# Vehicle dynamics: Wikis

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# Encyclopedia

Vehicle dynamics refers to the dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles. Vehicle dynamics is a part of engineering primarily based on classical mechanics but it may also involve chemistry, solid state physics, electrical engineering, communications, psychology, control theory, etc.

This article applies primarily to automobiles. For single-track vehicles, specifically the two-wheeled variety, see Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics. For aircraft see Aerodynamics. For watercraft see Hydrodynamics.

## Components

Components, attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics include:

### Aerodynamic specific

Some attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics are purely aerodynamic. These include:

### Geometry specific

Some attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics are purely geometric. These include:

### Mass specific

Some attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics are purely due to mass and its distribution. These include:

### Motion specific

Some attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics are purely dynamic. These include:

### Tire specific

Some attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics can be attributed directly to the tires. These include:

## Driving techniques

Driving techniques which relate to, or improve the stability of vehicle dynamics include:

## Analysis and simulation

The dynamic behavior of vehicles can be analysed in several different ways. This can be a straightforward as a simple spring mass system, through a 3 degree of freedom (DoF) bicycle model, which can be solved by hand by a keen mathematician, or can be simulated in any degree of complexity on a computer, using MBS packages such as Modelica, MSC ADAMS, or any of several others. Typically these will have between twenty and several hundred DoFs, although the upper limit is increasing. The tire and driver models are usually the biggest headaches in this process. The tire is typically modelled by a Pacejka Magic Formula model, or a similar concept. Racing car games or simulators are also a form of vehicle dynamics simulation, although many simplifications are necessary in order to get real time performance with reasonable graphics.

It is important that the models should agree with real world test results, hence many of the following tests are correlated against results from instrumented test vehicles.

Techniques include: