Vesuvius: Wikis

  

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Mount Vesuvius

Mt. .Vesuvius as seen from the ruins of Pompeii, which was destroyed in the eruption of AD 79.^ In destroying Pompeii, Vesuvius also preserved it.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mt Vesuvius is perhaps best known for burying the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum with hot lava flows and debris in A.D. 79.
  • Newsletter of March 2005 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.theyfly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient naturalist Pliny the Elder was killed while observing the eruption in AD79 that destroyed Pompeii .
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

The active cone is the high peak on the left side; the smaller one on the right is part of the Somma caldera wall.
Elevation 1,281 m (4,203 ft)
Location
Map showing Province of Naples, Italy
Mount Vesuvius
Coordinates 40°49′N 14°26′E / 40.817°N 14.433°E / 40.817; 14.433Coordinates: 40°49′N 14°26′E / 40.817°N 14.433°E / 40.817; 14.433
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Age of rock 25,000 years before present to 1944
Volcanic arc/belt Campanian volcanic arc
Last eruption 1944
Climbing
Easiest route Walk
.Mount Vesuvius (in Italian Monte Vesuvio and in Latin Mons Vesuvius) is a stratovolcano east of Naples, Italy.^ The first volcano we will examine is Mount Vesuvius in Naples, Italy.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mount Vesuvius ( Italian : Monte Vesuvio , Latin: Mons Vesuvius ) is a volcano east of Naples , Italy .
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ill-fated city of Naples sits smack between two volcanic threats -- the Phlegraean Fields to the West and to the East the giant Vesuvius.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years, although it is not currently erupting.^ It is the only volcano on the Europe an mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years, although it is not currently erupting.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vesuvius is the only one to have erupted within recent history, although some of the others have erupted within the last few hundred years.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the volcano erupts on average every 9 years, the last major eruption was in 1975.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two other volcanoes in Italy, (Etna and Stromboli) are located on islands.^ The only other two such volcanoes in Italy (Etna and Stromboli ) are located on islands.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal of this lesson is for the students to have a clear understanding of the hazards associated with two different types of volcanoes and how the hazards are related to their locations on our planet.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton (1772) eventually compiled these letters and reports into a book about Mount Vesuvius, Mount Etna, and other volcanoes.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mount Vesuvius is on the coast of the Bay of Naples, about nine kilometres (six miles) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.^ Vesuvius is on the coast of the Bay of Naples , about nine kilometres (six miles) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From across the bay, a seventeen year old youth watched as Mount Vesuvius turned into a fuming monster.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read More Recently viewed clear Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius Tour - Tour from Naples .
  • Pompeii and Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

.It is conspicuous in the beautiful landscape presented by that bay, when seen from the sea, with Naples in the foreground.^ In views of Naples it is seen as a ridge to the left of the present cone.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once in Sorrento, we’ll cross the Bay of Naples to one of the world’s most beautiful vacation destinations, the Isle of Capri .
  • Travel to Italy :: Perillo Tours - Since 1945 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.perillotours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gazing across the Bay of Naples, what you see is a beautiful, calm, shapely mountain framed against the blue sky.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and the death of 10,000 to 25,000 people.^ Understandably, the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Vesuvius that buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in A.D. 79 attracted considerable attention.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vesuvius erupted on August 24-25, AD 79, the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum were caught in the midst of daily activities.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

^ Book Barker: "In this book about the AD 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, the focus is on the bodies.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

.It has erupted many times since and is today regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby and its tendency towards explosive (Plinian) eruptions.^ This is an area where many people cannot live.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What time does the volcano erupt?
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been destroyed and rebuilt on four separate occasions, including the most recent, World War II. Arrive at Naples and proceed towards the hill of Posillipo, from were you can enjoy spectacular views of the Gulf of Naples and the volcano, Vesuvius.
  • Naples and Mount Vesuvius Tour - Piazza del Plebiscito, Royal Palace, Basilica of San Francesco di P 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

