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Vèneto
Veneto
—  Region of Italy  —

Flag
Country Italy
Capital Venice
Government
 - President Giancarlo Galan (PdL)
Area
 - Total 18,398.9 km2 (7,103.9 sq mi)
Population (2008-12-31)
 - Total 4,885,548
 Density 265.5/km2 (687.7/sq mi)
Citizenship [1]
 - Italian 92%
 - Romanian 2%
 - Moroccan 1%
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
GDP/ Nominal € 139 billion (2006)
NUTS Region ITD
Website www.regione.veneto.it

Veneto (pronounced [ˈvɛneto], Latin Venetia, Venetian Vèneto), is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about 4.8 million. Having been for a long period in history a land of mass-emigration, the Veneto is today one of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 454,453 foreigners (9.30% of the regional population) in 2008, the most present of which are the Romanians and the Moroccans.[2]

The Veneto has been for centuries an independent state, known as the Venetian Republic, and the region was annexed to Italy in 1866 after brief Austrian and French rule. Its capital was, and still is Venice, which for a period ran one of the vastest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. Due to this recent annexation to the rest of Italy, most Venetians still have a unique identity, and the Veneto is one of the two Italian regions (along with Sardinia) in which its inhabitants are officially recognized as being "a population".[3]

Once the heartland of the Venetian Republic, Veneto is today among the wealthiest, most developed and industrialised regions of Italy. Having one of the country's richest historical, natural, artistic, cultural, musical and culinary heritages, it is also the most visited region of Italy, with about 60 million tourists every year (2007).[4] Besides Italian, many inhabitants also speak Venetian.

Venice, the primary tourist destination and the capital of Veneto.
Lake Alleghe near Belluno.
The Venetian Lagoon at sunset.

Contents

Geography

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Geomorphology

Veneto is the eighth largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2 (7,103.9 sq mi). It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders also on Austria.

The north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km (130 mi) from the Austrian border to the mouth of the Po and its east-west extension is 195 km (121 mi) from the eastern shore of Lake Garda on the west to the mouth of the river Tagliamento on the east.

Veneto can be divided into four areas: the northern Alpine zone, the hill zone, the lower plain and the coastal territory.

By area 29% of its surface is mountainous (Carnic Alps, eastern Dolomites and Venetian Prealps). The best known massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada, while the highest, at 3,342 m (10,965 ft), is the Tofane-massif. Other dolomitic peaks are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo and the Pale di San Martino. The Venetian Prealps are not as high and range between 700 m (2,300 ft) and 2,200 m (7,200 ft). A distinctive characteristic of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes; the Spluga della Preta, situated in the Monte Lessini chain in the province of Verona, has an explored depth of 985 m (3,232 ft), being the deepest cave in Italy. Fossil deposits are also abundant there.

The Po Valley covers 57% of Veneto. This valley consists of a plain extending from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is subdivided into the higher plain (gravel-strewn and not very fertile) and the lower plain (rich in water sources and arable terrain). The lower plain is both a mainstay of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.

Several rivers flow through the region: the Po, Adige, Brenta, Bacchiglione, Livenza, Piave, and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto. The coastline covers approximately 200 km (120 mi), of which 100 km (62 mi) are beaches.

The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterized by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with ponds, marshes and islands. The Po Delta to the south features sandbars and dunes along the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land recently reclaimed by a system of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well. The delta is a stopping-point for migratory birds.

Veneto's morphology is characterised by its:[5]

  • mountains (montagna): 5,359.1 km2 (2,069.2 sq mi), (117 comuni being classified as mountainous);
  • hills (collina): 2,663.9 km2 (1,028.5 sq mi), (120 hilly comuni);
  • and plains (pianura): 10,375.9 km2 (4,006.2 sq mi), (344 comuni mostly situated in the Po Valley).

Climate

The climate changes significantly between one area to another. Continental on the plains, the climate is milder along the Adriatic coast, around Lake Garda and in the hilly areas. The lowlands are often covered by thick fog. Precipitations are scarce (750 mm. /year) next to river Po River, more abundant (750-1,100 mm./year) at higher altitudes; the highest values (up to 3,200 mm./year) are recorded in the Bellunese Prealps, near Pasubio and on the Asiago plateau.

History

Venetic period

Between the 2nd and 1st millennium B.C., the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, the Veneti (often called the Paleoveneti), came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas. But that is only a legend. In the 7th-6th centuries B.C. the local populations of Veneto entered into contact with the Etruscans and the Greeks. Venetic culture reached a highpoint during the 4th century B.C. These ancient Veneti spoke Venetic, an Indo-European language akin to, but distinct from Latin and the other Italic languages. Meanwhile, the Veneti prospered through their trade in amber and were well-known for their breeding of horses. Este, Padua, Oderzo, Adria, Vicenza, Verona, and Altino became centres of Venetic culture. However, over time, the Veneti began to adopt the dress and certain other customs of their Celtic neighbours.

The Tetrarchs were the four co-rulers who governed the Roman Empire as long as Diocletian's reform lasted. Here they are portrayed embracing, in a posture of harmony, in a porphyry sculpture dating from the 4th century, produced in Anatolia, located today on a corner of St Mark's Basilica in Venice.

Roman period

During the third century B.C., the Veneti, together with the Cenomani Celts on their western border, sided with the Romans, as Rome expanded and struggled against the Insubres and Boii (Celts). During the Second Punic War (218 B.C. – 202 B.C.), the Veneti even sent a contingent of soldiers to fight alongside the Romans against Hannibal and the invading Carthaginians and Venetians were among those slaughtered at the Battle of Cannae (216 B.C.). In 181 B.C., a Roman triumvirate of Publius Scipio Nasica, Caius Flaminius, and Lucius Manlius Acidinus led three thousand families, mainly from Samnium but supplemented by native Veneti, to found a Latin colony at Aquileia as a base to protect the territory of the Veneti from incursions of the hostile Carni and Histri. From then on, Roman influence over the area increased. Thus, in 169 B.C. more colonising families were sent from Rome to Aquileia. In 148 B.C. the Via Postumia was completed connecting Aquileia to Genua. In 131 B.C., the Via Annia joined Adria to Patavium (modern Padua) to Altinum to Concordia to Aquileia. Gradually, the Roman Republic transformed its alliance with the Veneti into a relationship of dominance. After the 91 B.C. Italic rebellion, the cities of the Veneti, together with the rest of Transpadania, were granted partial rights of Roman citizenship according to the Lex Pompeia Transpadanis. Later in 49 B.C., by the Lex Rubria de Gallia Rome granted full Roman citizenship to the Veneti. The Via Claudia was completed in 46 B.C. and connected Altinum, Tarvisium (modern Treviso), Feltria (modern Feltre), and Tridentum (modern Trent). From Tridentum it continued northwards to Pons Drusus and southwards to Verona and Mutina (modern Modena). After the Battle of Philippi (42 B.C.), which ended the Roman Civil War, the lands of the Veneti, together with the rest of Cisalpine Gaul, ceased to be a province and the territory of the Veneti, which included Istria, modern Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige became region X (Venetia et Histria) of a new entity named Italia (Italy). Aquileia became its capital. Meanwhile, under the Pax Romana, Patavium became one of the most important cities of northern Italy. Other Venetic cities such as Opitergium (modern Oderzo), Tarvisium, Feltria, Vicetia (modern Vicenza), Ateste (modern Este), and Altinum (modern Altino) adopted the Latin language and the culture of Rome. Thus, by the end of the first century A.D. Latin had finally displaced the original Venetic language.

