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Vermiform Appendix
Gray536.png
.Arteries of cecum and vermiform appendix.^ Arteries of cecum and vermiform process.
  • Cecum Information & Cecum Links at HealthHaven.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ileum Information & Ileum Links at HealthHaven.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vermiform appendix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Arteries of cecum and vermiform appendix.
  • Function Of The Cecum - Crawler.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.crawler.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cecum - beginning of the large intestine, pouchlike, closed end called the vermiform appendix (ileocecal valve) 2.

.(Appendix visible at lower right, labeled as "vermiform process").^ The appendix is most usually located in the right lower quadrant under an area known as McBurney's point.
  • (WO/2006/012588) METHODS AND DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Appendix, vermiform appendix, vermiform process, cecal appendage -- (a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch) Cecal appendage - Supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book Mastoid 1.
  • Crest Dictionary Definition - Glossary.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.glossary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, the pain tends to settle in your lower-right abdomen, just above your appendix at what's known as McBurney's point.

Stomach colon rectum diagram.svg
.Normal location of the appendix relative to other organs of the digestive system (frontal view).^ List the organs and functions of the digestive system.
  • Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The organs of the digestive system can be grouped into: .
  • DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.augustatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other system examinations were normal.
  • Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly) 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bioline.org.br [Source type: Academic]

Latin appendix vermiformis
Gray's subject #249 1178
System Digestive
Artery appendicular artery
Vein appendicular vein
Precursor Midgut
MeSH Appendix
Dorlands/Elsevier Vermiform appendix
.In human anatomy, the appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal (or caecal) appendix; also vermix) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum (or caecum), from which it develops embryologically.^ Invivo location of the human vermiform appendix.
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The true caecal apex, or the vermiform appendix: Its minute and comparative anatomy.

^ The appendix is a blind-ending tube that comes off of the first part of the colon, the cecum.
  • Appendectomy, appendicitis 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.surgeryinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon.^ The cecum is a pouch-like structure of the colon.
  • News, Do you still have your Appendix? (gall bladder, x-rays, pain) - Health and Wellness - Doctors, illness, diseases, nutrition, sleep, stress, diet, hospitals, medicine, cancer, heart disease - City-Data Forum 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ The large intestine is structurally divided into three parts: cecum, colon, and rectum.
  • Los Altos Feeding Clinic: Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.pediatricfeeding.org [Source type: Academic]

.The appendix is located near the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine.^ The vermiform appendix is recognized as a separate organ from the large and small intestines.
  • (WO/2006/012588) METHODS AND DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The large intestine commences at the ileocecal junction .

^ The small and large intestines 66.

The term "vermiform" comes from Latin and means "worm-shaped".

Contents

Size and location

.The appendix averages 10 cm in length, but can range from 2 to 20 cm.^ The appendix is a wormlike extension of the cecum, and the average length of the appendix is 8-10 cm (ranging from 2-20 cm).
  • Appendicitis: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The appendix averages 10 cm in length but can range from 2-20 cm.
  • Vermiform Appendix: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Relevant Anatomy: The appendix is a wormlike extension of the cecum, and its average length is 8-10 cm (ranging from 2-20 cm).
  • Welcome to Medceu 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diameter of the appendix is usually between 7 and 8 mm.^ The conclusions of many studies have led to the wide acceptance of the size criterion for the outer diameter of the normal appendix as smaller than 6 mm [ 3 - 5 ] or 6 mm or smaller [ 6 ].
  • Outer Diameter of the Vermiform Appendix: Not a Valid Sonographic Criterion for Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis -- Menten et al. 184 (6): 1901 -- American Journal of Roentgenology 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ajronline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the pancreatic-sufficient group, the mean appendiceal diameter was smaller than the usual cutoff value of 6 mm, but the diameter of the appendix in four of these 10 patients was larger than this value ( Fig.
  • Outer Diameter of the Vermiform Appendix: Not a Valid Sonographic Criterion for Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis -- Menten et al. 184 (6): 1901 -- American Journal of Roentgenology 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ajronline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the appendix has been thus separated, I have usually tied it off with silk or catgut close to the caecum and cut it away, and generally between two ligatures.
  • P&S; Medical Review: Spring 1998, Vol.5, No.1 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC cpmcnet.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The longest appendix ever removed measured 26 cm in Zagreb, Croatia.^ Vermiform appendix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The longest appendix ever removed measured 26 cm in Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Appendix Located - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vermiform appendix is debts enough ( it usually measures about 8-9 cm), narrow and it hangs freely in grounds of right hip pit in direction of smaller basin usually.
  • Appendix | Health and medicine 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC en.zdrowie.flink.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation without symptoms, which is seen in up to 35% of incidentally removed appendixes, 26 may also be erroneously diagnosed at laparotomy as appendicitis.
  • Indications for operation in suspected appendicitis and incidence of perforation -- Andersson et al. 308 (6921): 107 -- BMJ 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.[1] The appendix is located in the lower quadrant of the abdomen, or more specifically, the right iliac fossa.^ Causes of mass on lower right abdomen .
  • Mass On Lower Right Abdomen - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: General]