.It is the most densely populated volcanic region in the world.^ This ripe and teeming city is one of the most densely populated places in the world.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOVA: Downwind/Downstream - Poison in the Rockies NOVA: Mystery of the Senses - Hearing Through this video we travel around the world to some of the most remote regions...
  • NOVA: Deadly Shadow of Vesuvius (1998) - Synopsis - MSN Movies 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Mount St. Helens is located on the Cascade Range (of which Mount Rainier at 4392 metres is the highest), which is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire – the most volcanic active part of the world.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mount Vesuvius was regarded by the Greeks and Romans as being sacred to the hero and demigod Heracles/Hercules, and the town of Herculaneum, built at its base, was named after him.^ So the book takes place over the 2 days prior to Pompeii being UTTERLY DESTROYED by Mount Vesuvius, plus the 2 days that the eruption lasts.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Understandably, the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Vesuvius that buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in A.D. 79 attracted considerable attention.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many of the Greek and Roman references to Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields in Italy, Mount Etna in Sicily, the Lipari Islands, and Santorini near Crete contain descriptions of landforms and eruptions.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Origin of the name

Some of the theories about the origin of the name Vesuvius include:
  • Heracles was a son of the Greek god Zeus and the queen Alcmene of Thebes. Zeus was also known as Huēs (Template:Polyonic) in his aspect as the god of rains and dews. Heracles was thus alternatively known as Huēsou huios, "Son of Hues." Transliterating the "ου" as "V" (as is normally done), and the other upsilons (with rough breathing) also by V (rather than the usual "HY") and changing to the Latin nominative ending "us", gives VESVVIVSVesuvius.
  • From the Oscan word festf which means "smoke".
  • From the Proto-Indo-European root ves- = "hearth"[citation needed]

Physical appearance

A view of the crater wall of Vesuvius, with Naples in the background
.Vesuvius is a distinctive "humpbacked" mountain, consisting of a large cone (Gran Cono) partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher[1] structure called Monte Somma.^ Monte Somma is the name of an ancient crater wall which forms a semicircular cliff to the north and east of the modern cone.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the fourth group of Vesuvian minerals are referred those species that are the constituents of the various rocks of Monte Somma and Vesuvius.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OLIVINE: a constituent of Vesuvius and Monte Somma leucotephrites; occurs also in the lavas of 1631.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gran Cono was produced during the eruption of AD 79.^ Derivation of the name "Plinian" ("A Plinian eruption column takes its name from Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman and historian who died during the 79 A.D. eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy.."
  • # Pompeii and Herculaneum - Facts, Images & Maps 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.link-mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilde Awards 2005 (Best Older Nonfiction): "The author writes clearly [about] the happening and history of the 79 AD eruption.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

^ The following image and associated simulations illustrate the collapse of a volcanic column produced from a Plinian eruption of Vesuvius, such as during the A.D. 79 eruption which destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, the volcano is also called Somma-Vesuvius or Somma-Vesuvio.^ De Natale, G., P. Capuano, C. Troise, and A. Zollo, Seismicty at Somma-Vesuvius and its implications for the 3D tomography of the volcano, J. Volcanol.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The caldera started forming during an eruption around 17,000 (or 18,300[2]) years ago[3][4] and was enlarged by later paroxysmal eruptions[5] ending in the one of AD 79.^ Walking around the ancient city, reading up on its history, and thinking of its people -- wiped out in 79 A.D. by a volcanic eruption -- has me thinking a lot about warning signs.
  • Arianna Huffington: Why Visiting Pompeii Has Me Thinking About the Smoke Billowing Out of Our Economic Mt. Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilde Awards 2005 (Best Older Nonfiction): "The author writes clearly [about] the happening and history of the 79 AD eruption.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