In 166 A.D. the Quadi and Marcomanni invaded Venetia. It was the beginning of many barbarian invasions. In the fifth century, both Alaric the Goth and then Attila and the Huns devastated the area. Attila laid siege to Aquileia and turned it into a ruin in 452 A.D. Many of the mainland inhabitants sought protection in the nearby lagoons which would become Grado in the east and Venice more to the west. On the heels of the Huns came the Ostrogoths who not only invaded, but also settled down in the region. During the mid-sixth century, Justinian reconquered Venetia for the Eastern Roman Empire. An Exarch was established at Ravenna while a military tribune was set up in Oderzo. Byzantine rule would not last long. Starting in 568 A.D, the Lombards crossed the Julian Alps. These invaders subdivided the territory of Venetia into numerous feuds ruled by Germanic dukes and counts (essentially creating the division of Veneto from Friuli). The invasion provoked another wave of migration from the mainland to the Byzantine controlled coast and islands. In 643, A.D. the Lombards conquered the Byzantine base at Oderzo and took possession of practically all of Veneto (and Friuli) except for Venice and Grado. The 36 Lombard duchies included the Venetian cities of Ceneda, Treviso, Verona, and Vicenza. A reminder of Lombard rule can be seen in the place names beginning with the word Farra.

Horses of Saint Mark, brought as loot from Constantinople in 1204.

Middle ages

By the middle of the eighth century, the Franks had assumed political control of the region and the mainland of Veneto became part of the Carolingian Empire. Though politically dominant, these Germanic invaders were gradually absorbed into the Venetian population over the centuries. In the late ninth century, Berengar, Margrave of the March of Friuli was elected king of Italy. Under his tumultuous reign, the March of Friuli was absorbed into the March of Verona so that Verona's territory contained a large portion of Roman Venetia. In the tenth century, the mainland of Veneto, after suffering invasions from the Magyars and the Slavs, was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, the communes of the mainland grew in power and wealth. In 1167 an alliance (called the Lombard League) was formed among the Venetian cities such as Venice, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, and Verona with other cities of Northern Italy to assert their rights against the Holy Roman Emperor. The Second Treaty of Constance in 1183 confirmed the Peace of Venice of 1177 in which the cities agreed to remain part of the Empire as long as their jurisdiction over their own territories was not infringed upon. The league was dissolved at the death of Emperor Frederick II in 1250. This period also witnessed the founding of the second oldest university in Italy, the University of Padua founded in 1222. Around this time, Padua also served as home to St. Anthony, the beloved saint called simply "il Santo" ("the Saint") by the inhabitants of the town.

Map showing the empire of Venice at his height, in the XV-XVI centuries.

Venetian Republic

As the barbarians were interested in the wealth of the mainland, part of the Venetian population sought refuge on some of the isolated and unoccupied islands in the lagoon, from which the city of Venetiae or Venice was born. After a period of Byzantine domination in 8th century, Venice became an independent maritime Republic ruled by its elected doge. The Republic became a commercial superpower and its influence lasted through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In fact, the Venetian Republic enjoyed 1100 years of uninterrupted influence throughout the Mediterranean. By the 16th century, the Venetian Republic dominated over Veneto, Friuli, parts of Lombardy and Romagna, Istria, Dalmatia, the Ionian Islands of Corfu, Cefalonia, Ithaca and Zante. From the 13th to 17th centuries it held the island of Crete and from the mid-15th to mid-16th century, the island of Cyprus. Venetian mainland holdings led to Venetian involvement in European and in particular, Italian politics. Cities had to be fortified, one impressive example being Palmanova in Friuli. However, the wise rule and prosperity brought by the Serenissima made the cities of the terra firma willing subjects. Eastern Islands served as useful ports for Venetian shipping. However, as the Ottoman Empire grew more powerful and aggressive, Venice was often put on the defensive. Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean and the discoveries of sea routes to Asia around Africa and of the Americas had a debilitating effect on the Venetian economy.

A XVIII century view of Venice by Canaletto.

In 1797, Napoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic. Overwhelmed by more powerful forces, Doge Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state. This proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic of Venice. By the Treaty of Campoformio signed on October 17, 1797 part of the Venetian mainland was handed over to Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and a western part was annexed to the French backed Cisalpine Republic. The territory soon reverted back to Napoleon in 1801. However, after his ultimate defeat in 1814, the Congress of Vienna handed Veneto over to the Austrian Empire, the successor state to the Holy Roman Empire still ruled by Francis. Thus, Veneto would remain under Austrian rule, except for some cities which declared their independence in 1848, until it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.

Italian Period

In 1866 after the Third War of Independence and a controversial referendum Veneto was annexed to Italy. In an effort to Italianize the population, Venetian language was not officially recognised and public servants were recruited from other regions.

Due to uneven economic development reducing many to poverty, the 19th century and the first half of the 20th became a period of emigration. Millions of Venetians left their homes and their native land to seek opportunites in other parts of the world. Many settled down in South America, especially in the Rio Grande do Sul region, in Brazil; others in Australia; Canada; and the United States of America. After the Second World War, many Venetians emigrated to Western European countries. In many of these places their descendants have maintained the use of their ancestral Venetian dialects.

Those who remained in Veneto would experience the turmoil of two World Wars. In 1915, Italy entered the First World War on the side of the France and the United Kingdom, after extricating itself from its alliance with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Veneto became a major battlefront. After the Italians suffered an enormous defeat at Caporetto in November 1917, the combined Austro-Hungarian and German forces advanced almost unhindered through Veneto towards Venice until reaching the Piave River. The Battle of the Piave River prevented their troops from advancing further and was celebrated in a very popular song, La Leggenda del Piave. Between October 24 and November 3, 1918, Italy and its Allies launched the decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The battle's outcome aussured Italy's victory. The armistice was signed at Villa Giusti near Padua.

Between 1943 and 1945 Veneto belonged to the Italian Social Republic, while the province of Belluno was part of the Prealpine Operations Zone. Many towns in the region were bombed by the Allies during the Second World War. The most hit were Treviso and Vicenza, as well as the industrial area around Marghera.

Government and politics

Government

Veneto is a presidential representative democracy. The President of the Region, colloquially nicknamed Governor or even Doge, in remembrance of Venice's glorious tradition, is also the head of the regional government. Legislative power is exerted by the Regional Council, the local parliament. The statute, i.e. the regional constitution, was promulgated on May 22, 1971. Even though it recognizes the inhabitants as a "people" (i.e. a distinct people from the Italian people), the region is not granted a form of autonomy comparable to that of the neighbouring regions Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[6] This is the reason why many municipalities have held referendums in order to be united to these regions.

Politics

Traditionally a very Catholic region, Veneto was once a stronghold of the Christian Democracy. Nowadays it is a stronghold of the centre-right coalition, which has governed the region since 1995, under President Giancarlo Galan, formerly affiliated to Forza Italia and now to The People of Freedom. The governing coalition is also composed of the Liga VenetaLega Nord and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats.

Venetian nationalism

Veneto is my fatherland. Even if there exists a Republic of Italy, this abstract idea is not my Fatherland. We Venetians have travelled throughout the world, but our Fatherland, that for which we would fight if it were necessary to fight, is Veneto. When I see "River sacred to the Fatherland" written on the bridges spanning the Piave, I am moved, not because I think of Italy, but rather because I think of Veneto.
Alternative flag of Veneto used by most Venetist parties.

A nationalist political movement gained prominence in Veneto during the 1970s and 1980s, demanding more autonomy for the region, or even independence, and promoting Venetian culture, language and history. This is the political background in which the Liga Veneta (Venetian League) was launched in 1980. Other Veneto nationalist parties such as Liga Veneta Repubblica and North-East Project emerged but they never touched the popularity of the Liga Veneta, which was a founding member of Lega Nord in 1991.

Nowadays Liga Veneta–Lega Nord traditionally scores considerable results in local and national elections. The mayors of Verona and Treviso are members of the party, as well as the Presidents of the provinces of Belluno, Treviso, Venice and Vicenza. In the 2008 general election Lega Nord reached 27.1% of the vote.