^ The surgeon enters the abdomen and looks for the appendix which usually is in the right lower abdomen.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is located on the right side of the abdomen.
  • Glossary A to E 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC home.centurytel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Its position within the abdomen corresponds to a point on the surface known as McBurney's point (see below).^ On the surface of the body it corresponds to a point 2.5 cm.
  • CaeCum And Appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is known in surgery as McBurney's point.
  • Text for Pelvis and Upper Thigh Anatomy Module 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.med.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The appendix is most usually located in the right lower quadrant under an area known as McBurney's point.
  • (WO/2006/012588) METHODS AND DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.While the base of the appendix is at a fairly constant location, 2 cm below the ileocaecal valve, [2] the location of the tip of the appendix can vary from being retrocaecal (74%) [2] to being in the pelvis to being extraperitoneal.^ The base is at a constant location, whereas the position of the tip of the appendix varies.
  • Vermiform Appendix: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The base of the appendix is fairly constant and is located at the posteromedial wall of the cecum about 2.5 cm below the ileocecal valve.
  • Vermiform Appendix: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, many individuals may have an appendix located in the retroperitoneal space; in the pelvis; or behind the terminal ileum, cecum, ascending colon, or liver.
  • Appendicitis: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Welcome to Medceu 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: Academic]

.In rare individuals with situs inversus, the appendix may be located in the lower left side.^ In this situation, the surgeon may remove the appendix.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The appendix is a small organ that is located in the lower right side of the stomach.
  • Appendix Located - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The appendix is located in the lower quadrant of the ...
  • Appendix Located - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Function

.Given the appendix's propensity to cause death by infection, and general good health of people who have had their appendix removed or who have a congenital absence of an appendix, the appendix is traditionally thought to have no function in the human body[citation needed].^ Size and location Given the appendix's propensity to cause death via infection, and the general good health of people who have had their appendix removed or who have a congenital absence of an appendix, the appendix appeThe appendix averages 10 cm i .
  • Functions // BlogCatalog Topic // BlogCatalog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: General]

^ It has no known function in humans.

^ Vote 0 Rating: Good Answer 1 Rating: Bad Answer Report Abuse by Laurie Member since: August 28, 2007 Total points: 250 (Level 2) Add to My Contacts Block User Given the appendix's propensity to cause death by infection, and the general good health of people who have had their appendix removed or who have a congenital absence of an appendix, the appendix is traditionally thought to have no function in the human body.
  • What is the human appendix for? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.There have been no reports of impaired immune or gastrointestinal function in people without an appendix.^ There have been no reports of impaired immune or gastrointestinal function in people without an appendix.
  • What is the human appendix for? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no diminished function and what primary function.
  • Teleological Blog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC teleological.org [Source type: General]

^ The appendix has no known functions in humans.
  • Teleological Blog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC teleological.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Vestigiality

Vermiform appendix
.The most common explanation for the appendix's existence in humans is that it's a vestigial structure which has lost its original function.^ The most common explanation is that the appendix is a vestigial structure with no absolute purpose.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Most common mucinous neoplasm of appendix .

^ Humans contain appendix which is vestigial.
  • Teleological Blog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC teleological.org [Source type: General]

.(There has been little study of its function in the other animals in which it occurs—apes, wombats and some rodents—or comparison with animals in which it does not occur.^ It is thus very questionable to conclude from these animal studies that the human appendix has the same function as the other non-primate appendixes.
  • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our body has been brilliantly designed, with plenty in reserve, and the ability for some organs to take over the function of others.
  • Your appendix ... it’s there for a reason 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC creation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fact: the other animals with appendix may or may not have the same functions, but these are not diminished/loss functions as the Darwinian narrative would have you believed for so long.
  • Teleological Blog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC teleological.org [Source type: General]

