Veganism: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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See also Vegetarianism and veganism and Ethics of eating meat
Simple example of many possible vegan lunch or dinner options: pumpkin seed-crusted lentil patties with roasted garlic mashed potatoes and salad.
.Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.^ I used to be afraid of vegan food.
  • Vegan Fluffy Buttercream Frosting Recipe by - CHOW 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Veganism is a lifestyle, not just a diet.

^ A vegan is a person who shuns using animals and animal products for food.
  • Vegan Diet Information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Is your vegan diet missing crucial nutrients? 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind.^ Warwak is a vegan who avoids using animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vegan is a person who shuns using animals and animal products for food.
  • Vegan Diet Information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Is your vegan diet missing crucial nutrients? 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A food is vegan if it doesn't contain animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan Brownies - All Recipes 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC allrecipes.com [Source type: General]

[3] .The most common reasons for becoming a vegan are ethical commitment or moral conviction concerning animal rights or welfare, the environment, human health, and spiritual or religious concerns.^ Some people become vegan not for ethical or environmental reason s but for religious reasons.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly, some people become vegan for health reasons.
  • What’s a Vegan Diet? | Healthy and Green Living 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ But not all vegans are animal rights activities, as some are most focused on the health benefits.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[2][4][5] .Of particular concern to many vegans are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources for animal farming.^ Recipes used as components to many other recipes.
  • Cookbook:Vegan cuisine - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many vegans also avoid products that have been tested on animals.
  • Vegan Diet Information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Is your vegan diet missing crucial nutrients? 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many vegans work as animal rights advocates, who want to make a difference in the practice of factory farming and animal testing.
  • CareFair.com - Going Vegan 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.carefair.com [Source type: General]

.Vegan diets (sometimes called strict or pure vegetarian diets) are a form of vegetarianism.^ Vegan diets (sometimes called strict or pure vegetarian diets) are a form of vegetarian diets.
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a more strict form of vegetarianism.

.Properly planned vegan diets are healthful and have been found to satisfy nutritional needs.^ What are the barriers to eating a healthful vegan diet?
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Origin of the vegan diet plan.

^ As with any diet, a vegan diet requires planning.
  • Vegan Action | FAQ's 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.vegan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Poorly planned vegan diets can be low in levels of calcium, iodine, vitamin B12, iron[7][8] and vitamin D.^ Origin of the vegan diet plan.

^ Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As with any diet, a vegan diet requires planning.
  • Vegan Action | FAQ's 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.vegan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vegans are therefore encouraged to plan their diet and take dietary supplements as appropriate.^ Origin of the vegan diet plan.

^ As with any diet, a vegan diet requires planning.
  • Vegan Action | FAQ's 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.vegan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Points to consider in a vegan diet plan.

[6] .Various polls have reported vegans to be between 0.2%[4] and 1.3%[9] of the U.S. population, and between 0.25%[5] and 0.4%[10] of the UK population.^ "Top 10 Vegan Sources" Special Report .

^ September 20, 2008 10:25 PM Vegan Dad said...
  • V e g a n D a d: Homemade Sausages 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegandad.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ If the 2.2% figure for vegans amongst the United Kingdom population is true, that would make for over 1,300,000 vegans in the UK. A quite impressive figure really.
  • Just Another Vegan in Japan 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC mac.vegan.jp [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

.The Vegan Society was founded in 1944 by Donald Watson and Elsie Shrigley, in response to the broadening of the term vegetarian to include the eating of dairy products.^ An ovo vegetarian eats eggs but not dairy products.
  • Vegan Food Guide 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ A lacto vegetarian eats dairy products but not eggs.
  • Vegan Food Guide 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ Elsie Shrigley and Donald Watson created the term vegan by taking the first three and last two letters of the word vegetarian.
  • Friends of Animals | Is Honey Vegan? 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.friendsofanimals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] The first vegan society in the United States was founded in California in 1948 by Dr. Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz[12] and was subsequently incorporated into the American Vegan Society after its founding in 1960 by Jay Dinshah.[13] .In 1984, a "breakaway" group from the Vegan Society, the Movement for Compassionate Living, was founded by former Vegan Society secretary Kathleen Jannaway to promote sustainable living and self-sufficiency in addition to veganism.^ I have not found it difficult to live vegan, and healthy.

^ He founded the Vegan Society in 1944, and lived to see veganism spread worldwide.

^ The Vegan Society defines veganism as “a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any....
  • Vegan wine? Isn't it all vegan? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

[14] .Today, there are many vegan societies worldwide, including national societies in Australia, India, New Zealand, and South Africa.^ New South african vegan options .
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To connect New Zealand vegans with international vegan societies and groups .
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ More vegan options for South Africa .
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[nb .1] In 1993, the advocacy organization which would become Vegan Outreach was founded by Matt Ball and Jack Norris.^ Here's what Matt Ball, a long-time vegan advocate has written: "The vegan lifestyle is an ongoing progression.
  • Vegan Action | FAQ's 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.vegan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire world doesn’t have to become vegan overnight, something that will never happen, nor would necessarily be a good thing even if it...
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ It would be laughably unrealistic to think that the world would require anything less than several decades to become entirely vegan.
  • Vegan.com FAQ 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegan.com [Source type: General]

[15]
.In 1994, the annual World Vegan Day was established on November 1 by the then President and Chair of the Vegan Society, Louise Wallis.^ World Diabetes Day 14th November .

^ World Vegan Day was first celebrated in 1994 to mark the 50th Anniversary of The Vegan Society.
  • The Vegan and Vegetarian Secrets Blog Reveals . . . 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ November 1944 Donald Watson invented the word Vegan (pronounced VEE-gan) and formed the Vegan Society to provide information on a healthy lifestyle that avoids animal suffering and the wasteful use of the world’s resources.
  • The Vegan and Vegetarian Secrets Blog Reveals . . . 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansecrets.com [Source type: General]

[16]

Definition

Donald Watson, creator of the term vegan, and founder of the Vegan Society.
The word vegan was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson, who combined the first three and last two letters of vegetarian to form "vegan," which he saw as "the beginning and end of vegetarian."[11][17] Vegan is pronounced /ˈviːɡən/[18] or /ˈvɛdʒən/,[19] although Watson considered the latter pronunciation to be incorrect.[20] The Vegan Society defines veganism in this way:
.
[T]he word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment.^ After tomorrow, it's all-vegan, all the way to Lent.
  • RELIGION Blog | The Dallas Morning News 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: General]

^ It's the idea that humans are justified in using all other life forms instrumentally, for our own benefit.
  • Veganism // Current 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Alternative: Buy cruelty-free!
  • Veganism 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.nj-ara.org [Source type: General]

.In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.^ The Vegan Society defines veganism as “a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any....
  • Vegan wine? Isn't it all vegan? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Veggie Label Petition The Food and Drug Administration should require specific labels on all food products, stating whether or not there are animal derieved products in the ingredients.
  • cool vegan - resources 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.coolvegan.com [Source type: General]

^ Such items include: meat of all forms, dairy , eggs , leather , fur , wool , honey , silk , products which were tested on animals, etc.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Other vegan societies use similar definitions.^ Human teeth are also similar to those found in other herbivores with the exception of the canines (the canines of some of the apes are elongated and are thought to be used for display and/or defense).

^ Many Vegans also do not use products that have been tested on animals or engage in other things that hurt or kill animals (such as the wearing of fur, leather, etc.
  • A Truly Healthy Diet - Jameth Sheridan, N.D 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bestjuicers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We don't always buy into the Oprahverse, but the woman definitely has major media pull and we're happy to see her using that power to extol the benefits of veganism.
  • vegan coverage by Bostonist 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC bostonist.com [Source type: General]

[21][22][23]

Animal products

.An animal product is any material derived from animals.^ Vegans do not wear products derived from animals.
  • IDA Vegan Campaign 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.idausa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Veganism is a way of life that as far as possible, excludes the use of animal derived products, whether they are for food, clothing, household products or medicines.

^ A vegetarian who eats plant products only, especially one who uses no products derived from animals, as fur or leather...
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

[2] .Notable animal products include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, honey, fur, leather, wool, and silk.^ Vegans do not eat meat (fish, livestock or poultry) eggs, dairy products, honey, gelatine or use leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, or soaps derived from animal products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ This includes meat , dairy and eggs .
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mostly, for the 10 billion animals that are raised for meat, eggs and dairy products.
  • DC*Vegan! | Reporting on all things Vegan and Animal Rights in and around Washington DC 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dcvegan.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Common animal products also include gelatin, lanolin, rennet, whey, casein, beeswax, isinglass, and shellac.^ Animal products also include milk and milk products, and eggs.
  • A Truly Healthy Diet - Jameth Sheridan, N.D 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bestjuicers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, vegans do not consume meat, fish, fowl, dairy products, eggs, honey, or products containing gelatin or any other animal-derived ingredients such as whey powder or food colorings.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: A Vegan Diet 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such items include: meat of all forms, dairy , eggs , leather , fur , wool , honey , silk , products which were tested on animals, etc.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Animal products such as ground bone and powdered fish organs may be used in the production of a product although they may not appear as an ingredient in the final product.^ They also avoid by-products of animal fats.

^ Check out the Sensual Vegan for safer sex products that are never tested on animals or use animal byproducts.

^ In other words, vegans do not consume meat, fish, fowl, dairy products, eggs, honey, or products containing gelatin or any other animal-derived ingredients such as whey powder or food colorings.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: A Vegan Diet 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25][26] .Many of these ingredients are obscure,[27][28] may also have non-animal sources,[29] and may not even be identified.^ My question is whether these ingredients are from an animal source.

^ I am asking because these are food additives that may or may not be from an animal source.

^ This is important to many vegans because they know with the simple elimination of these two animal ingredients the amount of animal cruelty on factory farms will be reduced.
  • Vegan Yum Yum: Decadent (But Doable) Animal-Free Recipes for Entertaining & Everyday 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC veganyumyum.hcibooks.com [Source type: General]

[24] .Although the organisation Vegan Outreach has the opinion that "it can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to shun every minor or hidden animal-derived ingredient", [30][31] the Vegan Society will not certify a product as vegan unless its production does not involve, or have involved, the use of any animal product, by-product or derivative.^ Warwak is a vegan who avoids using animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vegan is a person who shuns using animals and animal products for food.
  • Vegan Diet Information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Is your vegan diet missing crucial nutrients? 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every time I made it, I may use slightly different ingredients.

[32]
Neither The Vegan Society or American Vegan Society consider the use of honey or other insect products to be suitable for vegans,[33][34] but both Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach question the ethical basis of such a position[nb 2] and therefore regard the consumption of honey as a matter of "personal choice."[35][36]

Demographics

.Data regarding the number of vegans is available in some countries.^ Yellow Tail’s red wines ARE vegan-friendly (no egg whites or isinglass used in the fining process), affordable, and available in some of the most remote areas of the country.

^ Vegan Recipe Index A list of some of the vegan recipes available in the Vegetarian Cuisine section of Suite101's Food & Drink section.

^ This page features links to some of the best resources on vegan topics available on the internet.
  • cool vegan - resources 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.coolvegan.com [Source type: General]

United States
United States Representative Dennis Kucinich and his wife Elizabeth. .The Kuciniches are known in part for their veganism and support of animal welfare.^ A huge amount of research has gone into this book on the environmental, health and animal welfare issues surrounding veganism - all newly revised in 2000.

^ Please limit shout outs to vegan/animal rights and welfare issues.
  • DC*Vegan! | Reporting on all things Vegan and Animal Rights in and around Washington DC 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dcvegan.com [Source type: General]

^ What's not to admire about those who choose to be Vegan's, these people have made a decision to not eat any animals, their by-products or any other product that is made with any part of animals....
  • Tag: Vegan - Explore content tagged Vegan on eHow.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

[37][38]
.A 2002 Time/CNN poll found that 4% of American adults consider themselves vegetarians, and 5% of vegetarians consider themselves vegans, which implies that 0.2% of American adults are vegans.^ Time/CNN poll .

^ A 2008 Harris Interactive survey commissioned by Vegetarian Times put the number of Americans who do not eat meat or fish at 3.2%, or 7.3 million adults.
  • Vegetarian Diets: Vegan, Lactovegetarian, Ovo-vegetarian, and More 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ With 3% of Americans calling themselves vegetarian, it's becoming more and more popular to go vegan for health, environmental, and ethical reasons.
  • How to Eat a Vegan Diet | eHow.com 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

[4][nb .3] In 2008, Harris Interactive conducted a survey for Vegetarian Times which indicated that approximately 0.5% of Americans identify as vegan.^ A 2008 Harris Interactive survey commissioned by Vegetarian Times put the number of Americans who do not eat meat or fish at 3.2%, or 7.3 million adults.
  • Vegetarian Diets: Vegan, Lactovegetarian, Ovo-vegetarian, and More 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Several studies indicate that those following a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle live an average of three to six years longer than those who do not.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to some estimates, as many as 7 million Americans identify themselves as vegetarians, and of these, about half are vegans, who avoid meat, eggs and dairy products.

[39] .Harris Interactive also conducted surveys for the Vegetarian Resource Group in both 2006 and 2009 which listed specific foods and asked respondents to indicate which items they never eat, rather than asking respondents to self-identify as vegetarian or vegan.^ They don't necessarily identify as vegetarians.
  • Vegetarian Diets: Vegan, Lactovegetarian, Ovo-vegetarian, and More 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Will they have vegetarian or vegan items on the menu?

^ NJ-based vegan/vegetarian groups: .
  • Veganism 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.nj-ara.org [Source type: General]

.In 2006, 1.4% of respondents reported never eating meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy products, or eggs and were therefore essentially vegan in their eating habits.^ An ovo vegetarian eats eggs but not dairy products.
  • Vegan Food Guide 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ A lacto-ovo vegetarian eats dairy products and eggs, but excludes meat, fish, and poultry.
  • Becoming a Vegetarian 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Vegan Food Guide 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ There are also pescatarians, vegetarians who eat fish and seafood, and lacto-vegetarians, who eat dairy products but not eggs.
  • Vegetarian Diets: Vegan, Lactovegetarian, Ovo-vegetarian, and More 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

[9] .In 2009, 1.3% of respondents reported never eating these products, including 0.8% of respondents who also avoided honey.^ Warwak is a vegan who avoids using animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to some estimates, as many as 7 million Americans identify themselves as vegetarians, and of these, about half are vegans, who avoid meat, eggs and dairy products.

