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State of Vermont
Flag of Vermont State seal of Vermont
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Green Mountain State
Motto(s): Freedom and Unity
Map of the United States with Vermont highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Vermonter
Capital Montpelier
Largest city Burlington
Area  Ranked 45th in the US
 - Total 9,620 sq mi
(24,923 km2)
 - Width 80 miles (130 km)
 - Length 160 miles (260 km)
 - % water 4.1
 - Latitude 42° 44′ N to 45° 1′ N
 - Longitude 71° 28′ W to 73° 26′ W
Population  Ranked 49th in the US
 - Total 621,760 (2009 est.)[1]
609,903 (2000)
 - Density 174.0/sq mi  (67.2/km2)
Ranked 30th in the US
 - Median income  $52,104 (20th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mt. Mansfield[2]
4,395 ft  (1,340 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 - Lowest point 95 ft  (29 m)
Admission to Union  March 4,1791 (14th)
Governor Jim Douglas (R)
Lieutenant Governor Brian Dubie (R)
U.S. Senators Patrick Leahy (D)
Bernie Sanders (I)
U.S. House delegation Peter Welch (D) (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations US-VT
Website http://www.vermont.gov
Much of the business of local government in Vermont towns takes place each March at a town meeting held at a meetinghouse, such as this one in Marlboro, Vermont.
The State of Vermont (Listeni /vərˈmɒnt/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd by land area, 9,250 square miles (24,000 km2), and 45th by total area. It has a population of 621,270, making it the second least-populated state (with only Wyoming having fewer residents). The only New England state with no coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont is notable for Lake Champlain (which makes up 50% of Vermont's western border) and the Green Mountains, which run north to south. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.
Originally inhabited by Native American tribes (Abenaki and Iroquois), much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France but became a British possession after France's defeat in the French and Indian War. For many years, the surrounding colonies disputed control of the area (referred to at the time as the New Hampshire Grants) especially New Hampshire and New York. Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic, founded during the Revolutionary War and lasting for 14 years; Vermont is thus one of four U.S. states (along with Texas, Hawaii, and the brief California Republic) to have, at one point, existed as its own sovereign government. In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the fourteenth state, and the first outside the original Thirteen Colonies.
It is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States.[3] The state capital is Montpelier, and the largest city and metropolitan area is Burlington. No other state has a largest city as small as Burlington,[4] or a capital city as small as Montpelier.[5]

Contents

Geography

Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,900 km2), making it the 45th-largest state. Of this, land makes up 9,250 square miles (24,000 km2) and water comprises 365 square miles (950 km2), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.
Map of Vermont, showing cities, roads, and rivers.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state (the river itself is part of New Hampshire).[6] Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km) long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km) at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (60 km) at the Massachusetts line. The state's geographic center is Washington, three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury.
The origin of the name Green Mountains (French: Les monts verts) is uncertain. Some authorities say that they are so named because they have much more forestation than the higher White Mountains of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north-south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast.[7] In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen.
Vermont has 14 counties. Only two—Lamoille and Washington—are entirely surrounded by Vermont territory.
Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems. These include Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak. About 77% of the state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds, and swampy wetlands.

Cities

Burlington, Vermont's largest city
Montpelier, Vermont's Capital city
Cities (2008 estimated population):

Largest towns

Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such.
Largest towns (2008 estimated population):

Climate

A covered bridge, set against the fall foliage, 2009
Vermont has a humid continental climate, with warm, humid summers and cold winters that are colder at higher elevations.[9] It has a Köppen climate classification of Dfb, similar to Minsk, Stockholm, and Fargo.[10] Vermont is known for its mud season in spring, followed by a generally mild early summer, hot Augusts, a colorful autumn, and, in particular—its cold winters. The northern part of the state, including the rural northeastern section (dubbed the "Northeast Kingdom"), is known for exceptionally cold winters, often averaging 10°F (5.56°C) colder than the southern areas of the state. The annual snowfall averages between 60 inches (152 cm) to 100 inches (254 cm) depending on elevation, resulting in a number of cross-country and downhill ski areas. The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F (6 °C).[11]
In the autumn, Vermont's hills display red, orange, and gold foliage displayed on the sugar maple as cold weather approaches. This display of color is not due so much to the presence of a particular variant of the sugar maple; rather, it is caused by a number of soil and climate conditions unique to the area.
The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon, on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was −50 °F (−45.6 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933. This is the lowest temperature recorded in New England (Big Black River, Maine, also recorded a verified -50F, in 2009).[12][13] The agricultural growing season ranges from 120–180 days.[14]
Monthly normal and record high and low temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F(°C) 59
(15)
63
(17)
84
(29)
91
(33)
94
(34.5)
96
(35.5)
101
(38)
98
(36.5)
95
(35)
87
(30.5)
69
(20.5)
62
(17)
Norm High °F(°C) 25
(-4)
31
(-0.5)
43
(6)
51
(10.5)
64
(18)
76
(24.5)
81
(27)
78
(25.5)
71
(22)
54
(12)
36
(2)
28
(-2)
Norm Low °F(°C) 4
(-15.5)
10
(-12)
22
(-5.5)
30
(-1)
43
(6)
55
(13)
60
(15.5)
57
(14)
50
(10)
33
(0.5)
15
(-9.5)
7
(-14)
Rec Low °F(°C) -38
(-39)
-35
(-37)
-18
(-28)
9
(-13)
24
(-4.5)
36
(2)
41
(5)
38
(3)
21
(-6)
4
(-15.5)
-16
(-27)
-32
(-35.5)
Precip in(mm) 0.61
(15.5)
0.63
(16)
0.68
(17)
1.99
(50.5)
4.01
(102)
4.06
(103)
4.07
(103.5)
4.00
(101.5)
3.95
(100)
2.48
(63)
0.66
(17)
0.62
(16)
Source: USTravelWeather.com [15]

Geology

There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont.[16]

Natural history

The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89 species of fish, 193 species of breeding birds, 58 species of mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and 2,000 higher plant species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types of natural communities.[17]
Vermont contains one poisonous snake, the Eastern timber rattlesnake, which is confined to a few acres in western Rutland County.[18]
By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the state through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Sixteen were re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000 in 2009.[19]

History

Mount Mansfield, at 4,393 feet (1,339 m), is the highest point in Vermont.

Pre-Columbian

Between 8500 to 7000 BC, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native Americans inhabited and hunted in Vermont. During the Archaic period, from the 8th millennium BC to 1000 BC, Native Americans migrated year-round. During the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to AD 1600, villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology was developed. In pre-Columbian Vermont, the western part of the state was originally home to a small population of Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Mohican and Abenaki peoples. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting ground and warring with the remaining Abenaki. The population in 1500 was estimated to be around 10,000 people.

Colonial

The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777.
The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier, in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed Vermont as part of New France, and erected a fort which was the first European settlement in Vermont.
In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point 8 miles (13 km) west of present-day Addison).
The first permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the construction of Fort Dummer protecting the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro.
From 1731-4, the French constructed a fort which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont border region in the Lake Champlain Valley.
The British failed to take the Fort St. Frédéric four times between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort. The French were driven out of the area.
Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, the 1763 Treaty of Paris gave control of the land to the British.
The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all contended for this frontier area.
On March 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 Degrees north latitude. When New York refused to recognize land titles through the New Hampshire Grants (towns created earlier by New Hampshire in present Vermont), dissatisfied colonists organized in opposition, which led to the creation of independent Vermont on January 18, 1777.[20][21]
In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner recruited an informal militia, the Green Mountain Boys, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against the new migrants from New York.

Independence and statehood

1790 Act of Congress admitting Vermont to the federal union. Statehood began on March 4, 1791.
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier designed by Ammi B. Young and amplified by Thomas Silloway.
On January 18, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declared the independence of Vermont.[22] For the first six months of the state's existence, the state was called New Connecticut.[23]
On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian who wrote them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States as the 14th state.[23] On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont was drafted at the Windsor Tavern adopted by the delegates on July 8. This was among the first written constitutions in North America and was indisputably the first to abolish the institution of slavery in its constitution, provide for universal male suffrage and require support of public schools. It was in effect from 1777 to 1791.[24] Slavery was banned again by state law on November 25, 1858.[25]

Revolutionary War

The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont.
A combined American force, under General Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington and killed or captured virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York, on October 17.
The Battles of Bennington and Saratoga are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army. The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday.
The Battle of Hubbardton (July 7, 1777) was the only battle fought in the territory and though the Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans (retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further.

Statehood and the ante-bellum era

Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785-1788[26] and operated a statewide postal service. Thomas Chittenden was the Governor in 1778-1789 and in 1790-1791. The state exchanged ambassadors with France, the Netherlands, and the American government then at Philadelphia. In 1791, Vermont joined the Federal union as the fourteenth state, and the first to enter the Union after the original thirteen colonies.
Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836.
The mid-1850s onwards saw a transition from Vermonters mostly favoring slavery's containment, to a far more serious opposition to the institution, producing the Radical Republican and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican Party emerged, Vermont strongly trended in support of its candidates. In 1860, it voted for President Abraham Lincoln, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.

The Civil War

During the American Civil War, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service. Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15%, were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease, a higher percentage than any other state.
The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid, took place in Vermont.

Postbellum era and beyond

The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage and were first allowed to vote in town elections, and then in state legislative races.
Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 84 people died including the state's lieutenant-governor.[27] Another flood occurred in 1973, when the flood caused the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage.
In 1964, the US Supreme Court forced “one-man, one-vote” redistricting on Vermont, giving cities an equitable share of votes in both houses for the entire country.[28] Until that time, counties had often been represented by area in state senates and were often unsympathetic to urban problems requiring increased taxes.

Demographics

Population

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 85,425
1800 154,465 80.8%
1810 217,895 41.1%
1820 235,981 8.3%
1830 280,652 18.9%
1840 291,948 4.0%
1850 314,120 7.6%
1860 315,098 0.3%
1870 330,551 4.9%
1880 332,286 0.5%
1890 332,422 0%
1900 343,641 3.4%
1910 355,956 3.6%
1920 352,428 −1.0%
1930 359,611 2.0%
1940 359,231 −0.1%
1950 377,747 5.2%
1960 389,881 3.2%
1970 444,330 14.0%
1980 511,456 15.1%
1990 562,758 10.0%
2000 608,827 8.2%
Est. 2009[1] 621,760 2.1%
The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren.[29]
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2005, Vermont has an estimated population of 623,050, which is an increase of 1,817, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 14,223, or 2.3%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 3,530 people. In 2004, more than half of Vermont's population was born outside the state.[30]
It is the least populous state in New England. In 2006, it has the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women.[31] The median age of the work force was 42.3, the highest in the nation.
In 2009, 12.6% of people over 15 are divorced. This is the fifth highest percentage in the nation.[32]

Race and gender

Demographics of Vermont (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 98.12% 0.76% 1.05% 1.09% 0.05%
2000 (Hispanic only) 0.83% 0.06% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 97.95% 0.89% 0.97% 1.24% 0.04%
2005 (Hispanic only) 1.03% 0.06% 0.04% 0.01% 0.00%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.16% 20.33% -5.49% 16.42% -9.09%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 1.94% 21.76% -5.13% 17.31% -2.66%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 26.76% 2.62% -13.81% -39.42% -46.67%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Vermont Population Density Map
Vermont's population is:
Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, Vermont ranks:

Ethnicity and language

The largest ancestry groups are:
Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. Some vestiges of a Vermont accent are heard but the population has become more homogenized around American standard English in recent years.
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 2.54% of the population aged five and older speak French at home, while 1.00% speak Spanish.[36]

Religion

Religious identification
Religion 1990[37] 2001[38] 2008[37]
Christian 84% 67% 55%
    Roman Catholic 37% 38% 26%
    Protestant 47% 29% 29%
        Congregational/United
        Church of Christ
6%
       Methodist 6%
        Episcopal 4%
        Other Christian 4%
        Baptist 3%
        Other Protestant 2%
        Assemblies of God 1%
        Evangelical 1%
        Seventh-day Adventist 1%
        Non-Denominational 1%
Other religions 3% 2% 4%
No religion 13% 22% 34%
Declined to answer 1% 8% 6%
In colonial times, like many of its neighboring states, Vermont's largest religious affiliation was Congregationalism. In 1776, 63% of affiliated church members in Vermont were Congregationalists. At that time, however, only 9% of people belonged to a specific church due to the remoteness of population centers. The Congregational United Church of Christ remains the largest Protestant denomination and Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination of any state.[39]
In 2008, over half of Vermont residents identify themselves as Christians. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. According to the ARDA the Catholic Church had 147,918 members in 2000.[40]
Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attend church regularly. This low is matched nationally only by New Hampshire.[41]
In 2008 thirty-four percent of Vermonters claimed no religion; this is the highest percentage in the nation.[42][43] A survey suggested that people in Vermont and New Hampshire which were polled jointly, are less likely to attend weekly services and are less likely to believe in God (54%) than people in the rest of the nation (71%). The two states were at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About 23% percent of the respondents attended religious service at least once a week (39% nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is very important to them (56% nationally).[44]
Almost one-third of Vermonters were self-identified Protestants. The largest Protestant denomination in the state was the United Church of Christ with 21,597, and the second largest is the United Methodist Church with 19,000 members;[40] followed by Episcopalians, "other" Christians, and Baptists.
Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young—the first two leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born in Vermont. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon, is maintained by the LDS.
The state had 5,000 people of Jewish faith - 3,000 in Burlington and 500 each in Montpelier-Barre and Rutland.[citation needed]
Vermont may have the highest concentration of western-convert Buddhists in the country. It is home to several Buddhist retreat centers.[45]
The state is estimated to be home to 2,000 people of Islamic faith, belonging to a wide variety of traditions.[46]

Economy

In 2007, Vermont was ranked 32nd among states in which to do business. It was 30th the previous year.[47]
In 2008, an economist said that the state had "a really stagnant economy, which is what we are forecasting for Vermont for the next 30 years."[48]
According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) was $23 billion. This places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 38th in per capita GSP.[49][50] The per capita personal income was $32,770 in 2004.
Components of GSP were:[51][52]
  • Government - $3,083 million (13.4%)
  • Real Estate, Rental and Leasing - $2,667 million (11.6%)
  • Durable goods manufacturing - $2,210 million (9.6%)
  • Health Care and Social Assistance - $2,170 million (9.4%)
  • Retail trade - $1,934 million (8.4%)
  • Finance and Insurance - $1,369 million (5.9%)
  • Construction - $1,258 million (5.5%)
  • Professional and technical services - $1,276 million (5.5%)
  • Wholesale trade - $1,175 million (5.1%)
  • Accommodations and Food Services - $1,035 million (4.5%)
  • Information - $958 million (4.2%)
  • Non-durable goods manufacturing - $711 million (3.1%)
  • Other Services - $563 million (2.4%)
  • Utilities - $553 million (2.4%)
  • Educational Services - $478 million (2.1%)
  • Transportation and Warehousing - $484 million (2.1%)
  • Administrative and Waste Services - $436 million (1.9%)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting - $375 million (1.6%)
  • Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation - $194 million (.8%)
  • Mining - $100 million (.4%)
  • Management of Companies - $35 million (.2%)
Canada was Vermont's number one external trading partner in 2007, followed by Taiwan.[53] The state had $4 billion worth of commerce with Quebec.[54]
One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had $5.2 billion in 2007.[55]
In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007.[56]

Personal income

The median household income from 2002-2004 was $45,692. This was 15th nationally.[57] The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31 hourly or $31,845 annually.[58]
About 80% of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps, actually received them in 2007.[59] 40% of seniors 75 years or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less.[60]
In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the lowest credit card delinquency rate in the country, 0.70%.[61][62]

Real estate

While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in 2004, to 8,120 (2005), 6,919 (2006) and 5,820 (2007), the average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007).[63]
In the quarter ending September 2008, the state had the fourth lowest mortgage payment delinquency rate in the country, 1.8%.[62]

Agriculture

Vermont ranks first nationally in craft breweries per capita.[64]
Agriculture contributes $2.6 billion,[65] about 12%, directly and indirectly to the state's economy.[66]
Over the past two centuries, logging has fallen off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. Loss of farms has had the beneficial effect of allowing Vermont's land and forest to recover. Today, most of Vermont's forests consist of second-growth.
Of the remaining industries, dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income.
In the last half of the twentieth century, developers had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry.
In 1947 there were 11,206 dairy farms in the state. In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500, a decline of more than 85%. The number of cattle had declined by 40%. However, milk production had doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow.[67] In 2007, there were 1,087 farms left, down from 1,138 in 2006. The number has been diminishing by 10% annually.[68] While milk production rose, Vermont's market share declined. Within a group of states supplying the Boston-NYC market,[69] Vermont was third with a 10.6% share of the market.[70][71] In 2007, dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45 kg) of milk. This dropped in 2008 to $17.[72] The average dairy farm produced 1.3 million pounds of milk annually in 2008.[73]
In 2009, there were 543 organic farms. Twenty percent of the dairy farms were organic. Twenty-three percent (128) vegetable farms were organic. Organic farming increased in 2006-7, but leveled off in 2008-9. Nor are any expected for 2010.[74]
A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market. Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the bulk market.[75]
.An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state manages and defends.^ Vermont Fish Culture Stations Come see fish grow from tiny eggs to the trophy size beauties at any of five State Fish Hatcheries.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ Vermont has not adopted any classes of prohibited persons broader than those set forth under federal law (or made sales to those purchasers a state crime).
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The State Librarian will deliver a published copy of the state papers of Vermont to the library of a private high school, upon request.
  • State Regulation of Private Schools - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.
.In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production.^ Free samples of maple syrup, cheese and fine Vermont foods, free admission and educational sugarhouse display.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ Hugh Kemper has dug into the details of the $1.5 billion, about $15,000 per student, that Vermont spends each year.

^ Bragg Farm Sugarhouse and Gift Shop At Bragg Farm visit one of Vermonts sugarhouses using traditional methods of Maple Sugaring!
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

For 2005 that number was 410,000 US gallons (1,600,000 l; 340,000 imp gal) accounting for 37% of national production.[76] This rose to 920,000 US gallons (3,500,000 l; 770,000 imp gal) in 2009.[77]
In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still engaged in agriculture.[78]
Wine industry started in Vermont in 1985. There are 14 wineries today.[79]
Farms in the state were estimated to have hired 2,000 illegal immigrants as of 2005. Local authorities have ignored the problem, sympathizing with the employers about being able to efficiently run a farm.[80]

Manufacturing

IBM, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest for-profit employer. .It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont.^ OnTheSnow.com provides the ski and snow report for all ski resorts in Vermont.
  • Vermont Ski & Snow Report | OnTheSnow.com 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.onthesnow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2007 it employed 6,800 workers.[81] It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy.[82]

Health

An increasingly aging population is expected to improve this industry's position in the state economy. In 2008, Fletcher Allen Health Care was the second highest employer of people in the state.[83]

Housing

In 2007 Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. .However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage.^ Birth, Death, Marriage, and Divorce certificates, for events which occurred within the state of Vermont.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other states will benefit as well, this isn’t about Vermont by its lonesome.

^ The license can only be used within the State of Vermont.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

[84]
Housing prices did not rise that much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th (last, and best) in ratio of foreclosure filings to households.[85] While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008, prices continued to rise.[86]
In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Energy Star program.[87] However, about 60% of Vermont homes heated with oil in 2008.[88] In August 2008, the cost in Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.