)[citation needed] In The Story of Evolution, Joseph McCabe argued:
.The vermiform appendage—in which some recent medical writers have vainly endeavoured to find a utility—is the shrunken remainder of a large and normal intestine of a remote ancestor.^ Evolution myth: "The vermiform appendagein which some recent medical writers have vainly endeavoured to find a utilityis the shrunken remainder of a large and normal intestine of a remote ancestor.
  • Hall of Shame for Evolution Fraud and Deceit 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2003-2007 by Douglas Theobald, Ph.D. "The vermiform appendage—in which some recent medical writers have vainly endeavoured to find a utility—is the shrunken remainder of a large and normal intestine of a remote ancestor.
  • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In The Story of Evolution, Joseph McCabe argued thus: The vermiform appendage—in which some recent medical writers have vainly endeavoured to find a utility—is the shrunken remainder of a large and normal intestine of a remote ancestor.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.This interpretation would stand even if it were found to have a certain use in the human body.^ This interpretation of it would stand even if it were found to have a certain use in the human body.
  • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Hall of Shame for Evolution Fraud and Deceit 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems natural selection would have discarded it from the human body thousands of years ago.
  • The Useless Vestigial: the Human Appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the speed of sound in the fatty melon is different than that of the rest of the body, this melon is used as a "sound lens" to collect sonar signals and interpret them to the brain.
  • Evolution Handbook 3 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]
  • SCIENCE VS EVOLUTION 16 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.pathlights.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vestigial organs are sometimes pressed into a secondary use when their original function has been lost.^ Vestigial organs are sometimes pressed into a secondary use when their original function has been lost.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It performs no significant physiological function, and is said to be a vestigial organ that has lost its original function.
  • Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP | _AppellateLaw_10.13.09 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.manatt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vestigial organs are sometimes pressed into a secondary use when their original function has been lost."
  • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Hall of Shame for Evolution Fraud and Deceit 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.One potential ancestral purpose put forth by Charles Darwin[4] was that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates.^ Some experts believe that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Some experts [3] believe that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The evolutionary predecessor of humans was capable of cellulose digestion: "One potential ancestral purpose put forth by Charles Darwin[4] was that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be a vestigial organ of ancient humans that has degraded down to nearly nothing over the course of evolution.^ It may be a vestigial organ of ancient humans that has degraded down to nearly nothing over the course of evolution.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do any vestigial organs exist in humans?
  • Do any vestigial organs exist in humans? 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In On the Origin of Species , Charles Darwin used vestigial organs as evidence for evolution, and their presence has helped define and shape our phylogenetic trees.
  • Seven Evolutionary Leftovers in the Human Body | Curious? Read 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.curiousread.com [Source type: General]

.Evidence can be seen in herbivorous animals such as the koala.^ Evidence can be seen in herbivorous animals such as the Koala.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cecum of the koala is very long, enabling it to host bacteria specific for cellulose breakdown.^ The cecum of the koala is very long, enabling it to host bacteria specific for cellulose breakdown.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cecum is host to a large number of bacteria which aid in the final enzymatic processing of material not completely digested in the small intestine.
  • Los Altos Feeding Clinic: Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.pediatricfeeding.org [Source type: Academic]

.Human ancestors may have also relied upon this system and lived on a diet rich in foliage.^ Human ancestors may have also relied upon this system and lived on a diet rich in foliage.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, while the human appendix has lost its aptitude for digesting cellulose, recent studies have shown that it may play a different, but still trivial, role in the gastrointestinal immune system.
  • The Useless Vestigial: the Human Appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thereafter, he may be gradually allowed to embark upon a well-balanced diet according to his age.

.As people began to eat more easily digested foods, they became less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy.^ Warm food is more easily digested than cold food.
  • Medical - Home Nursing. Digestion 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well-cooked food is more easily digested.
  • Medical - Home Nursing. Digestion 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It normally does little in humans, but in rabbits it is very important in helping to digest the plant material cellulose.

.The cecum became less necessary for digestion and mutations that previously had been deleterious were no longer selected against.^ The cecum became less necessary for digestion and mutations that previously had been deleterious were no longer selected against.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But that doesn’t make much sense to me, as you’d have to maintain that mutations that were able to introduce appendix variability in the past no longer occur today.
  • Scientists: Surgeons not out of a Job Anytime Soon---Or Why that Appendicitis Still Hurts. - The Panda's Thumb 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC pandasthumb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As people began to eat more easily digested foods, they became less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These alleles became more frequent and the cecum continued to shrink. .After thousands of years, the once-necessary cecum has degraded to what we see today, with the appendix.^ After thousands of years, the once-necessary cecum has degraded to what we see today, with the appendix."
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the waste matter in the calcium has moved into the colon and thence eliminated, the irritation and inflammation in the appendix will subside and surgical removal of the appendix will not be necessary.

^ It’s an interesting idea, but it would take a study of thousands of people—measuring their appendix and seeing who does or doesn’t get appendicitis—to test it.

[4] .On the other hand, evolutionary theorists have suggested that natural selection selects for larger appendices because smaller and thinner appendices would be more susceptible to inflammation and disease.^ Appendicitis Appendicitis: One of the most common major surgical disease, appendicitis is obstruction and inflammation of the vermiform appendix, which may lead to infection, thrombosis,...
  • Find out how to Recognize Appendicitis Symptoms 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Common Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A more likely evolutionary change would be through natural selection: the individuals that because of their specific genetic upmake responded best to the changes induced by a modified melatonin metabolism, would be the likeliest to survive, thus passing that characteristic to the next generation.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The funny part is that ANY selection that actually takes place works only because it is allowed by nature.
  • How fire made us human - opinion - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Possible secondary functions