^ A vegan (pronounced VEE-gun) is someone who, for various reasons, chooses to avoid using or consuming animal products.
  • Vegan? - VegaDeli 100% Vegan. Certified Kosher. 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegadeli.weebly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The 2006 survey found that about 1.4% of men and 1.3% of women have vegan diets.^ Concerns about vegan diet .

^ Alongside the vegan waffles, we planned to distribute some literature about the environmental benefits of plant-based diets and lifestyles to some of the activists.
  • WaffleParty.com: Delicious Vegan Waffles! — recipes & tips for vegan, dairy-free, eggless waffles & toppings 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC waffleparty.com [Source type: General]

^ A strict vegan diet has been found to be as good for bone health as a protein and calcium rich diet.
  • Vegan - Life & Style - theage.com.au 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: General]

[9] .According to an Aramark survey, one of out every four college students in the U.S. is seeking vegan options on campus.^ If you're looking for a vegan alternative to fish oil for Omega-3 fatty acids, consider one of these five options.

^ On the plus side, it seems Souleio tends to have at least one (marked) vegan soup and a variety of lacto-ovo-vegetarian options.

^ Of course, there are many other vegan and raw chocolate options out there these days.

[41]
United Kingdom
.In 2002, the UK Food Standards Agency carried out a National Diet and Nutrition Survey, which reported that 5% of respondents self-identified as vegetarian or vegan.^ Is kosher food suitable for vegans and vegetarians?

^ This is called a strict vegetarian diet (vegan).
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

.Though 29% of that 5% said they avoided "all animal products", only 5% reported avoiding dairy products.^ No animal products, including dairy.
  • Vegan Healthy Snacks and Vegetarian Treats 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegangiftshop.com [Source type: General]

^ There is enormous cruelty involved in large-scale commercial production of meat, leather, eggs, fur, dairy and other animal-based products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ Veggie Label Petition The Food and Drug Administration should require specific labels on all food products, stating whether or not there are animal derieved products in the ingredients.
  • cool vegan - resources 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.coolvegan.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Based on these figures, approximately 0.25% of the UK population follow a vegan diet.^ Are you following a vegan diet?
  • Vegan Diet Secrets: Protein Myths 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Raw Vegan Diet Secrets & Eating Healthy Tips 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.digitalstarproducts.com [Source type: General]

^ Go vegan for peace, for all non-human and human beings and for climate change Adopt a plant-based (vegan) diet and life, for peace, for all land and sea dwelling living beings ...
  • Vegan? - VegaDeli 100% Vegan. Certified Kosher. 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegadeli.weebly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being vegan is a political and moral action and an ethical decision based on compassion......it's not a lifestyle or diet.
  • Animal Person: On the Vegan "Diet" 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.animalperson.net [Source type: General]

[nb .4] In 2005, The Times estimated there were 250,000 vegans in Britain, which suggests around 0.4% of the UK population is vegan.^ Please note: There seems to be some sort of belief rolling around out there that vegan desserts are good for you, versus non-vegan desserts which are not good for you.

^ Although lower animal protein intake may reduce calcium losses, there is currently not enough evidence to suggest that vegans have lower calcium needs.
  • Veganism in a Nutshell -- The Vegetarian Resource Group 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vrg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by: Noetica at February 2, 2005 12:28 AM In my experience there is no absolute uniformity among astronomers on the prononciation of the 'e' in 'Vega' (or the astronomical 'Vegan'), by the way.

[10][nb .5] A 2007 survey for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs into the UK population's attitudes and behaviour towards the environment found that 2.24% of the population identified themselves as vegan.^ Trying to explain the abundance of food choices isn’t always easy—and sometimes it’s not a conversation ye old vegan types may want to enter into.

^ The China Study, which was our original inspiration to become Vegans, documents the lack of cancers in rural Chinese who eat only plant foods.
  • Vegan Before Dinnertime - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ If the 2.2% figure for vegans amongst the United Kingdom population is true, that would make for over 1,300,000 vegans in the UK. A quite impressive figure really.
  • Just Another Vegan in Japan 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC mac.vegan.jp [Source type: Original source]

[42] .In the same study, vegetarians who did not also eat chicken or fish made up 2.7% of the population.^ A pesci-vegetarian eats fish, but not poultry.
  • Becoming a Vegetarian 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27,808).
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So I had some fish because chicken almost made me throw up.
  • CalorieLab Diet News » I lost 40 pounds in six months as a vegan: Joi Ito 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC calorielab.com [Source type: General]

.The DEFRA study also indicated that slightly more men than women are vegan, that more vegans live in towns or cities than the country, and that people aged 16–29 were vegan more often than any other age group.^ Vegan UK (other cities) .
  • Vegan B12 - The Vegan Forum - a message board for vegans 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The more he lives for others, the greater his life.

^ [Animals] were not made for humans any more than black people were made for whites or women for men.
  • MySpace - Flore - 32 - Mujer - LOS ANGELES, California - myspace.com/florevegancuisine 20 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Netherlands
.The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimates there to be approximately 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.1% of the Dutch population.^ Please note: There seems to be some sort of belief rolling around out there that vegan desserts are good for you, versus non-vegan desserts which are not good for you.

^ As an ethical code, or a ‘way of life’, there are almost as many British Vegans as, say, Muslims ( 1,500,000 ) or more than twice as many Hindus.
  • Just Another Vegan in Japan 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC mac.vegan.jp [Source type: Original source]

^ Its really great to see that there are so many vegan tattoo artists around!
  • vegantattoos.com | tattoos for, by, and on vegans 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegantattoos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
Sweden
.Various polls and research conducted during the 1990s put the overall percentage of Swedish residents being vegan at between 0.27% and 1.6%.^ People gravitate to veganism for various reasons; but its popularity stems from three main reasons–number one being love and respect for animals.
  • What’s a Vegan Diet? | Healthy and Green Living 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ If you're vegan and looking for community, it's a chance to get a "vegan's eye view" of various communities with resident vegans.
  • Vegans in Intentional Community 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ic.org [Source type: General]

^ According to research, only about 2.5% of the American population is vegetarian , with strict vegans being but a fraction of that number.
  • 20 Vegan Recipes: Appetizers and Desserts | WebEcoist 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC webecoist.com [Source type: General]

[44] .A study of the eating patterns of 2,538 Swedish children of ages 4, 8 and 11 by the Swedish National Food Administration found that about 1% of the children were vegetarian, less than 1% were lacto-vegetarians, but found no children to be vegans.^ Growth of vegetarian children: The Farm study.
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And no one will complain about the food.
  • Go Vegan.net » Blog Archive » An open letter to the BC-SPCA 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.govegan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's much trickier for vegans than for vegetarians.
  • How to Become a Vegan - wikiHow 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

[45] .A 1996 study of over 67,000 Swedish students between the ages of 16 and 20 found 0.1% to be vegan,[46] and found a particularly high concentration of vegans in Umeå where 3.3% of the students were vegan.^ Chicago Health and Ageing Project, did a study on niacin-rich foods such as peanuts and found they can lower the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

^ I hadn't pulled out Vegan With A Vengeance in ages so searching for yet another recipe to use broccoli in I found this one.

^ For the cake, I use the pound cake recipe also found in 1,000 Vegan Recipes .

[47]
Norway
.A 1996 study of 952 15-year old students in Bergen found 0.2% of females to be vegan, but found no male participants to be vegan.^ Several studies indicate that those following a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle live an average of three to six years longer than those who do not.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With computed food and supplement intakes, vegan diets provided significantly higher amounts of ascorbate, folate, magnesium, copper, and manganese in both female and male participants.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Females, as mentioned above, can usually be given a 100% vegan diet with no problem.
  • VeganCats.com - Frequently Asked Questions - Vegan Cat Food - Vegan Dog Food 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegancats.com [Source type: General]

[46]
Germany
.The German Federal Study on Food-Consumption reported 0.1% of female and 0.05% of male participants to be vegan.^ With computed food and supplement intakes, vegan diets provided significantly higher amounts of ascorbate, folate, magnesium, copper, and manganese in both female and male participants.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The China Study, which was our original inspiration to become Vegans, documents the lack of cancers in rural Chinese who eat only plant foods.
  • Vegan Before Dinnertime - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ On the basis of 4-d dietary records, the intake of female and male vegans tended to be lower in fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and cholesterol and higher in dietary fiber than that of vegetarians.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[48]

Ethics

.The central ethical question related to veganism is whether it is right for humans to use and kill animals.^ She is a hardcore animal rights activist and a vegan.

^ Vegan dietary practices and lifestyle are rooted in religious beliefs, respect for the environment, ethical and moral values concerning animal rights, and health practices thought to reduce the potential for disease.
  • vegan Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ There are tons of shelters in the DC area that could always use extra help, including the Washington Humane Society and Washington Animal Rescue League .
  • DC*Vegan! | Reporting on all things Vegan and Animal Rights in and around Washington DC 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dcvegan.com [Source type: General]

.This question is essentially the same as the fundamental question of animal rights, so it has been animal rights ethicists who have articulated the philosophical foundations for veganism.^ Animal Rights Concerns , exploring the philosophical foundations of animal rights.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ If a vegan restaurant can open in Orange County and not only survive, but expand within the same city (Irvine), then it must be doing something right.
  • vegan coverage by LAist 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC laist.com [Source type: General]

^ It was my dog Boycott who led me to question the right of humans to eat other sentient beings.
  • MySpace - Flore - 32 - Mujer - LOS ANGELES, California - myspace.com/florevegancuisine 20 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The philosophical discussion also therefore reflects the division of viewpoints within animal rights theory between a rights-based approach, taken by both Tom Regan and Gary Francione, and a utilitarian one, promoted by Peter Singer.^ Gary Francione argues the case for an incremental approach to implementing animal rights [details] .
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter Singer and Richard Posner debate the rights of animals [details] .
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Using a utilitarian approach Peter Singer finds that All animals are equal .
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

.Vegan advocacy organizations generally adhere to some form of an animal rights viewpoint and oppose practices which violate these rights.^ She is a hardcore animal rights activist and a vegan.

^ The Vegan Society defines veganism as “a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any....
  • Vegan wine? Isn't it all vegan? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Vegan dietary practices and lifestyle are rooted in religious beliefs, respect for the environment, ethical and moral values concerning animal rights, and health practices thought to reduce the potential for disease.
  • vegan Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

Philosophical foundations

A cow restrained for slaughter. .Some ethicists consider the slaughter of animals to be an infringement upon the animals' rights.^ I had some inklings about the environmental and animal rights issues, but that wasn't what was moving me at the time.

^ But not all vegans are animal rights activities, as some are most focused on the health benefits.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nephesh ~ Animal Rights is a Feminist Issue The use of animals as food Eating animals is, without doubt, the human activity that impacts negatively upon the largest numbers of animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
Tom Regan, professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, argues that animals are entities which possess "inherent value"[50] and therefore have "basic moral rights," and that the principal moral right they possess is "the right to respectful treatment."[51] Regan additionally argues that animals have a "basic moral right not to be harmed," which can be overridden only when the individual's right not to be harmed is "morally outweighed" by "other valid moral principles."[52][53] .From this "rights view," Regan argues that "animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust" even when animals are raised "humanely."^ Who gives humans the right to argue that animals do not show emotions?
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nephesh ~ Animal Rights is a Feminist Issue The use of animals as food Eating animals is, without doubt, the human activity that impacts negatively upon the largest numbers of animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gary Francione argues the case for an incremental approach to implementing animal rights [details] .
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[49][54] .Regan argues against various justifications for eating meat including that "animal flesh is tasty," that it is "habit" for "individuals and as a culture", that it is "convenient," that "meat is nutritious," that there is an obligation to the economic interests of farmers or to the economic interests of a country, or that "farm animals are legal property," and finds that all fail to treat animals with the respect due to them by their basic rights.^ Kz is a very meat-eating country.

^ Fuck animal rights, I gotta eat!

^ There is enormous cruelty involved in large-scale commercial production of meat, leather, eggs, fur, dairy and other animal-based products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

[55] .Regan therefore argues that "those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so" and that "the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life."^ Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27808).
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I found other sources that either support the animal agriculture/Global Warming argument, or that talk about the threat of our dying oceans….

^ As a result, I fit in with the most recent wave of herbivores, those in the past decade who didn’t find their way to a veggie diet due to animal rights concerns necessarily, but rather more from a health and environmental perspective.
  • vegansaurus! · San Francisco Vegan Guide, IT'S AWESOME. 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegansaurus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.Gary L. Francione, professor of Law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark, argues that animals are sentient, and that this is sufficient to grant them moral consideration.^ Rutgers law professor Gary Francione says that as long as we regard animals as property, they'll continue being slaughtered in large numbers.
  • Vegan News - Topix 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Peter Singer has advocated for many years that animals deserve moral consideration similar to that accorded humans.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Gary Francione argues the case for an incremental approach to implementing animal rights [details] .
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[57] .Francione argues that "all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property" and that there is "no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes."^ There is no right and wrong way to be.

^ But no one has given us the right.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no cholesterol in any of our products, and they are all natural too.
  • MySpace - Vegan Gourmet® Dairy Alternatives - 36 - Female - VALENCIA, California - myspace.com/vegangourmetcheese 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Francione further argues that adopting veganism should be regarded as the "baseline" action taken by people concerned with animal rights.^ She is a hardcore animal rights activist and a vegan.

^ Animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals is offering the Macomb County Jail an alternative to feeding inmates bologna sandwiches for lunch and dinner.
  • Vegan News - Topix 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Scientists will tell you that there is no scientific basis regarding any of the claims made by Raw Vegans and in a way they may be right.

[57]
.Peter Singer, professor of bioethics at Princeton, argues that there is "no moral justification" for refusing to take sentient animal suffering into consideration in ethical decisions.^ Ethical eating is the manifestation of one's belief of moral justice through a dietary practice that causes the least amount of ecological and social suffering.

^ It’s nothing short of ‘cruel’ to commodify, exploit and murder other sentient beings….and what’s worse – it’s for a TASTE. A particular FLAVOR. There is no nutritional requirement for humans at a BCSPCA event to consume animal flesh or excretions.
  • Go Vegan.net » Blog Archive » An open letter to the BC-SPCA 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.govegan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike fellow humans, there is no minimum standard for treating an animal.

