. History is quite clear that Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were accomplished and avid hunters. The game was cooked and put to good use, to throw it away would have been an awful waste.
  166. ^ Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN :8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
  167. ^ A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that now-a-days in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
  168. ^ Cooke, Hannah (2000). When Someone Dies. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 169. ISBN 0750640944. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Some Sikhs will be vegetarian or vegan." 
  169. ^ Shurtleff, William. "History of Tofu". LA Tofu Festival. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  170. ^ Jacobs, Leonard; Aveline Kushi, and Barbara Jacobs (1994). Cooking with Seitan: The Complete Vegetarian "Wheat-meat" Cookbook. Avery. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0895295996. 
  171. ^ "History of Tempeh". Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  172. ^ a b c d "Vegan proteins". BBC Food. BBC. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  173. ^ a b "Baking without eggs, milk and buttah". Post Punk Kitchen. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  174. ^ "Vegan Substitution for Egg Whites". Food News Service. Retrieved 2007-02-23. "Q. What is a vegan substitute for egg whites? A. And the mystery ingredient is… flax seed." 
  175. ^ Bryanna Clark Grogan. "Vegan Meat Analogs, Dairy Substitutes, and Egg Alternatives". Bryanna's Vegan Feast. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 

External links

Vegan Societies


Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From Wikiquote

Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.


  • As a meat-eater, I've long found it convenient to categorise veganism as a response to animal suffering or a health fad. But, faced with these figures, it now seems plain that it's the only ethical response to what is arguably the world's most urgent social justice issue. We stuff ourselves, and the poor get stuffed.
  • "My best performances were when I was 30 years old, and I was a vegan."
    • Carl Lewis, retired American track and field olympic athlete [2]

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