Immune function
.New studies propose that the appendix may harbor and protect bacteria that are beneficial in the function of the human colon.^ In fact, many individuals may have an appendix located in the retroperitoneal space; in the pelvis; or behind the terminal ileum, cecum, ascending colon, or liver.
  • Welcome to Medceu 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We know from studies like those cited by the Bollinger paper that bacterial numbers are much greater in the cecum and proximal colon than in the distal colon (also in rodents who have no appendix) and that those bacteria are often found in crypts.
  • New Paradigm for Science Communication 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.scienceprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The biologist Charles Darwin thought that the appendix may be a by-product of evolution; something that early humans needed to help digest plants.
  • Patient information leaflet - Appendicitis 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Loren G. Martin, a professor of physiology at Oklahoma State University, argues that the appendix has a function in fetuses and adults.^ See Martin, Loren G., “ What is the function of the human appendix?
  • Evolution News & Views: Helping Students Answer a Professor's Challenge to "Find a Fact" That Supports Intelligent Design (Part 2) 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.evolutionnews.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In adults, Martin argues that the appendix acts as a lymphatic organ.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Loren G. Martin[5], argues that the appendix has a function in fetuses and adults.
  • What was the original role of the appendix? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[7] Endocrine cells have been found in the appendix of 11 week old fetuses that contribute to "biological control (homeostatic) mechanisms." In adults, Martin argues that the appendix acts as a lymphatic organ. .The appendix is experimentally verified as being rich in infection-fighting lymphoid cells, suggesting that it might play a role in the immune system.^ Normal appendix is rich in lymphoid tissue .

^ New evidence suggests we need the appendix to fight infection.
  • �Useless� appendixes, light leapfrogs through space, cold-blooded fevers 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wonderquest.com [Source type: General]

^ Like the tonsils, the appendix fights infection.
  • Evolution Handbook 3 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]
  • SCIENCE VS EVOLUTION 16 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.pathlights.com [Source type: Original source]

.Zahid[8] suggests that it plays a role in both manufacturing hormones in fetal development as well as functioning to "train" the immune system, exposing the body to antigens so that it can produce antibodies.^ These are the cells in the body that produce hormones.
  • Howstuffworks "How Your Appendix Works" 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmental factors such as trauma or hypoxia during early fetal development have also been suggested to play a role [11] .
  • World J Gastroenterol 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wjgnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suspected functions include housing and cultivating beneficial gut flora that can repopulate the digestive system following an illness that wipes out normal populations of these flora; providing a site for the production of endocrine cells in the fetus that produce molecules important in regulating homeostasis; and serving a possible role in immune function during the first three decades of life by exposing leukocytes ( white blood cells ) to antigens in the gastrointestinal tract , thereby stimulating antibody production that may help modulate immune reactions in the gut.
  • appendix (anatomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.He notes that doctors in the last decade have stopped removing the appendix during other surgical procedures as a routine precaution, because it can be successfully transplanted into the urinary tract to rebuild a sphincter muscle and reconstruct a functional bladder.^ An appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix.
  • Appendectomy - Medpedia 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgical removal of the inflamed appendix is a relatively simple procedure.
  • Glossary A to E 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC home.centurytel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urinary Bladder     This is a hollow muscle which functions to hold urine.
  • Text for Pelvis and Upper Thigh Anatomy Module 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.med.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.
Apparent function of the human vermiform appendix in the recovery from diarrhea.
^ Invivo location of the human vermiform appendix.
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

^ JTB in press) concerning the possible function of the human vermiform appendix .
  • Scientists: Surgeons not out of a Job Anytime Soon---Or Why that Appendicitis Still Hurts. - The Panda's Thumb 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC pandasthumb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix.
  • Bad Designs in Biology? - Why the "Best" Examples Are Bad 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Appendicitis information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although more than 2 million children die each year in developing countries as a result of diarrhea, children living in those countries face an estimated 1.4 billion cases of diarrhea each year.^ It is more frequent in developed countries than underdeveloped countries.

^ As we were talking, we learned that I have been deployed longer and more often than he has been in the last five years.
  • Letters to the editor for Wednesday, March 28, 2007 | Stars and Stripes 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.stripes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, we need our scientists now more than ever to ready us for the myriad problems facing humanity.
  • New Paradigm for Science Communication 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.scienceprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
Maintaining gut flora
.Although it was long accepted that the immune tissue, called gut associated lymphoid tissue, surrounding the appendix and elsewhere in the gut carries out a number of important functions, explanations were lacking for the distinctive shape of the appendix and its apparent lack of importance as judged by an absence of side-effects following appendectomy.^ Their appendix is larger and does have important functions.
  • Teleological Blog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC teleological.org [Source type: General]

^ It turns out the appendix contains special "gut-associated lymphoid tissues".

^ The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans.