According to Robert Putnam, the "institutional performance" of Veneto's regional government is higher than average in Italy, thus Veneto belongs to the part of Italy that Putnam names "civic North".[7]

Administrative divisions

Veneto is divided into 7 provinces and 581 municipalities.[5][8] Of the seven provinces of the region, the Province of Padua is the most populous and has the greatest density, with 424.81 persons per km2, reaching 2268.58 in the city of Padua. In contrast the capital city, Venice, has a moderate density of 646.71.[8] The province of least density is Belluno (58.08), which is the largest in area and the most mountainous.

Provinces

Provinces of Veneto.
Province Abbrev. Area (km²) Population Density
(inh./km²)
Belluno BL 3,678 213,059 57.9
Padua PD 2,141 905,112 422.8
Rovigo RO 1,789 245,598 137.3
Treviso TV 2,477 865,194 349.3
Venice VE 2,463 841,609 341.7
Verona VR 3,121 889,862 285.1
Vicenza VI 2,722 848,642 311.8

Largest municipalities

Pos. Municipality Inhabitants
(inh.)
Area
(km²)
Density
(inh./km²)
Elevation
(m amsl)
Province
Venice 268.741 412,54 651,4 1 VE
Verona 262.403 206,63 1.269,9 59 VR
Padua 209.696 92,85 2.258,4 12 PD
Vicenza 113.969 80,54 1.415,1 39 VI
Treviso 81.665 55,50 1.741,4 15 TV
Rovigo 51.378 108,55 473,3 6 RO
Chioggia 50.880 185,20 274,7 2 VE
Bassano del Grappa 42.237 46,79 902,7 129 VI
San Donà di Piave 39.774 78,73 505,2 3 VE
10° Schio 38.779 67,04 578,4 200 VI

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1871 2,196,000
1881 2,346,000 6.8%
1901 2,580,000 10.0%
1911 3,009,000 16.6%
1921 3,319,000 10.3%
1931 3,487,000 5.1%
1936 3,566,000 2.3%
1951 3,918,000 9.9%
1961 3,847,000 −1.8%
1971 4,123,000 7.2%
1981 4,345,000 5.4%
1991 4,381,000 0.8%
2001 4,528,000 3.4%
2008 (Est.) 4,869,000 7.5%
Source: ISTAT 2001

The region has about 4.8 million inhabitants, ranking Veneto as the fifth most populated region in Italy. Veneto has one of the highest population densities amongst the Italian regions (265 inhabitants per km2 in 2008). This is particularly true in the provinces of Padua, Venice and Treviso, where the inhabitants per km2 are above 300. Belluno is the less densely populated province, with 57 inhabitants per km2.

Like the other regions of Northern Italy and Central Italy, though with a certain time lag, Veneto has been experiencing a phase of very slow population growth caused by the dramatic fall in fertility. The overall population has so far been increasing - though only slightly - due to the net immigration started at the end of the 1960s, after more than 20 years of massive exodus from the poorer areas of the region.

Nearly 3 million Venetians were forced to leave their country between 1861 and 1961 to escape poverty.[9] Many emigrated to South America, especially Brazil. After World War II they moved to other European countries. As of 2008, there were 260,849 Venetian citizens living outside of Italy (5.4% of the region's population), the largest number was found in Brazil, with 57,052 Venetians, followed by Switzerland with 38,320 and Argentina with 31,823. There are several million people of Venetian descent around the world, particularly in Brazil, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Espirito Santo. Local names in Southern Brazil such as Nova Schio, Nova Bassano, Nova Bréscia, Nova Treviso, Nova Veneza, Nova Pádua and Monteberico indicate the Venetian origin of their inhabitants.[10] In recent years people of Venetian descent from Brazil and Argentina have been migrating to Italy.[11]

Due to the impressive economic growth of the last two decades, Veneto has turned into a land of immigration and has been attracting more and more immigrants since the 1990s. In 2008 the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 403,985 foreign-born immigrants live in Veneto, equal to 8.3 % of the total regional population.[12]

Religion

Veneto converted to Christianity during Roman rule. The region venerates as its patrons the second century bishop St. Hermagoras and his deacon St. Fortunatus, both of Aquileia and both marytrs. Aquileia became the metropolitan see of Venetia. Aquileia had its own liturgical rites which were used throughout the dioceses of Veneto until the later Middle Ages when the Roman Rite replaced the Aquileian Rite. By the sixth century the bishop of Aquileia claimed the title of patriarch. Rejection of the Second Council of Constantinople (553) led to a schism wherein the churches of Veneto broke communion with the Church of Rome. The invasion of the non-Catholic Lombards in 568 only served to prolong the schism until 606 and then finally 699 when the Synod of Pavia ended the schism definitively.

In 2004 over 95% of the population claimed to be Roman Catholic. The region of Veneto along with the regions of Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol form the ecclesiastical region of Triveneto under the Patriarchate of Venice. The Patriarchate of Venice is an archdiocese and metropolitan see of an ecclesiastical region which includes suffragan episcopal sees of Adria-Rovigo, Belluno-Feltre, Chioggia, Concordia-Pordenone, Padua, Treviso, Verona, Vicenza, and Vittorio Veneto.[13] The Archdiocese of Venice was elevated to an honourary Patriarchate by the pope on October 8, 1457 when the Patriarchate of Grado, a successor to the Patriarchate of Aquileia, was suppressed. The first patriarch of Venice was St. Laurence, a nobleman of the Giustiniani family. During the twentieth century the patriarchs were usually appointed cardinal, and three cardinal patriarchs, Giuseppe Sarto, Angelo Roncalli, and Albino Luciani were elected pope: Pius X, John XXIII, and John Paul I, respectively. The Patriarchate of Venice claims St. Mark the Evangelist as its patron. The same saint, symbolised by a winged lion, had became the typical symbol of the Venetian Republic and is still represented on many civic symbols.

A Marian shrine is located in Motta di Livenza within the diocese of Vittorio Veneto. A basilica marks the spot of a reported apparition of Mary, the Mother of Jesus, to a local farmer in 1510.

Economy

Historically, Veneto was a poor agricultural region, as well as a land of mass emigration. But, since the 1970s it has seen impressive development, thanks to the so-called 'Veneto Development Model' that is characterised by strong export-oriented entrepreneurship in traditional economic sectors and close social cohesion[14] - making it actually the third richest region in terms of total GDP (€139 billion) after Lombardy and Lazio.[15][16]

Geography and historical events have determined the present social and economic structure of the region, centred on a broad belt running from east to west. The plain and the Alpine foothills are the most developed areas in contrast to the Po delta and the mountainous areas, with the exception of the surroundings of Belluno. This is why the Alps and the province of Rovigo are suffering more than other areas, from a trend of declining and ageing population.

Agriculture

Though its importance has been decreasing for the past 20–30 years, agriculture continues to play a significant role in the regional economy. The agricultural sector of Veneto is among the most productive in Italy. However, it is still characterised by an intensive use of labour rather than capital, due to the specialisation in market gardening, fruit-growing and vine-growing throughout the plain and the foothills, requiring very much handicraft. In the south and in the extreme east of the region, grain crops are more common and land holdings are larger than in the rest of the region: mechanization is more advanced here. The cattle stock, although declining, still represented 15% of the national stock in.[17] Fishing is also quite important in coastal areas.

The main agricultural products include maize, green peas, vegetables, apples, cherries, sugar beets, forage, tobacco, hemp. Moreover, Veneto is one of Italy's most important wine-growing areas, producing well-regarded wines, such as Prosecco, Valpolicella, and Soave, which is Italy's most popular white wine varietal. Overall, the Veneto region produces more bottles of DOC wine than any other area in Italy. The Amarone della Valpolicella, a wine from the hills around Verona, is made with high-selected grapes and is considered one of the best red wines in the world. It is very expensive, a basic bottle can cost not less than 30-35 euros.[18]

Industry

Products from the Benetton group, one of the world's most successful fashion brands which hails from Veneto.