^ Anatomically modern humans probably appeared on Earth more than 100,000 years ago.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This structure has given its name to the term "somma volcano", which describes any volcano with a summit caldera surrounding a newer cone.^ Monte Somma is the name of an ancient crater wall which forms a semicircular cliff to the north and east of the modern cone.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kircher described Mount Vesuvius and Mount Etna, reviewed known volcanoes, and provided a general theory of volcanic action in terms of subterranean fire.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After examining the myths and legends surrounding volcanoes and earthquakes, I will begin to answer the question, “What is a volcano?” According the Maurice Krafft, a volcano is a three-part structure.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
The height of the main cone has been constantly changed by eruptions but presently is 1,281 m (4,202 ft). .Monte Somma is 1,149 m (3,770 ft) high, separated from the main cone by the valley of Atrio di Cavallo, which is some 3 miles (5 km) long.^ Personally I find the Monte di Somma has an extremely menacing and frightening appearance from near by but am more worried about possible earthquakes.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The slopes of the mountain are scarred by lava flows but are heavily vegetated, with scrub at higher altitudes and vineyards lower down.^ The core of Vesuvius exploded outwards and a combination of ash, lapilli, molten rock and lava flowed down the sides of the mountain towards the city of Herculaneum at approx.
  • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ C. Sal Ammoniac fumaroles which occur especially where the lava flows covered vegetation, giving also a small quantity of ammonium sulfate and fluoride.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every time the volcano erupts, lava flows down the outside forming a new outer layer when it cools.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vesuvius is still regarded as an active volcano, although its current activity produces little more than steam from vents at the bottom of the crater.^ For Vesuvius is an active volcano.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The minerals that occur about Vesuvius, which now number more than one hundred and fifty species, may be arranged genetically into four groups: .
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historic and contemporary photographs illustrate a richly detailed story filled with interesting tidbits - not least the fact that Vesuvius is still a danger to the more than one million people who live near it today."
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

.Vesuvius is a stratovolcano at the convergent boundary where the African Plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate.^ Convergent boundaries are places where plates are pushed together.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The students will also review the theory of plate tectonics and plate boundaries, focusing on convergent and divergent plate boundaries.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is a composite volcano that is located on a convergent plate boundary (place where tectonic plates are colliding together).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its lava is composed of viscous andesite. .Layers of lava, scoria, volcanic ash, and pumice make up the mountain.^ Naturalists of the latter eighteenth century knew very well what lava, scoria, pumice, obsidian, and volcanic ash looked like.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writers of ancient Greece and Rome provided descriptions of volcanoes and volcanic eruptions, suggested several causes for volcanic activity, and referred to emission products such as lava (ruax), scoria, pozzolana, and ash.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combination of ash and thick lava in the eruptions make the sides very steep.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Formation

A view of Somma-Vesuvius, from a convent on the Sorrento Peninsula
.
Vesuvius was formed as a result of the collision of two tectonic plates, the African and the Eurasian.
^ After a review of shield and composite volcanoes, the theory of plate tectonics and plate boundaries, the students will watch two videos.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The soft rock of the upper mantle moves slowly, forming convecting currents that drive the movement of great tectonic plates (Krafft 10).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is, however, one exception to the plate-tectonic control on where volcanoes form.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The former was pushed beneath the latter, deeper into the earth. .The crust material became heated until it melted, forming magma, a type of liquid rock.^ Miles below the ground the reservoir is filled with magma (hot melted rocks) and gas under high pressure.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We restrict our examination to the instantaneous elastic effects, although viscoelastic rebound of the lower crust or heated rock surrounding a magma body may modify the transfer of stress.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Because magma is less dense than the solid rock around it, it was pushed upward.^ The first thing I noticed was that Roshan had sent this email less than an hour after he left the studio (he left around 10 pm.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the contrary, those which grow on the side opposite to the sun, not being so porous, harden in drying, because the sun draws the moisture from trees no less than from the earth.
  • LacusCurtius • Vitruvius on Architecture — Book II 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hot water, being less dense than cold water, rises to the surface, where it cools, becomes denser, and therefore returns to the bottom of the pot.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finding a weak place at the Earth's surface it broke through, producing the volcano.^ One or more vents allow the magma to rise to the surface where it escapes through the volcano’s mouth.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Giant smoking volcanoes stand in a row like the pipes of a cosmic organ through which the mighty breath of the earth blows its roaring music.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then pass through the house and find Sophia in the garden, in the same place where she was yesterday.
  • Walkthrough: Pompei/Timescape 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC justadventure.com [Source type: General]