.[10] William Parker, Randy Bollinger, and colleagues at Duke University proposed that the appendix serves as a haven for useful bacteria when illness flushes those bacteria from the rest of the intestines.^ We know from studies like those cited by the Bollinger paper that bacterial numbers are much greater in the cecum and proximal colon than in the distal colon (also in rodents who have no appendix) and that those bacteria are often found in crypts.
  • New Paradigm for Science Communication 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.scienceprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parker and his colleagues recently suggested that the appendix still served as a vital safehouse where good bacteria could lie in wait until they were needed to repopulate the gut after a nasty case of diarrhea.
  • http://www.lifewest.edu/TLS/September%201,%202009.html 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.lifewest.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although many animals have an appendix which, like the rest of the intestine, has a role in the digestive process, the appendix does not seem to have any useful purpose in humans.
  • Appendicitis - myDr.com.au 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

[6][11] .This proposal is based on a new understanding of how the immune system supports the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria,[12][13] in combination with many well-known features of the appendix, including its architecture and its association with copious amounts of immune tissue.^ How is it intimately linked with the immune system?
  • BIOLOGY 2040- HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC itc.gsw.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The appendix is known to be a functioning part of the human immune system .
  • Appendectomy - Medpedia 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of the vermiform appendix, for example, it now appears plausible that it serves as a reservoir of normal GI bacteria to “reboot” the system when infection destroys the normal flora of the intestinal tract.
  • Publisher braces for controversy as definitive book on intelligent design hits market | Uncommon Descent 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a function is expected to be useful in a culture lacking modern sanitation and healthcare practice, where diarrhea may be prevalent.^ This is especially useful in under or undeveloped areas, where sanitation is lacking (like the tropics).
  • Powell's Books - PowellsBooks.BLOG - Author Archive: 'J. Wood' 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.powells.com [Source type: General]

^ In such cases, laboratory and imaging investigation may be useful in establishing a correct diagnosis of appendicitis.
  • Appendicitis: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So here's a problem: The authors note that the appendix may now be relatively useless because of the lower importance of fecal-borne diseases "in the face of modern medicine and sanitation practices."
  • The appendix: not just for appendectomies anymore? | john hawks weblog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC johnhawks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Current epidemiological data[14] show that diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, indicating that a role of the appendix as an aid in recovering beneficial bacteria following diarrhea may be extremely important in the absence of modern health and sanitation practices.^ Size and location Given the appendix's propensity to cause death via infection, and the general good health of people who have had their appendix removed or who have a congenital absence of an appendix, the appendix appeThe appendix averages 10 cm i .
  • Functions // BlogCatalog Topic // BlogCatalog 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: General]

^ Imaging Studies: Abdomen plain film: Occasionally, a plain film of the abdomen may demonstrate fecalith within the appendix, but this study is rarely indicated.
  • Welcome to Medceu 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DNA damage, which may lead to the development of cancers.
  • Bad Designs in Biology? - Why the "Best" Examples Are Bad 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Diseases

.The most common diseases of the appendix (in humans) are appendicitis and carcinoid tumors.^ The most common presentation was that of acute appendicitis.

^ The appendix is the most common site for carcinoid tumours.
  • Treatment and management of acute appendicitis | Practice | Nursing Times 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.nursingtimes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix.

.Appendix cancer accounts for about 1 in 200 of all gastrointestinal malignancies.^ The appendix is an uncommon site of gastrointestinal malignancy.
  • World Journal of Surgical Oncology | Full text | Adenocarcinoma of the appendix presenting as bilateral ureteric obstruction 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wjso.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accounting for one to five percent of all breast cancer cases in the United States, IBC is usually diagnosed in women younger than non-IBC breast cancer.

^ The most frequent site for carcinoids is the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%), with the appendix accounting for 18.9% of the cases.
  • Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.thedoctorsdoctor.com [Source type: Academic]

.In rare cases, adenomas are also present.^ Herein, we present CT findings of an epiploic appendagitis case that developed in a left inguinal hernia, which is a very rare entity.
  • Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.dirjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mucocele of the appendix secondary to mucinous cystadenoma is a rare clinical finding and we report such a case presenting in a district general hospital.
  • Journal of Medical Case Reports | Full text | Mucocele of the appendix - a diagnostic dilemma: a case report 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC jmedicalcasereports.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is usually seen in cervical lymph nodes, but rare cases of toxoplasmosis presenting as appendicitis have been recorded.
  • October.indd 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.rcsed.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix.^ Appendicitis - inflammation/infection of the appendix .
  • NON-TRAUMATIC ABDOMINAL EMERGENCIES 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.lbfdtraining.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction Appendicitis is a swelling (inflammation) of the appendix.
  • Appendicitis information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.

.Pain often begins in the center of the abdomen, corresponding to the appendix's development as part of the embryonic midgut.^ Appendix is a tubular structure and a part of midgut.
  • Acute Appendicitis - a knol by Dr.Sandip Agrawal 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pain also can appear on the left side or near the center of the upper abdomen, producing misleading symptoms suggesting a heart attack.
  • Abdominal region - Common Surgical Procedures - blood, pain, signs, body, ulcer, low, infection, effects 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease may cause tenderness in the right lower part of the abdomen where the appendix is located and resemble appendicitis.
  • Appendix Located - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This pain is typically a dull, poorly localised, visceral pain.^ Distention stimulates nerve endings of the visceral afferent pain fibers, producing vague, dull, diffuse pain in the midabdomen or lower epigastrium.
  • (WO/2006/012588) METHODS AND DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ This leads to distention of the appendix and visceral pain, which is typically located in the epigastric or periumbilical region.
  • Vermiform Appendix: eMedicine General Surgery 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Poorly localized pain is typical whenever a problem is confined to the small intestine or colon, including the appendix.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BDGF :: Development Activities 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bangladeshgateway.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the inflammation progresses, the pain begins to localise more clearly to the right lower quadrant, as the peritoneum becomes inflamed.^ Inflammation may result leading to pain in the right lower quadrant.
  • 1.2 The lower G.I. Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ece.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain beginning around the navel, then moving to the lower right quadrant of the abdomen .