In the last 30–40 years industrialization transformed the appearance of the landscape, especially in the plains.

The regional industry is especially made of small and medium-sized businesses, which are active in several sectors: food products, wood and furniture, leather and footwear, textiles and clothing, gold jewelry, but also chemistry, metal-mechanics and electronics. This has led to the establishment of a strongly export-oriented system of industries.

Typical of Veneto is the partition of the territory into industrial districts, which means that each area tends to specialize in a specific sector. The province of Venice hosts large metallurgical and chemical plants in Marghera and Mestre, but is also specialized in glass handicraft (Murano). Vicenza is known for its gold jewelry The province of Belluno hosts the so called eyeglasses district, being the largest world manufacturer Luxottica a firm domiciliated at Agordo. Fashion industry is extremely strong all over the region: Benetton, Geox, Diesel are Venetian brands.

During the last 20 years, a large number of Venetian companies relocated their plants (especially the most dangerous and polluting productions) in Eastern Europe, especially Romania. The Romanian city of Timişoara is also called "The Newest Venetian Province".[19]

Tourism

The Puna San Vigilio in Lake Garda, a popular tourist destination in Veneto.

Though being a heavily industrialized region, tourism is one of the main economic resources of Veneto. One-fifth of Italy's foreign tourism gravitates towards Veneto, which is the first region in Italy in terms of tourist presence, attracting over 60 million visitors every year, and the second after Emilia Romagna in terms of hotel industry structures. The business volume of tourism in Veneto is estimated in 12 billion Euros.[20]

Statistics

Historical GDP

A table which shows Veneto's GDP growth[21]:

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Gross Domestic Product (million €) 111,713.5 116,334.1 118,886.3 124,277.6 130,715.9 133,488.0 138,993.5
GDP per capita (PPP) (€) 24,842.9 25,742.2 26,108.2 26,957.1 27,982.2 28,286.7 29,225.5

Economic sectors

The main sectors in the economy of the Veneto are:

Economic activity GDP product % sector (region) % sector (Italy)
Primary (agriculture, farming, fishing) € 2,303.3 1.66% 1.84%
Secondary (industry, processing, manufacturing) € 34,673.6 24.95% 18.30%
Constructions € 8,607.7 6.19% 5.41%
Tertiary (Commerce, hotels and restaurants, tourism, (tele)communications and transport) € 28,865.8 20.77% 20.54%
Financial activities and real estate € 31,499.4 22.66% 24.17%
Other types of services € 19,517.2 14.04% 18.97%
VAT and taxes € 13,526.4 9.73% 10.76%
GDP of the Veneto € 138,993.5

Culture

Art and architecture

One of Giotto's paintings in Padua.

The Middle Ages allowed the creation of monumental works such as the complex of churches on the island of Torcello, in the Venetian lagoon, with the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta based in 639, the bell tower erected in the eleventh century and the church of Santa Fosca built around the 1100, important for their presence of mosaics. The Middle Ages saw the construction of the Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore in Verona, which was the Veneto's main centre for that movement, we see the mixture of styles in that period made Verona an important crossroads for the north of Europe.

Examples of Gothic art, in addition to the Venetian church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and that of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, are the Scaliger Tombs in the historical center of Verona.

While in the Veneto Byzantine was also important, an element of innovation was brought to Padua by Giotto, bearer of a new pictorial tradition: that of Tuscany. Towards the 1302 he was commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni to paint the family chapel, now known just by the name of Scrovegni Chapel, one of the most important artistic monuments of Padua and the Veneto. The influences of the contribution of Giotto were felt immediately, and now you can admire the frescoes of Giusto de' Menabuoi in the Baptistry near the Cathedral of Padua and those of Altichiero in the Basilica of Saint Anthony.

After a phase of development of Gothic art, with the creation of important works including the Ca' d'Oro in Venice, the Palazzo Ducale and churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and of Saints John and Paul in Venice, the influence of the Renaissance ushered in a new season. In addition to Donatello, an important Venetian Renaissance artist was Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506), whose most important work in Veneto is perhaps the San Zeno Altarpiece, found in Verona. With the mainland expansion of the Venetian Republic and the consolidation of its institutions, there was also an artistic development of exceptional stature: Mantegna, Vittore Carpaccio, Giovanni Bellini, Cima da Conegliano, Pordenone laid the foundations for what would be the season of Venetian painting.

Padua was the main Venetian cradle of the Renaissance, which helped the movement develop and thrive. Amongst the Renaissance artists who worked there were Donatello, who worked mostly in Padua and in particular in the altar of the Basilica of Saint Anthony, and Pisanello, whose works are mainly Verona and in particular in the Church of St. Anastasia (his is the fresco of Saint George).

The Prato della Valle in Padua, a work of Renaissance architecture.

In the successive phase, there were also a considerable amount of Venetian artists, including Giorgione, Titian, Sebastiano del Piombo and Lorenzo Lotto. If the first phase with Carpaccio and Bellini, the influences of international painting were still evident and the references to Flemish art were numerous. Giorgione and Titian began a new way of painting, original and innovative, which characterized the painters of the Venetian school rather than other traditions. Giorgione's enigmatic artistic style was expressed with his works full of allegories, and he created his paintings without starting from a preparatory drawing but using the color spots to convey the feeling of the image. This innovation was looking for the imitation of natural phenomena by creating atmospheres with the colours and shifting the emphasis from the pursuit of artistic perfection. One of his most famous works, The storm(1506-1508), now in the Accademia in Venice, is an example of this use of colour, where the mixture color and texture continue indefinitely without preparatory drawing for the painting work gives a special atmosphere. Titian, born in Belluno Pieve di Cadore, brought forward the use of this technique without pictorial design, creating masterpieces such as the Assumption (1516 - 1518), a famous altar made by imposing visible sizes on the main altar of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice, a work whose suggestion is due to the use of colour in which the predominance was debated.

Giacomo il Forte (James the Strong), called Tintoretto (1518-1594) takes over the Roman Mannerism, but recasts in typical Venetian use of color, highlighting the bright prospects for its operations, giving unusual, sometimes true perspective deformations, with the aim of increasing the sense of tension that permeates the work. Palaces and churches of Venice are full of masterpieces signed by Tintoretto, but certainly worth mentioning, the 66 paintings found in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco el 'Last Supper in the Church of St. George. Paul said Caliari Veronese (1528-1588), with works that celebrated the life of Venice, is devoted to civil works such as buildings and houses of Venetian nobles. Sue was part of the decoration of Palazzo Ducale and the decoration of many villas Palladian, including Villa Barbaro. Jacopo da Ponte said Bass (1517-1592) renewed figurative art while being an artist inland lagoon, through the introduction of images taken from real life, enriched by a touch of drama and intense.

Born in Padua in 1508 and died in 1580, Andrea Palladio is arguably one of the most famous architects in the world. Among his works are primarily the Venetian villas, located in the countryside between the provinces of Vicenza, Padua and Treviso. He also made in Venice the Basilica of St. George, the Church of the Redeemer, and Zitelle on the island of Giudecca. His most famous works, however, are located almost exclusively in Vicenza, where he left some of his absolute masterpieces.

Palladian architecture incorporates the grounds of classical Roman villas that recall the forms of weather to create masterpieces such as Villa Emo, Villa Barbaro, Villa Capra "La Almerico Round Villa Foscari called the Malcontenta. This aesthetic, forerunner of the neoclassical style should be a rigorous search for features that had to have a Villa campaign, the home owner shall permit the control over production activities of the surrounding countryside by structuring the functional parts, such as porch, close to the central body. In the case of Villa Badoer, the open barn, formed by a large circular colonnade, enclosing the front yard in front of the villa allows you to create a space that recalls the ancient idea of the Forum Romanum, and bringing all campaign activities to gravitate in front of the villa itself.