.The volcano is one of several which form the Campanian volcanic arc.^ The landforms (volcano) that we can see are formed by the volcanic eruptions (Adams 7).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcanic activity (usually forming shield volcanoes) is commonplace in these areas and may build up whole islands, such as Iceland.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second section of the curriculum unit will explore several famous volcanoes from around the world and significant volcanic eruptions connected to those volcanoes.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others include Campi Flegrei, a large caldera a few kilometres to the north west, Mount Epomeo, 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west on the island of Ischia, and several undersea volcanoes to the south.^ Mount Ngauruhoe is situated between Mount Tongariro and Mount Ruapehu on North Island, New Zealand.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Location: Taranaki , North Island , New Zealand Elevation: 2518 metres Climb: Yes The Mount Taranaki is the second highest mountain on the North Island of New Zealand.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They did not realize that the black fertile earth they cultivated was a legacy of the mountain of the west -- a volcano that spewed forth destruction every few hundred years.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The arc forms the southern end of a larger chain of volcanoes produced by the subduction process described above, which extends northwest along the length of Italy as far as Monte Amiata in Southern Tuscany.^ A second volcano crater has been forming at the southern flank of the mountain.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the other end, a "useless" immediate evacuation would produce a mistrust between the population and civil protection authorities and structures responsible for monitoring the volcano.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chain of volcanoes is called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and marks the place where plates are pulling apart to form new ocean crust (divergent).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vesuvius is the only one to have erupted within recent history, although some of the others have erupted within the last few hundred years.^ The minerals that occur about Vesuvius, which now number more than one hundred and fifty species, may be arranged genetically into four groups: .
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several hundred micro earthquakes occurred on Vesuvius in recent years making this the most active period in more than half a century.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NARRATOR: At the rim of this caldera only dimly visible is the edge of Naples, well within the reach of some of the forty small volcanoes that border the Phlegraean Fields.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many are either extinct or have not erupted for tens of thousands of years.

Eruptions

An aerial photo of Vesuvius
.Mount Vesuvius has erupted many times.^ A tour of the historical city of Naples and a hike up Mount Vesuvius will make your Italian excursion truly a time to remember.
  • Naples and Mount Vesuvius Tour - Piazza del Plebiscito, Royal Palace, Basilica of San Francesco di P 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

^ Mount Vesuvius erupted violently on August 24, A.D. 79.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a real tragedy that the Commission has been unable to support a highly relevant and timely volcanological project on Vesuvius while it supports with tens of millions of dollars many European volcano projects.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The famous eruption in 79 AD was preceded by numerous others in prehistory, including at least three significantly larger ones, the best known being the Avellino eruption around 1800 BC which engulfed several Bronze Age settlements.^ The mountain's summit is one of the best astronomical sites in the world and several leading observatories can be found there as a result.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jungfrau is located in central Switzerland, in the Berner Oberland and is one of the best known mountains in the country, along with the Matterhorn.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilde Awards 2005 (Best Older Nonfiction): "The author writes clearly [about] the happening and history of the 79 AD eruption.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

.Since 79 AD, the volcano has also erupted repeatedly, in 172, 203, 222, possibly 303, 379, 472, 512, 536, 685, 787, around 860, around 900, 968, 991, 999, 1006, 1037, 1049, around 1073, 1139, 1150, and there may have been eruptions in 1270, 1347, and 1500.[5] The volcano erupted again in 1631, six times in the 18th century, eight times in the 19th century (notably in 1872), and in 1906, 1929, and 1944. There has been no eruption since 1944, and none of the post-79 eruptions were as large or destructive.^ What time does the volcano erupt?
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last large pyroclastic eruption was in 1631.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have to be a little lucky to see the volcano in full glory as mostly there are clouds around the top.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eruptions vary greatly in severity but are characterized by explosive outbursts of the kind dubbed Plinian after Pliny the Younger, a Roman writer who published a detailed description of the AD 79 eruption, including his uncle's death.^ Pliny the Younger was a scholar who watched the eruption cloud from eighteen miles away across the Bay of Naples, where he was staying with his uncle, Pliny the Elder (Van Rose 26).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watching with him was his 17-year-old nephew, known as Pliny the Younger, who has given history its only eyewitness account.
  • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Wide margins set off the concentrated amount of information, including sequence details drawn from the writing of Younger Pliny, whose uncle died in the eruption.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