^ Once the peritoneum becomes inflamed, the pain changes and then can be localized clearly to one small area.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BDGF :: Development Activities 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bangladeshgateway.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This peritoneal inflammation, or peritonitis, results in rebound tenderness (pain upon removal of pressure rather than application of pressure).^ Rebound tenderness from inflammation of the peritoneum .
  • NON-TRAUMATIC ABDOMINAL EMERGENCIES 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.lbfdtraining.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately, the tip of the appendix usually lies free in the peritoneal cavity 13 rather than being behind the cecum, minimizing this risk.
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Application of gradual pressure to the abdominal wall, followed by sudden release of this pressure, results in pain at the point in the RLQ. (This phenomenon is known as rebound tenderness .
  • http://virtual.parkland.edu/bio225/mod11.htm 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC virtual.parkland.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, it presents at McBurney's point, 1/3 of the way along a line drawn from the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine to the Umbilicus.^ Pain is localized at McBurney point, or 1.5-2 inches from the anterior superior iliac spine on a line from the spine to the umbilicus.
  • Appendicitis: Toward better diagnosis - Cortlandt Forum 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.cortlandtforum.com [Source type: Academic]

^ McBurney's Point Test - Rebound tenderness at the junction of the middle and outer thirds of the line joining the umbilicus to the anterior superior iliac spine .

^ McBurney's point is a position on the abdomen that is approximately two-thirds of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine in a straight line toward the umbilicus.
  • (WO/2006/012588) METHODS AND DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.Typically, point (skin) pain is not present until the parietal peritoneum is inflamed as well.^ Intussusception occurs typically in a well-nourished infant who is suddenly doubled up by apparent colicky pain.
  • Acute Appendicitis - a knol by Dr.Sandip Agrawal 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Referred pain When the appendix is hidden from the anterior peritoneum the usual signs and symptoms may not be present.
  • Treatment and management of acute appendicitis | Practice | Nursing Times 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.nursingtimes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the peritoneum becomes inflamed, the pain changes and then can be localized clearly to one small area.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BDGF :: Development Activities 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bangladeshgateway.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fever and an immune system response are also characteristic of appendicitis.
.Many cases of appendicitis require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy.^ A. Treatment of normal appendix on laparoscopy for appendicitis .
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If appendicitis is found, the inflamed appendix can be removed with the laparascope.
  • Appendicitis Appendectomy 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.profitmt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgical excision of mucocele of appendix can either be by laparotomy or laparoscopy.
  • Journal of Medical Case Reports | Full text | Mucocele of the appendix - a diagnostic dilemma: a case report 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC jmedicalcasereports.com [Source type: Academic]

.Untreated, the appendix may rupture, leading to peritonitis, followed by shock, and, if still untreated, death.^ An inflammation of the vermiform appendix which may rupture and cause peritonitis.
  • NON-TRAUMATIC ABDOMINAL EMERGENCIES 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.lbfdtraining.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If not treated - rupture peritonitis - perhaps death.
  • 1.2 The lower G.I. Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ece.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation of vermiform appendix is called appendicitis, which in chronic forms may lead to rupture of organ.
  • Appendix Symptoms - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: General]

.The surgical removal of the vermiform appendix is called an appendicectomy (or appendectomy).^ The basic treatment of appendicitis is the surgical removal of the appendix in a minor operation called an appendectomy.
  • appendix (anatomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment usually consists of appendectomy (surgical removal of the appendix).
  • Appendicitis & Appendectomy Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is called vermiform appendix as it resembles a worm.

.This removal is normally performed as an emergency procedure when the patient is suffering from acute appendicitis.^ Standard anesthetic procedure was performed to the patient.
  • Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly) 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bioline.org.br [Source type: Academic]

^ Cases of postoperative symptoms requiring reoperation for appendectomy have been described in patients whose normal appendix was left in place at the time of the original procedure.
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute appendicitis has been known as a disease entity for well over a century but a confident diagnosis before surgery in all patients suspected of the condition is still not possible.
  • Imaging as an aid to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis - Malaysian Abstracting and Indexing System 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC myais.fsktm.um.edu.my [Source type: Academic]