Labor

.As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont.^ There are 200 physicians per 100,000 population in Vermont, VT. The US average is 170.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

11% of these are unionized.[89][90] A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least satisfied with their job in the nation and were the most likely to be making plans to leave.[91]
Out of a workforce of 299,200 workers, 52,000 were government jobs, federal, state and local. [92]
A modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. A modern low of 2.2% was measured in March 2002.[93]

Insurance

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.[94] In 2008, there were 550 such companies.[95]

Tourism

Tourism is a large industry in the state. In winter, the ski resorts Burke Mountain, Stowe, Smugglers' Notch, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan areas. In the summer, resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock host visitors. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round.
Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing draw outdoor enthusiasts to the state, as does the hiking on the Long Trail. In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual events. .Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.^ Rotary club search Nonprofit groups Lions clubs in Vermont Kiwanis clubs in Vermont Foundations (by name) Community foundations (by state) Vermont Chambers of Commerce Parks & recreation .
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Schools that wish to have their Web sites listed on this page may add their site information by visiting the State of Vermont "Schools - Suggest a Link" Web page and providing the required information.
  • Directories : Public Schools and Technical Centers (A - C) 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Academic]

According to the 2000 Census, almost 15% of all housing units in Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or occasional use".[96] This was the second highest percentage nationwide, after Maine. In some Vermont cities, vacation homes owned by wealthy residents of New England and New York City constitute the bulk of all housing stock. According to one estimate, as of 2009, 84% of all houses in Ludlow, Vermont were owned by out-of-state residents.[97] Other notable vacation-home resorts include Manchester and Stowe.
In 2005, visitors made an estimated 13.4 million trips to the state, spending $1.57 billion.[98]
In 2008, there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in Vermont. The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles of trail often over private lands. The industry is said to generate "hundreds of millions of dollars worth of business."[99]
Hunting is controlled for black bear, wild turkeys, deer, and moose.[100]

Quarrying

The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset.[101] Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs west past Barre, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest granite quarry in America. .Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country.^ Shelburne Museum Vermonts largest museum and one of the countrys finest, most eclectic museums of art, Americana, architecture, and artifacts.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

[102] Production of dimension stone is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying.

Non-profits

There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with $2.8 billion in revenue.[103]

Volunteers

The state ranked ninth in the country for volunteerism for the period 2005-8. 35.6% of the population volunteered during this period. The national average was 26.4%.[104]

Transportation

Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont.
Trucks weighing more than 80,000 pounds (36,000 kg) can use Vermont's secondary roads. The interstates are limited to that maximum weight. A temporary federal law will allow heavier loads on Vermont interstates for one year in 2010.[105]

Major routes

The state has 2,843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its control.[106]
For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont.

North-South routes

  • I-89.svg Interstate 89 - Runs northwestward from White River Junction to serve both Montpelier and Burlington en route to the Canadian border.
  • I-91.svg Interstate 91 - Runs northward from the Massachusetts border to the Canadian border, connecting Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport.
  • I-93.svg Interstate 93 - Has its northern terminus at I-91 in St. Johnsbury and connects the northern part of the state with New Hampshire and points south.
  • US 5.svg U.S. Route 5 - Travels south to north along the eastern border of the state, parallel to I-91 for its entire length in the state.
  • US 7.svg U.S. Route 7 - Travels south to north along the western border of the state. U.S. 7 parallels I-89 from Burlington northward to the Canadian border.
  • Vermont 100.svg Vermont Route 100 - Runs south to north almost directly through the center of the state, providing a route along the full length of the Green Mountains.

East-West routes

  • US 2.svg U.S. Route 2 - Crosses northern Vermont from west to east and connects the population centers of Burlington, Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury.
  • US 4.svg U.S. Route 4 - Crosses south-central Vermont from west to east and connects the city of Rutland with Killington and White River Junction.
  • US 302.svg U.S. Route 302 - Travels eastward from Montpelier and Barre, into New Hampshire and Maine.
  • Vermont 9.svg Vermont Route 9 - A route across the southern part of the state that connects Bennington to Brattleboro.
A 2005-6 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places since 2004-5.[107]
Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006.[108] In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country.[109]

Rail

Local community public and private transportation

Greyhound Bus Lines stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River Junction.[110]
  • Addison County has the ACTR (Addison County Transit Resources) out of Middlebury, also serving Bristol and Vergennes.
  • Bennington County features the GME (American Red Cross Green Mountain Express) out of Bennington and the YT (Yankee Trails) running out of Rensselaer, New York.
  • Brattleboro in Windham county is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro Town Bus). Windham is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver (Deerfield Valley Transit Association, DVTA).
  • Burlington has CCTA (Chittenden County Transportation Authority) and CATS (University of Vermont Campus Area Transportation System).
  • Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special Services Transportation Agency).
  • Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional Transit District, MVRTD) out of Rutland.
  • Windsor County:
    • Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal Transit System).
    • Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of Wilder.
    • The CRT (Connecticut River Transit) out of Springfield, serves parts of Windham County.
    • In parts of Windsor County, (Norwich, Hartford), White River Junction and in parts of New Hampshire there is a free public transportation service called th Advanced Transit.[111] It has routes and many different lines all throughout the Upper Valley region.
  • Stowe, in Lamoille county, is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
  • STS (Stagecoach Transportation Services) out of Randolph in Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
  • In Washington the Green Mountain Transit Authority runs out of the capital city, Montpelier.
  • The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running out of Saint Albans, services Franklin and Grand Isle Counties.
  • The RCT (Rural Community Transportation) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties. There is a shuttle bus linking the various local networks.[112]
  • There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company.

Airports

Vermont is served by two commercial airports:

Media

Utilities

Electricity

2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW).[113]
In May 2009, Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy feed-in law.[114] In 2010, there were about 150 methane digesters in the nation, Vermont led the nation with six online.[115]
While Vermont paid the lowest rates in New England for power in 2007, it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the nation; that is, about 16% higher than the national average.[116]
In 2009, the state had the highest energy rates for energy (including heating) in the US and the worst affordability gap nationwide.[60]
In 2009, the state got 1/3 or 400 MW[113] of its power from Hydro-Québec and 1/3 from Vermont Yankee.[117] In total, the state got half its power from Canada and other states. It got 75% of the power it generated in the state from Vermont Yankee.[118]
The state's two largest electric utilities, Green Mountain Power Corporation and Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, together serve 80% of Vermont households.[60]
Vermont experts estimate that the state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from hydro power.[119]
In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117 megawatts.[120] In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of 5,883 kilowatt hours of electricity per capita.[121] Another source says that each household consumed 7,100 kilowatt-hours annually in 2008.[122]
Vermont has the highest rate of nuclear-generated power in the nation, 73.7%.[123] As one result, Vermont is one of only two states with no coal-fired power plant.[124]
All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England. Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont's share is about 4.5%.[125]
The state has 78 hydro power dams. They generate 143 megawatts, about 12% of the state's total requirement.[113]

Communication

  • Broadband coverage as of 2006[126]
    • Total Coverage = 87%
    • Cable = 68%
    • DSL = 69%
    • Wireless Internet Service Provider = 24%
(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)
Generally, cell phone coverage in the state outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains. Attempts to serve a small rural population living in a large area renders investment in improvements uneconomical.[127] Unicel, which focused on rural areas and covered much of the state, is now owned by AT&T.[128]
In May 2007, Vermont passed measures intended to make broadband (3 mbits minimum) together with cellular coverage universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-state in the Union by 2010.[129]
In 2008 Comcast started to extend additional cable access throughout the state.[130] In 2007, 2/3 of all Vermonters had access to cable. At the end of this 2008 initiative, 90% of Vermonters will have access.

Law and government

Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress by two senators and one representative.
The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont General Assembly, the Governor of Vermont and the Vermont Supreme Court. The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits for any office. The state capital is in Montpelier.
There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont: towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. .Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as County and State Courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff.^ Election of assistant judges, sheriffs, state's attorneys, judges of probate, and justices of the peace .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court shall have administrative control of all the courts of the state, and disciplinary authority concerning all judicial officers and attorneys at law in the State.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governor is to correspond with other States, transact business with officers of government, civil and military, and prepare such business as may appear necessary, to lay before the General Assembly.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.All county services are directly funded by the State of Vermont.^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Minimum wage laws by state Job services in Vermont Libraries .
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.[131]

Finances

Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement and yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since 1991.[132] In 2007, Moody's Investors Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.[133]
The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to private business enterprises. The Vermont Lottery Commission, the Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund, are the largest of the State’s enterprise funds.[134]

Taxes

In 2007 Vermont stood 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average was $3,447.[135] However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306.[136]

Politics

Vermonters have been known for their political independence. Vermont is one of four states that were once independent nations (the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential campaigns (the other was Maine).
Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession.[137]

National politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 30.45% 98,974 67.46% 219,262
2004 38.80% 121,180 58.94% 184,067
2000 40.70% 119,775 50.62% 149,022
1996 31.09% 80,352 53.35% 137,894
1992 30.42% 88,122 46.11% 133,592
1988 51.10% 124,331 47.58% 115,775
Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. Prior to the 1990s, Vermont had voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry Goldwater. In the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, Republican presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70% of the vote. Republicans also dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.
.In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state.^ I moved out of state in '71 to the Bay Area, CA and after 5 years I moved to southern MN. I finally returned to VT in 1979.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont.[138] In addition, a series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts to more fairly reflect population. As a result, urban areas in Vermont began to regain some political power.
In 1992, it supported a Democrat for president, the first time the state had done so since 1964, and has voted Democratic in every presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush, taking almost 59% of the vote. .Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush.^ Any proposed amendment submitted to the voters of the state in accordance with this section which is approved by a majority of the voters voting thereon shall become part of the Constitution of this State.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush when he was President of the United States. In the 2000 Presidential Elections, Bush was the first Republican in American history to win the White House without carrying Vermont.[139] Vermont gave Barack Obama his third largest winning margin (37 percentage points) winning there 68%-31%. On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election.
Today, Vermont is one of only two states represented by a member of the United States Congress who does not currently associate with a political party: Senator Bernie Sanders describes his political views as democratic socialism, but is officially registered as an independent and caucuses with the Democrats in the selection of the Senate leadership.[140]

State politics

After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the 1960s, it passed legislation to accommodate the new arrivals to the state. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are now four in the state, as of December 2009, but only the Williston store was new construction). Because of the success of Act 250, subsequent attempts to dilute its power, and other development pressures, Vermont has been designated one of America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.[141]
A recent controversy was over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage at the state, but not federal, level. In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean. In April 2009 the state legislature overrode the governor's veto to allow same-sex marriage.[142] In September 2009, Vermont will become one of six states in which same-sex couples can marry[143]
In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63.[144]
Minor parties and Independents flourish. .Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Beautiful State - But May Not Be Able to Afford It : I have lived in Vermont most of my life.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections. This has resulted in Independent Socialist Bernie Sanders being elected mayor of Burlington, Congressman, and Senator. It also led to Vermont having three major parties instead of the normal two, the Democratic Party, Republican Party, and the Progressive Party.[citation needed]
A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.[145][146]
A movement favors separating Vermont from the U.S. or making it the 11th province of Canada. Some suggest the state should join Canada due to its liberal policies as opposed to remaining with the U.S.[147][148]
The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed.[149]
The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over $14 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.[150]

Public health and safety

In 2010 Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a study by Gallup and Healthways.[151]
In the first national survey by Robert Wood Johnson and the University of Wisconsin in 2010, Vermont ranked the highest in the country for health outcomes.[152]
In 2008 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors.[153] The state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking.[154] While ranking sixth from best for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22.1% obese with a rate of 26.7% for children 10-17. The ranking for children was ninth best in the nation.[155]
In 2009, Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria.[156] Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for the purchase or concealed carry of a firearm (including handguns) by any law-abiding person.[157][158]
In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.[159]
In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities.[160] In 2007, a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken driver.[161] In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest uninsured motorists - 6%.[162]
Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28 occasions from 1963 to 2008.[163]
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts of smog per billion which is undesirable.[164]
In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas.[165] They constitute a traffic threat since they are unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose.
In 2008, about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare, Tri-Care and the Veteran's Administration. An additional 10,000 work for employers who provide insurance under federal law under ERISA. About 20% of Vermonters receive health care outside of Vermont. 20% of the care provided within the state is to non-Vermonters.[166] In 2008, the state had an estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005.[167] In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month.[168] A "Catamount Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who don't qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to $393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible. Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group.[169]
Health care spending increased from $2.3 billion in 2000 to $4.8 billion in 2009.[170] In 2009, adult day care services cost more in Vermont than any other state - $150 daily.[171]
The state started air drops of rabies bait for raccoons in 1997. Known rabies cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. The program is in cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.[172]
In March 2008, The American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the American Society for Public Administration national conference, rated Vermont along with Minnesota a topmost Best state for overall litter/debris removals from public properties (roadways, streams, trails), resulting in a high environmental quality status for landscapes.[173]

Education

Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006.[174] In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias.[175] However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for math (247).[176] White eight graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students were not reliable because of their small representation in the testing.
The average effective spending per pupil in Vermont was $11,548 in 2008.[177]

Higher education

Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing.
Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, University of Vermont (UVM), fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College, Burlington College, Champlain College, Goddard College, Marlboro College, Middlebury College, a private, co-educational liberal arts college founded in 1800, Saint Michael's College, the Vermont Law School, and Norwich University, the oldest private military college in the United States and birthplace of ROTC, founded in 1819.

Sports

Baseball, Basketball, Hockey, Soccer, and Snowsports are the most popular sports in the state.[citation needed] Notable in the field are Olympic gold medalists Hannah Teter, Ross Powers and Hannah Kearney. Baseball is the summer pastime of Vermont and many small towns field Little League teams.[citation needed]
The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Washington Nationals, based in Burlington. They were named the Vermont Expos prior to 2006.[178]
The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball Association national champions, are a franchise of the Premier Basketball League, and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006.
However, the University of Vermont's sports teams draw the largest following and are the most beloved sports teams in the state.[citation needed] The men's basketball and hockey teams are the most notable.[citation needed]
Vermont is home to a semi-professional football team, the Vermont Ice Storm,[179] based in South Hero.[180] It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League.
The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans.
Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.[181]

Cultural pursuits

Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green,[182] The Vermont Dairy Festival in Enosburg Falls,[183] the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Mozart Festival. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions from members of various ages. .Every year they hold various contests - one being for high school age young people.^ All I can see here is that marriage is being amended to define the union between TWO CONSENTING ADULTS (dictated by age which varies by state law).
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual Green Mountain Film Festival.
In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at venues across the state.
The Vermont-based House of LeMay[184], performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball,"[185] and performs for fundraisers.
The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was 8th in the nation with 37% in 2007. The state stood first in New England.[186]

State symbols

The hermit thrush is Vermont's state bird.
State symbols include:
Vermont is distinct for being among only three U.S. states with both a state seal and a coat of arms.[citation needed] Vermont is the only U.S. state to have a heraldically correct blazon describing its coat of arms.[citation needed]

Notable Vermonters

Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur.