[7] .On occasion, eruptions from Vesuvius have been so large that the whole of southern Europe has been blanketed by ash; in 472 and 1631, Vesuvian ash fell on Constantinople (Istanbul), over 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) away.^ The last large pyroclastic eruption was in 1631.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AD 472 bPollenaQ eruption: volcanological and petrological data for this poorly-known, plinian-type event at Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It also contains computer simulations of pyroclastic flows of medium and large scale eruptions of Vesuvius with and without engineering intervention measures aimed at diverting or stopping these flows.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few times since 1944, landslides in the crater have raised clouds of ash dust, raising false alarms of an eruption.^ From relative safety, Pliny, the nephew of a naturalist, carefully noted the timing of the 18-hour eruption, the shape of the mushroom cloud, the showers of volcanic ash and rock.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Before AD 79

.The mountain started forming 25,000 years ago.^ Thirty-four thousand years ago a massive volcanic eruption formed this eight mile wide depression, or "caldera".
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the area has been subject to volcanic activity for at least 400,000 years, the lowest layer of eruption material from the Somma mountain lies on top of the 34,000 year-old Campanian Ignimbrite produced by the Campi Flegrei complex, and was the product of the Cordola plinian eruption 25,000 years ago.^ Somma–Vesuvius volcanic activity.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The crumbled cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were rediscovered three hundred years ago, and today are still being dug out from the deep volcanic blanket that engulfed them.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical zoning and crystallization mechanisms in the magma chamber of the Pomici di Base plinian eruption of Somma–Vesuvius (Italy).
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.It was then built up by a series of lava flows, with some smaller explosive eruptions interspersed between them.^ They are usually the most violent eruptions, even if there are some intermediate eruptions with comparable VEI. Volcanologists distinguish between "open-conduit" conditions at Vesuvius, when eruptions are frequent but generally not explosive and lava is often visible in the volcano's central cone, and "obstructed-conduit" periods when lava is generally not visible and eruptions are rare but highly explosive.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Vesuvius activity in the period between the Avellino and Pompeii plinian eruptions, and some implications for assessment of future hazards.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We keep fixed the time series of the volcanic eruptions, and generate 1000 synthetic time series of earthquakes, shuffling the interevent times between adjacent seismic events.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, the style of eruption changed around 19,000 years ago to a sequence of large explosive plinian eruptions, of which the AD 79 one was the last.^ The last large pyroclastic eruption was in 1631.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Derivation of the name "Plinian" ("A Plinian eruption column takes its name from Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman and historian who died during the 79 A.D. eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy.."
  • # Pompeii and Herculaneum - Facts, Images & Maps 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.link-mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilde Awards 2005 (Best Older Nonfiction): "The author writes clearly [about] the happening and history of the 79 AD eruption.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

The eruptions are named after the tephra deposits produced by them:[1][9]
.
  • The Basal Pumice (Pomici di Base) eruption, 18,300 years ago, VEI 6, was probably the most violent of these eruptions and saw the original formation of the Somma caldera.^ A new model for the formation of the Somma Caldera.
    • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Emperor Wu Di about 1,300 years ago.
    • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Pomici di Base plinian eruption of Somma–Vesuvius.
    • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The eruption was followed by a period of much less violent, lava producing eruptions.
  • The Green Pumice (Pomici Verdoline) eruption, 16,000 years ago, VEI 5.
  • The Mercato eruption also known as Pomici Gemelle or Ottaviano 6940 BC ±100 years, VEI 5, followed a smaller explosive eruption around 11,000 years ago (called the Lagno Amendolare eruption).
  • The Avellino eruption (Pomici di Avellino), 2420 BC ± 40 years, VEI 5, followed two smaller explosive eruptions around 5,000 years ago.^ They are usually the most violent eruptions, even if there are some intermediate eruptions with comparable VEI. Volcanologists distinguish between "open-conduit" conditions at Vesuvius, when eruptions are frequent but generally not explosive and lava is often visible in the volcano's central cone, and "obstructed-conduit" periods when lava is generally not visible and eruptions are rare but highly explosive.
    • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Because of this, my office received more that 3,000 phone calls and the mothers began looking for their children and preparing for the eruption.
    • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I guess you won't be calling and begging for your job back when it gets better like you did a year ago.
    • JG-TC.com > News > More than 20 to lose jobs at Charleston's Vesuvius plant 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jg-tc.com [Source type: General]