.In the absence of surgical facilities, intravenous antibiotics are used to delay or avoid the onset of sepsis; it is now recognized that many cases will resolve when treated non-operatively.^ Abscesses can be treated using antibiotics.
  • Patient information leaflet - Appendicitis 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Appendicitis information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment includes intravenous fluids, rest, nasogastric suction and surgery in select cases when the obstruction does not resolve with conservative management.
  • Anatomy Tables - Peritoneal Cavity & Intestines 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC anatomy.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In many cases, common bile duct stones are now retrieved endoscopically.
  • Charles Heber McBurney (1845 - 1913) -- Yale and Musana 3 (3): 187 -- Clinical Medicine & Research 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.clinmedres.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases the appendicitis resolves completely; more often, an inflammatory mass forms around the appendix.^ Inflammation of vermiform appendix is called appendicitis, which in chronic forms may lead to rupture of organ.
  • Appendix Symptoms - Wellsphere 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: General]

^ In some cases, intussusception in children may be temporary and resolve spontaneously.
  • Los Altos Feeding Clinic: Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.pediatricfeeding.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With improved visualization of the entire abdomen, laparoscopy for the treatment of appendicitis improves the diagnostic accuracy and can identify the definitive pathology more often than the open approach.
  • Guidelines for Laparoscopic Appendectomy | Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sages.org [Source type: Academic]

This is a relative contraindication to surgery.

Use as efferent urinary conduit

.The appendix is used for the construction of an efferent urinary conduit, in an operation known as the Mitrofanoff procedure,[15] in people with a neurogenic bladder.^ During the operation using a scrotal incision, the appendix -which had been perforated by a pin- was found inside the hernia sac, and the first successful appendectomy in history was carried out (3-8).
  • Revista Espa�ola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Apendicitis aguda en una hernia crural incarcerada: an�lisis de nuestra experiencia 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC scielo.isciii.es [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the majority of cases, the appendix will have to be surgically removed in a procedure known as an appendectomy.
  • Appendicitis information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treves performed the first unkinking of the appendix operation (1887) and in England and Europe was known as a proponent for interval appendicectomy (also 1887).

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Guinness world record for longest appendix removed.
  2. ^ a b c Paterson-Brown S (2007). "15. The acute abdomen and intestinal obstruction". in Parks, Rowan W.; Garden, O. James; Carter, David John; Bradbury, Andrew J.; Forsythe, John L. R.. Principles and practice of surgery (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-10157-4. 
  3. ^ McCabe, Joseph (1912). The Story of Evolution. London: Hutchinson & Co. http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=1043. 
  4. ^ a b Darwin, Charles (1871) "Jim's Jesus". The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray: London.
  5. ^ "The old curiosity shop". New Scientist. 2008-05-17. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg19826562.100-vestigial-organs-remnants-of-evolution.html. 
  6. ^ a b Associated Press. "Scientists may have found appendix's purpose". MSNBC, 5 October 2007. Accessed 17 March 2009.
  7. ^ "What is the function of the human appendix? Did it once have a purpose that has since been lost?". Scientific American. 1999-10-21. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=what-is-the-function-of-t. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  8. ^ Zahid A (April 2004). "The vermiform appendix: not a useless organ". J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 14 (4): 256–8. doi:04.2004/JCPSP.256258. PMID 15228837. 
  9. ^ Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, Miller MA, Glass RI (May 2003). "Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children". Emerging Infect. Dis. 9 (5): 565–72. PMID 12737740. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no5/02-0562.htm. "Table 1. Estimates of the annual number of diarrhea episodes among children <5 years of age in developing countries, by age group and setting". 
  10. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Robbins, Stanley L.; Cotran, Ramzi S. (1989). Robbins' pathologic basis of disease (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 902–3. ISBN 0-7216-2302-6. 
  11. ^ a b c Bollinger, R.R.; Barbas, A.S., Bush, E.L., Lin, S.S. & Parker. W. (21 December 2007). "Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix". Journal of Theoretical Biology 249 (4): 826–831. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.08.032. ISSN 0022-5193. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WMD-4PKXBXY-2&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F21%2F2007&_alid=994927353&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_cdi=6932&_sort=r&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=1&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=037821a4aac437b2fc1706b2347f313e. 
  12. ^ Sonnenburg JL, Angenent LT, Gordon JI (June 2004). "Getting a grip on things: how do communities of bacterial symbionts become established in our intestine?". Nat. Immunol. 5 (6): 569–73. doi:10.1038/ni107910.1038/ni1079. PMID 15164016. 
  13. ^ Everett ML, Palestrant D, Miller SE, Bollinger RR, Parker W (2004). "Immune exclusion and immune inclusion: a new model of host-bacterial interactions in the gut". Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews 5: 321–32. 
  14. ^ Statistics on the cause of death in developed countries collected by the World Health Organization in 2001 show that acute diarrhea is now the fourth leading cause of disease-related death in developing countries (data summarized by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation).[citation needed] Two of the other leading causes of death are expected to have exerted limited or no selection pressure on humans in the distant past because one (HIV-AIDS) only very recently emerged and another (ischaemic heart disease) primarily affects people in their post-reproductive years. Thus, acute diarrhea may have been one of the primary disease-related selection pressures on the human population in the past. (Lower respiratory tract infection (pneumonia) is the remaining of the top four leading causes of disease-related death in third world countries.)
  15. ^ Mingin GC, Baskin LS (2003). "Surgical management of the neurogenic bladder and bowel". Int Braz J Urol 29 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382003000100012. PMID 15745470. http://www.brazjurol.com.br/january_february_2003/Baskin_ing_53_61.htm. 