Notable fictional Vermonters

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  2. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  3. ^ "US Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service". 'Table 44—U.S. maple syrup production and value, by state, calendar years. http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/sugar/data/table44.xls. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  4. ^ National Geographic. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  5. ^ WETHERELL, W. D. (September 17, 1995). "A PICTURE-PERFECT CAPITAL". NY Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/09/17/travel/a-picture-perfect-capital.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  6. ^ Vermont v. New Hampshire, 289 U.S. 593 (1933)
  7. ^ Google Books
  8. ^ "Vermont". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/vt. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  9. ^ accessed September 15, 2007
  10. ^ accessed September 15, 2007
  11. ^ Vermont Online Encyclopedia retrieved May 28, 2008
  12. ^ Though this was tied by Big Black River, Maine in 2009
  13. ^ Adams, Glenn (February 11, 2009). Maine ties Vt. for record low temperature. Burlington Free Press. 
  14. ^ National Gardening Association
  15. ^ Burlington Weather|Burlington Weather Forecast|Burlington Climate
  16. ^ "Academics Content Server at Saint Michael's". The Physiographic Regions of Vermont. http://academics.smcvt.edu/vtgeographic/textbook/physiographic/physiographic_regions_of_vermont.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  17. ^ Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
  18. ^ Page, Candace (9 July 2009). "Sightings of milk snakes, rattlesnake mimics, shake residents". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 1B. 
  19. ^ "Hunting Wild Turkeys". Newport, Vermont: Newport Daily Express. September 2009. pp. THREE, HUNTING GUIDE. 
  20. ^ Slade, William, Jr., Compiler. Vermont State Papers: Being a Collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont, Together with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution, the Early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the Year 1779 to 1786, Inclusive.; Middlebury, Vermont; 1823. Pps.13-19.
  21. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K.; Boundaries of the United States and the Several States; Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, D.C.; Government Printing Office; 1976. The standard compilation for its subject.. P.63.
  22. ^ "Second Vermont Republic". Vermont's Declaration of Independence (1777). http://www.vermontrepublic.org/vermonts_declaration_of_independence_1777. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  23. ^ a b Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints in History Picton Press, 1977
  24. ^ [1] The Old Constitution House State Historic Site.
  25. ^ Barton Chronicle book review retrieved August 21m 2009
  26. ^ Margaret Bucholt Manchester and the Mountains Chamber of Commerce An Insider's Guide to Southern Vermont, Penguin, 1991
  27. ^ National Weather Service - Burlington, VT - The Flood of 1927
  28. ^ "Arizona State Library". One Man, One Vote" ... That's All She Wrote!. http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/udall/congrept/88th/641014.html. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  29. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". U. S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  30. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2004/02/12/talking_bah_k_in_vermont/
  31. ^ Associated Press (August 22, 2008). Vt. birth rate ranks second lowest in U.S.. Burlington Free Press. 
  32. ^ "Indiana, Florida counties tops in divorce". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. 25 September 2009. pp. 3A. 
  33. ^ 40.7 in 2005, US Census Community Survey
  34. ^ undeclared ancestry. This was modified from "American" due to contradiction. One who does not declare ancestry is not necessarily American;one who does claim American ancestry is expressing something distinct. "Undeclared Ancestry" appropriately accounts for the one-to-many relationship of the statistic.
  35. ^ accessed October 4, 2007
  36. ^ Language Map Data Center
  37. ^ a b Kosmin, Barry A.; Keysar, Ariela (March 2009). "American Religious Identification Survey 2008: ARIS 2008 Report: Part IIIC - Geography". Trinity College. http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/part3c_geog.html. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  38. ^ "The Graduate Center, CUNY". American Religious Identification Survey 2001. http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  39. ^ "Adherents.com". Religion in Vermont. http://www.adherents.com/loc/loc_vermont.html. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  40. ^ a b The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
  41. ^ Sullivan, Will (2007-06-11). A New Shade of Granite. US News and World Report. 
  42. ^ American Religious Identification Survey is Third in Landmark Series, Trinity College, http://www.americanreligionsurvey-aris.org/, retrieved 2009-03-25 
  43. ^ Kosmin, Barry A.; Keysar, Ariela (March 2009), American Religious Identification Survey 2008 Summary Report, Trinity College, p. 17, http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/ARIS_Report_2008.pdf, retrieved 2009-03-15 
  44. ^ [2]. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
  45. ^ Buddhist retreat centers
  46. ^ Vermont Edition: Vermont's Muslims
  47. ^ Gram, David (July 14, 2007). Forbes ranks Vt. 30th (sic) for business. Burlington Free Press. 
  48. ^ Burlington Free Press. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  49. ^ List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal)
  50. ^ Rankings tend to favor higher cost of living areas and downrate lower cost of living areas
  51. ^ Percentages may not add up to exactly 100% because of rounding
  52. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State
  53. ^ Creaser, Richard (October 24, 2007). Illuzi learns about economy of Taiwan during visit. the Chronicle. 
  54. ^ Curran, John (October 7, 2008). Vt. Quebec leaders promote 'green zone'. Burlington Free Press. 
  55. ^ McLean, Dan (July 13, 2008). Retail Sales by the numbers. Burlington Free Press. 
  56. ^ Associated Press (January 26, 2009). Fewer businesses launched in '08. Burlington Free Press. 
  57. ^ Income 2004 - Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State: 2001-2004
  58. ^ What Vermonters Earn. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
  59. ^ Ober, Lauren (November 9, 2008). Food stamp program set for expansion. Burlington Free Press. 
  60. ^ a b c Coutts, Jim (28 June 2009). "My Turn:Vermont's energy support program is long overdue". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 7B. 
  61. ^ Tied with North Dakota
  62. ^ a b Associated Press (December 3, 2008). State scores well in credit card, mortgage payment delinquency. Burlington Free Press. 
  63. ^ Ryan, Matt and Hart, Melissa (November 30, 2008). Vermont Numbers. Burlington Free Press. 
  64. ^ Craft Brewing Industry Statistics
  65. ^ Figure includes the possible economic affect on all other areas in addition to Agriculture. This explains the wide variance with the figure in GSP above
  66. ^ "Vermont Sustainable Agriculture Council" (PDF). Vermont's Agriculture: Generating Wealth from the Land. Archived from the original on 2007-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070605073512/http://www.uvm.edu/~susagctr/CouncilReport05.PDF. Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  67. ^ Dairy Farm Numbers - Vermont Dairy
  68. ^ Dunbar, Bethany M. (September 10, 2008). Vermont Milk Commission considers price premium. the Chronicle. 
  69. ^ called "federal order one"
  70. ^ New York has 44.9%, Pennsylvania has 32.9%
  71. ^ Dunbar, Bethany (November 14, 2007). Vermont Milk Commission takes a look at hauling costs. the Chronicle. 
  72. ^ Dunbar, Bethany M. quoting from book by James Maroney Jr. (December 4, 2008). Former farmer has a plan for profits in Vermont dairying. the Chronicle. 
  73. ^ Lefebvre, Paul (February 11, 2009). Average Vermont dairy farmer expected to lose $92,000. the Chronicle. 
  74. ^ Hallenbeck, Terri (6 September 2009). "A look at Vermont organic farming". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 5D. 
  75. ^ LeClair vs Saunders. Retrieved April 21, 1980.
  76. ^ Vermont Maple Sugar Makers Assoc.. "Maple Facts". http://www.vermontmaple.org/maplefacts.html. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  77. ^ Burlington Free Press,June 18, 2009, page 17B, "Bumper season for sugar makers"
  78. ^ Liz Halloran (2007). Vermont's War. US News and World Report, January 22, page 45. 
  79. ^ Curran, John (July 29, 2007). Winemakers hope new state council will help them grow. Burlington Free Press. 
  80. ^ Vermont dairy farms count on illegal immigrants
  81. ^ America's Career Infonet. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
  82. ^ The Burlington Free Press, February 28, 2007, page 8C, "IBM:Enriching economy for 50 years."
  83. ^ McLean, Dan (June 29, 2008). IBM won't be No. 1 employer for much longer. Burlington Free Press. 
  84. ^ "Vermont Business Roundtable" (PDF). Housing Prices, Availability, and Affordability in Vermont. Archived from the original on 2007-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070605073513/http://www.vtroundtable.org/Portals/0/housingreport.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  85. ^ Braithwaite, Chris (December 19, 2007). Vermont weathers mortgage storm. the Chronicle. 
  86. ^ Ryan, Matt (August 3, 2008). Moving In: Essex home prices edge higher. Burlington Free Press. 
  87. ^ Gresser, Joseph (October 3, 2007). Vermont is top in N.E. for new energy efficient homes. the Chronicle. 
  88. ^ Pollak, Sally (September 14, 2008). In from the cold. Burlington Free Press. 
  89. ^ Unions Shrink Even in NY, Data Show
  90. ^ A separate study shows over 325,000 workers in 2000 !http://web.archive.org/web/20070614075440/http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/hcadiv/Data_Reports/healthinsurmarket/SurveyVTFamilyHealth2000/DataTables126_146/128_WorkingStatewideOfferFirm.PDF
  91. ^ Salary.com Job salaries- Performance reviews- Compensation software
  92. ^ "Regional Plan Volume II. Chapter 6. Economic Development". 2003. http://www.nvda.net/pdf/RegionalPlan/VolumeII.Chapter6.EconomicDevelopment.pdf. 
  93. ^ Hemingway, Sam (October 22, 2008). State heads for a major recession. Burlington Free Press. 
  94. ^ "Insurance Information Institute". Captives & Other Risk-Financing Options. http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/test3/?table_sort_745148=2. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  95. ^ Sutkoski, Matt (1 August 2009). "State unconcerned about insurance report". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 9B. 
  96. ^ "Vacant housing units, Vermont, 2000 Census". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_H001&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_H005&-tree_id=4001&-redoLog=false&-all_geo_types=N&-geo_id=04000US50&-format=&-_lang=en. 
  97. ^ "Cottage industry". http://www.7dvt.com/2008cottage-industry. 
  98. ^ Dunbar, Bethany M. (December 1, 2008). I can remember Barton when it was a booming town. The Chronicle. 
  99. ^ McLean, Dan (December 14, 2008). Hard times may slow snowmobiling. Burlington Free Press. 
  100. ^ "Hunting Season Opening Dates". Newport, Vermont: Newport Daily Express. September 2009. pp. TWO, HUNTING GUIDE. 
  101. ^ VirtualVermont.com
  102. ^ ApartmentLinks.com
  103. ^ Where Most Needed: Vermont Nonprofit Association Folds
  104. ^ Sutkoski, Matt (29 July 2009). "Vermont volunteering thrives". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 1B. 
  105. ^ "Pilot program will route heavy trucks onto interstate". the Chronicle (Barton, Vermont: the Chronicle): pp. 33. 22 December 2009. 
  106. ^ Fahy, Jill (August 1, 2008). Vermont roads in the middle of the pack. Burlington Free Press. 
  107. ^ Microsoft Word - ps360final.doc
  108. ^ State to inspect bridges similar to Minn. span. Burlington Free Press. August 4, 2007.  page 1B
  109. ^ Creaser, Richard (November 14, 2007). The bridges of Orleans County await repair. the Chronicle. 
  110. ^ Greyhound.com : Locations : Vermont
  111. ^ Advance Transit Home
  112. ^ Annual City & School Report, City of Newport, Vermont. Memphremagog Press, Inc., Newport, Vermont. 2007. 
  113. ^ a b c Baird, Joel Banner (9 August 2009). "Vermont Dam Dilemma". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 1D. 
  114. ^ Vermont first state to pass renewable energy feed-in law
  115. ^ Dunbar, Bethany M. (10 February 2010). "Dairy farmers are making more than milk these days". the Chronicle (Barton, Vermont): pp. 1. 
  116. ^ Handelsman, Richard (December 1, 2008). My Turn:Truths, half-truths about energy. Burlington Free Press. 
  117. ^ Dunbar, Bethany M. (October 22, 2008). Ten candidates talk business. the Chronicle. 
  118. ^ McMahon, Dennis (20 September 2009). "My Turn:Getting real on electricity challenges". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 7B. 
  119. ^ Gresser, Joseph (August 20, 2008). Panel considers small hydro power potential. the Chronicle. 
  120. ^ State Electric Profiles
  121. ^ Data - Swivel
  122. ^ Bill Morris (2009-12-04). "What's the Greenest Place in America? Hint: It Has 8 Million People". http://www.sphere.com/2009/12/04/whats-the-greenest-place-in-america-hint-it-has-8-million-peo/?icid=main. 
  123. ^ Hemingway, Sam (July 20, 2008). Nukes by the numbers. Burlington Free Press. 
  124. ^ Handelsman, Richard, (December 1, 2008). My Turn:Truths, half-truths about energy. Burlington Free Press. 
  125. ^ Gresser, Joseph (November 5, 2008). VEC seeks a 9.2 percent rate hike. the Chronicle. 
  126. ^ Burlington Free Press.com Top Stories
  127. ^ Cell Service in Vermont: Can't hear the tourist for the trees Vermont Business Magazine | Find Articles at BNET.com
  128. ^ AT&T Buys Unicel: iPhone Finally Confirmed Heading to Vermont | MacBlogz - One Stop Apple News
  129. ^ A Synopsis of the extent of the measure to extend broadband
  130. ^ Bnet Business Network. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
  131. ^ town offices
  132. ^ State Balanced Budget Requirements: Provisions and Practice
  133. ^ Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2007, Business, page 7A, Moody's gives highest bond rating to Vermont.
  134. ^ State Auditor: Lottery is a highly visible government activity August 3, 2007 by Tom Salmon, CPA, Vermont State Auditor. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  135. ^ DatabankUSA,AARP Bulletin, April 2007, compiled from figures from the US Census
  136. ^ Tax-Friendly Places 2007 8 | CNNMoney.com
  137. ^ These relatively small political movements are similar in nature to those found in California, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Texas; although the historical contexts are variant.
  138. ^ "The World". Rise of the Democratic Party. Archived from the original on 2006-03-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20060321145827/http://www.vt-world.com/Archive/2004/February_18_2004/Features.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  139. ^ Activists in Vermont town want Bush, Cheney subject to arrest - CNN.com
  140. ^ Powell, Michael. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/04/AR2006110401124.html Exceedingly Social, But Doesn't Like Parties. The Washington Post November 5, 2006.
  141. ^ Rimer, Sara (July 4, 1993). Vermont Debates Value of Saving a Rural Image. The New York Times. 
  142. ^ Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Life- msnbc.com
  143. ^ The others are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Maine and New Hampshire.
  144. ^ It's sudden death in Vermont for assisted suicide proposal
  145. ^ Killington Secession Not Too Popular in VT New Hampshire Public Radio
  146. ^ CNN.com - Killington residents vote to secede from Vermont - March 4, 2004
  147. ^ Vermont Canada retrieved on June 6, 2007
  148. ^ retrieved on June 6, 2007
  149. ^ Vermont Constitution retrieved May 29, 2008
  150. ^ 2007 Annual Report of the Department of Liquor Control
  151. ^ Vermont Ranked #6 for Well-Being - VermontBusiness.com
  152. ^ "County Health Rankings: National Comparisons". Robert Wood Johnson and the University of Wisconsin. 2010. http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/latest-news/county-health-rankings-national-comparisons. 
  153. ^ Healthiest States 2007 - AOL Money & Finance
  154. ^ Remsen, Nancy (December 4, 2008). Vermont tops healthy list again. Burlington Free Press. 
  155. ^ "Fairly fit Vermont still gaining with U.S.". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. 2 July 2009. pp. 1A. 
  156. ^ Morgan Quitno Press
  157. ^ Selected Vermont laws governing the use and possession of firearms
  158. ^ Brady Campaign on Vermont gun laws
  159. ^ South Lags In Report Card on Health Care - AOL Body
  160. ^ Vermont information Times Daily, retrieved on 2007-10-14
  161. ^ Sutkowski, Matt (December 7, 2008). Mixed drinks, mixed feelings. Burlington Free Press. 
  162. ^ staff, wire reports (January 23, 2009). Vt. has few uninsured motorists. Burlington Free Press. 
  163. ^ Sutkowski, Matt (August 16, 2008). Disaster declarations in Vermont. Burlington Free Press. 
  164. ^ Overberg, Paul,Hundreds of counties would fail smog standards,USA Today, June 22, 2007
  165. ^ Burlington Free Press. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  166. ^ Moore, Mark (October 31, 2008). Letter to the editor:Question credibility of single-payer plans. Burlington Free Press. 
  167. ^ Hallenbeck, Terri (December 23, 2008). Vermont uninsured rate falls to 7.6%, survey shows. Burlington Free Press. 
  168. ^ Green Mountain Care Programs | Green Mountain Care
  169. ^ Remsen, Nancy (January 24, 2009). HEALTH: Changes are among budget's most controversial. Burlington Free Press. 
  170. ^ Remsen, Nancy (10 August 2009). "Health reform criticized". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 6A. 
  171. ^ "Long term care costs rise across the board from 2008 to 2009". metlife.com. 27 October 2009. http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/mmi-pressroom/mmi-market-survey-nursing-home-pr-final.pdf. 
  172. ^ "Aircraft to drop rabies vaccines". Barton, Vermont: the Chronicle. 2 September 2009. p. 25. 
  173. ^ S. Spacek, the American State Litter Scorecard, 2008.
  174. ^ Walsh, Molly (June 8, 2007). Vermont doing better than most. Burlington Free Press. 
  175. ^ King, Ledyard (June 8, 2007). State tests put image ahead of performance. Burlington Free Press. 
  176. ^ US Department of Education. Retrieved July 6, 2008.
  177. ^ About Your 2008 School Taxes flyer sent with real estate bills
  178. ^ Lake Monsters website
  179. ^ Vermont Ice Storm Home Page
  180. ^ The term "semi-pro" is somewhat misleading since League rules prohibit paying team members. In fact, members pay to play.
  181. ^ Fantino, John A. (July 20, 2008). Vermont breaks through. Burlington Free Press. 
  182. ^ Middlebury Festival on the Green
  183. ^ The Official Home of the Vermont Dairy Festival
  184. ^ The Babes of Beaver Pond, Cathy Resmer, Seven Days, February 7, 2006.
  185. ^ Slideshow: Winter is a Drag Ball 2009, Seven Days, February 16, 2009.
  186. ^ State-by-state volunteer rates. Burlington Free Press. July 27, 2008. 
  187. ^ Book Review. Retrieved September 12, 2008.

Bibliography

  • Albers, Jan Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont Landscape. MIT Press: 2000. ISBN 0-262-01175-1.
  • Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. .The natural and political history of the State of Vermont, one of the United States of America.^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
    • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

    Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2.
     
  • Bryan, Frank, and John McClaughry. "The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale." Chelsea Green Publishing: 1989. ISBN 0-930031-19-9.
  • Cohen, David Elliot, and Rick Smolan. Vermont 24/7. DK Publishing: 2004. ISBN 0-7566-0086-3.
  • Coffin, Howard. .Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War. The Countryman Press: 1995. ISBN 0-88150-349-5.
  • Doyle, William T. "The Vermont Political Tradition and Those Who Helped Make It."^ I should mention) Also- my vermont taxes will be simpler-- AND--> not have to explain my civil union 'thingy' to those who do not understand extensive laws...
    • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    Doyle Publisher: 1987. ISBN 0-9615486-1-4.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. Vermont: An Illustrated History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN 1-892724-08-1.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. The Vermont Encyclopedia. University Press of New England: 2003. ISBN 1-58465-086-9.
  • Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Vermont. Vermont: A guide to the Green Mountain State. Houghton Mifflin: 1937.
  • Grant, Kim, et al. Vermont: An Explorer's Guide. The Countryman Press: 2002. ISBN 0-88150-519-6.
  • Hunter, Preston. "Religion in Vermont". Adherents.com.
  • Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. University Press of New England: 1999. ISBN 0-87451-936-5.
  • Potash, P. Jeffrey, et al. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Vermont Historical Society: 2004. ISBN 0-934720-49-5.
  • Hall, Benjamin Homer, History of eastern Vermont 1858 p. 480.
  • Meeks, Harold A. Vermont's Land and Resources, The New England Press: 1968. ISBN 0-933050-40-2.
  • Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill: 1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3.
  • Sherman, Joe. Fast Lane on a Dirt Road: A Contemporary History of Vermont. Chelsea Green Publishing Company: 2000. ISBN 1-890132-74-8.
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England. Westport, CT, 2004.
  • Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. DeLorme: 2000. ISBN 0-89933-322-2.
  • Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 

External links

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Tourism & recreation
Business
Culture & history
Online Media

Related information

Preceded by
Rhode Island
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 4, 1791 (14th)
Succeeded by
Kentucky

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Freedom and Unity
Vermont is a U.S. state located in New England. The state ranks 43rd in land area (9,250 sq mi), is the most rural, and its population (608,827) ranks as the second smallest of the 50 states. As the only New England state with no coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont is notable for the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain in the northwest.

Sourced

  • Freedom and Unity
    • Vermont State Motto
The gods of the valley are not the gods of the hills, and you shall understand it.
  • The gods of the valley are not the gods of the hills, and you shall understand it.
    • Ethan Allen, in reply to the King's attorney-general, in a New York court case decided against him, prior to his armed resistance to claims of New York authority over Vermont; quoted in Curiosities of Human Nature (1844) by Samuel Griswold Goodrich, p. 145.
  • Vermont is a state I love. I could not look upon the peaks of Ascutney, Killington, Mansfield, and Equinox without being moved in a way that no other scene could move me. It was here that I first saw the light of day; here that I received my bride; here my dead lie, pillowed on the loving breast of our everlasting hills.
    I love Vermont because of her hills and valleys, her scenery and invigorating climate, but most of all because of her indomitable people. They are a race of pioneers who have almost beggared themselves to serve others. If the spirit of liberty should vanish in other parts of the union and support of our institutions should languish, it could all be replenished from the generous store held by the people of this brave little state of Vermont.
Vermont is a small state which makes an enormous difference.
  • Vermont is a small state which makes an enormous difference.
    • Fred Rogers, Commencement Address at Middlebury College (May 2001)
  • I am Vermont.

Unsourced

  • I'm a Vermonta, I do what I wanna.
    • Young Vermonter saying
  • You can't get there from here.
    • Reliable Vermont directions, also a "Maine", and general "New England" proverb.
  • It's called a creemee, and if you don't like it get the fuck out.
    • Common response to anyone who uses the word "soft serve" in Vermont
  • He's as happy as a moose!
    • Vermonter interjectional saying ('Mid-19th' to 'Late 20th' Century)
  • Take Back Vermont
    • Bumper sticker, opposing Civil Unions.
  • Take Vermont From Behind
    • Bumper sticker, in favor of Civil Unions.
  • Don't talk unless you can improve the silence.
  • Don't Mess With Vermont
    • Bumper sticker, seen following Jim Jefford's departure from the Republican Party, which shifted the balance of power in the Senate to the Democrats in 2001
  • In Vermont authenticity is all, they do not try to keep it real, they are real.
    • The New York Times
  • There may be nothing to do, so that is why we make videos!
    • "802 Productions"
  • There ant no grass like good old Vermont grass."
    • Hippies

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Vermont [1] is located in the New England region of the United States. The Green Mountain State is known for its beautiful fall foliage and its maple syrup. It is a popular destination for hiking and skiing.
Northeast Kingdom
Northwest Vermont
Includes the Vermont part of the Champlain Valley.
Central Vermont
Southern Vermont

Understand

Orientation

Vermont is the second smallest state in terms of population (it has 609,000 residents) and the sixth smallest in geographic area. Lake Champlain, the nation's sixth-largest freshwater body lies at the northwest border with New York State and Canada. The state is split east-west by the Green Mountains, which are popular for recreational activities. The eastern border with New Hampshire is defined by the Connecticut River. Vermont is the only landlocked state in New England which leads to its often being short-changed in guides to the region. Its highest point is Mount Mansfield at 4,393 ft, and its lowest point is Lake Champlain, at 95 feet.
The state is extremely rural, its valleys littered with farms. Its largest city is Burlington, pop. 38,889. Among the state's major exports are cheese, maple syrup, marble, slate, and granite. Tourism is also a very large industry in Vermont, as skiers travel from Boston, New York, Canada, and elsewhere to ski resorts up and down the Green Mountain spine during the winter. In summer, the many bed and breakfasts fill up with couples and families wanting to visit the state's small towns and wild areas. Vermont's autumn foliage is known for being the most spectacular in the country, and possibly the world. It occurs quite early -- usually mid-September to mid-October. The only time that the visitor might try to plan around is "Mud Season" (March-April), when unpaved ground becomes unwalkable during the thaw. Even Mud Season has its charms, though.