    .The Avellino eruption vent was apparently 2 km west of the current crater, and the eruption destroyed several Bronze Age settlements.^ In the towns below it, most people would not have known that Vesuvius was a volcano or that a Bronze Age settlement in the area had been annihilated almost 2,000 years before.
    • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coulomb stress change on fault A caused by a 0.1 km 3 eruption from a 5-km-deep magma reservoir, as a function of the apparent friction coefficient and fault dip.
    • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The remarkably well-preserved remains of one were discovered in May 2001 near Nola by Italian archaeologists, with huts, pots, livestock and even the footprints of animals and people, as well as skeletons.^ Along the seafront archaeologists in the 1980s discovered the remains of nearly 300 victims.
    • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    .The residents had hastily abandoned the village, leaving it to be buried under pumice and ash in much the same way that Pompeii was later preserved.^ Centuries later archaeological excavations unearthed clues to the dwellers lives which lay buried under layers of volcanic rubble.
    • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Juneau Public Libraries " Thoroughly eerie and completely engrossing , this is the story of a few days in August, AD 79, when the thriving city of Pompeii was completely buried beneath many feet of pumice and ash.
    • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For the next twelve hours, pumice and ash fall from this cloud onto Pompeii.
    • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10][5] .The eruption was larger than the ones of AD 79 (VEI 5) and 1631 (VEI 4) with pyroclastic surge deposits distributed to the northwest of the vent, the surges travelling as far as 15 km from it, and lie up to 3 m deep in the area now occupied by Naples.^ The last large pyroclastic eruption was in 1631.
    • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wilde Awards 2005 (Best Older Nonfiction): "The author writes clearly [about] the happening and history of the 79 AD eruption.
    • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The damages from such an eruption would exceed those of A.D. 79 and 1631 when entire cities in the area were totally destroyed.
    • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
.The volcano then entered a stage of more frequent, but less violent, eruptions until the most recent Plinian eruption, which destroyed Pompeii.^ The ancient naturalist Pliny the Elder was killed while observing the eruption in AD79 that destroyed Pompeii .
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ They are usually the most violent eruptions, even if there are some intermediate eruptions with comparable VEI. Volcanologists distinguish between "open-conduit" conditions at Vesuvius, when eruptions are frequent but generally not explosive and lava is often visible in the volcano's central cone, and "obstructed-conduit" periods when lava is generally not visible and eruptions are rare but highly explosive.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Very interesting information about that amazing ...more As I've always had an interest in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius and the resulting destruction of Pompeii, this book really hit the spot.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

.The last of these may have been in 217 BC.[5] There were earthquakes in Italy during that year and the sun was reported as being dimmed by a haze or dry fog.^ The coastal towns grew disproportionally where during the last 20 years proliferated a shameful abuse of the area.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historical record describes a massive earthquake in 62 A.D. There are also signs that in the years and months that followed many other small tremors shook Pompeii.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the contrary, those which grow on the side opposite to the sun, not being so porous, harden in drying, because the sun draws the moisture from trees no less than from the earth.
  • LacusCurtius • Vitruvius on Architecture — Book II 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Plutarch wrote of the sky being on fire near Naples and Silius Italicus mentioned in his epic poem Punica[12] that Vesuvius had thundered and produced flames worthy of Mount Etna in that year, although both authors were writing around 250 years later.^ From across the bay, a seventeen year old youth watched as Mount Vesuvius turned into a fuming monster.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MACKDADDY wrote on Feb 5, 2009 12:19 PM: " It is clear that HerChild, medic57, and CHILL! have never been inside the Vesuvius plant!
  • JG-TC.com > News > More than 20 to lose jobs at Charleston's Vesuvius plant 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jg-tc.com [Source type: General]