[58] Singer argues that an animal's interests warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is "speciesist."[58] Based upon his evaluation of these interests, Singer argues that "our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity."[59] .Singer does not contend that killing animals is always wrong, but that from a practical standpoint it is "better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive."^ An objection to killing animals and eating them or exploiting animals for food is almost always based on religious scruples.
  • 1st Amendment/Prisoners Rights 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.civilliberties.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, Veganistos, it’s one thing to feed your kitty dry food combined with some animal product that has no resemblance to actual flesh.

^ One who abstains from all animal products in their lifestyle -- not just food.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] .Singer therefore advocates both veganism and improved conditions for farm animals as practical means to reduce animal suffering.^ Peter Singer advocates veganism.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Baur is an animal welfare activist and founder of Farm Sanctuary , a refuge for cows, pigs, chickens and farm animals rescued from cruel and inhumane conditions.
  • RELIGION Blog | The Dallas Morning News 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: General]

^ I mean ‘ really-bad-adverts-for-The-Cause ‘ vegans for whom, ‘cruelty-free’ does not appear to extend as far as human animals .
  • Just Another Vegan in Japan 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC mac.vegan.jp [Source type: Original source]

[61][62][63]

Advocacy organizations

.Vegan advocacy organizations generally regard animals to have some form of rights, and therefore consider it unethical to use animals in ways that infringe those rights.^ Friends of Animals is a non-profit animal advocacy organization, incorporated in the state of New York since 1957.

^ Scientists will tell you that there is no scientific basis regarding any of the claims made by Raw Vegans and in a way they may be right.

^ November 1944 Donald Watson invented the word Vegan (pronounced VEE-gan) and formed the Vegan Society to provide information on a healthy lifestyle that avoids animal suffering and the wasteful use of the world’s resources.
  • The Vegan and Vegetarian Secrets Blog Reveals . . . 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansecrets.com [Source type: General]

[64][65][66][67] The Vegan Society, for example, maintains that "animals have the right not to be farmed,"[64] Vegan Action asserts that "animals are not ours to use,"[65] PETA states that "animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment,"[66] and Mercy for Animals writes that "non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights."[67]
.Advocacy organizations regard practices such as factory farming,[68][69][70] animal testing,[3][71] and displaying animals for entertainment in circuses,[72] rodeos,[73] and zoos[74] as cruel to animals.^ How cruel and vicious a species we must look to lobsters who are boiled alive, to donkeys who are beaten beyond their endurance and to all farm animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will also encourage my fans and other like-minded people to put their time, energy, and $$ into other animal advocacy organizations.
  • Go Vegan.net » Blog Archive » An open letter to the BC-SPCA 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.govegan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We love the environment and want to protect it from the extremely destructive practices of factory farming.
  • vegan coverage by Bostonist 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC bostonist.com [Source type: General]

Criticisms

.Steven Davis, a professor of animal science at Oregon State University, argues that following Tom Regan's "least harm principle" may not necessarily require the adoption of a vegan diet because there are non-vegetarian diets which "may kill fewer animals" than are killed in the intensive crop production necessary to support vegetarian diets.^ Are you following a vegan diet?

^ Are there any concerns with a Vegan Diet?
  • A Truly Healthy Diet - Jameth Sheridan, N.D 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bestjuicers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

.In particular, Davis calculates that a diet partially based on large grass-fed ruminants like cows, would kill fewer animals than a vegan diet.^ Be gentle when switching dogs from an animal-based diet to a vegan diet.
  • Dogs Can EAT Vegan Too 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganpoet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To an outsider, a vegan diet seems like it would consist largely of salad and soy.

^ Eat the grain that would have fed the cow.

[75]
Davis's analysis has itself been criticized, such as by Gaverick Matheny, a Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics at the University of Maryland, College Park, and by Andy Lamey, a Ph.D. student at the University of Western Australia. .Matheny argues that Davis miscalculates the number of animal deaths based on land area rather than per consumer, and incorrectly equates "the harm done to animals … to the number of animals killed."^ Number of animals killed in the world by the meat, dairy and egg industries since you opened this webpage, not including the billions of marine animals killed annually.
  • That Vegan Girl | Tattoo you! 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC thatvegangirl.com [Source type: General]

^ An objection to killing animals and eating them or exploiting animals for food is almost always based on religious scruples.
  • 1st Amendment/Prisoners Rights 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.civilliberties.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only is an animal-based diet bad for the animals and the environment, it is harmful for people.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Matheny argues that per-consumer, a vegan diet would kill fewer wild animals than a diet adhering to Davis's model, and that vegetarianism "involves better treatment of animals, and likely allows a greater number of animals with lives worth living to exist."^ Are the lives of animals really worth...
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ This is called a strict vegetarian diet (vegan).
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]
.Lamey characterizes Davis's argument as "thought-provoking", but asserts that Davis's calculation of harvesting-related deaths is flawed because it is based upon two studies; one includes deaths from predation, which is "morally unobjectionable" for Regan, and the other examines production of a nonstandard crop, which Lamey argues has "little relevance" to the deaths associated with typical crop production.^ One of the first arguments against a vegan diet is one of nutrition–many people assume the body can only get enough protein, calcium and other minerals through the consumption of animal products.
  • What’s a Vegan Diet? | Healthy and Green Living 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ Larger studies are needed to examine rates of specific cancers and other diseases among vegetarians.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Answer: The addition of flavourings, preservatives and other additives in soy based products is no different to their use in other foods.
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lamey also argues, like Matheny, that accidental deaths are ethically distinct from intentional ones, and that if Davis includes accidental animal deaths in the moral cost of veganism he must also evaluate the increased human deaths associated with his proposed diet, which Lamey argues leaves "Davis, rather than Regan, with the less plausible argument."^ We however can make moral/ethical decisions - like the decision to be vegan.

^ A vegan diet does not include any animal proteins.
  • A Truly Healthy Diet - Jameth Sheridan, N.D 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bestjuicers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethical eating is the manifestation of one's belief of moral justice through a dietary practice that causes the least amount of ecological and social suffering.

[77]
.William Jarvis, writing for the Nutrition & Health Forum newsletter, attacks "ideologic vegetarians," whom he claims believe that "all life is sacred" and that "all forms of life have equal value," saying that these beliefs "can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises."^ Such items include: meat of all forms, dairy , eggs , leather , fur , wool , honey , silk , products which were tested on animals, etc.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The author claims he had never tasted anything so delicious in his life and I can certainly believe him.
  • Vegan Reader: Thoughtful Reading For A Compassionate Planet 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganreader.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I bought all the ingredients to make these - made the apple sage ones this morning for brunch wow.
  • V e g a n D a d: Homemade Sausages 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegandad.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[78] .However, the ideas that all life is sacred or that all forms of life have equal value are not universal among vegans, many of whom do not grant moral standing to insects, for example.^ It is a philosophy of life, a way of living which seeks to exclude, as far as possible and practical, all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, vegan clothing or any other purpose.
  • vegan clothing - How to Make a Fashion Statement Vegan-Style: 3 Steps to Compassionate and Stylish Dressing 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.ideamarketers.com [Source type: General]

^ Hi Ellen, Thanks for promoting a vegan diet and protecting all of the animals, you are a leader with a voice to so many people.
  • Chef Roberto Martin's Vegan Tacos - The Ellen DeGeneres Show 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC ellen.warnerbros.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's the idea that humans are justified in using all other life forms instrumentally, for our own benefit.
  • Veganism // Current 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the advocacy organization Vegan Action notes, "[m]any vegans, however, are not opposed to using insect products, because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain."^ Many Vegans also do not use products that have been tested on animals or engage in other things that hurt or kill animals (such as the wearing of fur, leather, etc.
  • A Truly Healthy Diet - Jameth Sheridan, N.D 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bestjuicers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No Remainder Mark.Product DescriptionA vegan diet-one without any animal products-is unusually healthy because it is high in fiber,...
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ Cooked in the quesadilla maker we were given right before going vegan (and we have used all of once, to make waffles in) they were really good.

[79] .A similar view is expressed by Gary Varner, a vegan philosophy professor at Texas A&M University.^ Are you familiar with "vegan abolitionists" or the philosophy of Gary L. Francione??
  • Vegan Force - Expand your Vegan Network 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.veganforce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's no evidence a vegan diet can improve an athlete's performance, says David Nieman, a professor of health and exercise at Appalachian State University.
  • The 247 lb. Vegan - WSJ.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

[80] ."The case for thinking that all vertebrates can feel pain is thus very strong, while the case for thinking that invertebrates can feel pain is extremely weak by comparison (with the possible exception of cephalopods like octopus and squid)."^ This show brings in all of your senses making you feel like you’re actually there.

^ Factory farming….you find one or two cases of abuse and point your fingers and say that is how it is everywhere, Its all like that… .

^ It’s so easy in a world that feels so corrupted to feel like people just aren’t good anymore, but you all have proved my pessimism wrong again and again.

[81] .Varner and other vegans who share his view do not feel obliged to respect the rights of mosquitoes, as they do not believe mosquitoes can suffer.^ Scientists will tell you that there is no scientific basis regarding any of the claims made by Raw Vegans and in a way they may be right.

^ Anyone who is currently in jail (or will be), who consider themselves religious in an individual-based religion and who is having difficulty getting vegetarian/vegan meals because they don't know of others who share their "unestablished" faith and so their faith is not recognized by the penal system, Misha is interested in hearing from you.
  • 1st Amendment/Prisoners Rights 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.civilliberties.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wouldn’t you rather get people eating more vegan meals on balance, than fight about who or who doesn’t view the lifestyle as palatable?
  • 20 Vegan Recipes: Appetizers and Desserts | WebEcoist 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC webecoist.com [Source type: General]

.Vegans and vegetarians also typically do not deny the moral right of self-defence.^ As for dining out in restaurants, your choice of great vegan / vegetarian places to eat is huge, right across London.
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (NaturalNews) Vegetarians and vegans typically live longer and healthier lives.

^ I’m not fully vegan but I am vegetarian and you’re right….
  • She Says: Vegan Cookbook Giveaway | Hangry Pants 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.hangrypants.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .They therefore are no more committed to allowing dangerous vipers to run loose in their homes than advocates of human rights are committed to not fighting back against human attackers.^ Much more than they use to be.

^ Scientists will tell you that there is no scientific basis regarding any of the claims made by Raw Vegans and in a way they may be right.

^ E-mail entry The entry "Fasting from more than food" has no entry tags.
  • RELIGION Blog | The Dallas Morning News 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: General]

Health

Dietetic association positions

The American Dietetic Association annually publishes its position on vegan and vegetarian diets:
.
[A]ppropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.^ What are the barriers to eating a healthful vegan diet?
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resources on preventing diseases with vegetarian and vegan diets.

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

.Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes.^ Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our kit is designed to provide all the resources you would need to succeed in your vegan or vegetarian diet.

^ Int J Cancer Suppl 1998;11:23-5 Maternal diet during pregnancy and risk of brain tumors in children.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.In 2003, the Dietitians of Canada joined with the ADA to release a position paper to the same effect.^ The idea that we have to combine foods to get complete amino acids was laid to rest and the ADA position paper states this fact.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J Am Diet Assoc 2003 Jun;103(6):748-65 Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] Similarly, the British Nutrition Foundation considers "well balanced" vegetarian diets to be nutritionally adequate,[84] and the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute considers "well planned" vegetarian diets to be "nutritionally balanced for both adults and children".[85]
.In contrast, both the Swiss Federal Nutrition Commission and the German Society for Nutrition recommend against a vegan diet, particularly for children, the pregnant and the elderly.^ One of the first arguments against a vegan diet is one of nutrition–many people assume the body can only get enough protein, calcium and other minerals through the consumption of animal products.
  • What’s a Vegan Diet? | Healthy and Green Living 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ E-Book #7: "The Vegetarian Nutrition Resource Book" lists over 30 recommended books on various aspects of vegetarian nutrition, exact website addresses for over 65 articles regarding vegetarian nutrition, over 100 recommended resources, pamphlets, websites, and books for vegetarian infants, pregnant women, vegetarian adolescents, elderly vegetarians, and athletes, resources on preventing diseases with vegetarian and vegan diets, and information on soyfoods and Vegetarian Recipes.

^ Vegan Nutrition Coaching That Is Simple and Affordable Looking for a little one-on-one guidance with your vegan diet or nutrition?
  • Vegan Cooking and Nutrition Made Easy and Fun with the Vegan Coach 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegancoach.com [Source type: General]

[86][87]

Nutritional benefits

.
A vegan version of the nutritional food pyramid which normally includes meat and animal products.
^ A food is vegan if it doesn't contain animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan Brownies - All Recipes 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC allrecipes.com [Source type: General]

^ Vegans do not eat meat (fish, livestock or poultry) eggs, dairy products, honey, gelatine or use leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, or soaps derived from animal products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ There is enormous cruelty involved in large-scale commercial production of meat, leather, eggs, fur, dairy and other animal-based products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

Click to enlarge.
.Scientists such as Roger Segelken and T. Colin Campbell believe that some diets (such as the standard American diet) are detrimental to health, and they believe that a vegan diet represents an improvement,[88][89] in part because vegan diets are often high enough in fruit and vegetables to meet or exceed the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes.^ What are the barriers to eating a healthful vegan diet?
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High vegetable and fruit intake reduces risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ High fat and high calories in vegan diet??

.According to the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, diets that avoid meat tend to have lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals.^ Typical high-protein diets are extremely high in dietary cholesterol and saturated fat.

^ A high fiber diet is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Vegetarians had lower protein and cholesterol intakes and higher percentage of energy as carbohydrate, ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (P:S ratio), and fiber intake than nonvegetarians.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .People who avoid meat are reported to have lower body mass index than those following the average Canadian diet; from this follows lower death rates from ischemic heart disease; lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.^ Meat increases risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Is it true that the death rate from cancer and heart disease equal between vegetarians and meat eaters ?

^ Vegan diet a cure for type 2 diabetes?
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in western countries found the mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease 26% lower among vegans compared to regular meat eaters, but 34% lower among ovolactovegetarians and those who ate fish but no other meat.^ Larger studies are needed to examine rates of specific cancers and other diseases among vegetarians.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Is it true that the death rate from cancer and heart disease equal between vegetarians and meat eaters ?

^ Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27,808).
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

.No significant difference in mortality was found from other causes.^ However, we found a significant difference for women (P=0.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in mortality from the other causes of death examined.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no significant differences in protein and carbohydrate intakes between the groups.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[90] .A 2003 review of three studies comparing mortality rates among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians found only a nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease, but noted that the findings were compatible with the significant reduction found in the 1999 review.^ Recent studies of vegetarian diets and their effects on morbidity and mortality are reviewed.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vegetarianism reduces risk of heart disease.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ When the non-vegetarians were divided into regular meat eaters (who ate meat at least once a week) and semi-vegetarians (who ate fish only or ate meat less than once a week), the ischaemic heart disease death rate ratios compared to regular meat eaters were 0.78 (95% CI 0.68-0.89) in semi-vegetarians and 0.66 (95% CI 0.53-0.83) in vegetarians (test for trend P < 0.001).
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]
.A 2006 study found that in people with type 2 diabetes a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association.^ Vegan diet a cure for type 2 diabetes?
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ Vegan diet reduces risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[92]

Nutritional concerns

Various fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains; some basic ingredients of a vegan diet.

Specific nutrients

.The American Dietetic Association considers "appropriately planned" vegan diets "nutritionally adequate",[6] but poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B12,[93], iron,[8][7] vitamin D,[94] calcium,[94][95] iodine[96] and omega-3 fatty acids.^ Getting a good balance between omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids - 2:1-4:1 is reasonable.

^ The vegans had normal levels of vitamin B12 and serum Fe but the calcium level in this group was lowered as compared with the control group.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the long-term, B-12 can be an issue too and I highly recommend everyone (not just vegans) supplement this nutrient.

[97] .These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences, including anemia,[98] rickets[99] and cretinism[100] in children, and osteomalacia[99] and hypothyroidism[100] in adults.^ B12 deficiency has serious consequences .

^ A deficiency of these nutrients can cause bowing in the legs of infants and children .
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These anti-nutrients can cause serious gastric distress, reduce protein digestion and can lead to chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake.
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vitamin B12
.Deficiencies in Vitamin B12, a bacterial product that cannot be reliably found in plant foods,[98][101][102] can have serious health consequences, including megaloblastic anemia and neurodegenerative disease (including subacute combined degeneration of the cord).^ Chicago Health and Ageing Project, did a study on niacin-rich foods such as peanuts and found they can lower the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

^ Current law requires that our products and procedures cannot be referred to as cures, treatments, preventions or diagnosis for any disease.
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Too Much in the American Diet The typical American diet not only consists of too much food, it also relies on too much of unnecessary food products or toxins.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103] .Although clinical B12 deficiency is rare in vegans,[98] if a person has not eaten more than the daily needed amount of B12 over a long period before becoming a vegan then they may not have built up any significant store of the vitamin.^ It's true that there are more vegans than ever before.

^ Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Much more than they use to be.

[104] .In a 2002 laboratory study, more of the strict vegan participants' B12 and iron levels were compromised than those of lacto- or lacto-ovo-vegetarian participants.^ Iron stores in vegans are generally lower than lacto ovo vegetarians.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Has more Iron than beef liver .

^ This is called a strict vegetarian diet (vegan).
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105]
.The Vegan Society and Vegan Outreach, among others, recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B12 or take a B12 supplement.^ Vitamin B 12 The regular use of vitamin B12 supplements or fortified foods is recommended for all pregnant vegans.
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She's type-2 diabetic and is currently taking a medication that prevents her from eating foods high in tyramine.

^ Parents are advised to include vitamin D fortified foods or supplements if they wean their infants during the winter months, especially if they are dark skinned.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106][107][108] .Tempeh, seaweed, spirulina, organic produce, soil on unwashed vegetables, and intestinal bacteria have not been shown to be reliable sources of B12 for the dietary needs of vegans.^ Deva' and ' V-Pure' are now producing vegan DHA, long chain fatty-acids from seaweed in a capsule for humans, which you can share with your companion animals.
  • Dogs Can EAT Vegan Too 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganpoet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dietary Needs Direct - have a good selection of choccie festive shapes and vegan chocolate advent calendars.
  • Vegan Christmas or Yule - recipes and gift ideas 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganfamily.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[98][109][110]
Iron
.Iron deficiency may lead to iron deficiency anaemia.^ Casein, the milk protein, has been shown to cause iron deficiency anaemia from internal bleeding in many infants and is suspected of causing juvenile diabetes.

^ Additional iron may be needed in case of iron deficiency.
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deficiency is rare but may lead to abnormally enlarged red blood cells which characterize megaloblastic anemia.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vegans and other vegetarians—especially menstruating, pregnant and breastfeeding women—are at increased risk of developing iron deficiency.^ Risks of dietary deficiency disease are increased on vegan but not on all vegetarian diets.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If people like you would stop making statements as you have done, perhaps others would be more open-minded and at least try going vegetarian, then vegan.
  • 20 Vegan Recipes: Appetizers and Desserts | WebEcoist 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC webecoist.com [Source type: General]

^ In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, [although there is no evidence of this LF] which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

.Iron is less well absorbed from vegetarian diets (approximately ten percent absorption from vegetarian diets, versus approximately 18 percent absorption from an omnivorous diet); vegetarians who exclude all animal products may need almost twice as much dietary iron each day than non-vegetarians.^ You may say, "I'm a non-strict vegetarian or a lacto-ovo vegetarian (vegetarian who eats dairy and eggs).

^ While plant based foods contain some of all amino acids, essential and non-essential, all single plant foods are an incomplete source of protein other than soybeans.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ok I get not eating animal products, but why do vegetarian products have to look like meat?
  • Chef Roberto Martin's Vegan Tacos - The Ellen DeGeneres Show 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC ellen.warnerbros.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][111]
Calcium, vitamin D
.It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, almonds, hazelnuts, and take a calcium supplement as necessary.^ Free soy milk and cookies at the MU/Quad tables from 12:30 to 1:30 on finals days (in 2007, December 10-15), given just to take a load off of stressed-out students!
  • Vegan - Davis Wiki 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC daviswiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While most vegans can get an adequate supply of calcium from leafy greens, some nutritionists recommend calcium-fortified foods or calcium supplements.

^ Fortified foods include some breakfast cereals, some soy milks, and Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast.
  • Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet: An All-Creatures Health Archives Article - diet, disease, enzymes, exercise, health, herbs, longevity, medicine, minerals, natural health, nutrition, stress, vegan, vegetarian, vitamins 20 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][94] .The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over both meat eaters and vegetarians, likely due to lower dietary calcium intake, but that vegans consuming more than the UK's estimated average requirements for calcium of 525 mg/day had risk of bone fractures similar to other groups.^ Meat consumption increases risk of arthritis.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ More cancerous than meat already is?

^ Meat increases risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[95][112] A study of bone density found that vegans have bones 6% less dense than omnivores but that this difference was "clinically insignificant".[113] Another study by the same researchers examined over 100 vegan post-menopausal women and found that “…although vegans have much lower intakes of dietary calcium and protein than omnivores, veganism does not have (an) adverse effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and does not alter body composition.”[114]
.The authors of The China Study argue that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein because animal protein, unlike plant protein, increases the acidity of blood and tissues which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones.^ Is the increasing Western rate of obesity due to consumption of animal protein?
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ And evidence is mounting linking the consumption of animal fats and proteins to heart disease, colon and lung cancer, and osteoporosis to name a few.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cornell China Study finds that the higher the proportion of plant-based foods in the diet, the lower the rate of coronary artery disease [details] , that animal protein is not needed to promote childhood growth [details] , and that a substantial change in American dietary patterns from animal based foods to plant based foods must occur for there to be a substantial change in disease incidence patterns.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[115] .The authors add that "in our rural China Study, where the animal to plant ratio [for protein] was about 10%, the fracture rate is only one-fifth that of the U.S.," where consumption of animal products including dairy, is higher.^ Is the increasing Western rate of obesity due to consumption of animal protein?
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ There is enormous cruelty involved in large-scale commercial production of meat, leather, eggs, fur, dairy and other animal-based products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ Growing a pound of corn requires only about one twentieth the amount of water required to grow the grain to produce a pound of beef.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[116]
.For light-skinned people, adequate amounts of vitamin D may also be obtained by spending 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight every few days.^ I’ve been spending most of my winters in the tropics for the last few years, and every time I come back to my home country of Canada, it’s a bit of a shock.

^ Some calves may be separated from their dams on the first day of life; others might remain for just a few days.

^ Adult vegans obtain adequate vitamin D if they regularly spend time outdoors in spring, summer and autumn.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dark-skinned people need significantly more sunlight to obtain the same amount of vitamin D, and sunlight exposure may be difficult for vegans in areas with low levels of sunlight during winter; in these cases supplementation is recommended.^ Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If people like you would stop making statements as you have done, perhaps others would be more open-minded and at least try going vegetarian, then vegan.
  • 20 Vegan Recipes: Appetizers and Desserts | WebEcoist 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC webecoist.com [Source type: General]

^ These cases could represent the very few people with the right combination of exposure and susceptibility to a relatively fast-developing infection, or they could be the first few victims of a slower-acting, more highly infectious agent" Larry I. Lutwick, MD .
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99][101][117]
Iodine
.Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain or Ireland, animal products are used for iodine delivery.^ Warwak is a vegan who avoids using animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vegans do not eat meat (fish, livestock or poultry) eggs, dairy products, honey, gelatine or use leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, or soaps derived from animal products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ A vegan is a person who knowingly chooses not to consume, use or wear any products produced from animals or containing animal by-products, and avoids products tested on animals.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

[96][106] .Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or from regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.^ Most dishes are vegan or can be made as such.
  • Miki's Guide to Vegan Dining in LA! 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.randomgirl.com [Source type: General]

^ This book also shows how to obtains an exclusive 50% discount on the most up to date guide on fast food for vegetarians and vegans.

^ Below is a list of the most common foods vegans use to obtain essential nutrients: * Protein: Wholegrains (e.g.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96][106]

Pregnancies and children

.The American Dietetic Association considers well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy and lactation,"[6] but recommends that vegan mothers supplement for iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.^ Tags: Vitamin Supplements , Vitamins Posted in healthy vegan diet .

^ "Well, we now have excellent evidence, for example, as published in the literature to show that on average people do live in fact 10 to 12 years longer who are consuming, you know, a vegan-like diet.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also check out eatright.org, where you can search for a practitioner and read the American Dietetic Association’s position paper stating that vegetarian and vegan diets are appropriate for anyone, from unborn babies to the elderly, and also have many health benefits: http://eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_933_ENU_HTML.htm .
  • Vegan Dad | Crazy Sexy Life 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC crazysexylife.com [Source type: General]

[118][119] .Vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers has been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.^ In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, [although there is no evidence of this LF] which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is especially important for pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children to have reliable sources of vitamin B12 in their diets.

[120][121] .Some research suggests that the essential omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and its derivatives should also be supplemented in pregnant and lactating vegan mothers, since they are very low in most vegan diets, and the metabolically related docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential to the developing visual system.^ "And some nutritionists suggest that vegans take a vitamin B12 supplement."

^ Some people choose to be vegan most do not.
  • vegan@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vitamine B12 essential fatty acid DHA/EPA .

[122] .A maternal vegan diet has also been associated with low birth weight,[123] and a five times lower likelihood of having twins than those who eat animal products.^ Warwak is a vegan who avoids using animal products of any kind.
  • Vegan School 101 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.inslide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losing weight with diet vegetarian and vegan .
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

^ On the topic of dogs eating vegan diets...

[124]
.Several cases of severe infant malnutrition and some fatalities have been associated with a poorly planned vegan diet,[125][126][127][128][129] and provoked criticism of vegan diets for children.^ A lack of L-carnitine may also occur at some level in long-term vegetarians, vegans, or those on protein-restrictive diets.

^ You need a vegan diet plan that works on a daily basis so you can get in and out of the kitchen and get on with life!
  • Vegan Cooking and Nutrition Made Easy and Fun with the Vegan Coach 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegancoach.com [Source type: General]

^ Eating Abundantly (Back to Top) Certainly it takes some retraining to shift to a vegan or plant-based diet.

[130][131] .Parents involved in these cases were convicted on charges ranging from assault to felony murder.^ Fortunately, the abusers were charged with felonies and 2 of 3 were recently convicted in a landmark case.
  • urban vegan 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC urbanvegan.net [Source type: General]

Addressing criticism of veganism, Dr. Amy Lanou, an expert witness for the prosecution in one of the cases, asserted that the child in that particular case "was not killed by a vegan diet" but that "the real problem was that he was not given enough food of any sort."[132]

Eating disorders

.The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder."^ We also do not hibernate, so the option to not eat does not exist.
  • Go Vegan.net » Blog Archive » An open letter to the BC-SPCA 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.govegan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You may say, "I'm a non-strict vegetarian or a lacto-ovo vegetarian (vegetarian who eats dairy and eggs).

^ In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, [although there is no evidence of this LF] which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.[133][134][135]

Resources and the environment

Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been shown as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.
.People who adopt veganism for environmental reasons do so on the basis that veganism is claimed to consume far fewer resources and causes less environmental damage than an animal-based diet.^ The animal abusers claim that animals cannot reason.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only is an animal-based diet bad for the animals and the environment, it is harmful for people.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growing plants takes much fewer resources than growing animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136][137][138] .Animal agriculture is linked to climate change, water pollution, land degradation, and a decline in biodiversity.^ Animal agriculture is responsible for massive amounts of air, water and soil pollution.
  • Vegan Cookie Recipes 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Factory Animal Farms are U.S., Canada and Mexico's worst water and air polluters.
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another interesting tidbit of information is that it takes approximately 3 ½ acres of land and 2500 gallons of water a day to support an animal product based diet.
  • Author & Book Views On a Healthy Life! - LIVING GREEN - Go Green with Vegan Cuisine this Earth Day 20 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.basilandspice.com [Source type: General]

[138][139][140] .Additionally, an animal-based diet uses more land,[140][141] water,[142] and energy than a vegan diet.^ Be gentle when switching dogs from an animal-based diet to a vegan diet.
  • Dogs Can EAT Vegan Too 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganpoet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much more than they use to be.