History

Vermont was the 14th state admitted to the United States. It was not among the original 13 colonies because of a border dispute between New Hampshire and New York which was originally resolved in New York's favor. Vermont residents, led by Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys, fought New York's land claims tooth and nail until declaring independence and soon thereafter being admitted to the union. Vermont attracted settlers during the early nineteenth century, but population remained stagnant as flatter land to the West grew in favor. Significantly deforested by upland sheep farming during the 1800s, the forest has regrown (now covering 80% of the state) since dairy became the predominant form of agriculture. Vermont's urban areas have always been minuscule compared to the Northeast; the rural state, once seen as the most conservative in the nation, is now considered politically independent, progressive and protective of its environment and rural character.

Natural History

The Appalachian Mountains that enfold Vermont were most likely created during the Taconic Orogeny, when the North American plate collided with the African plate approximately 550 to 440 million years ago. The mountains have subsequently been eroded by ice, water, and wind, such that they are rather humble in their current state (they are suspected of having reached the heights of the Himalayas). Today Vermont is home to many wild habitats and their constituent flora and fauna, including northern deciduous forests, coniferous forests, wetlands, farmlands, powerline greenways, and patches of tundra (most notably on Mount Mansfield). Notable fauna include the black bear, moose, and the pileated woodpecker.

Talk

The Vermont dialect uses broad “a” and “e” sounds for vowels. Also, words that end with “r” get an “uh” sound, and one-syllable words are turned into two syllables. Here are some examples of Vermont speak: cow would be “kyow”, that is “tha-at”, there would sound like “they-uh” and idea is “oi-dea”. If you are not a native Vermonter, you will likely be called a “flatlander”.
  • There are flights to and from Atlanta, Chicago (O'Hare), New York City (LaGuardia, Kennedy), Newark, Orlando, Philadelphia, Washington DC (Dulles and National), and Detroit to the Burlington International Airport (BTV).
  • Rutland State Airport (RUT) has two flights a day to Boston Logan and one on weekends.
  • Another alternative is the Manchester Airport (MHT) in New Hampshire as it serves as an alternate hub for all of northern New England and is a 2 hour or less drive to just about anywhere in Vermont.
  • Montreal's Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport [2] (IATA: YUL) (formerly Dorval Airport) is another alternative.

By train

There are two Amtrak trains that service Vermont:
  • The "Vermonter" with daily service between Washington, D.C., New York and St. Albans, Vermont makes nine stops in Vermont.
  • The "Ethan Allen Express" with daily service between New York and Rutland, Vermont.
  • Driving access to Vermont is Interstate 91 that runs north-south and Interstate 89 that runs northwest-southeast.
  • Ferry service is available from three locations in Vermont that provides access to New York across Lake Champlain from Burlington,VT to Port Kent, NY, Grand Isle, VT to Plattsburgh, NY and Charlotte, VT to Essex, NY.
Vermont State House
Vermont State House
  • Vermont State House, 115 State St., Montpelier. This golden-domed building is the most notable in the capital and is the meeting-place of the Vermont Legislature. The building is open to the public.
  • Burlington Waterfront and Church Street, Burlington. This charming pedestrian and waterfront area along Lake Champlain is home to galleries, shops, and restaurants where you can find live music, an excellent sampling of local micro-brews, and great people-watching. Home to what may be Vermont's only "urban" nightlife.
  • Fall Foliage During September and October, Vermont's wooded mountains burst into fiery color. Hotels, restaurants, and roads fill quickly during this season, so make reservations early. Columbus Day weekend is usually the most crowded. The small geographical size and rural character of the state make it easy to view foliage from almost any location. Bus and bicycle tours will often guide tourists to the best foliage-viewing areas. Several ski resorts in the region offer foliage-viewing ski-lift rides to mountaintop overlooks. Foliage season begins in mid to late September, with color increasing day by day until "peak" around the first or second week of October. During peak, most deciduous trees will display some color change. Maples will blaze orange and red; birches, ash, and aspen will glow yellow; and oaks will turn a warm purplish-brown. After peak, the leaves drop and color quickly fades from the hillsides over the next week or so. Foliage change is partially triggered by cold, so "peak" will arrive sooner in the north of the state and at higher elevations, moving south and down during the season. Bring warm clothing and an umbrella, as the New England weather can be unpredictable.
  • Manchester Center is a town in southern Vermont, nestled at the foot of 3,816-foot Mount Equinox. It's tranquil old-world atmosphere and Manchester Center a shopper's paradise that is completely different from the village with its signs, sights and many shops. Manchester (Vermont) is also home to Hildene, Robert Todd Lincoln's 412-acre summer estate
  • Ascutney Mountain Resort, Brownsville, Phone: +1 802 484-7711, E-mail: info@ascutney.net, [3].
  • Bromley, in Manchester (Vermont). [4]
  • Jay Peak, Jay, Phone: +1 802 988-2611, E-mail: JayPeak@together.net, [5].
  • Killington Resort, in Killington.
  • Mad River Glen, in Waitsfield.
  • Magic Mountain, Londonderry, Phone: +1 802 824-5645, [6].
  • Mount Snow/Haystack, in Mount Snow.
  • Okemo in Ludlow.
  • Pico Mountain, in Rutland.
  • Smuggler's Notch, Jeffersonville, Phone: +1 802 644-8851, E-mail: smuggs@smuggs.com,[7].
  • Stowe, in Stowe.
  • Stratton Mountain, in Jamaica.
  • Sugarbush, Warren, Phone: +1 802 583-6300, [8].
  • Suicide Six, in Woodstock.

Eat

Maple syrup products and cheddar cheeses are the foods for which Vermont is most famous.
There are many outstanding restaurants throughout Vermont that use local produce and participate in the Vermont Fresh Network ([9]). Burlington, the largest population center in the state, has the most variety of restaurants, but there are gems hidden even in the smallest towns, like Hardwick and Plainfield. Vermont also offers a variety of ways to see the farm to table connection, from guided tours ([10]) of the people and places behind the flavors of Vermont to on-farm lodging ([11]).

Drink

Microbreweries

Vermont is home to some very original and high quality breweries. When in the Green Mountain State, stop by for a tour or look for titles from some of these fine companies:
  • Magic Hat Brewing Co., 5 Bartlett Bay Rd., South Burlington, +1 802 658-BREW (2739), [12].
  • Long Trail Brewing Co., Jct. Route 4 and 100A, Bridgewater, +1 802 672-5012,[13].
  • Trout River Brewing Co., 58 Broad St./Route 5, Lyndonville, +1 802 626-9396, [14].
  • Harpoon Brewery, 336 Ruth Carney Drive, Windsor, +1 802 674-5491, [15].
  • Switchback Brewing Co., 160 Flynn Ave., Burlington, +1 802 651-4114.
  • Three Needs Brewery & Taproom, 207 College St., Burlington, +1 802 658-0889.
  • Vermont Pub & Brewery, 144 College St., Burlington, +1 802 865-0500, [16].
  • Rock Art Brewery, 234 Wilkens St., Morrisville, +1 802 888-9400, [17].
  • Shed Restaurant & Brewery, 1859 Mountain Rd., Stowe, +1 802 253-9311.
  • Alchemist Pub & Brewery, 23 So. Main St., Waterbury, +1 802 244-4120, [18]. Very good beer, but only available at the brew pub. Just in Waterbury from the Stowe exit on the Interstate. They also have an excellent selection of single malt Scotch.
  • Green Mountain Cidery, 153 Pond Lane, Middlebury, +1 802 388-0700 x115, [19].
  • Otter Creek Brewing & Wolavers Organic Ale, 793 Exchange St., Middlebury, +1 802 473-0727, [20].
  • Bobcat Cafe & Brewery, 5 Main Street, Bristol, +1 802 453-3311.

Stay safe

Vermont has one of the lowest crime rates of any state in the country. Outdoor hazards are much more common. Avoid wilderness areas during hunting seasons (November) when accidental shootings can occur. Always stay on marked ski trails while skiing. The areas around resorts may be trackless wilderness, and the cold is potentially deadly. Use good outdoor safety practices when hiking, boating, and biking.

Get out

The northern part of Vermont is close to Montreal. There are also nearby mountainous areas in New York (the Adirondacks), New Hampshire (the White Mountains), Massachusetts (the Berkshires), and Maine (the Speckled Mountains), all of which have their unique charms.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

VERMONT, a North Atlantic state of the United States of America and one of the New England group, lying between latitude 42° 44' and 45° o' 43' s N., and between longitudes 3° 35' and 5° 29' E. from Washington. It is bounded N. by the Canadian province of Quebec, E. by the Connecticut river, which separates it from New Hampshire, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by New York and Lake Champlain, which separates it in part from New York. Its total area is 9564 sq. m., and of this 440 sq. m. is water surface.
Table of contents

Surface

Vermont is a portion of the plateau-like New England upland, broken by mountain ranges, individual mountains and high hills, rising above the general upland surface, and by deep narrow valleys, cut below that surface. The mean elevation of the X XVII. 33 state above the sea is about I 00 ft. Extremes range from 106 ft. at Maquam on the N.E. shore of Lake Champlain (96 ft.) to 4364 ft. at the summit of Mount Mansfield, about 25 m. E. of that lake. The most prominent feature of the surface is the Green Mountains, which extend nearly N. and S. through the state a little W. of the middle. From the Massachusetts border N. for two-thirds the length of the state the range is only slightly broken, but farther N. it is cut deep by the valleys of the Winooski and Lamoille rivers. The crest line is generally more than 2000 ft. high, considerable areas are above 2500 ft., and the following summits exceed 4000 ft.: Mount Mansfield, 4364 ft.; Killington Peak, 4241 ft.; Camel's Hump, 4088 ft.; Mount Lincoln, 4078 ft.; and Jay Peak, 4018 ft. West of the Green Mountains the Taconic Mountains form a nearly parallel (but distinct) range, extending from New York and Massachusetts N. nearly to the centre of Vermont; and a series of broken uplifts, known as the Red Sandrock Mountains, extend farther N. along the shore of Lake Champlain. The Taconic Mountains rise in very irregular masses to1500-2000ft., and reach their maximum elevation in Mount Equinox at 3816 ft. The Red Sandrock Mountains are similar to one another in form and structure, generally rounded on the N. and E., but with some rugged escarpments facing the lake; their highest point is Snake Mountain (1271 ft.) in Addison county. There are no mountain ranges in the state E. of the Green Mountains, but distributed along the entire E. border are a number of tall and oval or conical shaped masses known as the Granitic Mountains, and between these and the Green Mountains the country is largely occupied by high hills and deeply carved valleys. Mount Ascutney, one of the Granitic Mountains, rises abruptly from the floor of the Connecticut Valley to a height of 33 20 ft. The least broken section of Vermont is on the somewhat gentle slope of the Green Mountains in the N.W. and on Grand Isle, North Hero Island, and Isle La Motte in Lake Champlain. The forms of Vermont's mountains, even to the highest summits, were to a great extent rounded by glaciation, but as the rocks vary much in texture and are often steeply inclined, stream erosion has cut valleys deep and narrow, often mere gorges.
Where the Green Mountain range is unbroken, in the S. two-thirds of the state, it forms a water-parting between the streams which flow W. or N.W. into Lake Champlain or the Hudson river and those flowing S.E. into the Connecticut river; but farther N. the line separating the Hudson-Champlain basin from the Connecticut basin runs among the Granitic Mountains; and extending 25 m. S. from the Canadian border is a small area that is drained N. into Lake Memphremagog, the waters of which, like those of Lake Champlain, are tributary to the St Lawrence river. North of Massachusetts the Connecticut river is wholly within New Hampshire - Vermont's eastern boundary is low-water mark on the W. bank of the Connecticut river. The largest and only navigable rivers of Vermont are among those flowing into Lake Champlain: the Missisquoi, the Lamoille, the Winooski and Otter Creek. The Batten Kill is the principal river flowing into the Hudson. The Deerfield, West, Williams, White, Passumpsic and Nulhegan rivers are the largest of the many streams which are tributary to the Connecticut. The Black, Barton and Clyde rivers flow into Lake Memphremagog. Vermont's rivers are generally swift, and in many places they are made very picturesque by their clear and sparkling waters, rapids, falls, gorges and wooded banks.
Lake Champlain, which lies beautifully in the valley between the Green and Adirondack mountains, belongs mostly to Vermont. The state has a shore line upon it of 150 m. or more, and in its N. portion are numerous islands which are attractive resorts during the summer season. On the N. border of the state is Lake Memphremagog with islands, a rugged prominence known as Owl's Head on its W. border, Jay Peak, farther back, and a beautiful farming country to the eastward. There are also a large number of small lakes and ponds lying wholly within the state. Of these Lake Bomoseen in Rutland (disambiguation)|Rutland county and Willoughby Lake in Orleans county are the largest. Willoughby Lake is about 6 m. long by 1 -12 m. wide, and its situation between two rugged mountains makes a scene of great natural beauty. All the lakes of the state were formed by glaciation.

Fauna

The most common wild animals are deer, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, woodchucks and muskrats. There are some porcupines, red foxes, minks and martens, but the moose, wolf and lynx are practically extinct. The ruffed grouse (or "partridge") is the most common of game birds, but woodcock, ducks and geese are quite common. Prominent among a great variety of song-birds and insectivorous birds are the robin, blue bird, cat bird, sparrows, meadow-lark, bobolink, thrushes, chickadee, wrens, brown thrasher, gold finch, cedar wax-wing, flycatchers, nuthatches, flicker (golden-winged woodpecker), downy and hairy woodpeckers, rose-breasted grosbeak, Baltimore oriole, barnswallow, chimney swift, purple martin, purple finch (linnet), vireos and several species of warblers. Birds of prey comprise several species of hawks and owls, and a few eagles. A few sturgeon are taken in Lake Champlain. The lakes, ponds and streams afford some of the best trout fishing in the country, and many of them also abound in pickerel, pike, perch, black bass and land-locked salmon. There is a state fish and game commissioner, and the state has a fish hatchery at Roxbury and a forest and game farm at Sharon. There are Federal hatcheries at Swanton (for pike perch and yellow perch) and at Holden (for trout).

Flora

Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower. Among deciduous trees the state is noted for its sugar maples; birch and beech are common on the hills, and oaks, elm, hickory, ash, poplar, basswood, willow, chestnut and butternut on the less elevated areas. Among indigenous fruitbearing trees, shrubs, vines and plants are the plum, cherry, grape, blackberry, raspberry, cranberry and strawberry. A few of the medicinal plants are ginseng, pleurisy root, snake root, blood root, blue flag and marshmallow. Orchids are very prominent among a great variety of flowering plants. Along the shore of Lake Champlain are a few species of maritime plants that remain from the time when portions of western Vermont were covered by the sea, and on the upper slopes of some of the higher mountains are a few Alpine species; these, however, are much less numerous on the Green Mountains of Vermont than on the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The state's lumber trade was important until 1890, when the white pine was nearly exhausted, although there were still spruce and hemlock.

Climate

.The state usually has long and severe winters and cool summers, but sudden changes of temperature are common at all seasons.^ Our Summer Packet (Includes Vermont Vacation Guide & Official Road Map) Our Fall Packet (Includes Vermont Vacation Guide & Official Road Map ) Our Winter Packet (Includes Vermont Winter Guide & ski/maple map) Our Fishing Packet (Includes a Seasonal Packet plus fishing map & Digest of fishing laws) Our Camping Packet (Includes a Seasonal Packet plus Campground Guide for State & Private Campgrounds) .
  • Request for Vermont Travel Information @ Vermont Vacation.com | 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.travel-vermont.com [Source type: News]

.The mean temperature for January, the coldest month, is only 17° F.; for the three winter months it is 19° F., and for the five months from November to March inclusive it is 24.3° F. For July, the warmest month, the mean temperature is 68° F.; for the entire year it is 43° F. Extremes of temperature have ranged from - 36° F. at Woodstock, Windsor (disambiguation)|Windsor county, in February 1896 to 97° F. at Cornwall, Addison county, in June 1901. The eastern section of the state is colder than the western, and the central or most mountainous section is still colder; for example, the mean annual temperature of Burlington, on Lake Champlain, is 46° F., while that of Saint Johnsbury, a little farther S. and near the E. border, is only 42° F., and that of Northfield, still farther S. but in the middle section, is only 41° F. The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 38.5 in.; more rain falls in summer than in any other season, and more falls in the southern section than in the northern.^ Our Summer Packet (Includes Vermont Vacation Guide & Official Road Map) Our Fall Packet (Includes Vermont Vacation Guide & Official Road Map ) Our Winter Packet (Includes Vermont Winter Guide & ski/maple map) Our Fishing Packet (Includes a Seasonal Packet plus fishing map & Digest of fishing laws) Our Camping Packet (Includes a Seasonal Packet plus Campground Guide for State & Private Campgrounds) .
  • Request for Vermont Travel Information @ Vermont Vacation.com | 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.travel-vermont.com [Source type: News]

The average annual fall of snow throughout the state is about 90 in., but at Jacksonville near the S. border it often exceeds 110 in. More snow falls in February than in any other month. In the Connecticut and Hudson-Champlain valleys the winds blow mostly from either the N. or the S., but in several of the smaller valleys the prevailing winds are from the N.W.

Soil

The soil is for the most part glacial drift, composed of clay, sand and gravel, and varying greatly in depth. On the higher elevations it is generally stony and sterile, but in the valleys and on many of the lower hills, where it consists largely of clay and sand, it is quite productive. The best soils are in the west section, where limestone clays or shell marls are common.

Forests

Vermont was heavily forested with white pine, spruce and hemlock, and, in the southern part of the state and along the shore of Lake Champlain, with some hard woods. The white pine had been much cut off by 1890 and it is no longer commercially important. The woodland area of the state in 1900 was estimated to be 39 00 sq. m., about 43% of the land area of the state.

Fisheries

Lake Champlain furnishes the only commerical fishing grounds in Vermont, with the exceptions of small catches of white fish in Lake Bomoseen, Lake St Catherine in Rutland county and Lake Memphremagog. The total catch in 1895 was 208,139 lb, valued at $7160, and in 1902 was 528,682 lb, valued at $37,669. The capital invested in fisheries in 1902 was $9417, and the number of men employed, 145. The most valuable fish taken was walleyed pike, and the catch of this fish and of pickerel from Lake Champlain in 1902 exceeded in value that from any other body of fresh water in the United States excepting Lake Huron and Lake Erie. The wall-eyed pike taken in 1902 were valued at $16,915 (210,936 lb); white fish, $5777 (80,191 lb); pickerel, $4144 (51,711 lb); yellow perch, $ 2 575 (43,9 1 7 lb); sturgeon, $20 5 1 (1 5,59 0 lb), and suckers, $ 18 54 (37,375 lb); other varieties taken in smaller quantities included smelt, sun-fish and eels.