^ It is moreover said that in former times fires under Vesuvius existed in abundance, and thence evolved flames about the fields.
  • LacusCurtius • Vitruvius on Architecture — Book II 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Greenland ice core samples of around that period show relatively high acidity, which is assumed to have been caused by atmospheric hydrogen sulfide.[13]
Fresco of Bacchus and Agathodaimon with Mount Vesuvius, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary.
.The mountain was then quiet for hundreds of years and was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards, except at the top which was craggy.^ They did not realize that the black fertile earth they cultivated was a legacy of the mountain of the west -- a volcano that spewed forth destruction every few hundred years.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full Synopsis NOVA: Garden of Eden Release: 2000 Two hundred million years ago, as the supercontinent of Pangea broke up, a tiny...
  • NOVA: Deadly Shadow of Vesuvius (1998) - Synopsis - MSN Movies 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

.Within a large circle of nearly perpendicular cliffs was a flat space large enough for the encampment of the army of the rebel gladiator Spartacus in 73 BC. This area was doubtless a crater.^ I was fascinated to read that in 73BC,Spartacus and rebel slaves took refuge in the seemingly dead crater.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The mountain may have had only one summit at that time, judging by a wall painting, "Bacchus and Vesuvius", found in a Pompeiian house, the House of the Centenary (Casa del Centenario).^ The mountain's summit is one of the best astronomical sites in the world and several leading observatories can be found there as a result.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recommendations of these authorities to the Commission to support the interdisciplinary research VESUVIUS 2000 were, however, outweighted by a subjective review of only one very short paragraph.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this time, I looked at the painting a couple of days after returning from a trip to Naples and seeing the mountain itself.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

Several surviving works written over the 200 years preceding the AD 79 eruption describe the mountain as having had a volcanic nature, although Pliny the Elder did not depict the mountain in this way in his Naturalis Historia:[14]
.
  • The Greek historian Strabo (ca 63 BC–AD 24) described the mountain in Book V, Chapter 4 of his Geographica[15] as having a predominantly flat, barren summit covered with sooty, ash-coloured rocks and suggested that it might once have had "craters of fire". He also perceptively suggested that the fertility of the surrounding slopes may be due to volcanic activity, as at Mount Etna.
  • In Book II of De Architectura,[16] the architect Vitruvius (ca 80-70 BC -?^ On May 8, 1902, Mount Pélée erupted violently, sending a super-hot cloud of ash, rock and gas (better known as a pyroclastic flow) directly into the city of Saint Pierre.
    • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Location: Naples , Italy Elevation: 1281 metres Climb: Yes Mount Vesuvius is a volcano that earned its place in the history books in 79 AD, when an eruption covered the town of Pompeii under a layer of lava.
    • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From relative safety, Pliny, the nephew of a naturalist, carefully noted the timing of the 18-hour eruption, the shape of the mushroom cloud, the showers of volcanic ash and rock.
    • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) reported that fires had once existed abundantly below the mountain and that it had spouted fire onto the surrounding fields. .He went on to describe Pompeiian Pumice as having been burnt from another species of stone.
  • Diodorus Siculus (ca 90 BC–ca 30 BC), another Greek writer, wrote in Book IV of his Bibliotheca Historica that the Campanian plain was called fiery (Phlegrean) because of the mountain, Vesuvius, which had spouted flame like Etna and showed signs of the fire that had burnt in ancient history.^ Somma–Vesuvius and volcanism of the Campanian Plain.
    • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus that which we call sponge-stone, or Pompeian pumice-stone, burnt from another species of stone, appears to be acted on by fire so as to possess a quality of this sort.
    • LacusCurtius • Vitruvius on Architecture — Book II 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The species of sponge-stone, however, thence obtained, is not found except in the neighbourhood of Ætna and the hills of Mysia, which the Greeks call κατακεκαυμένοι , and places of such description.
    • LacusCurtius • Vitruvius on Architecture — Book II 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [9]
.By AD 79 the area was, as now, densely populated with villages, towns and small cities like Pompeii, and its slopes were covered in vineyards and farms.^ It can be reached by plane from Iqaluit , the capital and largest town on Baffin Island, reached in turn from other Canadian cities like Montreal and Ottawa .
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many small villages and towns on the surrounding islands.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ripe and teeming city is one of the most densely populated places in the world.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eruption of AD 79