^ At Vegan Fusion we specialize in helping people who want to include more vegan foods in their diet do so in a gentle and delicious manner.
  • Author & Book Views On a Healthy Life! - LIVING GREEN - Go Green with Vegan Cuisine this Earth Day 20 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.basilandspice.com [Source type: General]

[140][143][144]
.
The predictable increase in animal product proportions on the plates of people living in developing countries will bring new challenges to global agriculture.
^ He notes that the number of animals coming into Animal Care and Control of New York City is on the increase, after decreasing for the last six years.
  • Veganism // Current 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in my research I've discovered that no single book can completely solve all the challenges to living a totally animal-product-free lifestyle.

^ Based on 2007 statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas .

Source: FAO.
.The Livestock, Environment And Development Initiative, a joint effort of the World Bank, The European Union, The US Agency for International Development, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others, released a report in November 2006 linking animal agriculture to environmental damage.^ Based on 2007 statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas .

^ I will also encourage my fans and other like-minded people to put their time, energy, and $$ into other animal advocacy organizations.
  • Go Vegan.net » Blog Archive » An open letter to the BC-SPCA 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.govegan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Buying "normal" pet food is supporting the same meat industry with its attendant cruelty, exploitation, waste, and environmental damage that veganism is so opposed to.

.The report, Livestock's Long Shadow [145] concludes that the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.^ Baur is an animal welfare activist and founder of Farm Sanctuary , a refuge for cows, pigs, chickens and farm animals rescued from cruel and inhumane conditions.
  • RELIGION Blog | The Dallas Morning News 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Veganism The Most Logical Reasons to Become Vegan There are a variety of reasons to adopt a vegan lifestyle, health and peace of mind being just two commonly cited ones.

^ The cow, the pig, chicken and sheep, all shackled up in chains on their feet.
  • The Vegan Poem Page 2 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.soystache.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents.^ Vegan diet lowers greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ They help make EVOLUTION DIET what it is: One of The World's Most Ethical & Environmentally Responsible Pet Food Product and Health Service Companies.
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2).^ Here is our planet, beginning to feel the effects of global warming while our children drop one by one into chemically-induced states of mental and physical illness, our honeybees which are responsible for nearly all of the food we eat are being exterminated and our water is so polluted, it is unfit for human consumption.
  • Vegan Reader: Thoughtful Reading For A Compassionate Planet 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganreader.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those numbers are confirmed in a 2007 article in the British medical journal The Lancet, which concludes that reducing consumption of animal products should be a top priority, especially in developed countries where such a measure would also entail substantial health benefits.^ Consumption of animal products must be reduced to protect the environment.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Every respectable health promotions authority in the world now recognises a formula of less saturated animal fat and more fruit and vegetables is the best route to reduce epidemics of chronic diseases such as diabetes.

^ Public health implications of meat production and consumption.
  • Vegan Monthly - Regularly updated links to mainly original & scholarly medical, scientific and philosophical articles that support the vegan lifestyle or encourage a reduction in the use of animal-based products. 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.vegan.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

[146]
.However, recent analysis by Goodland and Anhang, co-authors of “Livestock and Climate Change”[147] in the latest issue of World Watch magazine found that livestock and their byproducts actually account for at least 32.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, or 51 percent of annual worldwide GHG emissions.^ Recently, however, the National Institutes of Health recommended that people consume at least 2% of their total daily calories as omega 3 fats.

^ Alanis Morissette appeared in a recent issue of People magazine to discuss her weight loss using the Eat to Live plan.

^ Dairy products contain lactose, a milk sugar which the majority of the world's population is actually unable to digest and is often found to be the cause of digestive problems.

[147] .The data presented in this study is the subject of an organised educational initiative, called 51percent, which is to be presented at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen ( COP 15).^ Winning films will screen in selected cinemas in the United Kingdom AND three finalists will also be chosen to screen at the Copenhagen Climate Conference.
  • MySpace - Vegan Treats - 101 - Female - BETHLEHEM, Pennsylvania - myspace.com/vegantreats 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Oxford Vegetarian Study is a prospective study of 6000 vegetarians and 5000 nonvegetarian control subjects recruited in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1984.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

[148]
.A 2006 study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin, assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago, found that a person switching from the average American diet to a vegan diet would reduce CO2 emissions by 1,485 kg per year.^ The agriculture needed to sustain this kind of companion-animal diet emits twice the greenhouse gas emissions that come from driving an SUV 6,200 miles per year."
  • SuperVegan - Vegan Blog and New York City Restaurant Guide 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC supervegan.com [Source type: General]

^ Our kit is designed to provide all the resources you would need to succeed in your vegan or vegetarian diet.

^ Studies using rat models often add purified isoflavones at levels much higher than those found in human diets.
  • Vegan SA Blog - News for South African vegans - new products, restaurants, accommodations, shops, recipes and foods in South Africa 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC blog.vegansa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149]
.The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis argues that while most meat production in industrialized countries uses inefficient grain feeding methods through intensive farming, meat production is not invariably a poor use of land, especially in countries like China and Brazil.^ WILL MOST LIKELY HAPPEN King Oprah brings a lot more veggie guests/products/etc.
  • vegansaurus! · San Francisco Vegan Guide, IT'S AWESOME. 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegansaurus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like Al Gore before them in an inconvenient truth their inconvenient truth for them is that eating less meat is the single most powerful thing you can do for the planet.

^ A vegetarian who eats plant products only, especially one who uses no products derived from animals, as fur or leather...
  • vegan | Addictomatic 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC addictomatic.com [Source type: General]

.Since a proportion of all grain crops produced are not suitable for human consumption, they can be fed to animals to turn into meat, thus improving efficiency.^ No matter to him that Martha made the noodles herself-- that he has before him something he will not meet again for years: He turns them down precisely because they are, to him, no matter at all.
  • RELIGION Blog | The Dallas Morning News 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Animal abusers will leap on every example they can find of apparent ..bad behaviour' by animals and use that example to draw far reaching conclusions about all animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In dietary terms it refers to the practice of dispensing with all animal produce - including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, animal milks, honey, and their derivatives.

[150][151] .Further, greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry; but also to several plant based sources such as rice cultivation.^ While plant based foods contain some of all amino acids, essential and non-essential, all single plant foods are an incomplete source of protein other than soybeans.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He suggests eating an entirely plant-based, whole foods diet — no processed foods whatsoever and no animal products.

^ We need an 80% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 .

[152][153]
.In the developing world, notably Asia and Africa, fossil fuels are seldom used to transport feed for farm animals.^ It’s a parade where people will be walking, canoeing, biking, running, rollerblading, hiking, swimming – pretty much any mode of transportation that doesn’t burn fossil fuels will be in the parade.
  • New Page 0 20 September 2009 22:17 UTC my.voyager.net [Source type: General]

^ I found other Pet Food Companies routinely lie to the public about using Human Grade Non Factory Animal Farm Ingredients.
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the antibiotics used to treat human infections are also used in feed animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sheep or goats, for example, require no fuel, since they graze on farmlands, while bales of hay for bovines are still transported mainly using bullock carts or similar devices.^ They are mainly used for fertiliser or dumped in landfill sites.

^ Since they started out, they have only produced certified vegan (and kosher) products and this is one of their strictest rules: no animal products is a set policy .

^ There is no need to avoid these foods, since they are high in other nutrients, but don’t depend on them for calcium.

.Few of the meat processing techniques that occur in developed countries takes place in the majority of developing countries.^ Portland had a great turnout for Fur Free Friday , an event that takes place in cities all over the country on the lamest (in my opinion) day of the year: Black Friday.

.Animals are also often herded to the place of slaughter (with the exception of poultry) resulting in a very low use of fossil fuels.^ That means low fossil fuel requirements!
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These sanctuaries use our products because they have lower rates of illness and mortality when their animals are placed on our foods."
  • Dogs Can EAT Vegan Too 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganpoet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if the animals are stunned (which is extremely painful) before they are slaughtered, they often remain conscious and are thus slaughtered as they scream and struggle in terror for their lives.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[154] .In fact farm animals in developing world are used for multiple purposes from providing draught power, to transportation while also serving as meat once it reaches the end of its economic life.^ Animal abusers will leap on every example they can find of apparent ..bad behaviour' by animals and use that example to draw far reaching conclusions about all animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have developed and use these powerful procedures with kidney, liver, heart, immune system failure, cancer, topical and internal infections everyday.
  • Evolution Diet - Health Food For Dogs, Cats and Ferrets 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.petfoodshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A LIFE SENTENCE BEGINS On todays modern farms, death begins at birth for the majority of animals.
  • Vegan Life - Weblogs Vorarlberg 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC vegan.volblog.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2007 study which simulated various diets' land use for the geography of New York State concluded that although vegetarian diets used the smallest amount of land per capita, a low fat diet which included some meat and dairy (less than 2 oz of meat/eggs per day—significantly less than consumed by the average American) could support slightly more people on the same available land than could be fed on some high fat vegetarian diets, since animal food crops can be grown on lower quality land than crops for human consumption.^ Meat intake ranged from 0 g/d with a vegetarian diet to 600 g/d with a high-meat diet.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More cancerous than meat already is?

^ (Vegetarians and vegans eat, on average, more fiber than most North Americans.

[155][156]

Similar diets and lifestyles

Sample of vegan Buddhist cuisine from a Zen temple in Japan.
.Diets such as raw veganism and fruitarianism are related to veganism, but have significant differences from standard veganism.^ There was also a significant difference between the periods with vegan and lactovegetarian diets.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I think that I'm just coming to a real awareness of what the Raw Vegan Diet is.

^ Storm has been eating a raw-vegan diet of fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds in their natural unheated state for over 30 years and is known for his body builder's physique .

.There are also numerous religious groups that regularly or occasionally practice a similar diet, including adherents to some Buddhist traditions,[157] Hindus,[158] Jains,[159] Eastern Orthodox Christians,[160][161] Rastafari,[162] and Seventh-day Adventists.^ (There is some disagreement over the issue of including avocado in a dog's diet.
  • Dogs Can EAT Vegan Too 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganpoet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Seventh-day Adventists do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, and there is a wide range of dietary exposures within the population.
  • Vegan/vegetarian research 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have just returned from the American Dietetic Association annual meeting where there were numerous presentations on various aspects of vegetarian diets.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[163] .Some small[164][165][166][167] Sikh,[168] Sects have Lacto-vegetarian lifestyles.^ "I have been lacto-ovo vegetarian for about fifteen years and have been considering going veg for quite some time.
  • Vegan Cooking and Nutrition Made Easy and Fun with the Vegan Coach 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegancoach.com [Source type: General]

^ I've considered going ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and since I'm a research junkie, I got to doing some reading.

Cuisine

A vegan raspberry and pear tart.
Also see the Wikibooks Cookbook articles on vegan cuisine and vegan substitutions and its listing of vegan recipes.
.The cuisines of most nations contain dishes suitable for a vegan diet, including ingredients such as tofu, tempeh and the wheat gluten-based product seitan in East Asian diets.^ Seitan is a form of wheat gluten.

^ Most dishes are vegan or can be made as such.
  • Miki's Guide to Vegan Dining in LA! 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.randomgirl.com [Source type: General]

^ All items have ingredients listed and vegan dishes are marked as such.
  • Miki's Guide to Vegan Dining in LA! 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.randomgirl.com [Source type: General]

[169][170][171][172] .Many recipes that traditionally contain animal products can be adapted by substituting plant-based ingredients.^ There is enormous cruelty involved in large-scale commercial production of meat, leather, eggs, fur, dairy and other animal-based products.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ While plant based foods contain some of all amino acids, essential and non-essential, all single plant foods are an incomplete source of protein other than soybeans.
  • Vegetarian & Vegan - Ask the Dietitian® 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vegan is a person who knowingly chooses not to consume, use or wear any products produced from animals or containing animal by-products, and avoids products tested on animals.
  • The Vegan Society of Aotearoa, New Zealand 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegansociety.co.nz [Source type: General]

.For example, almond milk, grain milk, soy milk or other plant milk can be used to replace cow's milk[172][173] and eggs can be replaced by applesauce or commercial starch-based substitute products, depending upon the recipe.^ My only change was using almond milk instead of soy milk.
  • Vegan Fluffy Buttercream Frosting Recipe by - CHOW 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Ingredients - A batch of the almond milk recipe above.
  • Vegan Reader: Thoughtful Reading For A Compassionate Planet 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.veganreader.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I used soy milk and subsituted mashed bananas for the eggs and oil the recipe called for.
  • She Says: Vegan Cookbook Giveaway | Hangry Pants 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.hangrypants.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[172][173][174] .Additionally, artificial "meat" products ("analogs" or "mock meats") made from non-animal derived ingredients such as soy or gluten including imitation sausages, ground beef, burgers, and chicken nuggets are widely available.^ Ground beef style soy meat sauteed with onions and mushrooms 4.
  • urban vegan 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC urbanvegan.net [Source type: General]

^ Vegans often engage in lively discussion about how and why they made the change from animal derivatives to a pure vegetarian lifestyle.
  • Friends of Animals | Southern California Vegan Restaurant Guide 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.friendsofanimals.org [Source type: General]

^ Edit: Be aware that many art supplies (including paper and ink) are NOT vegan, and may have ingredients such as animal hair, animal fat, rabbit skin, carmine, gelatin, bone char, ox gall, etc.