The research style of Palladio has created an architectural movement called Palladianism, which has had strong following in the next three centuries, inspiring architects, some of them his direct students, including Vincenzo Scamozzi, after the death of the teacher who completed several works, including the first Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza.

The Church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice.

The eighteenth century Venetian school can count on many artists: painters Giambattista Tiepolo, his son Giandomenico, Giambattista Piazzetta, Pietro Longhi, Marco and Sebastiano Ricci, Nicholas Kids, Sebastiano Bombelli, Gianantonio Fumiani, Gaspar Diziani, the architect/painter Girolamo Mengozzi Colonna the painter Rosalba; the sculptures Morlaiter, Filippo Parodi, Bernard Torretti and his nephew Giuseppe Torretti, architects Jerome Frigimelica, Giorgio Massari, John Scalfarotto, Thomas Temanza, the most famous view painter Giovanni Antonio Canal as Canaletto, the carver Andrea Brustolon, playwrights Carlo Goldoni and Gaspare Gozzi, the poets Alessandro Labia and George Whisker, composers Benedetto Marcello and Antonio Vivaldi. Later, at the end of the republic, it follows Antonio Canova.

With Giambattista Tiepolo (1696-1770) the perspective plays a central role in rapresentation, not to give emphasis to the main image, but only to make a dramatic impact on the figures. For Tiepolo, in fact, prospective is forced to beyond the usual limits, painting ceilings figures taken from the bottom in a movement that makes it relatively spectacular.

Another characteristic feature of Venetian art is landscape painting, which sees in Giovanni Antonio Canal (1697-1768), known as Canaletto and Francesco Guardi ( 1712-1793) the two leading figures. Canaletto used a rigorous prospective studies are trying to make almost "photographic" reality modeling the colors to emphasize the vitality of the image. Francesco Guardi, seeking a more subjective and less clear cut tried to communicate emotion.

Antonio Canova was also one of the greatest sculptors of all times in Europe. Born in Possagno, he developed classical art, with his works becoming the references for neoclassicism. The Temple of Possagno, which he designed himself, is the main landmark of neo-classical architecture, while in the gispoteca, former home of Canova, one can see the casts of the most famous works that aremfound in various museums in the world, given his reputation that prevailed internationally. Among the most important works,Psyche Revived by Love's Kiss and the' 'funerary monument for Maria Cristina of Austria.

Failing to miss an artistic opportunity after the fall of the Venice, every city in Veneto created its own form of art. Important was, however, the role of Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, who was able to attract many young artists from the surrounding territory.

Among the many artists which were important in modern ages were Guglielmo Ciardi, who incorporated the experience of macchiaioli movement, uniting the typical colour of the classic Venetian school, and yet bringing out from his paintings a chromatic essence, Giacomo Favretto, who too as Ciardi, enhanced the colour, which was sometimes very pronounced, painter Frederick Zandomeneghi, who deviates from the tradition of Venetian colouring to venture in a style similar to French impressionism, and finally Luigi Nono, whose works feel realistic, even if, in addition to painting genre scenes, includes portraits of finity for psychological enhancement.

Education

The University of Padua in a 1654 woodcut.

Veneto hosts one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Padua, founded in 1222. OECD investigations[22] show that school education achievements in North-Eastern Italy (whose population comes mainly from Veneto) are the highest in Italy. As of 2003 the university had approximately 65,000 students.

Language

Most of the people of Veneto speak standard Italian. However, there is widespread usage of Venetian language. Venetian dialects are classified as an Italo-Western Romance language. Scholars distinguish between an Eastern or Coastal (Venice) group, a Central (Padua, Vicenza, Polesine) group, a Western (Verona) group, a North-Central (Treviso) group, and a Northern (Belluno, Feltre, Agordo, Cadore, Zoldo Alto) group of dialects. All dialects are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Ladin is spoken in parts of the province of Belluno, especially in the municipalities of Cortina d'Ampezzo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana and Colle Santa Lucia. A German dialect is spoken in Sappada (Pladen in German). Moreover, in the area around Portogruaro people speak Furlan.

As the region does not enjoy a special status of autonomy, minority languages are not granted any form of recognition. Anyway a motion to recognize Venetian as an official regional language has been approved by the regional Parliament.[23]

Literature

Venetian literature is the corpus of literature in Venetian, the vernacular language of the region which roughly corresponding to Venice from the twelfth century. The Venetian literature, after an initial period of splendour in the sixteenth century with the success of artists such as Ruzante, reaches its maximum zenith in the eighteenth century, thanks to its maximum exponent, dramatist Carlo Goldoni. Subsequently, the literary production in Venetian undergoes a period of decline following the collapse of the Republic of Venice, succeeding anyway during the twentieth century to reach peaks with wonderful lyrical poets such as Biagio Marin of Grado

Cuisine

A Golden bottle of Prosecco.
Asiago cheese and crackers.
A slice of tiramisù.

Cuisine is an important part of the culture of the Veneto, and the region is home to some of the most recognizable dishes, desserts and wines in Italian, European and worldwide cuisine.

Wines and drinks

Veneto is an important wine-growing area. Among the best wines can be remembered: Soave, Bardolino, Recioto, Amarone, Torcolato, Prosecco, Tocai Rosso,Garganega, and Valpolicella. Other, more common wines are Verduzzo, Raboso, Moscato, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Nero, Pinot Grigio, and Merlot. Homemade wine making is widespread. After making wine, the alcohol of the pressed grapes is distilled to produce grappa or graspa, as it is called in the local language.

Prosecco, a dry sparkling wine,[24] is also a very popular drink in the region of Veneto.[25] It is made from a variety of white grape of the same name, which is traditionally grown in an area near Conegliano and Valdobbiadene, in the hills north of Treviso.[24] The name of Prosecco is derived from the northern Italian village of Prosecco (Trieste), where the grape is believed to have originated.[25][26]

Cheeses

Among the best-known cheeses of Veneto the following should be mentioned: Asiago (PDO) (from Asiago), Monte Veronese (PDO), Piave (PDO), Morlacco, Grana Padano (PDO).

Salamis and meats

The sopressa vicentina (PDO) is an aged salami, cylindrical in shape and prepared with raw, quality pork meat. It may or may not include garlic in its ingredients and comes in medium and large sizes. Prosciutto Veneto Berico-Euganeo (PDO) is obtained from the fresh meat of a top breed of adult hogs. The aroma is delicate, sweet and fragrant.

Vegetables

Radicchio rosso di Treviso (PGI) is a peculiar vegetable with a faintly bitter taste and a crunchy texture. The production area encompasses many town districts in the provinces of Treviso, Padua and Venice. The radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco (PGI) has a delicate and slightly sweet taste and a crunchy texture. Veronese Vialone Nano Rice from Verona (PGI) is a type of rice with short, plump grains, which have a creamy consistency when cooked. They are commonly used in risotto dishes and have a high starch content. The Bean of Lamon (PGI) is particularly prized for its delicate flavour and extremely tender skin. The White Asparagus of Cimadolmo (PGI) has a characteristic scent and a very delicate taste. The White Asparagus of Bassano is a typical product of the northern part of the province of Vicenza. The San Zeno di Montagna (Verona) chestnut is another remarkable product. The town of Marostica is famous for its cherries.

Desserts

One of Veneto's best known contributions to the dinner table is tiramisù, a desert made from mascarpone cheese, coffee, Marsala wine, sponge cake and chocolate.[27][28][29]

Festivals

Example of masks used during the Carnival of Venice.