Agriculture

Vermont is largely an agricultural state: in 1900, out of a total of 134,933 persons engaged in gainful occupations, 49,8 20 were engaged in agriculture, 36,180 in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 23,028 in domestic and personal service, 18,889 in trade and transportation, and 7016 in professional service; and of a total land area of 9124 sq. m., 7382 sq. m. (4,7 2 4,4 00 acres) were included in farms. The percentage of improved farm land, as in Maine, New York and Pennsylvania, increased from 1850 until 1890 and decreased after 1890; and in 1900 out of a total acreage of 4,724,400 acres only 2,126,624 acres (45%) were improved. Of the 33,104 farms in the state in 1900, 25,982 were farmed by their owners, 1373 by part owners, 314 by owners and tenants, 2424 by cash tenants, 2396 by share tenants, and 615 by managers; 637 farms had more than 500 acres, 3431 were between 260 and 500 acres, 5512 between 175 and 260 acres, 10,215 between 100 and 175 acres, 6513 between 50 and 100 acres, 3511 between 20 and 50 acres, and 3285 less than 20 acres; and dairy produce was the principal source of income of more than one-half of these (16,700), live stock the principal source of income of 7323 farms, and hay and grain of 2519 farms. The general sterility of the soil except along rivers and the bases of hills has made intensive cultivation always necessary, and the competition of new and rich western farm lands has made the agriculture of Vermont develop further toward specialization in dairying and raising live stock. In 1910 there were 495,000 neat cattle (285,000 milch cows), 94,000 horses (average value, $106), 229,000 sheep and 95,000 swine. The horses of Vermont have been famous in the development of American racing stocks; the Morgan stock is best known, and other famous Vermont strains are Messenger and Black Hawk. Hay and forage are the most important crops, and Vermont grasses for grazing have been favourably known since the close of the 18th century. In 1909 on 879,000 acres a crop of hay (excluding forage) was raised valued at $16,155,000. The cereals are relatively unimportant. The largest cereal crop is oats, of which, in 1909, 2,608,000 bushels (valued at $1,304,000) were produced on 81,00o acres.

Mines and Quarries

The principal mineral resource of Vermont is its building and monumental stone, including marble and granite and a small amount of limestone. The value of the total amount of stone produced in 1908 in Vermont was $7,152,624. Vermont marble is the best and most plentiful in the United States. It has been quarried since 1785; marble monuments were first manufactured about 1808; and at South Dorset in 1818 marble seems first to have been sawed in blocks, the earlier method having been chiselling. It is found generally throughout the western part of the state. The principal supply is in West Rutland, Proctor and Pittsford; this, the "Rutland marble," is a duller, less lustrous white, and of a greater durability than the Carrara marble, and is used largely for monuments and statuary. There are other large quarries at Dorset and East Dorset, Bennington county; the finest marbles from this region are the white, slightly marked with pale brown and with greenish lines; they are commonly used for building, the Harvard Medical School and the office of the U.S. Senate being examples. At Rutland, Proctor and Dorset many darker shades are found, including "moss vein," olive green and various shades of blue, green, yellow and pink, which are used for ornamental purposes. There are important quarries in Franklin (disambiguation)|Franklin county (at Swanton), the stone being a dark Chazy limestone, in which pink and red ("jasper," "lyonnaise" and "royal red") marbles of Cambrian age are found. At Monkton, Addison county, there is a. quarry from which other red marbles are taken; and at Roxbury, Washington county, a fine serpentine, called "green marble," or verde antique, is quarried. On Isle La Motte, Grand Isle county, there are marble quarries, the characteristic colours of the marble being "Fisk black" and "Fisk grey." The output of marble in 1908 was valued at $4,679,960 (out of a total of $7,733,920 for the entire production of marble in the United States). Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada. The largest granite quarries are near Barre, Washington county, a city which owes its importance to the quarries. The Barre granites, like those of Woodbury and Calais (also in Washington county) and part of those of South Ryegate, Kirby and Newark (Caledonia county), are of the biotite type; they are grey, except the stone from Newark, which is pinkish. Of the quartz-monzonite type are the whitish granites of Bethel and Rochester (Windsor county) and Randolph (Orange county), the light grey of Dummerston (Windham county), and the darker greys of Cabot (Washington county), Derby (Orleans county), Hardwick and Groton (Caledonia county) and Topsham (Orange county). The olive green syenite found on Mount Ascutney, near the Connecticut river, in Windsor county, is a hornblendeaugite. Other important granite quarries are near Williamstown, Dummerston, Berlin and Woodbury. The total value of the output of granite in the state in 1908 was $2,451,933. In 1908 the output of limestone was valued at $20,731; there are limestone quarries in Washington and Orange counties and on Isle La Motte. Slate-quarrying and cutting is carried on in the south-western part of the state, in Rutland county; there are important quarries at Fair Haven, Poultney, Castleton, Wells and Pawlet. In Washington county there are quarries near Northfield. The industry began about 1840, though one quarry had been opened as early as 1805. There are two green varieties, called in the trade "sea-green" and "unfading green," the former being used for a cheap roofing slate; and there are purplish varieties. In 1908 the value of slate produced was $1,710,491 (out of a total production for the United States of $6,316,817).

Manufactures

The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States. Mountain streams furnish important water-power, and the typical factory of Vermont has long been a sawmill run by a water-wheel. The value of sawmill products in 1905 was $5,888,441, and of planing-mill products $3,080,117. Closely connected with the manufacture of lumber is the making of paper and wood pulp, centralized at Bellows Falls, with waterpower on the Connecticut river and with the raw materials near; the product was valued in 1905 at $3,831,448. Dairy industries have rapidly increased in value: in 1905 the value of butter and cheese was $6,416,434, more than any other single industry under the census classification. If a less arbitrary classification be followed the principal manufacturing industries would be stone manufacture and textiles. The first marble quarry was opened in Dorset in 1785 and a second at Middlebury in 1805; and the first granite was quarried in 1812. Barre is the centre of the granite business, and the region about Rutland, especially Proctor, is the principal seat of the marble industry. The product of stone manufactures in 1905 was $9,570,436. Vermont was almost the last of the New England states to develop textile manufactures, though the manufacture of woollen goods was begun in 1824. The greatest development was between 1900 and 1905; the total value of textiles in the former year was $5,407,217 (woollen goods, $2,572,646; hosiery and knit goods, $1,834,685; cotton goods, $999,886) and in the latter was $7,773, 612 (woollen goods, $4,698,405; hosiery and knit goods, $1,988,685; and cotton goods, $1,086,522). Other important manufactures are: flour and grist mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines and compounds, roofing materials, and scales and balances, manufactured especially at St Johnsbury.

Transportation and Commerce

Railway transportation is supplied to Vermont by parallel lines crossing diagonally every part of the state at about equal intervals and running in general in a N.W. and S.E. direction, and by lines running N. and S. respectively along the eastern and western borders of the state. The railway map of the state thus has roughly the appearance of a gridiron. The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E. to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south. These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
The southern part of the state was early opened to railways, the Sullivan County railway (operated by the Boston & Maine) having been opened in 1849; and in 1850 the state had 290 m. of railway; in 1870, 614 m.; in 1890, 991 42 M.; and on the 1st of January 1909, 1093.43 m. Water communication is afforded by Lake Champlain to the south, for seven months of the year, by way of the Champlain canal, via Whitehall, New York, to Troy and the Hudson river and the Atlantic coast, and to the north by way of the Richelieu river and the Chambly canal to the St Lawrence. The commerce of the lake consists principally of coal, wood pulp and building material, besides general merchandise. The only river with traffic of commercial importance is Otter Creek, flowing northwards into the southern part of Lake Champlain and having a navigable length of 8 m. to Vergennes, with a depth to this point of 8 ft. at low water. The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district. The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.

Population

The population of Vermont in 1890 was 332,422; in 1900, 343,641; and in 1910, 355,956.' Of the total population in 1900, 298, 077 were native whites, 44,747 were foreign-born, 826 were negroes and 39 were Chinese. Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 19,974 were natives of New York, 9675 were natives of New Hampshire and 9111 were natives of Massachusetts. Of the foreign-born, 14,924 were French Canadians, 10,616 were English Canadians and 7453 were Irish. Of the total population, 117,344 were of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both 1 According to previous censuses, the population was as follows: (1790) 85,425; (1800) 154,465; (1810) 217,895; (1820) 235,9$1; (1830) 280,652; (1840) 291,948; (1850) 314,120; (1860) 315,098; (1870) 330,551; (1880) 332,286. The increase between 1850 and 1900 was remarkably small.
1027 parents were foreign-born) and 27,226 were of French Canadian and 20,228 of Irish parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side. Of 147,223 communicants of all churches in 1906, the largest number, 82,272, were Roman Catholics, 22,109 were Congregationalists, 17,471 Methodist Episcopalians, 8450 Baptists, 1501 Free Baptists and 5278 Protestant Episcopalians. The principal cities are Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier (the capital) and St Albans.

Administration

Vermont has been governed under the constitution of 1777, that of 1786 and that of 1793, with twentyeight amendments, of which the first was adopted in 1828, the second to thirteenth in 1836, the fourteenth to twenty-third in 1850, the twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth in 1870, and the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth in 1883. The administrative officers of the state are a governor, a lieutenantgovernor, a secretary of state, a state treasurer, and an auditor of accounts, elected by popular vote, and an inspector of finance, a commissioner of taxes, a superintendent of education, a fish and game commissioner, three railroad commissioners, and various boards and commissions, of whom some are elected by the General Assembly and some are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. All elections and appointments are biennial. The governor has limited powers of appointment and pardon and a veto power which may be overridden by a majority vote in each house.
The legislative department consists of a senate of 30 members, apportioned among the counties according to population, but with the proviso that each county must have at least one senator, and a House of Representatives of 245 members, one from each township. Since 1870 elections and legislative sessions have been biennial. The powers of the two houses are equal except that revenue measures must originate in the House of Representatives.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of seven members, a court of chancery, a county court in each county, a probate court in each probate district, and justices of the peace. The judges of the supreme court are elected biennially by tine General Assembly, and all the other judicial officers are elected by the people. Sessions of the supreme court are held in each county once a year in addition to the general session which meets at some central place selected by the judges. The court of chancery is held by the judges of the supreme court, the county by a supreme court judge with the aid of two associates elected by the people of the county.
For the administration of local affairs the state is divided into 14 counties and 245 townships. There is no special board of commissioners or supervisors as in most of the other states, the county authority being the assistant judges of the county court. The assistant judges, the sheriff and the state's attorney are elected annually by popular vote. The county treasurer is elected by the assistant judges. The more important township officials are a moderator, a board of selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and a superintendent of schools. Any community containing thirty or more houses may, with the approval of the selectmen of the town, receive a separate village organization. Their officials are a clerk, five trustees, a collector of taxes and a treasurer.
All citizens of the United States residing in Vermont are citizens of the state. The right of suffrage is confined by the constitution to adult male citizens who have resided in the state for one year. Women have the right to vote in all elections relating to schools and school officers in cities, towns and graded school districts, and also the right to be elected to any local school position or to the office of township clerk. The original method of revising the constitution was adopted from Pennsylvania (see History), and it was retained long after Pennsylvania had abandoned it. Thirteen censors chosen septennially were empowered to suggest amendments and to call a convention to pass upon them. The censors, being elected on a general ticket, were always more progressive than the convention, which was chosen on the principle of equal township representation. In spite of the repeated recommendations of the censors, the convention refused to abolish the collegiate executive and the unicameral legislative system until 1836. Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted. Every tenth year, beginning in 1880, the Senate is authorized to propose amendments, which proposals, if concurred in by the majority of the members of the House of Representatives, are published in the principal newspapers of the state. If they are again approved by a majority of each house in the next General Assembly, they are submitted finally to a direct popular vote, a majority of the votes cast being decisive.

Miscellaneous Laws

A married woman may hold her separate property, carry on business, sue and be sued the same as if she were single, except that in conveying or mortgaging her real estate she must be joined by her husband. A widow has a dower interest in one-third of her husband's real estate unless barred by a jointure or an agreement. A widower is in any case entitled by courtesy to one-third of his wife's real estate, and he may choose between his rights by courtesy and the provisions of his wife's will. Where there is no issue and the deceased dies intestate the surviving spouse is entitled to the whole estate, both real and personal, if it does not exceed $2000, and if it exceeds that sum the survivor is entitled to $2000 and one-half of the remainder; if there are no kindred, the whole of the estate goes to the surviving spouse. The causes for a divorce are adultery, sentence to confinement in the state prison for three years or more and actual confinement at the time of the suit, intolerable severity, wilful desertion for three consecutive years or absence for seven years without being heard from, or wanton and cruel refusal or neglect of the husband to provide a suitable maintenance for his wife. The plaintiff must have resided in the state for at least the year preceding the application, and if the cause accrued in some other state or country before the parties lived together in Vermont and while neither party lived there, the plaintiff must have been a resident at least for two years preceding the action. When a divorce is granted, the defendant is not permitted to marry other than the plaintiff for three years, unless the plaintiff dies. The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $500 is, so long as it continues to be used as the homestead, exempt from levy or attachment other than upon causes existing at the time it was acquired and for taxes. If the owner is a married man, he cannot sell or mortgage it, except for the purchase money, unless his wife joins him in the execution.

Education

The public-school system is under the supervision of a state superintendent of education, elected biennially by the General Assembly, and local schools are under union superintendents and in a few cases under town superintendents. The district system was displaced in 1893 by a township system. The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218. The schools are open to all children between the ages of 5 and 20, and attendance for twenty-six weeks in each year is made compulsory for those who are between the ages of 8 and 15. The average number of weeks in the "legal schools" (about 95% of the public schools) was 32 weeks in 1907-1908. The chief institutions for higher instruction are the university of Vermont and State Agricultural College (1800, 1865), a land-grant college at Burlington, Middlebury College (1800) at Middlebury, Norwich University (1819) at, Northfield, and the state normal schools at Randolph (1867), Johnson (1867) and Castleton (1868).

Charitable and Penal Institutions

The charitable and penal institutions of the state are controlled by separate boards of directors, but all are subject to the general supervision of a board of visitors composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor and speaker of the House of Representatives, and a woman appointed by the governor. There are a state prison at Windsor (1808), a house of correction at Rutland (1878), an industrial school at Vergennes (1866), and hospitals for the insane at Brattleboro (1836) and Waterbury (1891). Biennial appropriations are made for the support of the deaf and dumb, the blind and imbecile children at various institutions in Massachusetts and Connecticut.

Finance

The chief sources of revenue for the state are a corporation tax, a collateral inheritance tax (1904) and a licence tax. There is no general property tax except a special levy of 8% on the general list for school purposes and 5% for the construction of roads. For the year ending on the 30th of June 1908 the total receipts were $1,822,390, the expenditures were $1,871,166. The state is practically free from debt, the only obligation of this character being $ 1 35,5 00 in 6% bonds, payable in 1910, which were issued in behalf of the Agricultural College. The banking institutions are supervised by an inspector of finance, who reports annually to the General Assembly. There were no banks in the state until 1806, when a state bank (controlled by the state) was established which was finally closed up in 1845, although as early as 1812 a law was passed to close it. The first private state bank was opened in 1817; an act of 1831 provided for a safety fund guaranteeing bank circulations and derived from a 41% tax on capital stock and a 1 o % tax on profits; but this law was modified in 1842, the tax being removed from banks giving specie guarantees; and a free banking act was passed in 1851. Owing to the high rate of taxation on deposits, a considerable part of the savings of the people is sent into other states.

History

Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim. In 1665 the French built a fort on Isle la Motte. The first English settlement was probably made at Chimney Point, in Addison township, in 1690 by a party from Albany. The first permanent white settlement was established by Massachusetts at Fort Dummer (near the present Dummer, in the south-eastern part of the present town of Brattleboro) in 1724. Similar outposts were located during the next few years at Sartwell's Fort and Bridgman's Fort in the township of Vernon (Windham county) and at Fort Hill in the township of Putney (N. of Brattleboro, in Windham county). The territory in which these settlements had been made was involved in the boundary dispute between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, which was settled in 1741 by a decision of the king in council favourable to New Hampshire (q.v.). The extension of the southern boundary line by this decision due westward until it met His Majesty's other governments gave rise, however, to a controversy with New York. New Hampshire claimed that her territory extended as far to the west as those of Massachusetts and Connecticut, whereas New York, under the charter of 1664, claimed eastward to the Connecticut river. New York protested against the Bennington grant in 1749, but the question did not become serious until the chief obstacle to settlement was removed by the conquest of Canada in 1760-61. From 1761 to 1763 Governor John Wentworth of New Hampshire issued 108 grants, and settlements were established in Brattleboro, Putney, Westminster, Halifax, Marlborough, Wilmington, New Fane, Rockingham, Townshend, Vernon (Hinsdale) and Dummerston (all in Windham county, except Vernon, which is in Cheshire county). A privy council decree recognizing the claims of New York was issued on the 10th of July 1764, and the settlers were soon afterwards ordered to surrender their patents and repurchase the land from the proper authorities at Albany. Under the leadership of Ethan Allen, Seth Warner and Remember Baker (1737-1775), they refused obedience and took up arms in defence of their rights. About the close of 1771 Colonel Allen organized a regular military force among the inhabitants of the district W. of the mountains, which came to be known as the Green Mountain Boys. The trouble was soon complicated by the conflict with the mother country. On the 13th of March 1775, a riot occurred at Westminster between the people of Cumberland (disambiguation)|Cumberland county and the royal authorities, in which two of the people were killed. The Green Mountain Boys, with some help from Connecticut, captured Fort Ticonderoga on the 10th of May 1775, and took part in the Canadian expedition of 1775 under Montgomery and Schuyler. Within the state itself battles were fought at Hubbardton on the 7th of July and Bennington on the 16th of August 1777. The representatives of the ,towns assembled in convention at Dorset and Westminster in 1776 (Jan. 16-17, July 24-25, September 25-28, October 30), and on the 1 5th of January 1777 adopted a declaration of independence, assumed the name New Connecticut and appointed Dr Jonas Fay (1 737 - ,818), Thomas Chittenden (1730-1797), Hemon Allen (1740-1788), Dr Reuben Jones and Jacob Bayley a committee to submit their proceedings to the Continental Congress. The chief adviser of the committee in Philadelphia was Dr Thomas Young, a prominent physician, who had helped to draft the Pennsylvania constitution of 1776. Young advised them to call their state Vermont, and he also sent through them a circular letter, dated the nth of April 1777, urging the people to adopt a state constitution on the Pennsylvania model. The advice was followed. A convention met at Windsor (July 2-8, 1777), and drafted a document which contained almost all of the important provisions of the constitution of Pennsylvania, such as a unicameral legislature, a plural executive and a council of censors, which was not abolished until 1870. One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action. The first legislature of the state met at Windsor in March 1778, and voted to admit sixteen towns east of the Connecticut river which were dissatisfied with the rule of New Hampshire. As a result, New York and New Hampshire formed a secret agreement to divide the state between themselves, the mountains to be the line of division. In this crisis the British government through General Sir Frederick Haldimand offered to recognize Vermont as a separate province and to give her very liberal terms provided she would desert the other states.
O 9
Ethan Allen (q.v.) and some of the other leaders seemed inclined to accept these overtures, but for various reasons, the chief of which was the general success of the American cause, the scheme was soon abandoned. The difficulties with New Hampshire were adjusted in 1782, the west bank of the Connecticut being accepted as the final boundary, but New York refused to abandon her claims until 1790. In the meantime, Vermont continued as an independent state without any recognition from Congress until its admission into the Union on the 4th of March 1791. The legislature wandered about from town to town until 1808, when the capital was permanently located at Montpelier. In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic-Republican, 1804-1820; Adams-Republican, 1824-1828; Anti-Masonic, 1832; Whig, 1836-1852; and Republican since 1856. During the War of 1812 Vermont troops took part in the battles of Chippewa, Lundy's Lane, Lake Erie and Plattsburgh; but the only engagement in the state itself was the defence of Fort Cassin (at the mouth of Otter Creek in the N.W. corner of the present Addison county) in 1813. On the 19th of October 1864 a small band of Confederate soldiers under Lieutenant B. H. Young crossed the frontier from Canada and raided the town of St Albans. A few of the inhabitants were wounded and one was killed and about $200,000 was taken from the vaults of the local banks. St Albans was also the headquarters of an attempted Fenian invasion of Canada in 1870. Since 1815 a considerable proportion of the native stock has migrated to the W., but the loss has been partially offset by an influx of French Canadians. The wool-growing industry has been almost entirely destroyed by the competition of Australia and the West, and the people are now engaged mainly in dairy-farming, timbering, graniteand marble-quarrying, and in keeping summer boarders.