[172][175]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Countries with English as an official language and national-level vegan societies.
  2. ^ In particular, they question whether insects have the capacity to suffer and whether the harm done to bees during honey production is any worse than the harm done during production crops or production of other sweeteners.
  3. ^ 4% vegetarians of total population * 5% vegans of vegetarians = 0.2% vegans of total population
  4. ^ 5% vegetarians of total population * 5% avoiding dairy = 0.25% vegans of total population
  5. ^ 250,000 vegans of UK population / 58,789,194 UK population in 2001 = 0.425% vegans of total population

References

  1. ^ a b "Memorandum of Association of the Vegan Society" (PDF). About Us. Vegan Society. 1979-11-20. pp. 1. http://www.vegansociety.com/uploadedFiles/About_Us/Articles-of-Association-Nov-09.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "In this Memorandum the word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment." 
  2. ^ a b c Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). Being Vegan. McGraw-Hill Contemporary. pp. 2,6,17,148–150. ISBN 978-0737303230. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Criteria for Vegan food". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/Lifestyle-And-Nutrition/Food/Criteria-for-Vegan-Food.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "vegan products must, as far as is possible and practical, be entirely free from animal involvement. … The development and/or manufacture of the product … must not involve, or have involved, testing of any sort on animals" 
  4. ^ a b c "Time/CNN Poll: Do you consider yourself a vegetarian?". Time Magazine. 2002-07-07. http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101020715/poll/. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "
    • Do you consider yourself a vegetarian? No 96% Yes 4%
    • As you know, there are many different types of vegetarians. Which best describes you? Semi-vegetarian 57% Ovo-lacto-vegetarian 36% Vegan 5% Other 2%" 
  5. ^ a b c "Types and quantities of food consumed: Vegetarian/vegan" (PDF). National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults aged 19 to 64, Volume 1 2002. Food Standards Agency. pp. 11, 23. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/ndnsprintedreport.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "Overall, 5% of respondents reported being vegetarian or vegan. … Asked why they became vegetarian or vegan, 51% said it was for moral or ethical reasons, 29% for health reasons, and 25% because they did not like the taste of meat. Other less frequently mentioned reasons included religious beliefs, and cost or convenience. … Types of foods avoided by respondents who said they were vegetarian or vegan … Milk 5%" 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.". J Am Diet Assoc 109 (7): 1266–1282. July 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. http://www.eatright.org/About/Content.aspx?id=8357. 
  7. ^ a b c Iron deficiency - adults, Better Health Channel (Victorian Government), http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/iron_deficiency_adults?open 
  8. ^ a b John Murtagh (2007), General Practice (4th ed), McGraw Hill Australia, pp. 211-212, ISBN 9780070135963 
  9. ^ a b c "How Many Adults Are Vegetarian?". Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group. http://www.vrg.org/journal/vj2006issue4/vj2006issue4poll.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "Dietary Habits of Adults 18 and Older in the United States in 2006 … 1.4%Never eat meat, poultry, fish/seafood, dairy products/eggs (vegan, except for possibly honey) … Some 1.4 percent of men are vegan, while 1.3 percent of women are vegan, another almost even split between genders." 
  10. ^ a b "Donald Watson". Times Online. Times Newspapers Ltd.. 2005-11-16. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article754304.ece. Retrieved 2006-09-15. "The Vegan Society’s 25 members swelled steadily to the 5,000 of today. There are now an estimated 250,000 vegans in Britain." 
  11. ^ a b "Vegan Society: History". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/About-The-Society/History-of-the-Society.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "In August 1944, Elsie Shrigley and Donald Watson … agreed the desirability of coordinating 'non-dairy vegetarians' … it was decided to form a new society and adopt a new name to describe themselves - vegan derived from VEGetariAN." 
  12. ^ Messina, Virginia; Stepaniak, Joanne (2000). The vegan sourcebook. Los Angeles: Lowell House. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7373-0506-1. "As early as 1948, Dr. Catherine Nimmo … and Rubin Abramowitz established this country's first Vegan Society, in Oceano, California" 
  13. ^ "American Vegan Society: History". American Vegan Society. http://www.americanvegan.org/history.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "The American Vegan Society was founded February 1960, in Malaga New Jersey." 
  14. ^ Mather, Harry; Malcolm Horne (Spring 2003). "Kathleen Jannaway 1915-2003: A Life Well Lived". Vegan Views (96). http://www.veganviews.org.uk/vv96/vv96jannaway.html. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "In 1984 … She formed the Movement For Compassionate Living (The Vegan Way) dedicated to working non-violently for lifestyles possible for all the world's peoples, sustainable within the planet's resources and free from all animal exploitation.". 
  15. ^ "A History of Vegan Outreach and Our Influences". Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/articles/history.html. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "1993 … We formed Animal Liberation Action (ALA) as a formal way of working together. … 1995 ALA changed our name to Vegan Outreach." 
  16. ^ "World Vegan Day". Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20080614120528/http://www.vegansociety.com/about_us/world_vegan_day/. Retrieved 2009-08-13. "The world has been celebrating World Vegan Day, 1st November since 1994." 
  17. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise interview with Donald Watson". Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise. 2004-08-11. http://www.vegparadise.com/24carrot610.html. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  18. ^ "vegan". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/vegan. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  19. ^ Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM (v2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. 
  20. ^ "Vegan Community Mourns Donald Watson". Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise. 2005-12-01. http://www.vegparadise.com/news57.html. Retrieved 2008-09-09. ""The pronunciation is "VEEGAN" not "VAI-GAN," "VEGGAN." or "VEEJAN." The stress is on the first syllable," Watson responded." 
  21. ^ "What is Vegan?". American Vegan Society. http://www.americanvegan.org/vegan.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-15. "Vegans exclude flesh, fish, fowl, dairy products (animal milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, honey, animal gelatin, and all other foods of animal origin. Veganism also excludes animal products such as leather, wool, fur, and silk in clothing, upholstery, etc. Vegans usually make efforts to avoid the less-than-obvious animal oils, secretions, etc., in many products such as soaps, cosmetics, toiletries, household goods and other common commodities." 
  22. ^ "Introduction to Veganism". The Vegan Society of New Zealand. http://www.veganz.pl.net/introduction.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "A Vegan is a person who knowingly chooses not to consume, use or wear any products produced from animals or contains animal by-products, and avoids products tested on animals." 
  23. ^ "About Vegana". The Danish Vegan Society. http://www.vegana.dk/index-e.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "A vegan does not eat meat, poultry, fish, milk products, egg or other animal products - out of concern for people, animals, and the environment." 
  24. ^ a b "Vegan FAQs". Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/starterpack/qa.html#isrefinedsugarvegan. Retrieved 2007-03-11. "Is refined sugar vegan? It depends on how you define 'vegan.' Refined sugars do not contain any animal products, and so by an ingredients-based definition of vegan, refined sugar is vegan. ... However, if one accepts a process-based definition of vegan, then many other familiar products would also not be considered vegan. For instance, steel and vulcanized rubber are produced using animal fats and, in many areas, groundwater and surface water is filtered through bone charcoal filters." 
  25. ^ "IVU FAQ: Drinks". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. http://www.ivu.org/faq/drink.html. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  26. ^ "Information Sheet: Alcohol". Vegetarian Society. http://www.vegsoc.org/info/alcohol.html. Retrieved 2007-03-11. "The use of animal derived products in the production of alcoholic beverages is fairly widespread not because no alternatives exist, but because they always have been used and there is little demand from the consumer for an alternative. ... The main appearance of animal derived products is in the fining or clearing process, though others may be used as colorants or anti-foaming agents." 
  27. ^ "IVU FAQ: Ingredients". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. http://www.ivu.org/faq/ingredients.html. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  28. ^ "IVU FAQ: Animal Derived Ingredient List". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. http://www.ivu.org/faq/animal_derived.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  29. ^ "IVU FAQ: Maybe Animal Derived". International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union. 2006-08-03. http://www.ivu.org/faq/maybe-animal-derived.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  30. ^ "On Living With Compassion". Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/starterpack/beingvegan.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "Our desire to oppose and help end cruelty to animals can help guide our choices, as well as provide a simple, easy-to-understand explanation of our actions. The question isn't, "Is this vegan?" but, "What is best for preventing suffering?"" 
  31. ^ "On Living With Compassion (Old version)". Vegan Outreach. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212025817/http://www.veganoutreach.org/starterpack/beingveganold.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "We believe that framing veganism as the avoidance of a specific list of “bad” ingredients is not the best way to achieve results. When looked at closely, any ingredients-based definition of vegan collapses into inconsistencies. This is why we stress that the essence of being vegan is working to end cruelty to animals." 
  32. ^ "Trademark Standards". http://www.vegansociety.com/User-Hubpages/Businesses/Trademark/Trademark-Standards.aspx. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  33. ^ "Honey: Ain't so sweet for the bees". Vegan Society. http://vegansociety.com/uploadedFiles/User_Hubpages/Education/Education_Resources/Honey.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-11. "Vegans use no bee products, preferring to forgo the doubtful benefits and well known risks [such as infant botulism] of substances stolen from bees." 
  34. ^ "What is Vegan?". http://www.americanvegan.org/vegan.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-03. "Vegans exclude flesh, fish, fowl, dairy products (animal milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, honey, animal gelatin, and all other foods of animal origin." 
  35. ^ "Is honey vegan?". Vegan FAQ's. Vegan Action. http://www.vegan.org/FAQs/index.html#7. Retrieved 2007-10-03. "Many vegans, however, are not opposed to using insect products, because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain. Moreover, even if insects were conscious of pain, it's not clear that the production of honey involves any more pain for insects than the production of most vegetables, since the harvesting and transportation of all vegetables involves many 'collateral' insect deaths." 
  36. ^ "Vegan FAQ's". Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/guide/qa.html. Retrieved 2009-12-11. "Insects (including bees) do have brains. But their brains are not highly developed, and they are likely not large enough to facilitate the consciousness of pain. So is honey vegan? Our best answer is “We don’t know.” If one is concerned about doing harm to insects, it’s not clear that the production of honey involves any more pain for insects than the production of most vegetables or alternative sweeteners, since the harvesting and transportation of all crops involves some insect deaths." 
  37. ^ "About Dennis Kucinich" (PDF). Dennis for President. Kucinich for President 2008. pp. 2. http://www2.kucinich.us/files/pdfs/about_dennis.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-23. "Congressman Kucinich is one of the few vegans in Congress, a dietary decision he credits not only with improving his health, but in deepening his belief in the sacredness of all species." 
  38. ^ Duck, Jennifer (2007-05-04). "Bringin' Home the Bacon, Vegan-Style". ABC News (ABCNews Internet Ventures). http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=3139687. Retrieved 2008-08-16. "In fact, the self-proclaimed peace candidate doesn't eat any kind of animal by-product; Kucinich and his wife are both vegans, presenting what could be a formidable challenge in the meaty world of high stakes politics en route to the White House." 
  39. ^ Vegetarianism In America
  40. ^ "How Many Vegetarians Are There?". Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group. http://www.vrg.org/press/2009poll.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "Vegan (0.8% never eat meat, fish, fowl, dairy, eggs, or honey) … Would be Vegan, except for honey (Rounded from 1.3%)" 
  41. ^ Aramark. "One Out of Every Four College Students Wants Vegan Meals According to ARAMARK Survey". http://www.ballparkfoods.com/PressReleaseDetailTemplate.aspx?PostingID=592&ChannelID=211. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  42. ^ BMRB Social Research (2007-11-02). "Data tables" (PDF). Report, questionnaire and data tables following Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours toward the Environment: 2007. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. pp. 500–502. http://www.defra.gov.uk/evidence/statistics/environment/pubatt/download/pas2007_data_all.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  43. ^ "Wat is veganisme?". veganisme.org. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. http://www.veganisme.org/?over_veganisme. Retrieved 2007-10-03. "Er zijn nu ongeveer 2,4 miljoen parttime vegetariërs en vleesverlaters, 300.000 vegetariërs en 16.000 veganisten in Nederland." 
  44. ^ Pettersson, Björn (June 2005) (in Swedish). Vegansk näringslära på vetenskaplig grund (2nd ed.). Orsa: HÄLSAböcker/Energica Förlag. pp. 17–19. ISBN 9185506796. 
  45. ^ Heléne Enghardt Barbieri; Wulf Becker (2004-12-15). "Svenska barns matvanor 2003" (in Swedish) (PDF). Livsmedelsverket. pp. 5. http://www.slv.se/upload/dokument/mat/matvanor/Barns%20matvanor%202003%20resultat%20enk%C3%A4t.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  46. ^ a b Larsson, Christel (2001) (PDF). Young vegetarians and omnivores. Dietary habits and other health-related aspects. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University. p. 40. ISBN 91-7191-983-X. http://www3.umu.se/KOST/forskning/fulltextCL.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-27. "
    Country, city Study design Yeara Age(years) nb Ve
    Sweden (I)g Telephone interview with school matrons. 1996 16-20 67 370 0.1
    Sweden, Umeå (I)g Telephone interview with school matrons. 1996 16-20 3 450 2.1
    " 
  47. ^ Larsson, Christel; Klock K, Nordrehaug Åstrøm A, Haugejorden O, Johansson G (October 2001). "Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores.". Public Health Nutrition 4 (5): 1005–14. PMID 11784414. 
  48. ^ [1] German Federal Study on Food Consumption 2008
  49. ^ a b Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "Animal agriculture, as we know it, is wrong, not only when farm animals are raised in close confinement in factory farms, but also when they are raised "humanely," since even in this case their lives are routinely brought to an untimely end because of human interests" 
  50. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 244–245. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "…moral patients (e.g., animals in the wild)…For these reasons, the subject-of-a-life criterion can be defended as citing a relevant similarity between moral agents and patients, one that makes the attribution of equal inherent value to them both intelligible and nonarbitrary." 
  51. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 327. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "The principal conclusion reached in the present chapter is that all moral agents and patients have certain basic moral rights. … The principal basic moral right possessed by all moral agents and patients is the right to respectful treatment." 
  52. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 328. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "It was also argued that all moral agents and patients have a prima facie basic moral right not to be harmed." 
  53. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 287. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "To say this right is a prima facie right is to say that (1) consideration of this right is always a morally relevant consideration, and (2) anyone who would harm another, or allow others to do so, must be able to justify doing so by (a) appealing to other valid moral principles and by (b) showing that these principles morally outweigh the right not to be harmed in a given case." 
  54. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "This chapter traced some of the implications of the rights view. On this view, animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust (9.1), and it is unjust because it fails to treat farm animals with the respect they are due" 
  55. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 333–334. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "The argument just given is sound only if the case can be made that raising animals to eat and eating them satisfies all the requirements of the liberty principle. Once we examine the matter more closely, we shall see that it fails to do so." 
  56. ^ Regan, Tom (1983). The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 394. ISBN 0-520-05460-1. "Those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so. … the rights view holds that the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life" 
  57. ^ a b c Francione, Gary (2006-12-27). "Mission Statement". Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach. http://www.abolitionistapproach.com/index.php?page_id=54. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "We have no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes. … A shorthand way of describing the view presented here is to say that all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property. … This site also seeks to make clear that the moral baseline of an animal rights movement is veganism." 
  58. ^ a b Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Equality for Animals?". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience…is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call 'speciesists' give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species." 
  59. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Equality for Animals?". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 62. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "The use of animals for food is probably the oldest and most widespread form of animal use. There is also a sense in which it is the most basic form of animal use, the foundation stone on which rests the belief that animals exist for our pleasure and convenience. If animals count in their own right, our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity." 
  60. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Taking Life: Animals". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 134. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. "In any case, at the level of practical moral principles, it would be better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive." 
  61. ^ Clyne, Catherine (October 2006). "Singer Says". Satya. http://www.satyamag.com/oct06/singer.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "If you read the book, it does make clear that going vegan is a good solution to a lot of the ethical problems." 
  62. ^ Gilson, Dave (2006-05-03). "Chew the Right Thing". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/interview/2006/04/peter_singer.html?welcome=true. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "In 1975 he published Animal Liberation, a pioneering defense of the rights of animals that concluded that veganism is the most ethically justifiable diet." 
  63. ^ Broudy, Oliver (2006-05-08). "The practical ethicist". Salon.com. Salon Media Group, Inc.. http://www.salon.com/books/int/2006/05/08/singer/index.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "If you can be vegetarian or vegan that's ideal. If you can buy organic and vegan that's better still, and organic and fair trade and vegan, better still, but if that gets too difficult or too complicated, just ask yourself, Does this product come from intensive animal agriculture?" 
  64. ^ a b "Animal Farming". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/Lifestyle-And-Nutrition/Animals/Animal-Farming.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "Vegans believe that animals have the right not to be farmed." 
  65. ^ a b "About Veganism: For the Animals". Vegan Action. http://www.vegan.org/about_veganism/animals.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Veganism emerges as the lifestyle most consistent with the philosophy that animals are not ours to use." 
  66. ^ a b "PETA's History: Compassion in Action". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.peta.org/factsheet/files/FactsheetDisplay.asp?ID=107. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "PETA operates under the simple principle that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment." 
  67. ^ a b "About Mercy for Animals". Mercy for Animals. http://www.mercyforanimals.org/about_mfa.asp. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Mercy For Animals is a 501(c)(3) non-profit animal advocacy organization that believes non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights, including the right to live free of unnecessary suffering." 
  68. ^ "Factory Farms". Why Vegan. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/animals.html. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  69. ^ "Cruelty to Animals: Mechanized Madness". GoVeg.com. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.goveg.com/factoryFarming.asp. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  70. ^ "Exploitation". Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080418143324/http://www.vegansociety.com/html/animals/exploitation/. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "The vast majority of these animals will have spent their brief lives in the cramped, distressing conditions of the factory farm. Their close confinement and the overworking of their bodies will have led to increased susceptibility to injury and disease. They will have been reared on an unnatural diet designed to increase productivity and many will have undergone various painful and traumatic procedures." 
  71. ^ "Testing". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/Lifestyle-And-Nutrition/Toiletries-and-Cosmetics/Animal-Testing.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "Every year, millions of animals are subjected to the most horrifically painful experiments just so people can have a new brand of shampoo or a differently scented perfume." 
  72. ^ "Circuses: Three Rings of Abuse". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.peta.org/MC/factsheet_display.asp?ID=66. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Colorful pageantry disguises the fact that animals used in circuses are captives who are forced, under threat of punishment, to perform confusing, uncomfortable, repetitious, and often-painful acts." 
  73. ^ "Rodeo: Cruelty for a Buck". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.peta.org/MC/factsheet_display.asp?ID=69. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "In reality, rodeos are nothing more than manipulative displays of human domination over animals, thinly disguised as entertainment." 
  74. ^ "Animal Rights Uncompromised: Zoos". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.peta.org/campaigns/ar-zoos.asp. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "PETA opposes zoos because zoo cages and cramped enclosures deprive animals of their most basic needs. The zoo community regards the animals it keeps as commodities, and animals are regularly bought, sold, borrowed, and traded without any regard for established relationships." 
  75. ^ Davis, Steven L. (2003). "The Least Harm Principle May Require that Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4): 387–394. "the LHP may actually be better served using food production systems that include both plant-based agriculture and a forage-ruminant-based agriculture as compared to a strict plant-based (vegan) system.". 
  76. ^ Gaverick Matheny (2003). "Least harm: a defense of vegetarianism from Steven Davis’s omnivorous proposal". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5): 505–511. doi:10.1023/A:1026354906892. http://www.veganoutreach.org/enewsletter/matheny.html. "While eating animals who are grazed rather than intensively confined would vastly improve the welfare of farmed animals given their current mistreatment, Davis does not succeed in showing this is preferable to vegetarianism. First, Davis makes a mathematical error in using total rather than per capita estimates of animals killed; second, he focuses on the number of animals killed in ruminant and crop production systems and ignores important considerations about the welfare of animals under both systems; and third, he does not consider the number of animals who are prevented from existing under the two systems. After correcting for these errors, Davis’s argument makes a strong case for, rather than against, adopting a vegetarian diet.". 
  77. ^ Lamey, Andy (2007). "Food Fight! Davis versus Regan on the Ethics of Eating Beef". Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (2): 331–348. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2007.00382.x. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1253172. Retrieved 2009-02-22. "To start with, the scientific studies on which Davis relies actually document two different forms of harm to field animals: there are those directly killed by harvesting equipment and those that become the prey of other animals. ... Davis also overlooks philosophically significant forms of harm to human beings that are present in beef production but not vegetable harvesting. Finally, he bases his argument on the implausible assumption that there is no difference between deliberate and accidental killing—either of an animal or a person.". 