Further reading

.
  • "The vestigiality of the human vermiform appendix: A Modern Reappraisal"evolutionary biology argument that the appendix is vestigial
  • Appendix May Actually Have a Purpose—2007 WebMD article
  • Smith, H. F.; R. E. Fisher, M. L. Everett, A. D. Thomas, R. Randal Bollinger, and W. Parker (October 2009).^ The example often given to support this conclusion, the modern human appendix, is judged vestigial when compared to an animal that has a larger appendix (such as the modern rabbit).
    • Do any vestigial organs exist in humans? 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, at least three possible observations would help negate the conclusion that the human appendix is vestigial, using either the evolutionary or the typological definitions of vestigiality: .
    • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Just as many scientists are still debating whether the cranial bones move at the sutures, or whether the appendix is vestigial, modern lymphatic models are still evolving.
    • Trisoma® - Lymphatic Drainage Therapy Bodywork & Massage - Ending the Cycle of Myofascial Pain® in Goleta, Santa Barbara, Montecito 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.trisoma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix".^ DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix .
    • Student @ Fresno State's Profile - Research Blogging 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC researchblogging.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Smith HF, Fisher RE, Everett ML, Thomas AD, Randal Bollinger R, Parker W (2009) Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix .
    • Darwin and the vermiform appendix - The Panda's Thumb 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC pandasthumb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The true caecal apex, or the vermiform appendix: Its minute and comparative anatomy.

    .Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22 (10).^ The scientists detailed their findings online August 12 in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
    • Evidence for God from Science • View topic - Live Science: The Appendix: Useful and in Fact Promising 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC discussions.godandscience.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Biology Evolutionary Biology Behavioral Biology October 26, 2008 10:04 PM 562 views On the early evolution of cells .
    • Student @ Fresno State's Profile - Research Blogging 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC researchblogging.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
    • Student @ Fresno State's Profile - Research Blogging 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC researchblogging.org [Source type: Academic]

    .doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x.^ DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix .
    • Student @ Fresno State's Profile - Research Blogging 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC researchblogging.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISSN 1420-9101. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122544996/abstract. 
  • Cho, Jinny. ."Scientists refute Darwin's theory on appendix".^ These are long-refuted orthogenetic concepts which have been contradicted by basic evolutionary theory since Darwin.
    • Vestigiality of the human appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The Chronicle (Duke University), ‎August 27, 2009. (News article on the above journal article.^ Sinusitis, Retrieved August 22, 2009, University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009.

    ^ Journal List > World J Gastroenterol > v.15(27); Jul 21, 2009 .
    • Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix 11 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    )

External links


Simple English

Vermiform Appendix
Normal location of the appendix relative to other organs of the digestive system (frontal view).
Latin appendix vermiformis
Gray's subject #249 1178
System Digestive
Artery appendicular artery
Vein appendicular vein
Precursor Midgut
MeSH Appendix

In human anatomy, the appendix (other names include vermiform appendix; cecal (or caecal) appendix; vermix) is a blind ended tube connected to the cecum (or caecum), from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouch-like structure of the colon. The appendix is near the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine.

The term "vermiform" comes from Latin and means "worm-like in appearance".

The appendix has no function in humans, but it can cause diseases (like appendicitis).


Darwin[1] suggested that the appendix was perhaps used to digest leaves as primates. Over time, humans have eaten fewer vegetables and have evolved. Over thousands of years, this organ has become smaller to make room for the stomach. It may be a vestigial organ of ancient man that has degraded down to nearly nothing over the course of evolution. Evidence can be seen in herbivorous animals such as the Koala. The cecum of the koala is attached to the juncture of the small and large intestines-like in humans - and is very long. This enables it to host bacteria specific for cellulose breakdown. Early man’s ancestor may have also relied upon this system and lived on a diet rich in foliage. As man began to eat foods easier to digest, they became less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy. The cecum became less necessary for digestion and mutations that previously had been deleterious were no longer selected against. These alleles became more frequent and the cecum continued to shrink. After thousands of years, the once-necessary cecum has degraded to what we see today; the appendix. [1]

Evolutionary theorists have suggested that natural selection selects for larger appendices because smaller and thinner appendices would be more susceptible to inflammation and disease[2].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Darwin, Charles (1871) "Jim's Jesus". The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray: London.
  2. "The old curiosity shop". New Scientist. 2008-05-17. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg19826562.100-vestigial-organs-remnants-of-evolution.html. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Vermiform appendix, which are similar to those in the above article.








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