Governors

1 Died in office on the 25th of August 1 797; succeeded by the lieutenant-governor.
2 As there was no governor elected by the people, Jennison as lieutenant-governor elect acted as governor.
Died in office on the 7th of February 1870; succeeded by the lieutenant-governor.
Samuel E. Pingree, Republican
Ebenezer J. Ormsbee,
William P. Dillingham,
Carroll S. Page,
Levi K. Fuller,
Urban A. Woodbury,
Josiah Grout,
Edward C. Smith,
William W. Stickney,
John G. McCullough,
Charles J. Bell,
Fletcher D. Proctor,
George H. Prouty,
John A. Mead,
1884-1886
1886-1888
1888-1890
1890-1892
1892-1894
18 94 -1896
1896-1898
1898-1900
1900-1902
1902-1904
1904-1906
1906-1908
1908-1910
1910-
Bibliog Ra Phy. - For physical description and material on minerals see the Report on the Geology of Vermont: Descriptive, Theoretical, Economical and Scenographical (2 vols., Claremont, N.H., 1861); G. H. Perkins, Reports of the State Geologist, especially vols. iv., v., vi., new series (Concord, N.H., 1904, 1906, 1908); and "Underground Waters of Vermont" in Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 114 (Washington, 1905) of the U.S. Geological Survey; T. Nelson Dale, The Granites of Vermont (ibid., 1909), an abstract of which appears in the sixth volume of the state Report mentioned above; and Henry M. Seely, "The Geology of Vermont," pp. 53-67, vol. 5 (1901) of The Vermonter. For the government of the state see The Revised Laws of Vermont (Rutland, 1881); the Vermont Legislative Directory, published biennially at Montpelier; the biennial reports of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, the commissioner of state taxes, the superintendent of education, the supervisors of the insane, &c., and the annual reports of the inspector of finance. See also L. H. Meader, The Council of Censors (Providence, 1899); F. A. Wood, The History of Taxation in Vermont (New York, 1894), and G. G. Bush, History of Education in Vermont (Washington, 1900).
For a general bibliography of Vermont history see M. D. Gilman, Bibliography of Vermont (Burlington, 1897). The standard authorities for the period before 1791 are: Ira Allen, Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont (London, 1898); B. H. Hall, History of Eastern Vermont to the Close of the Eighteenth Century (2 vols., New York, 1858, 2nd ed., Albany, 1865); and Hiland Hall, History of Vermont from its Discovery to its Admission into the Union 1791 (Albany, 1868). A more recent book, based almost entirely on these three, but containing a few sketchy supplementary chapters, is R. E. Robinson, Vermont (Boston, 1892) in the "American Commonwealths" Series. See also Records of the Council of Safety and Governor and Council of Vermont (8 vols., Montpelier, 1873-1880); Vermont Historical Society, Collections (2 vols., Montpelier, 1870-1871); Proceedings (i vol., Montpelier, 1898); and Report of the Regents of the University of New York on the Boundaries of the State of New York (2 vols., Albany, 1874-1884).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Vermont

Etymology

From French verts monts (green mountains).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Vermont
Plural
-
Vermont
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Montpelier.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Vermont
Flag of Vermont State seal of Vermont
Flag of Vermont Great Seal of Vermont
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Green Mountain State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Freedom and Unity
Map of the United States with Vermont highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif None
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Montpelier
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Burlington
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 45thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 9,620 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(24,923 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 80 miles (130 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 160 miles (260 km)
 - % water 3.8
 - Latitude 42° 44′ N to 45° 1′ N
 - Longitude 71° 28′ W to 73° 26′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 49thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 608,827
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 65.8/sq mi 
25.41/km² (30th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $48,508 (19th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mount Mansfield[1]
4,393 ft  (1,340 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 - Lowest point Lake Champlain[1]
95 ft  (29 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  March 4, 1791 (14th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Jim Douglas (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Patrick Leahy (D)
Bernie Sanders (I)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4 (DST)
Abbreviations Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-VTImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.vermont.gov
Much of the business of local government in Vermont towns takes place each March during a Town Meeting held at a meeting house, such as this one in Marlboro, Vermont.
.Vermont (IPA: /vɜrˈmɒnt/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.^ Looking for something to do in Vermont , United States ?

^ The six United States senators representing northern New England are joining together to ask President Barack Obama to release more emergency heating aid funds.
  • Latest Vermont news from AP and Reuters - Boston.com 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The state ranks 45th by total area, and 43rd by land area at 9,250 square miles, and has a population of 608,827, making it the second least populous state (second only to Wyoming).^ As a somewhat sparsely populated state without major metropolitan areas, Vermont has not attracted largescale immigration.
  • Religion in Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 68 people per square mile (population density).
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Tables: "Catholic Population of the United States " and "Percentage of Catholics in Total Population in U.S. ".
  • Religion in Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only New England state with no coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont is notable for the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain in the northwest.^ The VT-HEC, along with Vermont school districts and other education related organizations, are working together in new ways to make quality preparation, development and support programs accessible to educators and educators-to-be in all parts of the state.
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The classic small villages with tall church steeples, dramatic but gentle green mountains, pleasing rolling hills and the overall laid back feeling from a gentler era make Vermont a prime New England vacation destination.

^ Read our New England tourist attractions page for the best things to do in Vermont.

.It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.^ These grants were made by Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York.
  • Vermont Genealogy Research Resources to Help Find Ancestors for Family History 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC geneasearch.com [Source type: General]

^ From Route 22A junction, go 1.5 miles on Route 74 east OR from Middlebury, take Route 30 south to Route 74 west.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

^ Vermont law allows patients to see a physician licensed to practice medicine, and who is able to prescribe drugs in Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts or New York.
  • ASA : Becoming a Patient in Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.safeaccessnow.org [Source type: Academic]

Originally inhabited by Native American tribes (Abenaki, and Iroquois), the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France but became a British possession after France's defeat in the French and Indian War. .For many years, control of the area was disputed by the surrounding colonies, notably between New Hampshire and New York.^ By SAM ROBERTS New York, Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania lost the most young people between 2000 and 2009, according to new Census Bureau data.
  • Vermont News - Breaking Local Vermont News - The New York Times 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ These grants were made by Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York.
  • Vermont Genealogy Research Resources to Help Find Ancestors for Family History 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC geneasearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilmington - Averill Stand - Averill Stand Historic Site was built in 1787, and was for many years the stagecoach stop between Bennington and Brattleboro on what is now Route 9.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state.^ The Green Mountain States capital is located in Montpelier, and the state has a land area of 9,615 square miles.
  • Weather, Ski and Snow Conditions for Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.rsn.com [Source type: News]

^ The name of the state is derived from the French words vert ("green") and mont ("mountain"), and Vermont is known as the Green Mountain State.
  • Weather, Ski and Snow Conditions for Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.rsn.com [Source type: News]

^ These independent schools may also apply to the State Board for construction aid for additions, alterations, and acquisition of facilities.
  • State Regulation of Private Schools - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vermont became the 14th state to join the United States, following a 14-year period during and after the Revolutionary War as the independent Republic of Vermont.^ Looking for something to do in Vermont , United States ?

^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]


According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) was $23 billion. This places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 38th in per capita GSP. [2][3] The per capita personal income was $32,770 in 2004.
Components of GSP were:[4][5]
  • Government - $3,083 million (13.4%)
  • Real Estate, Rental and Leasing - $2,667 million (11.6%)
  • Durable goods manufacturing - $2,210 million (9.6%)
  • Health Care and Social Assistance - $2,170 million (9.4%)
  • Retail trade - $1,934 million (8.4%)
  • Finance and Insurance - $1,369 million (5.9%)
  • Professional and technical services - $1,276 million (5.5%)
  • Construction - $1,258 million (5.5%)
  • Wholesale trade - $1,175 million (5.1%)
  • Accommodations and Food Services - $1,035 million (4.5%)
  • Information - $958 million (4.2%)
  • Non-durable goods manufacturing - $711 million (3.1%)
  • Other Services - $563 million (2.4%)
  • Utilities - $553 million (2.4%)
  • Transportation and Warehousing - $484 million (2.1%)
  • Educational Services - $478 million (2.1%)
  • Administrative and Waste Services - $436 million (1.9%)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting - $375 million (1.6%)
  • Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation - $194 million (.8%)
  • Mining - $100 million (.4%)
  • Management of Companies - $35 million (.2%)

Contents

Agriculture

.Agriculture contributes $2.6 billion,[6] about 12%, directly and indirectly to the states economy.^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.Over the past two centuries, Vermont has had both population explosions and population busts.^ On a historical note, although Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have never made up a large proportion of Vermont's population, the first two leaders of the church -- Joseph Smith and Brigham Young -- were both born in Vermont.
  • Religion in Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First settled by farmers, loggers and hunters, Vermont lost much of its population as farmers moved west into the Great Plains in search of abundant, easily tilled land.^ Why hasn't Vermont turned into the popular notion of the Wild West?
  • Why Adopt a Vermont-style CCW Law? 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC gunowners.org [Source type: Original source]

Logging similarly fell off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. Although these population shifts devastated Vermont's economy, the early loss of population had the beneficial effect of allowing Vermont's land and forest to recover. .The accompanying lack of industry has allowed Vermont to avoid many of the ill-effects of 20th century industrial busts, effects that still plague neighboring states.^ Without a vote from the Legislative, the state’s Public Service Board lacks the authority to grant the plant a certificate of public good that would allow it to keep operating.

^ Over the objections of lawmakers, the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources has adopted a rule to allow all-terrain vehicles on state land.
  • Latest Vermont news from AP and Reuters - Boston.com 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ The bill also allows for licensed physicians in neighboring states to legally recommend cannabis to Vermont patients, while also reducing the application fee from $100 to $50.
  • ASA : Becoming a Patient in Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.safeaccessnow.org [Source type: Academic]

Today, most of Vermont's forests consist of second-growth.
Of the remaining industries, dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income.
.In recent years, Vermont has been deluged with plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, untouched land.^ My wife of 28 years, Charlene, and I are recent empty-nesters and reside in Shrewsbury, Vermont with a Newfoundland and a Cane Corso (Italian Mastiff) and a cat.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vermont's government has responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry.^ Pure and Industrial Insured - GAAP Financial Statements, Vermont Annual Statement Association and RRG - NAIC Blank Audited Financials Certified Loss Reserves .
  • Marsh Captives - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC global.marsh.com [Source type: News]

In 1947 there were 11,206 dairy farms in the state. In 2003 there are fewer than 1,500, a decline of 80%. The number of cattle had declined by 40%. However, milk production had doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow.[8]
.An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state manages and defends.^ Vermont Fish Culture Stations Come see fish grow from tiny eggs to the trophy size beauties at any of five State Fish Hatcheries.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ Vermont has not adopted any classes of prohibited persons broader than those set forth under federal law (or made sales to those purchasers a state crime).
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The State Librarian will deliver a published copy of the state papers of Vermont to the library of a private high school, upon request.
  • State Regulation of Private Schools - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.^ Burlington is also the home of Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream factory , where tours are available for the curious.

^ Free samples of maple syrup, cheese and fine Vermont foods, free admission and educational sugarhouse display.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ Vermont Teddy Bear Company Visit the Vermont Teddy Bear Company and see how we lovingly create our handmade teddy bears.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

.In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of U.S. production.^ Free samples of maple syrup, cheese and fine Vermont foods, free admission and educational sugarhouse display.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ Hugh Kemper has dug into the details of the $1.5 billion, about $15,000 per student, that Vermont spends each year.

^ Bragg Farm Sugarhouse and Gift Shop At Bragg Farm visit one of Vermonts sugarhouses using traditional methods of Maple Sugaring!
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

For 2005 that number was 410,000 accounting for 37% of national production. [9]
In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still engaged in agriculture.[10]
Wine industry started in Vermont in 1985. There are 14 wineries today.[11]

Manufacturing

IBM, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest for-profit employer. .It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont.^ OnTheSnow.com provides the ski and snow report for all ski resorts in Vermont.
  • Vermont Ski & Snow Report | OnTheSnow.com 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.onthesnow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy.[12]

Housing

.Vermont is the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability.^ Vermont Public Libraries Public Libraries State Libraries Presidential Libraries National Libraries College Libraries Law Libraries Books .

.However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage.^ Birth, Death, Marriage, and Divorce certificates, for events which occurred within the state of Vermont.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other states will benefit as well, this isn’t about Vermont by its lonesome.

^ The license can only be used within the State of Vermont.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]

Labor

.As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont.^ There are 200 physicians per 100,000 population in Vermont, VT. The US average is 170.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

11% of these are unionized.[14][15] .A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least satisfied with their job in the whole nation and were the most likely to be making plans to leave.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

[16]

Insurance

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. .According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.^ Merchandising Coordinator The Vermont Teddy Bear Company and its sister companies, PajamaGram and Calyx Flowers, are seeking a Merchandising Coordinator to assist with organization and dissemination of product information.
  • Vermont Jobs in Vermont Job Search. 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC vermont.jobs.com [Source type: News]

^ The company grew to be one of the world’s largest wholesale carriers of international calls.
  • Fractals of Change: My New Gig 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC blog.tomevslin.com [Source type: News]

[17]

Tourism

Tourism is the state's largest industry. .In winter, the ski resorts Stowe, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Mount Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan areas.^ We're also centrally located to many attractions, including Quechee Gorge, Okemo Ski Resort, Ascutney Mountain, and Lake Runnemede.

^ And skiing, biking or golfing in the Mount Snow Valley is only minutes away!

^ BR/2BA - Kitchen/Fireplace - Jay Peak [#101438] 2BR+/2BA (Sleeps 4-6) From $120/nt US or CAN Dollars 5 photos Ski on and Off at Jay Peak Resort!
  • Vermont USA Vacation Rentals by Owner - Vermont USA VRBO, Vacation Home Rentals, Condo Rentals, FRBO Vacation Rentals, Vermont USA Travel Information 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the summer, resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, and Woodstock host visitors. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round.
Lake Champlain.
Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing draw outdoor enthusiasts to the state, as does the hiking on the Long Trail. In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual events. .Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.^ Rotary club search Nonprofit groups Lions clubs in Vermont Kiwanis clubs in Vermont Foundations (by name) Community foundations (by state) Vermont Chambers of Commerce Parks & recreation .
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Schools that wish to have their Web sites listed on this page may add their site information by visiting the State of Vermont "Schools - Suggest a Link" Web page and providing the required information.
  • Directories : Public Schools and Technical Centers (A - C) 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Academic]

Quarrying

.The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members.^ Chris serves the community as a member of the Middletown Springs Select Board, as a member of the board of governors of the Vermont Association for Justice, and as the President of Vermont Actors' Repertory Theatre.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She is a member of Saxtons River Art Guild, Vermont Watercolor Society, and Deerfield Valley Art Association.
  • GALLERY WALK, Brattleboro, Vermont - A Monthly First-Friday Celebration! 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.gallerywalk.org [Source type: General]

^ Learning Network of Vermont (LNV) sites in: Barre, Rutland, South Burlington & White River Jct.
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs south past Rutland, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest granite quarry in America.^ Pat grew up in New York; raised a family in Seattle, where she attended art school and college; and later earned cooking credentials in Ireland.
  • GALLERY WALK, Brattleboro, Vermont - A Monthly First-Friday Celebration! 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.gallerywalk.org [Source type: General]

^ Gardener's Supply Company Home of Americas largest mailorder gardening catalog.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

^ By KATIE ZEZIMA Paul O. Boisvert for The New York Times It’s no secret that this state’s autumn palette is spectacular.
  • Vermont Travel Guide - Hotels, Restaurants, Sightseeing in Vermont - New York Times Travel 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country.^ Shelburne Museum Vermonts largest museum and one of the countrys finest, most eclectic museums of art, Americana, architecture, and artifacts.
  • Vermont Tourism, Vermont Vacations, Vermont Attractions 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vtattractions.org [Source type: General]

Production of dimension stone is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying.

Taxes

.Vermont stands 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average is $3,447.[18] However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income.^ B. The FBI statistics also show that Vermont boasts the 47th lowest murder rate among the 50 states: .
  • Why Adopt a Vermont-style CCW Law? 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC gunowners.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The income per capita is $24,545, which includes all adults and children.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Marriage Laws United States Vermont Marriage license Laws in the state of Vermont, here is what you need to bring with you, and what you need to know about the Vermont marriage laws before filling out the Vermont marriage license form.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306.[19]
Vermont collects personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%.
.Vermont's general sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts (some towns impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax).^ Vermont has not adopted any classes of prohibited persons broader than those set forth under federal law (or made sales to those purchasers a state crime).
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That private property ought to be subservient to public uses when necessity requires it, nevertheless, whenever any person's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He has practiced in both the public and private sectors, including nine years as a Vermont Assistant Attorney General.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are 46 exemptions from the tax which include medical items, food, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. .A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax.^ Vermont, VT,sales tax rate is 6.00%.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

The buyer pays the use tax when the sellers fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Property taxes are imposed for the support of education and municipal services.
Vermont does not assess tax on intangible personal property. .Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes; however, its estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws and therefore the state still imposes its own estate tax.^ You cannot marry in Vermont to evade the laws of the state where you live.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marriage Laws United States Vermont Marriage license Laws in the state of Vermont, here is what you need to bring with you, and what you need to know about the Vermont marriage laws before filling out the Vermont marriage license form.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Minimum wage laws by state Job services in Vermont Libraries .
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

Government Finances

.Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement.^ His simple yes tipped the balance today in the state House of Representatives, making Vermont the fourth state in the country to legalize marriage between same-sex couples.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schools that wish to have their Web sites listed on this page may add their site information by visiting the State of Vermont "Schools - Suggest a Link" Web page and providing the required information.
  • Directories : Public Schools and Technical Centers (A - C) 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The license can only be used within the State of Vermont.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

[20] In 2007, Moody's Investors Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.[21]

Transportation

Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont. .The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Fair Haven, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro.^ Learning Network of Vermont (LNV) sites in: Barre, Rutland, South Burlington & White River Jct.
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Farmvu Dr. Suite 3, P.O. Box 919 White River Junction, VT 05001 .
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learning Network of Vermont (LNV) sites in: Berlin , Bristol, Chester, Concord, Fair Haven, Milton, South Burlington & Swanton 1:00 - 4:00 P .
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont.