  78. ^ Jarvis, William T. (1997-04-01). "Why I Am Not a Vegetarian". ACSH Newsletter "Priorities" (American Council on Science and Health) 9 (2). http://www.acsh.org/healthissues/newsID.760/healthissue_detail.asp. Retrieved 2008-04-22. "The belief that all life is sacred can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises. Inherent in the idea that all life is sacred is the supposition that all forms of life have equal value.". 
  79. ^ Link text.
  80. ^ Link text.
  81. ^ Botzler, Richard George; Armstrong, Susan (2003). The Animal Ethics Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 0415275881. http://books.google.ca/books?id=euDYADfcChoC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=gary+varner+insect&source=bl&ots=kFejj9_WTa&sig=ksrUcMRbTXBZyNVlD_lHcDFaAWI&hl=en&ei=rIjqSdSTL9CBkQXn3-ynCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3. 
  82. ^ Link text, "As with all threats to a being, the rule of self-defense applies."
  83. ^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". J Am Diet Assoc 103 (6): 748–65. June 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049. http://www.adajournal.org/article/PIIS0002822303002943/fulltext. 
  84. ^ "Vegetarian and Vegan Diets". British Nutrition Foundation. 2008. http://www.nutrition.org.uk/home.asp?siteId=43&sectionId=651&subSectionId=321&parentSection=299&which=1#1396. Retrieved 2009-09-30. "Provided a vegetarian diet is well balanced, it should provide all of the nutrients needed by the body throughout life" 
  85. ^ "A guide to vegetarian eating" (PDF). Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute. http://www.indi.ie/docs/239_vegetarian.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-30. "A well planned vegetarian diet can be nutritionally balanced for both adults and children" 
  86. ^ Walter, Paul; Kurt Baerlocher, Esther Camenzind-Frey, Renato Pichler, Kathrin Reinli, Yves Schutz, Caspar Wenk (2006-01-11). "[Health Advantages and Disadvantages of a Vegetarian Diet: Summary]". Gesundheitliche Vor- und Nachteile einer vegetarischen Ernährung: Zusammenfassung. Bern: Eidgenössische Ernährungskommission, Bundesamt für Gesundheit. pp. 5. http://www.bag.admin.ch/themen/ernaehrung_bewegung/05207/05219/index.html?lang=de&download=M3wBUQCu/8ulmKDu36WenojQ1NTTjaXZnqWfVpzLhmfhnapmmc7Zi6rZnqCkkIZ3f3qDbKbXrZ2lhtTN34al3p6YrY7P1oah162apo3X1cjYh2+hoJVn6w==. Retrieved 2009-08-27. "Therefore, a vegan diet is not recommended for the population in general, and in particular not for children and other vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and elderly people. German: Deshalb ist die veganische Ernährungsweise generell für breitere Bevölkerungskreise insbesondere für Kinder und andere Risikogruppen wie Schwangere und ältere Leute nicht zu empfehlen.". 
  87. ^ "[Is a vegetarian diet suitable for children?]" Ist vegetarische Ernährung für Kinder geeignet?. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung. Archived from the original on 2005-04-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20050405090907/http://www.dge.de/Pages/navigation/verbraucher_infos/info/vegetarier1.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-04. "The strict vegetarian / vegan diet is not recommended for any age group because of the risks. The DGE warns against it especially for infants, children and young people. German: Die streng vegetarische/ vegane Ernährung wird aufgrund ihrer Risiken für keine Altersgruppe empfohlen. Die DGE rät besonders für Säuglinge, Kinder und Jugendliche dringend davon ab.". 
  88. ^ Segelken, Roger (2001-06-28). "China Study II: Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases". Cornell Chronicle. http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/01/6.28.01/China_Study_II.html. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  89. ^ "China-Cornell-Oxford Project On Nutrition, Environment and Health at Cornell University". Division of Nutritional Sciences. Cornell University. http://www.nutrition.cornell.edu/ChinaProject/. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  90. ^ Timothy, J; et al. (September 1, 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 516S–524S. PMID 10479225. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/70/3/516S. Retrieved 2008-01-31. "...in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined.". 
  91. ^ Key, Timothy J; et al. (September 1, 2003). "Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (3): 533S–538S. PMID 12936946. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/78/3/533S. Retrieved 2008-01-31. "Within the studies, mortality for major causes of death was not significantly different between vegetarians and nonvegetarians, but the nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was compatible with the significant reduction previously reported in a pooled analysis of mortality in Western vegetarians.". 
  92. ^ Barnard, Neal; Joshua Cohen, David J.A. Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A. Green, and Stanley Talpers (August 2006). "A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Improves Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care 29 (8): 1777–1783. doi:10.2337/dc06-0606. PMID 16873779. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/full/29/8/1777. Retrieved 2008-01-26. "Both diets were associated with significant clinical improvements, as indicated by reductions in A1C, body weight, plasma lipid concentrations, and urinary albumin excretion. Among medication-stable participants, changes in A1C, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly greater in the vegan group. The magnitude of A1C reduction in medication-stable vegan group participants, 1.23 percentage points, compares favorably with that observed in single-agent therapy with oral diabetes drugs.". 
  93. ^ "Vegan Health: Vitamin B12". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. 2006-07-26. http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/vitaminb12. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  94. ^ a b c "Vegan Health: Bone Health". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. 2007-01-09. http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/bones. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  95. ^ a b P Appleby; A Roddam, N Allen and T Key (February 2007). "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford" (fee required). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61: 1400. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659. PMID 17299475. http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v61/n12/full/1602659a.html. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  96. ^ a b c "Vegan Health: Iodine". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. 2006-12-26. http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/iodine. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  97. ^ "Vegan Health: Fat". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. 2007-02-20. http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/fat. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  98. ^ a b c d "What every vegan should know about vitamin B12". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Nutrition/B12.aspx. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Vitamin B12, whether in supplements, fortified foods, or animal products, comes from micro-organisms." 
  99. ^ a b c "Vegans and Vitamin D". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Nutrition/Vitamin-D.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  100. ^ a b Steven Walsh. "Nutrition: Iodine". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Nutrition/Iodine.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  101. ^ a b Jack Norris, RD (2003-04-18). "Staying a Healthy Vegan". Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/health/stayinghealthy.html#vitamind. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "There are no reliable, unfortified plant sources of vitamin B12; therefore fortified foods and/or supplements are necessary for the optimal health of vegans." 
  102. ^ "Vitamin B12 Information Sheet". Vegetarian Society. http://www.vegsoc.org/info/b12.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "any B12 present in plant foods is likely to be unavailable to humans and so these foods should not be relied upon as safe sources." 
  103. ^ "Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)". Merck Manual Home Edition. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec12/ch154/ch154h.html. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  104. ^ Jack Norris, RD (2005-07-22). "Vegan Health: Myth about How Often Someone Needs B12". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/often. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  105. ^ Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. (2002). "The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters". Eur J Haematol. 69 (5–6): 275–9. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0609.2002.02798.x. PMID 12460231. 
  106. ^ a b c "Healthy choices on a vegan diet". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Nutrition/Healthy-Choices.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  107. ^ Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.. "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet". Vegetarian Resource Group. http://www.vrg.org/nutrition/b12.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  108. ^ "Don't Vegetarians Have Trouble Getting Enough Vitamin B12?". Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. http://www.pcrm.org/health/veginfo/b12.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  109. ^ Jack Norris, RD. "Vegan Health: B12 in Tempeh, Seaweeds, Organic Produce, and Other Plant Foods". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/plant. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  110. ^ Jack Norris, RD. "Vegan Health: Are Intestinal Bacteria a Reliable Source of B12?". veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/int. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  111. ^ Vegetarian eating, Better Health Channel (Victorian Government), http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Vegetarian_eating?OpenDocument 
  112. ^ "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17299475&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  113. ^ "Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis.". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571226?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  114. ^ "Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350341?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  115. ^ Campbell, T. Colin (2006). The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books. p. 205. ISBN 1-932100-38-5. 
  116. ^ Campbell, T. Colin (2006). The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books. p. 208. ISBN 1-932100-38-5. 
  117. ^ "Information Sheet: Vegan Nutrition". Vegetarian Society. http://www.vegsoc.org/info/vegan-nutrition.html#vitd. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  118. ^ Lucia Lynn Kaiser; Lindsay Allen (2002-05-03). "Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome". American Dietetic Association. http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_3773_ENU_HTML.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  119. ^ ADA’s Public Relations Team (2006-10-03). "The Vegetarian Mom-to-Be". American Dietetic Association. http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/home_9812_ENU_HTML.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  120. ^ Kuhne T, Bubl R, Baumgartner R (1991). "Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency". Eur J Pediatr 150 (3): 205–8. doi:10.1007/BF01963568. PMID 2044594. 
  121. ^ Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M (2004). "Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet". J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (4): 270–1. doi:10.1097/00043426-200404000-00013. PMID 15087959. 
  122. ^ Sanders TA (1999). "Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (3 Suppl): 555S–559S. PMID 10479231. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10479231. 
  123. ^ Sanders TA (1999). "The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2): 265–9. doi:10.1017/S0029665199000361 (inactive 2009-06-05). PMID 10466165. http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0029665199000361. 
  124. ^ Steinman, G. (May 2006). "Mechanisms of twinning: VII. Effect of diet and heredity on the human twinning rate." (PDF, fee required). Journal of Reproductive Medicine 51 (5): 405–10. PMID 16779988. http://www.reproductivemedicine.com/online/2006/405.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  125. ^ Retsinas, Greg (April 5, 2003). "Couple Guilty Of Assault In Vegan Case". New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F0DE0D71438F936A35757C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  126. ^ "Vegan Parents Get Prison In Infant's Death". KSBW 8. May 9, 2007. http://www.ksbw.com/news/13286030/detail.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  127. ^ Susannah Nesmith; David Kidwell (2003-06-07). "Parents jailed in baby's death". Miami Herald (Miami Herald Media Co.). Archived from the original on 2003-12-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20031217011036/http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/local/6033947.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-17. "A Miami-Dade medical examiner's office autopsy concluded Woyah died of severe malnutrition, according to an arrest report." 
  128. ^ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2094460/Couple-face-questioning-after-vegan-daughter-suffers-bone-disease.html Couple face questioning after vegan daughter suffers bone disease By Rob Davies] 08/06/2008 The Telegraph
  129. ^ How our vegan diet made us ill By Natasha Mann, 17 June 2008 - The Independent
  130. ^ Planck, Nina (May 21, 2007). "Death by Veganism". New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/21/opinion/21planck.html?ex=1337400000&en=37878847a13bd4bc&ei=5090. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  131. ^ Nipps, Emily (June 25, 2007). "Custody battle over quints questions vegan lifestyle". St. Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimes.com/2007/06/25/Hillsborough/Custody_battle_over_q.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  132. ^ Amy Joy Lanou (2007-06-25). "Just the facts: A vegan diet is safe, healthy for infants". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070630154243/http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/editorial/outlook/4919336.html. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  133. ^ Dedyna, Katherine (2004-01-30). "Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?". Victoria Times Colonist (CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc.). http://www.compulsiveeating.com/news/16-healthy-lifestyle-or-politically-correct-eating-disorder. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "Vesanto Melina, a B.C. registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat."" 
  134. ^ O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust 147 (11–12): 540–2. PMID 3696039. "In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.". 
  135. ^ Davis, Brenda; Vesanto Melina (2002). Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet. Healthy Living Publications. pp. 224. ISBN 1-57067-103-6. "Research indicates that the large majority of vegetarian or vegan anorexics and bulimics chose this eating pattern after the onset of their disease. The "restricted" vegetarian or vegan eating pattern legitimizes the removal of numerous high-fat, energy-dense foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, … However the eating pattern chosen by those with anorexia or bulimia nervosa is far more restrictive than a healthful vegan diet, eliminating nuts, seeds, nut butters, avocados, and limiting overall caloric intake." 
  136. ^ Brown LR (1981). "World food resources and population: the narrowing margin". Population bulletin 36 (3): 1–44. PMID 12263473. 
  137. ^ "About Veganism: For the Environment". Vegan Action. http://www.vegan.org/about_veganism/environment.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Animal agriculture takes a devastating toll on the earth. It is an inefficient way of producing food, since feed for farm animals requires land, water, fertilizer, and other resources that could otherwise have been used directly for producing human food." 
  138. ^ a b "Environmental Destruction". Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/environment.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  139. ^ Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O, Minami K and Johnson DE, (1998). "Mitigating Agricultural Emissions of Methane". Climatic Change 40 (1): 39–80. doi:10.1023/A:1005338731269. 
  140. ^ a b c "Factory Farming: Mechanized Madness". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. http://www.peta.org/MC/factsheet_display.asp?ID=103. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "Factory farms are harmful to the environment as well. Each day, factory farms produce billions of pounds of manure, which ends up in lakes, rivers, and drinking water. ... Of all the agricultural land in the U.S., 80 percent is used to raise animals for food and grow the grain to feed them—that’s almost half the total land mass of the lower 48 states. ... it takes more than 1,250 gallons of water to produce a pound of cow flesh, whereas it takes about 235 gallons of water to grow 1 pound of wheat." 
  141. ^ "Environment: Land". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Environment/Land.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "In all, the raising of livestock takes up more than two-thirds of agricultural land, and one third of the total land area." 
  142. ^ "Environment: Water". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Environment/Water.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "If we put all of these figures together, we find that whilst wheat provides us with an average 27.5 kcal for each litre of water used, beef provides only 0.76 kcal per litre. This means that - based on the data presented to show that other figures were "overstated" - beef still requires 36 times as much water per calorie as wheat." 
  143. ^ "Environment: Energy". Vegan Society. http://www.vegansociety.com/References/Environment/Energy.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "A plant-based vegan diet uses substantially less energy than a diet based on animal products. This energy is virtually all derived from fossil fuels, making meat and dairy consumption a contributing factor in air pollution, acidification, oil spills, habitat destruction and global warming." 
  144. ^ "Resources". Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach. http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/resources.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  145. ^ "Livestock’s Long Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options". http://www.virtualcentre.org/en/library/key_pub/longshad/A0701E00.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
  146. ^ McMichael AJ, Powles JW, Butler CD, Uauy R (October 2007). "Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health" (PDF). Lancet 370 (9594): 1253–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61256-2. PMID 17868818. http://www.eurekalert.org/images/release_graphics/pdf/EH5.pdf. 
  147. ^ a b http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Livestock%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf
  148. ^ http://51percent.org/
  149. ^ Eshel, G., and P.A. Martin (2006). "Diet, Energy and Global Warming" (PDF). Earth Interactions 10 (9): 1–17. doi:10.1175/EI167.1. http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~gidon/papers/nutri/nutri3.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-29. "We conclude that a person consuming a mixed diet with the mean American caloric content and composition causes the emissions of 1,485 kg CO2-equivalent above the emissions associated with consuming the same number of calories, but from plant sources. Far from trivial, nationally this difference amounts to over 6% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.". 
  150. ^ NSW Department of Primary Industries - Feeding frosted cereal grain to ruminants
  151. ^ How harmful is animal protein consumption for the environment?
  152. ^ Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue
  153. ^ Plants revealed as methane source By Tim Hirsch 11 January 2006 -BBC
  154. ^ Food for all - World food summit - Agricultural machinery worldwide
  155. ^ Peters, Christian J.; Jennifer L. Wilkinsa and Gary W. Ficka (2007). "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (Cambridge University Press) 22 (02): 145–153. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767. http://journals.cambridge.org//action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1091328. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  156. ^ Lang, Susan (2007-10-04). "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report". Cornell Chronicle Online (Cornell University). http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Oct07/diets.ag.footprint.sl.html. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  157. ^ Karma Lekshe Tsomo (2006). Into the Jaws of Yama, Lord of Death: Buddhism, Bioethics, and Death. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791468313. http://books.google.co.uk/books?vid=ISBN0791468313&id=TvJjnIYXGzYC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&ots=15GajcCxBq&dq=vegan+buddhism&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=cp7z245xN5l6HxPrXzDsKi5fDxE. "Buddhists in China, Korea, and Vietnam express their concern for animals by maintaining a vegetarian (often vegan) diet." 
  158. ^ Barker, Helen M. (2002). Nutrition and Dietetics for Health Care. Churchill Livingstone. p. 167. ISBN 0443070210. http://books.google.se/books?id=O143AWul9icC&pg=PA167. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Most Hindus are vegetarian and some vegan." 
  159. ^ "The role of religion in protecting the Earth (Jainism and the environment: precursors of modern ecology)". Forum 2004: Parliament of the World's Religions. Universal Forum of Cultures. 2004. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?idDoc=1241. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Naresh Jain, Co-Chair of the Interfaith Committee of Jainism Associations in North America, said that the difference lies in Jainists’ strict approach to the vegetarian (or vegan) diet. “Jainism is the only religion that materialises the ideal of non-violence through the vegan diet” he said." 
  160. ^ "The Fasting Rule of the Orthodox Church". God is Wonderful in His Saints: Orthodox Resources. http://www.abbamoses.com/fasting.html. Retrieved 2007-11-15. "Unless a fast-free period has been declared, Orthodox Christians are to keep a strict fast every Wednesday and Friday. The following foods are avoided: Meat, including poultry, and any meat products such as lard and meat broth. Fish (meaning fish with backbones; shellfish are permitted). Eggs and dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, etc.)" 
  161. ^ Melik, Ella MacLeod (November 1991). "Georgia on my Mind". Vegetarian Times (171): 56. http://books.google.se/books?id=uQgAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA56. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "As part of their orthodox Christian religion, Georgians eat vegan foods nearly six months out of the year.". 
  162. ^ Yntema, Sharon; Christine H. Beard (2000). New Vegetarian Baby. McBooks Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-935526-63-3. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=MpI3gkllT7gC&pg=PA55. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Many Rastafarians eat a restricted vegan diet without supplementation" 
  163. ^ Fraser, Gary (August 1, 1999). "Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 532S. 532S-538S. PMID 10479227. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/70/3/532S. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Only 2–3% of Seventh-day Adventists are vegans.". 
  164. ^ "Misconceptions About Eating Meat - Comments of Sikh Scholars," at The Sikhism Home Page
  165. ^ Sikhs and Sikhism by I.J. Singh, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 9788173040580 Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism. Certainly Sikhs do not think that a vegetarian's achievements in spirituality are easier or higher. It is surprising to see that vegetarianism is such an important facet of Hindu practice in light of the fact that animal sacrifice was a significant and much valued Hindu Vedic ritual for ages. Guru Nanak in his writings clearly rejected both sides of the arguments—on the virtues of vegetarianism or meat eating—as banal and so much nonsense, nor did he accept the idea that a cow was somehow more sacred than a horse or a chicken. He also refused to be drawn into a contention on the differences between flesh and greens, for instance. History tells us that to impart this message, Nanak cooked meat at an important Hindu festival in Kurukshetra. Having cooked it he certainly did not waste it, but probably served it to his followers and ate himself. History is quite clear that Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were accomplished and avid hunters. The game was cooked and put to good use, to throw it away would have been an awful waste.
  166. ^ Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN :8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
  167. ^ A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that now-a-days in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
  168. ^ Cooke, Hannah (2000). When Someone Dies. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 169. ISBN 0750640944. http://books.google.se/books?id=ZOsClXiyoP4C&pg=PA169. Retrieved 2009-03-28. "Some Sikhs will be vegetarian or vegan." 
  169. ^ Shurtleff, William. "History of Tofu". LA Tofu Festival. http://www.tofufest.org/tofuindex/tofufest/news_general/history_of_tofu/. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  170. ^ Jacobs, Leonard; Aveline Kushi, and Barbara Jacobs (1994). Cooking with Seitan: The Complete Vegetarian "Wheat-meat" Cookbook. Avery. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0895295996. 
  171. ^ "History of Tempeh". tempeh.info. http://www.tempeh.info/tempeh-history.php. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  172. ^ a b c d "Vegan proteins". BBC Food. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/vegetarian_and_vegan/veganproteins.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  173. ^ a b "Baking without eggs, milk and buttah". Post Punk Kitchen. http://www.theppk.com/veganbaking.html. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  174. ^ "Vegan Substitution for Egg Whites". Ochef.com. Food News Service. http://www.ochef.com/687.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-23. "Q. What is a vegan substitute for egg whites? A. And the mystery ingredient is… flax seed." 
  175. ^ Bryanna Clark Grogan. "Vegan Meat Analogs, Dairy Substitutes, and Egg Alternatives". Bryanna's Vegan Feast. http://www.bryannaclarkgrogan.com/page/page/628710.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose.^ I used to be afraid of vegan food.
  • Vegan Fluffy Buttercream Frosting Recipe by - CHOW 11 January 2010 9:21 UTC www.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Vegans do not support using animals for food, clothing, experimentation, entertainment or other harmful reasons.