Each town, often every quarter, has its patron saint whose feast day is solemnly celebrated. Many other festivals are closely linked to the religious calendar. Among these:

  • Carnival of Venice celebrated the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday;
  • Panevin celebrated around Epiphany;
  • Pasqua (Easter Sunday);
  • Saint Mark's feast day (April 25);
  • La Sensa (Ascension Thursday);
  • San Giovanni Battista (June 24);
  • La festa del Redentór (mid July);
  • Vendemmia (grape harvest in September);
  • San Nicolò de Bari (St. Nicholas, December 6);
  • Nadàl (Christmas)

Music

Veneto, and in particular Venice and Verona, are important Italian musical centres, home to a vibrant musical life and some of the greatest talents in history, such as Antonio Vivaldi.

The city of Venice in Italy has played an important role in the development of the music of Italy. The Venetian state—i.e. the medieval Maritime Republic of Venice—was often popularly called the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 1600s is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music everywhere." [30]

In Padova, musical ensembles such as the Amici della Musica di Padova, the Solisti Veneti and the Padova-Veneto Symphony are found. Concerts are often held in the historic Loggia Comaro, built in 1524. As well, the city is the site of the Teatro delle Maddalene, the Teatro delle Grazie, the Giuseppe Verdi Theater, and the Cesare Pollini music conservatory.

Rovigo is well-known for its love of opera and is the site of the famous Teatro Sociale, built in 1819. In the 20th century it was the venue for the career beginnings of Tullio Serafin, Beniamino Gigli and Renata Tebaldi. The town of Rovigo is also the site of the Francesco Vanezza music conservatory.

The city of Verona is world famous for the Roman amphitheater known as the "Arena", a site that has been hosting musical events since the 1500s, but which is more recently known for the spectacular outdoor staging of Verdi's Aida, an event staged for the first time in 1913. The city also has the Felice Evaristo Dall'Abaco music conservatory;

Musicians and composers

Antonio Salieri
Antonio Vivaldi
  • Antonio Salieri (Legnano, 18 August 1750 - Vienna, 7 May 1825) was an Italian conductor and composer of sacred, classical and opera music. He was the one of the most famous and important composers in Europe in his time.
  • Mario Brunello was a cellist. He studied at the Conservatory of Venice Vendramelli Adriano and Antonio Janigro. In 1986 won the first prize at the International Tchaikovsky Competition of Moscow in a category dedicated to violoncello.Suona Maggini cello of 1600 belonged to Benedict Mazzacurati and then to Franco Rossi, Italian cellist of the Quartet. Since 2008 is the artistic director of the International Competition for String Quartet "Premio Paolo Borciani" by Reggio Emilia. A Castelfranco Veneto, his hometown, giving concerts, workshops and master classes to shed rust, an old factory where they worked the iron riadibita a concert hall.
  • Calicanto is a folk group, which incorporates traditional themes of the Venetian tradition by recasting them in the work of high artistic level.
  • Baldassare Galuppi (Burano, 18 October 1706 - Venice, 3 January 1785) was an Italian composer and organist. Galuppi was very famous in his day for his work, both funny series, for his sacred works and music for keyboard. His style was melodic, elegant and flexible met with the poetics of Goldoni: This collaboration marked the birth and spread throughout Europe (after the 1749) of the drama giocoso.
  • Antonio Vivaldi was one of the great "virtuoso" violinists of his time, certainly the most admired, and one of the greatest composers of Baroque music. Unanimously considered the most important, influential and original composer of the Italian peninsula of his time, Vivaldi contributed significantly to the development of the concert, especially solo, usually started by Giuseppe Torelli, and the technique of the violin and orchestra. Also did not neglect the opera. Huge his work composition that also includes numerous concerts, sonatas and pieces of sacred music.

Theatres

Teatro La Fenice
Teatro Salieri
  • Teatro La Fenice is the main opera house of Venice. Repeatedly destroyed by fire and later rebuilt, it is home to an important opera season and to the International Festival of contemporary music. Teatro La Fenice in Venice was designed in 1790 by Gian Antonio Selva for the society of the Venetian artistocracy, and the Venetian Theater was built rapidly despite the many controversies about its location and its rational structure and neoclassical style.
  • Teatro Malibran is a Venetian theater. It is best known for its importance in the field of opera that occurred manly between 17th and eighteenth century, when it bore the name of Theater St. John Chrysostom.
  • Teatro Stabile del Veneto "Carlo Goldoni"
    corresponds to the ancient Teatro Vendramin, also known as San Salvador or San Luke, and was opened in 1622. The Teatro Carlo Goldoni is located in the vicinity of the Rialto bridge, in the historical center of Venice. It is a film set, with rooms structured in four tiers of boxes, stalls and galleries. With a total of 800 seats, the stage is off 12 Underground and 11.20 deep and is framed in iron. The Teatro Goldoni season hosts Prose organized by the Teatro Stabile del Veneto "Carlo Goldoni", the review of Children's Theater, opera, concerts, ballets and other events in the concession.
  • Teatro Verdi (Padua)
    is the main theater in Padua. The building, commissioned by a Paduan company was designed by John Gloria, the architect Antonio Cousins and finally by Reggio Emilia. Currently the Teatro Verdi is the operational headquarters of the Teatro Stabile del Veneto.
  • Teatro Olimpico is a theater designed by the Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio in 1580 and located in Vicenza. It is generally considered the first example of a modern indoor theater set. The realization of the theater, in a pre-existing medieval complex, was commissioned by the Olympic Palladio for the staging of classical plays. Its construction began in 1580 and was inaugurated on March 3, 1585, after the realization of the famous stationery scenes of Vincenzo Scamozzi. These wooden structures are the only of the Renaissance to be extant, however, they are still excellent condition. The theater is still the seat of performances and concerts and has been included in 1994 in the list of World Heritage Sites' s UNESCO, as other works by Palladio to Vicenza.
  • Philharmonic Theater (Verona)
    is the main opera house of Verona. It is owned by the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona, since its foundation, but is used by the foundation of the Arena as the site of the opera season in winter.
  • Roman Theatre of Verona
    is Verona's main arena, located in the northern part of the city at the foot of Colle San Pietro. This theater was built at the end of BC, a period in which Verona has seen from the monumental St. Peter of the hill. Before, it was built between the Stone Bridge and Gates of the embankments, which were built on Tyrol parallel to the theater itself, in order to defend against the possible flooding of river. It is considered the largest Roman theater in the north of Italy. Today it is used for theatrical and operatic productions during the summer.
  • Teatro Salieri

Tourism

Cittadella
Noale
Este
Bassano del Grappa
Marostica

Here is a selection of the main attractions of Veneto.

The cities of art
Other interesting places

Besides the Venice and the major artistic cities of Venice, there are other smaller cities but with a presence in art and culture no less important. Such include:

  • Arquà Petrarca a city with hills town lying on the hills, in panoramic position, houses the tomb of Petrarch and the house where the poet lived a few years of his life.
  • Bassano del Grappa
    Famous for the Alpine bridge designed by Palladio on the Brenta River, is important for the facts of the First World War and for a few episodes for the second. Furthermore, held artistic works of Bassano and other Venetian painters. Regarding the craft to be reminded of the production of ceramics.
  • Chioggia
    Many Catholic churches in the area. Among these the church of Sant'Andrea, dated 1700, was by his side a tower in Romanesque style - called the Clock Tower - dating from the eleventh-twelfth century and, at one time, tower defense and military lookout. Has within it the oldest clock tower in the world.
  • Este
    already inhabited during the Iron Age, became a Roman colony. Finds from these periods are preserved in the National Museum Atestino. Main monuments and places of interest are the Carrara Castle, the Cathedral of Santa Tecla with the beautiful altarpiece of the Tiepolo, the Torre Civica (called the Clock Tower) and the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie.
  • Feltre
    ancient city, rich in frescoed palaces and works of art ancient and modern. There are even a fine little town museum, the gallery of modern art "Carlo Rizzarda" and the Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art, the cathedral complex with subterranean archaeological area, the shrine of the holy Roman-Armenian Victor and Corona , The Theater of Sena, by Gian Antonio Selva and Tranquillo Orsi, first stage of Goldoni.
  • Pieve di Cadore
    City, birthplace of the painter Titian, owns the house where he himself was born and which has now become a museum. The presence of important buildings in the historic center.
  • Schio
    Located at the mouth of the Val Leogra and surrounded the amphitheater formed by the "Little Dolomites" the city, formerly called the "Manchester of Italy" by the great development of wool industry in the nineteenth century, offers visitors the discovery of a vast wealth of industrial history through the open-air museum of industrial archeology, as well as significant natural resources such as the Mount Summano considered an asset unique flora in Europe (7.5% of European flora, 15% of the Italian and more than 30% of the Veneto).
  • Marostica
    walled town has two castles. The lower castle is located on the plains and in front of it is theater of the famous Piazza degli Scacchi Chess Game. The castle is situated on a hill top and is connected to the flat part of the city walls.
  • Possagno
    a little village, which native of Antonio Canova. You still visit the artist's house is a museum. Remarkable also the Temple Canoviano.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites[31]