Major Routes

.A 2005-6 study ranks Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance."^ Marriage Laws United States Vermont Marriage license Laws in the state of Vermont, here is what you need to bring with you, and what you need to know about the Vermont marriage laws before filling out the Vermont marriage license form.
  • Vermont Marriage License Laws > VT Wedding Officiants 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC usmarriagelaws.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More: MaxPreps Vermont State Rankings Xcellent 25 Girls Basketball Rankings: Texas duo lead No.
  • Vermont High School Sports - MaxPreps 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.maxpreps.com [Source type: General]

^ Vermont State Football Rankings .
  • Vermont High School Sports - MaxPreps 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.maxpreps.com [Source type: General]

The state fell 13 places in the rankings since 2004-5. The study notes that states heading the list have good roads on a thin budget.[22]
Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006.[23]

Local community public and private transportation

.
  • Addison County has the ACTR (Addison County Transit Resources) out of Middlebury, also serving Bristol and Vergennes.
  • Bennington County features the GME (American Red Cross Green Mountain Express) out of Bennington and the YT (Yankee Trails) running out of Rensselaer, New York.
  • The RCT (Rural Community Transportation) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties.
  • Burlington (home of the University of Vermont) has CCTA (Chittenden County Transportation Authority) and CATS (University of Vermont Campus Area Transportation System).
  • Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special Services Transportation Agency).
  • The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running out of Saint Albans, services Franklin and Grand Isle Counties.
  • Stowe, in Lamoille county, is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
  • STS (Stagecoach Transportation Services) out of Randolph in Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
  • Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional Transit District, MVRTD) out of Rutland.
  • In Washington county the GMTA (Green Mountain Transit Authority) runs out of the capital city, Montpelier.
  • Brattleboro in Windham county is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro Town Bus).^ Learning Network of Vermont (LNV) sites in: Berlin , Brattleboro, Bristol, Enosburg Falls, St. Albans & Vergennes 10:00 - 1:00 P .
    • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Glenn is admitted to practice in Vermont, New York and the District of Columbia.
    • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Burlington - University of Vermont - Center for Counseling and Testing - The former director saw the ghost of Captain Jacobs, a retired seaman who died there in the early part of the 20th century.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Windham is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver (Deerfield Valley Transit Association, DVTA).
  • Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal Transit System).^ She is a member of Saxtons River Art Guild, Vermont Watercolor Society, and Deerfield Valley Art Association.
    • GALLERY WALK, Brattleboro, Vermont - A Monthly First-Friday Celebration! 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.gallerywalk.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Addison County Bennington County Caledonia County Chittenden County Franklin County Lamoille County Orange County Orleans County Rutland County Washington County Windham County Windsor County .
    • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of Wilder and the CRT (Connecticut River Transit) out of Springfield, which also serves parts of Windham County.
  • There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham.^ Hartland - Sumner Falls - For nearly a century there have been reports of logger ghosts as they float down the Connecticut River near Sumner Falls.
    • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Vermont 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Barre Bennington Berlin Burlington-South Burlington Lebanon Rutland Find Vermont Lawyer, Legal Aid & Services Profiles by County .
    • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He is a member of the Chittenden County, Vermont, New York and District of Columbia Bar Associations.
    • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company.

Airports

Vermont is served by two commercial airports:

Media

Utilities and Communication

  • Broadband coverage as of 2006[24]
    • Total Coverage = 87%
    • Cable = 68%
    • DSL = 69%
    • Wireless Internet Service Provider = 24%
(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)
.Cell phone coverage in the state, generally, outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains, the attempt to serve a small rural population living in a large area rendering investment in improvements uneconomical, and environmentalists opposition to towers.^ What troubles me is that this issue should come to a popular vote and not simply be put upon the population at large regardless of majority wishes.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] Unicel, focusing on rural areas, has better coverage.[26]
.In May 2007 , Vermont passed measures intended to make Broadband ( 3mbits minimum ) together with Cellular coverage Universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-State in the Union by 2010 .^ Vermont is a State of Mind : I first moved to Vermont late 1968.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Schools that wish to have their Web sites listed on this page may add their site information by visiting the State of Vermont "Schools - Suggest a Link" Web page and providing the required information.
  • Directories : Public Schools and Technical Centers (A - C) 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All general laws passed pursuant to this section may be altered from time to time or repealed.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

A Synopsis of The Extent of this measure

Law and government

Constitutional

The Constitution of the State of Vermont

.Provision is made for the following "frame of government" under the Constitution of the State of Vermont: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch.^ The following is the complete text of the Vermont Constitution.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every officer, whether judicial, executive, or military, in authority under this State, before entering upon the execution of office, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation of allegiance to this State, (unless the officer shall produce evidence that the officer has before taken the same) and also the following oath or affirmation of office, except military officers, and such as shall be exempted by the Legislature.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.All members of the executive and legislative branch serve two-year terms including the governor and senators.^ The term of office of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Treasurer of the State, respectively, shall commence when they shall be chosen and qualified, and shall continue for the term of two years, or until their successors shall be chosen and qualified, or to the adjournment of the session of the Legislature at which, by the Constitution and laws, their successors are required to be chosen, and not after such adjournment.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The justices of the Supreme Court and judges of all subordinate courts, except Assistant Judges and Judges of Probate, shall hold office for terms of six years except when holding office under an interim appointment.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Representatives shall have the power to order impeachments, which shall in all cases be by a vote of two-thirds of its members.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

There are no term limits for any office.

Executive branch

.The current governor of Vermont is Jim Douglas, who assumed office in 2003. The offices of the Governor of Vermont are located at The Pavilion in Montpelier, the state capital.^ Read more About Montpelier, Vermont Montpelier with a population of about 8,000 people has the distinction of being the smallest capital city in the nation.
  • Vermont Homes for Sale - MLS Real Estate Listings 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.relohomesearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Legislature of Vermont was so very right to override the hate veto of Governor Jim Douglas.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vermonters elect a state governor and lieutenant governor on separate tickets.^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Governor until the person shall have resided in this State four years next preceding the day of election.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Lieutenant-Governor shall, by virtue of office, be Lieutenant-General of all the forces of the State.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, when Republican Governor Richard Snelling died in office in 1991, the Democratic Lieutenant Governor Howard Dean succeeded him for the remainder of that term.^ Vacancy in office of Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Treasurer .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of office of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Treasurer of the State, respectively, shall commence when they shall be chosen and qualified, and shall continue for the term of two years, or until their successors shall be chosen and qualified, or to the adjournment of the session of the Legislature at which, by the Constitution and laws, their successors are required to be chosen, and not after such adjournment.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lieutenant-Governor shall be President of the Senate, except when exercising the office of Governor, or when the office of the Lieutenant-Governor shall be vacant, or in the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor, in which cases the Senate shall appoint one of its own members to be President of the Senate, pro tempore.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, Vermonters elect four other officials on a statewide ballot: Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Vermont Auditor of Accounts, and Attorney General.^ He also serves as Secretary/Treasurer of the Vermont Chapter of NAELA, the National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys, as a long-time member and former chair of the Burlington Development Review Board and as a member of VERG, the Vermont Elder Resource Group.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Web c omments, suggestions, or errors for correction: DOE-Webmanager@state.vt.us General questions about education in Vermont: DOE-EdInfo@state.vt.us .
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The Vermont unemployment insurance program can help you financially if you are temporarily unemployed.  We have also provided the contact information and/or website link for the other 49 states' unemployment insurance programs.
  • Vermont Assistance Programs for Pregnant Women and Birth Mothers. Plus Adoption Agencies, Laws, Types of Adoption 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.adoptionservices.org [Source type: General]

Local government
.There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont, towns, cities and villages.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ A number of cities in Vermont have municipal charters that specifically grant city bodies the authority to regulate or prohibit the possession and use of firearms.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This section shall not limit the powers conferred upon a town, city or incorporated village under section 2291(8) of this title.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

.As in the other New England states, towns are the basic unit of municipal government.^ Organizations he has presented for include the Alzheimer's Association of Vermont, the Asperger's Association of Northern New England, the State of Vermont Retirement System, the Vermont Bar Association and the Vermont Trial Lawyers Association.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cities are independent of and equivalent to towns. Villages are included in towns but assume responsibility for some municipal services within their boundaries, usually water, sewage and sometimes local roads. .Incorporated villages are not found in any of the other New England states.^ I am so proud of my fellow New England states.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Organizations he has presented for include the Alzheimer's Association of Vermont, the Asperger's Association of Northern New England, the State of Vermont Retirement System, the Vermont Bar Association and the Vermont Trial Lawyers Association.
  • Vermont Attorney Profiles - VT Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. .Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as County and State Courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff.^ Election of assistant judges, sheriffs, state's attorneys, judges of probate, and justices of the peace .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court shall have administrative control of all the courts of the state, and disciplinary authority concerning all judicial officers and attorneys at law in the State.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governor is to correspond with other States, transact business with officers of government, civil and military, and prepare such business as may appear necessary, to lay before the General Assembly.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.All county services are directly funded by the State of Vermont.^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Minimum wage laws by state Job services in Vermont Libraries .
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

Legislative branch

.Vermont's state legislature is the Vermont General Assembly, a bicameral body composed of the Vermont House of Representatives (the lower house) and the Vermont Senate (the upper house) meet at the Vermont State House.^ Web c omments, suggestions, or errors for correction: DOE-Webmanager@state.vt.us General questions about education in Vermont: DOE-EdInfo@state.vt.us .
  • Calendar of Department-sponsored Events 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC education.vermont.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The general Assembly shall meet biennially on the first Wednesday next after the first Monday of January, beginning in A.D. 1915.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Senate is composed of 30 state senators, while the House of Representatives has 150 members.^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided , That all Revenue bills shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur in amendments, as on other bills.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Legislative power shall be exercised by a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Judicial branch

.The Vermont Supreme Court is the state supreme court, made up of five justices who serve six year terms.^ In Vermont today, Bill Lippert, an openly gay Democrat who serves as the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, said he was deeply touched by the vote.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This show includes paintings and prints made throughout the past six years.
  • GALLERY WALK, Brattleboro, Vermont - A Monthly First-Friday Celebration! 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.gallerywalk.org [Source type: General]

^ The chief justice may from time to time appoint retired justices and judges to special assignments as permitted under the rules of the Supreme Court.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Superior courts in the state are made up of eight judges serving a term of six years.^ This show includes paintings and prints made throughout the past six years.
  • GALLERY WALK, Brattleboro, Vermont - A Monthly First-Friday Celebration! 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.gallerywalk.org [Source type: General]

^ All justices of the Supreme Court and judges of all subordinate courts shall be retired at the end of the calendar year in which they attain seventy years of age or at the end of the term of election during which they attain seventy years of age, as the case may be, and shall be pensioned as provided by law.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The justices of the Supreme Court and judges of all subordinate courts, except Assistant Judges and Judges of Probate, shall hold office for terms of six years except when holding office under an interim appointment.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Appointments to the state supreme court, superior court, and district courts are made by the governor, from a list of names submitted by the state's Judicial Nominating Committee and then are confirmed by the Senate.^ The campaign to legalize marriage for same-sex couples was jump-started in Massachusetts, where the Supreme Judicial Court ruled in 2004 that it was necessary to fulfill the equal-protection clause in the state Constitution.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall fill a vacancy in the office of the Chief justice of the State, associate justice of the Supreme Court or judge of any other court, except the office of Assistant Judge and of Judge of Probate, from a list of nominees presented by a judicial nominating body established by the General Assembly having authority to apply reasonable standards of selection.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Senate is not in session, the Governor may make an interim appointment to fill a vacancy in the office of chief justice, associate justice of the Supreme Court or judge of any other court, except the office of Assistant Judge and of Judge of Probate, from a list of nominees presented by the judicial nominating body.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of each six year term, the General Assembly votes by joint ballot (each member, senator or representative, getting one vote) on whether to retain the judge or justice (known as a judicial retention vote).^ Terms of senators and representatives .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The votes and proceedings of the General Assembly shall be printed (when one-third of the members of either House think it necessary) as soon as convenient after the end of the session, with the yeas and nays of the House of Representatives on any question when required by five members, and of the Senate when required by one Senator, (except where the votes shall be taken by ballot), in which case every member of either House shall have a right to insert the reasons of the member's vote upon the minutes.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When such justice or judge gives the required notice, the question of continuance in office shall be submitted to the General Assembly and the justice or judge shall continue in office for another term of six years unless a majority of the members of the General Assembly voting on the question vote against continuation in office.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Judges on lower courts are elected on a partisan ballot. The Vermont Constitution spells out the process of judicial appointment and retention in Chapter 2, Sections 32 through 35, 50 and 51. [27]
.Vermont is one of twelve states that have no death penalty statute.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Vermont Statutes Annotated title 24, 2295 states: .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That no person in this state can in any case be subjected to law martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law except those employed in the army, and the militia in actual service.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.After 1930, there were four executions, the last two being in 1954. Capital punishment was effectively abolished in practice in 1964, with the statutes being completely removed in 1987. State law allows children as young as ten years to be tried as adults, the lowest age limit currently specified by any of the 50 states.^ The term of office of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Treasurer of the State, respectively, shall commence when they shall be chosen and qualified, and shall continue for the term of two years, or until their successors shall be chosen and qualified, or to the adjournment of the session of the Legislature at which, by the Constitution and laws, their successors are required to be chosen, and not after such adjournment.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall be elected a Representative or a Senator until the person has resided in this State two years, the last year of which shall be in the legislative district for which the person is elected.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I lived in Vermont for 32 years and raised my children there.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

The Vermont prison system is administered by Vermont Department of Corrections.[28] There are about 2,200 inmates as of May 2007.[29] There are nine prisons in Vermont:
  • Caledonia Community Work Camp
  • Chittenden Regional Correctional Facility
  • Dale Women's Facility
  • Marble Valley Regional Correctional Facility
  • Northern State Correctional Facility, Newport
  • Northwest State Correctional Facility
  • Southeast State Correctional Facility
  • Southern State Correctional Facility
  • St. Johnsbury Regional Correctional Facility
  • Windsor Women's Correctional Facility
.An unusual feature of Vermont Courts are two side Side Judges for county courts, who are elected as officers of the court and participate in non-legal decisions by the court, such as guilt or innocence or voting in tort cases.^ Counties in Vermont appear to have no legislative authority and are primarily responsible for the organization of the county court system.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court shall exercise appellate jurisdiction in all cases, criminal and civil, under such terms and conditions as it shall specify in rules not inconsistent with law.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But, in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House, respectively.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

In addition to their judicial duties, the two Side Judges serve as administrators of the County government. They appoint the County clerk, Treasurer and Auditor, County Road commissioners, Notaries Public and care for the County Court House plus care and maintenance of any other county-owned property.

Civil rights and liberties

The Vermont Constitution outlines and guarantees broad rights for its citizens. Even in the eighteenth century it was seen as being among the most far-reaching in the new world and in Europe, and it predated the Bill of Rights by a dozen years. .The Constitution's first chapter, "Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of The State of Vermont" prohibits slavery, indentured servitude, and allowed for universal suffrage for men, regardless of property ownership.^ When the revision is certified by the Justices or a majority thereof to the Secretary of State, it shall be a substitute for existing Chapters I and II of the Constitution.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The inhabitants of this State shall be trained and armed for its defense, under such regulations, restrictions, and exceptions, as Congress, agreeably to the Constitution of the United States, and the Legislature of this State, shall direct.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Declaration of Rights set in place broad protections of religious freedom and conscience while erecting a strong firewall between church and state by prohibiting establishment or promotion of any faith by the government or compulsion to worship.^ Freedom in religion; right and duty of religious worship ( notes ) .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Vermont has not adopted any classes of prohibited persons broader than those set forth under federal law (or made sales to those purchasers a state crime).
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The "Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of The State of Vermont" is believed to have been a model for France's Déclaration universelle sur des droits de l'homme (Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man).^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of the political Rights and privileges of the inhabitants of this State, is hereby declared to be a part of the Constitution of this Commonwealth; and ought not to be violated on any pretense whatsoever.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE STATE OF VERMONT .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Federal legislative representation

.Vermont is represented in the U.S. Senate by Patrick Leahy, a Democrat, and Bernie Sanders, an independent, caucusing with the Democrats.^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Senate and the House of Representatives shall be styled, The General Assembly of the State of Vermont .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Vermont made history with Sanders's election as the first Democratic Socialist to be elected to the Senate.^ Senators and Representatives shall be elected to office at a general election to be held biennially on the first Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, A.D. 1974.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall be two years, commencing on the first Wednesday next after the first Monday of January following their election.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Sanders has served as Vermont's sole US Representative from 1991-2007 and also served as mayor of Burlington (Vermont's largest city) from 1981-1988. In the U.S. House of Representatives, Vermont's single congressional district is represented by Peter Welch, a Democrat.^ In Vermont today, Bill Lippert, an openly gay Democrat who serves as the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, said he was deeply touched by the vote.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His simple yes tipped the balance today in the state House of Representatives, making Vermont the fourth state in the country to legalize marriage between same-sex couples.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Among Vermont's distinguished public servants, U.S. Senator Winston Prouty (R) gained national prominence as an early critic of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Upon his departure from the Republican Party, Senator Jeffords cited the late Senator Prouty, a member of Vermont's most prominent political family, for the latter's legendary spirit of independence. George Aiken (R), who served as senator from 1941 until 1975, was equally prominent; he is perhaps best known for his proposal that the United States declare victory in Vietnam and leave.

Statutory

The age of consent in Vermont is 16.
.Vermont is one of only two states in the Union to allow any adult to carry a concealed firearm without any sort of permit.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ I have absolutely NO problem with gays couples having the same rights as any other couple and think that the state should allow such unions.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All I can see here is that marriage is being amended to define the union between TWO CONSENTING ADULTS (dictated by age which varies by state law).
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vermont is one of four states (along with Alaska, Hawaii, and Maine) to have prohibited all billboards from view of highway rights-of-way by law, except for signs on the contiguous property of the business location.^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That all people have a natural and inherent right to emigrate from one state to another that will receive them.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The style of the laws of this State shall be, It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Public nudity is legal in Vermont, though not disrobing in public.[30]
Vermont is an Alcoholic beverage control state. Beer and wine may be sold in local grocery stores unless the town in which it is located has voted "dry" at their town meeting. Only state licensed establishments may sell stronger alcoholic beverages in bottles. The quantity of these stores is limited. Prices are set by the state. The state directly controls the licensing of establishments that sell alcoholic beverages by the drink.

Medical

As a result of statutory benefits like Dr. Dynasaur, Vermont, with 9.5% of the population with no medical insurance, has the second best coverage in the country, as of 2004.[31]

Political

Main article: Politics of Vermont
See also: United States Congressional Delegations from Vermont and Category:Vermont elections
Vermonters are known for their political independence. .Vermont is one of the few states that was an independent republic.^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. .Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont and Maine were the only states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in his second election.^ Vermont is only the fourth state to be enlightened, but we all pray to our own gods.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vermont's unique history and history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession.^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[32] .In 2007, about 13% of Vermont's population supported Vermont's withdrawal from the Republic.^ There are about 13 students per teacher in Vermont.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

This is almost double the amount from 2005, which was 8%.[33][34]
The Vermont government maintains a proactive stance regarding the environment, social services, and prevention of urbanization. Legislators have recently tended to vote liberal on social issues, and moderate to conservative on fiscal issues.
Republicans dominated Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.
.In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state.^ I moved out of state in '71 to the Bay Area, CA and after 5 years I moved to southern MN. I finally returned to VT in 1979.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont.[35]
.After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote, it passed legislation to accommodate these new arrivals.^ The General Assembly shall provide for the manner of voting on amendments proposed under this section, and shall enact legislation to carry the provisions of this section into effect.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities.^ The Bible also says that women should marry their rapists, that widows must marry their brothers-in-law, and that divorce should be illegal - how many "Christians" do you hear ranting that the state should forbid the remarriage of divorcees like the Reagans, though?
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are four, as of December 2006, but only one was a newly-built big box), is currently the only state without a Lowe's or Target (as of September 2007), and it remains the only state without a McDonald's restaurant or big box store within the city limits of the capital.^ You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to the State of Vermont and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act or thing injurious to the Constitution or Government thereof.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

.After several years of debates and deliberation, a Lowe's is currently being constructed, and will open on U.S. Route 7 in South Burlington in January, 2008.^ Directions: Route 7, Ferrisburgh VT, mid-way between Burlington & Middlebury ( 9 miles south of Vermont Teddy Bear Company) .
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

.Another case involves the recent controversy over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage.^ He blesses my same sex marriage.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marriage is not a privilege, it's a right - and will be a right for all citizens.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marriage is a civil right.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

In Baker v. .Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them.^ He blesses my same sex marriage.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iowas Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage last week.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The campaign to legalize marriage for same-sex couples was jump-started in Massachusetts, where the Supreme Judicial Court ruled in 2004 that it was necessary to fulfill the equal-protection clause in the state Constitution.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean.^ Anyway, I'm a queer Vermonter, and honestly, when our governor vetoed the bill yesterday he was fighting no less than the laws of thermodynamics.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I should mention) Also- my vermont taxes will be simpler-- AND--> not have to explain my civil union 'thingy' to those who do not understand extensive laws...
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vermont is the home state of the only current member of the United States Congress who does not associate with a political party: Senator Bernie Sanders.^ Wikipedia's Vermont Republic page and the Vermont Historical Society's Freedom and Unity pages are very nice resources detailing the independence of Vermont from 1777 to 1791, when we joined the United States.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed by a Governor (or Lieutenant-Governor), a Senate and a House of Representatives in manner and form following: .
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The inhabitants of this State shall be trained and armed for its defense, under such regulations, restrictions, and exceptions, as Congress, agreeably to the Constitution of the United States, and the Legislature of this State, shall direct.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 1960s many progressive Vermont Republicans and newcomers to the state helped bolster the state's small Democratic Party.^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Until 1992, Vermont had supported a Democrat for president only once since the party's founding—in Lyndon Johnson's 1964 landslide victory against Barry Goldwater. .In 1992, it supported Democrat Bill Clinton for president and has voted for Democrats in every presidential election since.^ In Vermont today, Bill Lippert, an openly gay Democrat who serves as the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, said he was deeply touched by the vote.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator Bill Doyle, a Republican from Washington County who supported the same-sex marriage bill, in the end voted against it.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush, taking almost 59% of the vote. .Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush.^ Any proposed amendment submitted to the voters of the state in accordance with this section which is approved by a majority of the voters voting thereon shall become part of the Constitution of this State.
  • The Vermont Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election. Vermonters are frequent ticket-splitters.[36]
In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratically controlled House of Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63.[37]
Minor parties flourish. .Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont.^ Reasons to Move to Vermont : Even though a Vermont town couldn't make the charts for one of the most romantic cities, the state in general makes the top ten economically.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

^ Beautiful State - But May Not Be Able to Afford It : I have lived in Vermont most of my life.
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections.
A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. .This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.^ I heard on the news tonight that Vermont topped yet another list of the most taxed...
  • Vermont, Vermont (VT) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: General]

[38][39]
A movement favors separating Vermont from the U.S. or making it the 11th province of Canada. Some suggest the state should join Canada due to its liberal policies as opposed to remaining with the U.S. [40][41]

Taxation

Property taxes are levied by towns based on fair market appraisal. Rates vary from .97% on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on nonresidents property in Barre City.[42] Statewide towns average 1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.[43]

State Lotteries

Money from state lotteries supply 2% of the annual expenditures for education.[44][45]

Town Government

Like most of New England, Vermont has a weak, nearly non-existent, county government. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.[46]

Public Health and Safety

Vermont was ranked number two in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria.[47]
.In 2007 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the sixth time in seven years.^ Time to make every gift one "made in Vermont."
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors.[48] In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.[49]
In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities.[50]
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts of smog per billion which is undesirable.[51]

Education

Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006.[52] In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias.[53]
.The state authorized two more pre-K grades to the school system for the benefit of three and four year olds.^ I had four years of theo and church history at a monastic college, and taught religion myself - until I couldn't lie to students any more.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Entry to these two grades is capped.[54]
According to one study, enrolment in kindergarten through 12th grade has declined by nearly 10 percent during the 1990s. During the same period total staff numbers have increased by more than 20 percent. Per pupil spending grew from $6,073 in 1990 to $13,664 in 2006.[55] A study by the Census Bureau lists Vermont with the fourth highest expenditure per pupil in the country at $11,835 for 2005.[56]

Academies and grammar schools

Vermont's 1777 constitution was the first in English-speaking North America to mandate public funding for universal education. This requirement was first met by elementary-level village schools with sessions held in the cooler months to accommodate farm work. Most schools educated similar numbers of girls and boys. Conditions in these schools varied, and the highest level of instruction was tenth grade. By the end of the eighteenth century, grammar schools, instructing students in English, algebra, geometry, Greek, and Latin, had been established at Bennington, Burlington, Castleton, Middlebury, Montpelier, and Windsor. These grammar schools were of a higher caliber than the smaller villages' schools, and the level of education at some was equivalent to college level.
.By the middle nineteenth century, an expansion in settlement and the population of the state, coupled with increased prosperity, brought grammar schools to all corners of Vermont.^ Posted by Vicky April 8, 09 07:54 AM Once again, Vermont shows itself to be an open, progressive state that believes in equality for all!
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His simple yes tipped the balance today in the state House of Representatives, making Vermont the fourth state in the country to legalize marriage between same-sex couples.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vermont is only the fourth state to be enlightened, but we all pray to our own gods.
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

Even the most remote Northeast Kingdom had established high-school-level instruction in Brownington, Craftsbury, Danville, Hardwick, and Newport. Many of these established grammar schools and academies, though not entirely public, received funds from area town governments in exchange for education of their students. As a system of public funding for primary and secondary education took root, many of these schools became municipal public schools. Several remained private, becoming private high-school-level academies, and several become colleges; the Orange County Grammar School became Vermont Technical College, the Rutland County Grammar School became Castleton State College, the Lamoille County Grammar School became Johnson State College, and the Addison County Grammar School became Middlebury College.

Educating teachers

In the 1860s a shortage of qualified teachers brought the establishment of state "normal schools," a term based on the French term école normale – a school to train teachers. The grammar schools at Castleton, Johnson, and Randolph Center became normal schools, additional normal schools were established in Concord and Lyndonville. Additional post secondary schools instructing students to become teachers were called seminaries. While several were nominally associated with Protestant churches, none were seminaries in the sense of training ministers. These seminars also graduated teachers to staff Vermont's growing number of primary and secondary schools.

The one-room school house

The one-room school house, born of small multi-age rural populations, continued well into the twentieth century. Rural towns without a single central village often built two to a half-dozen school houses across their terrain. Much of this came from a lack of transportation and a need for students to return home by mid afternoon for farm chores. .By 1920 all public schools, including the one-room school houses, were regulated by the state government.^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

In the early 1930s state legislation established a review and certification program similar to accreditation. Schools were issued regulations about teacher education and curriculum. Education quality in rural areas was maintained through a program called Vermont Standard Schools. Rural school houses meeting certification requirements displayed a green and white plaque with the Vermont coat of arms and the words "Vermont Standard School."

Higher education

During the period of the Vermont Republic several towns on the east side of the Connecticut River were part of Vermont. This included Hanover, and Dartmouth College. Statehood brought about establishment of the Connecticut River as a natural border. Having lost Dartmouth College, Ira Allen established the University of Vermont (UVM) in 1791 to complement the smaller college at Castleton. By the mid-twentieth century all but one of the state normal schools, and many of the seminaries, had become four-year colleges of liberal arts and sciences. Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. Today Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, UVM, fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Middlebury College, a private, co-educational liberal arts college founded in 1800, Champlain College, a Burlington college founded in 1878, the Vermont Law School at Royalton, and Norwich University, the oldest private military college in the United States and birthplace of ROTC, founded in 1819.

Sports

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, formerly the Vermont Expos, a single-A minor league baseball team based in Burlington.
The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 national champions, are a franchise of the American Basketball Association (Blue Conference), and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006.
Vermont is home to a semi-professional football team, the Ice Storm,[57] based in South Hero.[58] It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League.
The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans.

Cultural Pursuits

.Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green [1], the Enosburg Falls Dairy Festival, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Mozart Festival.^ TheNinth Annual Vermont Maple Open House Weekend will be held at sugarhouses throughout Vermont, March 26-28, 2010.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

.The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area.^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
  • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions from members of various ages. .Every year they hold various contests - one being for high school age young people.^ All I can see here is that marriage is being amended to define the union between TWO CONSENTING ADULTS (dictated by age which varies by state law).
  • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual Green Mountain Film Festival. In the Northeast Kingdom, The Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
One of Vermont's best known musical exports was the group Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont. The state had always held great importance for Phish—for example, lead singer and guitarist Trey Anastasio built a studio in Vermont used by the band and others, called The Barn. Phish ended their tenure together as a band with a farewell concert weekend in the state's Northeast Kingdom, which was dubbed "Coventry" after (in part) the venue city of Coventry, on August 16, 2004.

State symbols

Main article: State symbols of Vermont
The hermit thrush is Vermont's state bird.
State symbols include:
Vermont is distinct for being among only three U.S. states with both a state seal and a coat of arms. Vermont is the only U.S. state to have a heraldically correct blazon describing its coat of arms.

Notable Vermonters

Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur.
The list of famous people from Vermont is an incomplete, alphabetized list of famous people who at one point called Vermont their home.

Notable fictional Vermonters

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_by_GDP_per_capita_%28nominal%29
  3. ^ Rankings tend to favor higher cost of living areas and downrate lower cost of living areas
  4. ^ Percentages may not add up to exactly 100% because of rounding
  5. ^ http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrelarchive/2006/gsp1006.htm
  6. ^ Figure includes the possible economic affect on all other areas in addition to Agriculture. This explains the wide variance with the figure in GSP above
  7. ^ Vermont Sustainable Agriculture Council. Vermont's Agriculture: Generating Wealth from the Land. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  8. ^ http://www.vermontdairy.com/dairy_industry/farms/numbers
  9. ^ ((cite web | author = Vermont Maple Sugar Makers Assoc. | title=Maple Facts |url=http://www.vermontmaple.org/maplefacts.html | access date = 2007-04-08))
  10. ^ Liz Halloran (2007). Vermont's War. US News and World Report, January 22, page 45. 
  11. ^ Curran, John (July 29, 2007). Winemakers hope new state council will help them grow. Burlington Free Press. 
  12. ^ The Burlington Free Press, February 28, 2007,page 8C, "IBM:Enriching economy for 50 years."
  13. ^ Vermont Business Roundtable. Housing Prices, Availability, and Affordability in Vermont. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  14. ^ http://www.empirecenter.org/2007/01/unions_shrink_e.php
  15. ^ A separate study shows over 325,000 workers in 2000!http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/hcadiv/Data_Reports/healthinsurmarket/SurveyVTFamilyHealth2000/DataTables126_146/128_WorkingStatewideOfferFirm.PDF
  16. ^ http://aol.salary.com/careersandwork/salary/articles/atcl_careeradvice.asp?atc=593
  17. ^ Insurance Information Institute. Captives & Other Risk-Financing Options. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  18. ^ DatabankUSA,AARP Bulletin, April 2007, compiled from figures from the US Census
  19. ^ http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/pf/0704/gallery.tax_friendliest/8.html
  20. ^ http://www.ncsl.org/programs/fiscal/balbuda.htm
  21. ^ Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2007, Business, page 7A, Moody's gives highest bond rating to Vermont.
  22. ^ http://www.reason.org/ps360.pdf
  23. ^ (August 4, 2007) State to inspect bridges similar to Minn. span. Burlington Free Press.  page 1B
  24. ^ http://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070208/NEWS01/702080306/1009/NEWS05
  25. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3675/is_200310/ai_n9323531
  26. ^ http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20070105/085242.shtml
  27. ^ http://www.leg.state.vt.us/statutes/const2.htm
  28. ^ http://www.doc.state.vt.us/
  29. ^ Lefebvre, Paul (May 2, 2007). This week in the Legislature. the Chronicle. 
  30. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2006/08/23/law_of_nature_prevails_in_vermont/
  31. ^ http://healthsignals.typepad.com/newyork/health_economics/index.html
  32. ^ These relatively small political movements are similar in nature to those found in [[Texas|]]; although the historical contexts are variant.
  33. ^ http://www.vermontrepublic.org
  34. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2007/06/03/in_vermont_nascent_secession_movement_gains_traction
  35. ^ The World. Rise of the Democratic Party. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  36. ^ Vermont General Elections. For Governor. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  37. ^ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=54843
  38. ^ http://www.nhpr.org/node/8429
  39. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/Northeast/03/02/killington.secession.ap/
  40. ^ http://www.vermontcanada.org/reasons.html Vermont Canada retrieved on June 6, 2007
  41. ^ http://baheyeldin.com/canada/state-of-vermont-wants-to-join-canada.html retrieved on June 6, 2007
  42. ^ {{PDFlink|http://www.vermontproperty.com/newsltr/2005effectivetaxrates.pdf|111 KiB
  43. ^ http://education.vermont.gov/new/html/laws/act60.html
  44. ^ http://www.vtlottery.com/faqs/faqs.asp#q1
  45. ^ http://www.rutlandherald.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070128/NEWS/701280392/1041/LEGISLATURE
  46. ^ town offices
  47. ^ Morgan Quitno Press
  48. ^ http://money.aol.com/mortgage/healthiest-states
  49. ^ http://body.aol.com/news/articles/_a/south-lags-in-report-card-on-health-care/20070613144709990001
  50. ^ Vermont information Times Daily, retrieved on [[2007-10-14|]]
  51. ^ Overberg, Paul,Hundreds of counties would fail smog standards,USA Today, June 22, 2007
  52. ^ Walsh, Molly (June 8, 2007). Vermont doing better than most. Burlington Free Press. 
  53. ^ King, Ledyard (June 8, 2007). State tests put image ahead of performance. Burlington Free Press. 
  54. ^ McClaughry, John (June 13, 2007). Pending: a 15-year public school system. the Chronicle. 
  55. ^ http://www.vermonttiger.com/content/files/vpeex_summary.pdf retrieved July 9, 2007
  56. ^ http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/education/010125.html accessed September 15, 2007
  57. ^ Vermont Ice Storm Home Page
  58. ^ The term "semi-pro" is somewhat misleading since League rules prohibit paying team members. In fact, members pay to play.

Bibliography

  • Albers, Jan. Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont Landscape. MIT Press: 2000. ISBN 0-262-01175-1.
  • Allen, Ira [1798] (1969). .The natural and political history of the State of Vermont, one of the United States of America.^ The Open House Weekend is the public celebration of the maple syrup season in Vermont and an opportunity for the public to visit one or more "sugarhouses" throughout the state.
    • Annual Maple Open House Weekend - Vermont Maple Sugar Makers' Association & Vermont Maple Foundation 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vermontmaple.org [Source type: General]

    Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2.
     
  • Bryan, Frank, and John McClaughry. "The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale." Chelsea Green Publishing: 1989. ISBN 0-930031-19-9.
  • Cohen, David Elliot, and Rick Smolan. Vermont 24/7. DK Publishing: 2004. ISBN 0-7566-0086-3.
  • Coffin, Howard. .Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War. The Countryman Press: 1995. ISBN 0-88150-349-5.
  • Doyle, William T. "The Vermont Political Tradition and Those Who Helped Make It."^ I should mention) Also- my vermont taxes will be simpler-- AND--> not have to explain my civil union 'thingy' to those who do not understand extensive laws...
    • Vermont lawmakers legalize gay marriage - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe 8 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

    Doyle Publisher: 1987. ISBN 0-9615486-1-4.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. Vermont: An Illustrated History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN 1-892724-08-1.
  • Duffy, John J., et al. The Vermont Encyclopedia. University Press of New England: 2003. ISBN 1-58465-086-9.
  • Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Vermont. Vermont: A guide to the Green Mountain State. Houghton Mifflin: 1937.
  • Grant, Kim, et al. Vermont: An Explorer's Guide. The Countryman Press: 2002. ISBN 0-88150-519-6.
  • Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. University Press of New England: 1999. ISBN 0-87451-936-5.
  • Potash, P. Jeffrey, et al. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Vermont Historical Society: 2004. ISBN 0-934720-49-5.
  • Meeks, Harold A. Vermont's Land and Resources, The New England Press: 1968. ISBN 0-933050-40-2.
  • Hunter, Preston. "Religion in Vermont". Adherents.com.
  • Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill: 1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3.
  • Sherman, Joe. Fast Lane on a Dirt Road: A Contemporary History of Vermont. Chelsea Green Publishing Company: 2000. ISBN 1-890132-74-8.
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England. Westport, CT, 2004.
  • Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. DeLorme: 2000. ISBN 0-89933-322-2.
  • Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 

External links

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Preceded by
Rhode Island
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 4, 1791 (14th)
Succeeded by
Kentucky
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Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Vermont" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Vermont
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Vermont]]
Flag of Vermont Great Seal of Vermont
Also called: The Green Mountain State
Saying(s): Freedom and Unity
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Vermont highlighted]]
Official language(s) None
Capital Montpelier
Largest city Burlington
Area  Ranked 45th
 - Total 9,620 sq mi
(24,923 km²)
 - Width 80 miles (130 km)
 - Length 160 miles (260 km)
 - % water 3.8
 - Latitude 42°44'N to 45°0'43"N
 - Longitude 71°28'W to 73°26'W
Number of people  Ranked 50th
 - Total (2010) 625,741[1]
 - Density 67.9/sq mi 
25.1/km² (32nd)
 - Average income  $45,692 (19th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Mount Mansfield[2]
4,393 ft  (1,340 m)
 - Average 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 - Lowest point Lake Champlain[2]
95 ft  (29 m)
Became part of the U.S.  March 4, 1791 (14th)
Governor Peter Shumlin[3]
U.S. Senators Patrick Leahy (D)[4]
Bernie Sanders (I)[5]
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4 (DST)
Abbreviations VT US-VT
Web site www.vermont.gov

Vermont is a state in the United States. Its capital is the city of Montpelier, and its largest city is Burlington.

Vermont borders Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

Vermont became a state in 1791 C.E. It is world-renowned for its maple syrup industry, and many tourists go to see brilliant colors the trees become in the fall months. The tourism industry has become quite successful, with many tourists coming every year.

References

  1. "Resident Population Data". 2010.census.gov. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-dens-text.php. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 8, 2006. 
  3. "About The Governor". governor.vermont.gov. http://governor.vermont.gov/about-the-governor. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  4. "About Senator Leahy". leahy.senate.gov. http://leahy.senate.gov/biography/. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  5. "About Bernie". sanders.senate.gov. http://sanders.senate.gov/about/. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 

frr:Vermont


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Vermont, which are similar to those in the above article.








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