^ Veganism is a lifestyle, not just a diet.

Sourced

.
  • As a meat-eater, I've long found it convenient to categorise veganism as a response to animal suffering or a health fad.^ Carl Lewis, winner of nine Olympic gold medals, said, “I’ve found that a person does not need protein from meat to be a successful athlete.
    • Vegan.com FAQ 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.vegan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The traditional staple of Thanksgiving dinner has always been the turkey , but vegan families do not consume any meat or animal byproducts.
    • Vegan Thanksgiving Recipes 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Accordingly, a vegan abstains from eating foods derived from animals, including any form of meat, animal gelatin, eggs, honey and dairy products.
    • Vegan Club 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC veganclub.org [Source type: General]

    .But, faced with these figures, it now seems plain that it's the only ethical response to what is arguably the world's most urgent social justice issue.^ Sign up now to contribute what's going on in your world and to filter your view of Twitter down to the people and topics that interest you most.
    • Twitter 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC twitter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We chose the name Ethos because it implies the ethical and moral nature of our beliefs about operating a socially responsible and environmentally aware business.
    • Ethos Vegan Kitchen, Orlando, FL - About Us 7 January 2010 23:58 UTC ethosvegankitchen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Michael Greger, MD is a physician, a prize-winning cook, and an internationally recognized speaker on a number of important public health and social justice issues.

    We stuff ourselves, and the poor get stuffed.
  • "My best performances were when I was 30 years old, and I was a vegan."
    • Carl Lewis, retired American track and field olympic athlete [2]

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up veganism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Simple English

Veganism is a philosophy that says people should not use animals in any way.

Veganism is a lifestyle. Vegans choose not to eat food that comes from animals, including meat, eggs and dairy products (like milk, cheese, and yogurt). A vegan diet is sometimes called a strict vegetarian diet. Vegans also do not eat honey. Vegans try not to use any other animal products, such as leather, wool, feathers, bone, or pearl. They also try to avoid products that have been tested on animals. Vegans believe in animal rights, and may campaign for it.

Vegans do eat all kinds of fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, nuts, and seeds, and things made from them like vegan sweets, vegan cheese and vegan cakes.

Some people become vegan because they disagree with the bad treatment of animals in the modern animal farm industry. Other reasons to become vegan are for health, religious reasons, to protect the environment, or because of world hunger. Animals eat a lot and take up a lot of resources. By not producing meat, milk, or eggs, a lot of food, land and water is saved. For instance, it takes about 16 pounds of grain to make 1 pound of meat, so eating plants directly takes fewer resources.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Veganism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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