Name and description Image

Inserted by UNESCO in 1997. It is the world's oldest academic botanical garden that is still in its original location. (Officially, the oldest university botanical garden is the Orto botanico di Pisa, which was founded in 1544; however, that garden was relocated twice and has only occupied its current, and now-permanent, location since 1591.) It is located in Padua, Italy and was founded in 1545. The garden, affiliated with the University of Padua, currently covers roughly 22,000 square meters, and is known for its special collections and historical design.

L'Orto Botanico di Padova

Verona was inscribed in the year 2000. One of the seven provincial capitals in the region. It is one of the main tourist destinations in north-eastern Italy, thanks to its artistic heritage, several annual fairs, shows and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheatre built by the Romans.

Verona

The city and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto were inscribed in 1994. Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, and many museums, art galleries, piazzas, villas, churches and elegant, Renaissance palazzi. The Palladian Villas of the Veneto, in the surrounding area, and the renowned Teatro Olimpico (Olympic Theatre) have both been enlisted as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1994.[32]

The Palazzo Chiericati in Vicenza

The city and its lagoon were inscribed in 1987. With a population of 271,367 (census estimate 1 January 2004). Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area (population 1,600,000). The city historically was the capital of an independent nation. Venice has been known as the "La Dominante", "Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Bridges", "City of Canals" and "The City of Light". Luigi Barzini, writing in The New York Times, described it as "undoubtedly the most beautiful city built by man".[33] Venice has also been described by the Times Online as being one of Europe's most romantic cities.[34]

Venice

They were inscribed in 2009. They are located for the most part in the province of Belluno, the rest in the provinces of Bolzano-Bozen and Trento (all in north-eastern Italy). Conventionally they extend from the Adige river in the west to the Piave valley (Pieve di Cadore) in the east. The northern and southern borders are defined by the Puster Valley and the Sugana Valley (Val Sugana). But the Dolomites spread also over the Piave river (Dolomiti d'Oltrepiave) to the east; and far away over the Adige river to the west is the Brenta Group (Western Dolomites); there is also another smaller group called Piccole Dolomiti (Small Dolomites) located between the Provinces of Trento and Vicenza (see the map).

Il Pomagagnon
Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto are a number of beautiful Palladian villas which are World Heritage Sites. UNESCO inscribed the site on the World Heritage List in 1994.[35] At first the site was called "Vicenza, City of Palladio" and only buildings in the immediate area of Vicenza were included. Various types of buildings were represented including the Teatro Olimpico, palazzi and a few villas. Most of Palladio's surviving villas lay outside the site. However, in 1996 the number of Palladian villas included in the site was expanded to include those in other parts of the Veneto. The site was given its present name.

The term villa was used to describe a country house. Often rich families in the Veneto also had a house in town called a palazzo. In most cases the owners named their palazzi and villas with the family surname, hence there is both a Palazzo Chiericati in Vicenza and a Villa Chiericati in the countryside, similarly there is a Palazzo Foscari in Venice and a Villa Foscari in the countryside. Somewhat confusingly there are multiple Villas Pisani, including two by Palladio.

There are these sorts of villas all over the Venetian plain, but especially in the provinces of Treviso, Padua, Vicenza and Venice. The date of construction of these villas ranges from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. There are approximately five thousand Ville Venete, of which 1,400 are declared of historical and monumental interest.

Apart from the numerous Palladian villas, of which 24 are protected by UNESCO, there are many beautiful villas spread across Veneto, mainly from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Many of them are museums, public institutions or private residences. The 24 Palladian villas which are part of UNESCO:

Amongst these, Villa Trissino (Cricoli) is not regarded a Palladian villa, but is also an important country house.

Parks

Cansiglio is a pre-alpine massif located in the north-eastern Veneto in the provinces of Treviso and Belluno.

'Parco Nazionale Dolomiti Bellunesi' is situated in the southern section of the Province of Belluno.

Lakes

The area of Lake Garda is a major tourist destination. Various towns along the lake, such as Lazise, Cisano, Bardolino, Garda (VR), Torri del Benaco and Malcesine, are popular resorts.

Mountains
The mountains of Auronzo.

Cortina d'Ampezzo, it's situated in the province of Belluno and is one of the most exclusive mountain locations in Europe together with Kitzbühel in Austria and St. Moritz in Switzerland. It was scene of the 1956 Winter Olympics. To the north there are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo ,said to be a symbol of the Italian Dolomites.

Arabba lies between the Sella group and the Marmolada. Auronzo is in the upper Cadore. Sappada is in the extreme north of the region.

Thermal baths

The thermal baths of Abano Terme are an important tourist attraction. Despite being the most famous, Abano is not the only thermal town in the area. Montegrotto Terme and Recoaro Terme are other popular resorts.

Beaches

Venice's Lido is an 11-mile long sandbar, visited by many tourists every summer.

Jesolo is one of the most important seaside resorts on the Adriatic coast, just a few kilometres far from Venice. Every year Jesolo gives accommodation to over 4.5 million tourists.

Caorle has often received awards forone of the cleanest beaches in Italy. Bibione, Eraclea and Sottomarina are popular resorts too. Albarella island is a private island on the Lido that has some of the best beaches. Alberoni Beach is set in a nature reserve.

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT
  2. ^ http://demo.istat.it/str2008/index.html
  3. ^ http://www.consiglioveneto.it/crvportal/leggi/1971/71ls0340.html
  4. ^ "Statistical Report 2007 - Chapter 1.2 - Production sectors". Statistica.regione.veneto.it. http://statistica.regione.veneto.it/ENG/Pubblicazioni/RapportoStatistico2007/Capitolo01b.jsp#top. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  5. ^ a b "Veneto in numbers: statistics pocket-guide: Year 2007". Regione del Veneto Department for Statistics. 2008. http://statistica.regione.veneto.it/ENG/pubblicazioni_elenco.jsp. Retrieved 9 June 2009. 
  6. ^ "Consiglio Regionale Veneto - Leggi Regionali". Consiglioveneto.it. http://www.consiglioveneto.it/crvportal/leggi/1971/71ls0340.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  7. ^ Putnam, R. D. Making Democracy Work. Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  8. ^ a b "Appendice: Tavole anagrafiche: Tavola I - Comuni del Veneto: superficie, densità, altimetria, zona altimetrica, aggregazione territoriale (Ulss, Stl, Comunità montane): 2007" (in Italian). Regione del Veneto Sistema Statistico Regionale. 2008. http://statistica.regione.veneto.it/Pubblicazioni/VenetoInCifre/2007-2008/index.jsp. Retrieved 9 June 2009. 
  9. ^ L’EMIGRAZIONE VENETA NEL RAPPORTO 2007 DELLA MIGRANTES PRESENTATO OGGI A VENEZIA. Editrice SOGEDI s.r.l. - Reg. Trib. Roma n°15771/75. http://www.ucemi.it/Notizie/Emigrazione_veneta_041007.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  10. ^ ITALIANI ALL'ESTERO - PROGETTO "STORIE DI GENTE VENETA NEL MONDO". DAL RAPPORTO MIGRANTES ITALIANI NEL MONDO 2008: 260.849 I VENETI NEL MONDO
  11. ^ Museo Nazionale Emigrazione Italiana
  12. ^ Vincenzo Patruno, Marina Venturi, Silvestro Roberto. "Demo-Geodemo. - Mappe, Popolazione, Statistiche Demografiche dell'ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  13. ^ David M. Cheney. "Triveneto Region of Italy Catholic-Hierarchy]". Catholic-hierarchy.org. http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/country/r15it.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  14. ^ "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/itd3_geo.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  15. ^ Eurostat News Release 19/2008: Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU 2/
  16. ^ "Microsoft Word - 19-2008 - de - ins.doc" (PDF). http://www.eds-destatis.de/de/press/download/08_02/019-2008-02-12.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  17. ^ 2000http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/itd3_eco.htm
  18. ^ "Soave - A Veneto White Wine That Is Summer's Perfect Companion". IntoWine.com. http://www.intowine.com/soave-veneto-white-wine-summers-perfect-companion. 
  19. ^ "Timisoara, la nuova provincia industriale veneta". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. 2007-01-02. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2001/febbraio/01/Timisoara_nuova_provincia_industriale_veneta_co_0_0102011149.shtml. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  20. ^ "Comunicato Nr 294 - Sito Ufficiale della Regione Veneto". Regione.veneto.it. 2008-02-22. http://www.regione.veneto.it/Notizie/Comunicati+Stampa/Febbraio+2008/294.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  21. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://www.istat.it/dati/dataset/20071004_00. 
  22. ^ Oecd-Pisa 2005, Il livello di competenza dei quindicenni italiani in matematica, lettura, scienze e problem solving - Prima sintesi dei risultati di Pisa 2003, pag.7, also available on www.invalsi.it; see also lavoce.info, La scuola non è uguale per tutti
  23. ^ "Consiglio Regionale Veneto - Leggi Regionali". Consiglioveneto.it. http://www.consiglioveneto.it/crvportal/leggi/2007/07lr0008.html?numLegge=8&annoLegge=2007&tipoLegge=Alr. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  24. ^ a b DuBose, Fred; Spingarn, Evan; Maniscalco, Nancy (2005). The Ultimate Wine Lover's Guide 2006. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.,. p. 196. ISBN 1402728158. http://books.google.com/books?id=Alq8ZtsapAMC&pg=PA196. 
  25. ^ a b Kinssies, Richard, Seattle Post-Intelligencer (July 10, 2002). "On Wine: Proseccos sparkle on their own terms". http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/food/77823_wine10.shtml. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  26. ^ Cortese, Amy, The New York Times (December 26, 2008). "Italian Makers of Prosecco Seek Recognition". http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/28/business/worldbusiness/28prosecco.html. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  27. ^ Giovanni Capnist (1983). I Dolci Del Veneto. ISBN 8-87-021239-4. 
  28. ^ Tina & Fernando Raris (1998). La marca gastronomica. ISBN 8-88-706155-6. 
  29. ^ "The Trail of Tiramisu". 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/10/AR2007071000327.html. Retrieved 11 July 2007. 
  30. ^ Touring Club p. 79
  31. ^ "World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List". Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/?search=&search_by_country=&type=&media=&region=&order=region. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  32. ^ Frommer's Northern Italy: Including ... - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_lG9LUf5esgC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=teatro+olimpico+unesco+heritage+site&source=bl&ots=FAoaNtlkK5&sig=DKN2rV4JQVel1NV24HXPsSFfiRs&hl=en&ei=Bp_kSvn6N4Os4QbOqqz_AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=teatro%20olimpico%20unesco%20heritage%20site&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  33. ^ Barzini, Luigi (1982-05-30). "The Most Beautiful City In The World - The". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950CE5DD1038F933A05756C0A964948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  34. ^ Europe's most romantic city breaks
  35. ^ UNESCO World heritage site number 712

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
noborder

Veneto is a region in north-eastern Italy, with its capital in Venice. It was an independent republic until the invasion of Napoleon in 1797. There's so much to see ...

Regions

It is composed of 7 provinces:

  • Venice - with St. Mark's Square, the Great Lagoon, the gondolas on the Grand Canal, Venice's Carnival together with great architecture, artistic masterpieces, particular narrow streets, the Biennale, the Marine Republic, but Veneto is not only Venice.
  • Cortina d'Ampezzo - in the province of Belluno, is part of the Veneto as well. A place with spectacular views of the Dolomites where you can relax and walk in summer and go skiing in winter. The Olympic Wintergames in 1956 helped Cortina d'Ampezzo to become a city known anywhere in the world.
  • Padova, the ancient and learned city with its Basilica del Santo that houses the relics of Saint Antonio is one of the major attraction points for millions of pilgrims every year.
  • Verona - The city of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet? If you plan to go to Verona you should at least try to get one of the searched tickets for the opera in the Arena.
  • Lido di Venezia 10 minutes from Venice, the golden beach
  • Eraclea - seaside town close to Jesolo
  • Jesolo - large seaside town near to Venice
  • Quarto d'Altino - situated about 15 minutes, by train, from Venice's main island

Do

Get a map of Venice with the water bus routes. You can see major parts of the city just by getting on and traveling the canals around the major islands.

Just sit in St Marks Square and watch the pigeons, listen to the music, watch the people go by.

The Venitian glass is beautiful.

Be careful about the time of year you go to see Venice. It is under water some times. Planks are put out to walk when the sidewalks are not walkable. If you go the right time of the year, it is a beautiful city and well worth the trip.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also veneto

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Veneto

Plural
-

Veneto

  1. A region of northern Italy.

Translations


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Veneto

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Veneto m.

  1. Veneto

Related terms

Anagrams


Simple English

Veneto
Flag Coat of arms
[[Image:|120px|border]] [[Image:|75px|Coat of arms of Veneto]]
Location
File:Regione Veneto
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Italy
NUTS Region ITD
Capital Venice
President Giancarlo Galan (PdL)
Basic statistics
Area  18,391 km² (7,101 sq mi)
(Ranked 8th, 6.0 %)
Population Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "," (12/2007)
(Ranked 5th, 8.1 %)
 - Density Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "," /km² (Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "," /sq mi)
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 139 billion (2006)
Website www.regione.veneto.it


Veneto is a region in North-east Italy on the Adriatic Sea. The capital is Venice. The population was about 4,869,694 in 2008.

Contents

Administrative divisions

Veneto is divided into 7 provinces and 581 municipalities:

Provinces

File:Provinces of Veneto

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Belluno 3,678 213,059 57.9
Province of Padua 2,141 905,112 422.8
Province of Rovigo 1,789 245,598 137.3
Province of Treviso 2,477 865,194 349.3
Province of Venice 2,463 841,609 341.7
Province of Verona 3,121 889,862 285.1
Province of Vicenza 2,722 848,642 311.8

Largest municipalities

Pos. Municipality Inhabitants
(inh.)
Area
(km²)
Density
(inh./km²)
Elevation above sea level
(m)
Province
Venice 268.741 412,54 651,4 1 VE
Verona 262.403 206,63 1.269,9 59 VR
Padua 209.696 92,85 2.258,4 12 PD
Vicenza 113.969 80,54 1.415,1 39 VI
Treviso 81.665 55,50 1.741,4 15 TV
Rovigo 51.378 108,55 473,3 6 RO
Chioggia 50.880 185,20 274,7 2 VE
Bassano del Grappa 42.237 46,79 902,7 129 VI
San Donà di Piave 39.774 78,73 505,2 3 VE
10° Schio 38.779 67,04 578,4 200 VI

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