Computer-generated imagery of the eruption of Vesuvius in BBC/Discovery Channel's co-production Pompeii.
.By the 1st century, Pompeii was only one of a number of towns located around the base of Mount Vesuvius.^ The two towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum went virtually forgotten until excavations began in the 18 th century.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's amazing how much sheer power was released in from Mount Vesuvius in that one eruption!
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ So the book takes place over the 2 days prior to Pompeii being UTTERLY DESTROYED by Mount Vesuvius, plus the 2 days that the eruption lasts.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

The area had a substantial population which grew prosperous from the region's renowned agricultural fertility. .Many of Pompeii's neighboring communities, most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during the AD 79 eruption.^ Derivation of the name "Plinian" ("A Plinian eruption column takes its name from Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman and historian who died during the 79 A.D. eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy.."
  • # Pompeii and Herculaneum - Facts, Images & Maps 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.link-mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NARRATOR: But how well does the extensive archaeological record in Pompeii support this understanding of the 79 A.D. eruption?
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damages from such an eruption would exceed those of A.D. 79 and 1631 when entire cities in the area were totally destroyed.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 79 eruption, which is thought to have lasted about 19 hours, released about 1 cubic mile (4 cubic kilometres) of ash and rock over a wide area to the south and south-east of the crater, with about 3 m (10 ft) of tephra falling on Pompeii.^ What can these victims reveal about the last hours of Pompeii?
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists have been studying the area ever since to learn about the effects of the eruption and the return to life in the area (Lauber 24).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the book takes place over the 2 days prior to Pompeii being UTTERLY DESTROYED by Mount Vesuvius, plus the 2 days that the eruption lasts.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

The white ash produced by this eruption is mainly of leucite and phonolite.

Foreshocks

.The AD 79 eruption was preceded by a powerful earthquake seventeen years beforehand on 5 February, 62,[17] which caused widespread destruction around the Bay of Naples, and particularly to Pompeii.^ Earthquakes often precede the eruption of a volcano.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, just opened its Pompeii and the Roman Villa: Art and Culture around the Bay of Naples exhibit this past weekend.
  • Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NARRATOR: But how well does the extensive archaeological record in Pompeii support this understanding of the 79 A.D. eruption?
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the damage had still not been repaired when the volcano erupted.[18] .However, this may have been a tectonic event rather than one associated with the re-awakening of the volcano.^ There is, however, one exception to the plate-tectonic control on where volcanoes form.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is a composite volcano that is located on a convergent plate boundary (place where tectonic plates are colliding together).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And no one wants to know the answer more than the scientists charged with monitoring the volcano.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.Another smaller earthquake took place in 64 AD; it was recorded by Suetonius in his biography of Nero,[20] in De Vita Caesarum, and by Tacitus in Book XV of Annales[21] because it took place whilst Nero was in Naples performing for the first time in a public theatre.^ Here was another headache to handle because I was in the wrong place at the wrong time.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I read this book when it was first published but taking the time to listen to it being read has bought a whole new dimension to the story.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Naples , Italy Elevation: 1281 metres Climb: Yes Mount Vesuvius is a volcano that earned its place in the history books in 79 AD, when an eruption covered the town of Pompeii under a layer of lava.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Suetonius recorded that the emperor continued singing through the earthquake until he had finished his song, whilst Tacitus wrote that the theatre collapsed shortly after being evacuated.
Outbreak of the Vesuvius. Painting by Norwegian painter I.C. Dahl (1826)
.The Romans grew accustomed to minor earth tremors in the region; the writer Pliny the Younger even wrote that they "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania". In early August of AD 79, springs and wells dried up.^ On August 24, AD 79, these scrolls were suddenly covered by 65 feet of fast-flowing volcanic mud.
  • Wired 11.05: Tales From the Crypt 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ POMPEII.....BEFORE AND AFTER After visiting Pompeii, on a recent trip to Rome, I was eager to read something about that fateful day in August,79 AD, when Mt.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ The author quoted passages written by Pliny, an admiral and philosopher who lived during that time period, AD 79.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

[22] .Small earthquakes started taking place on 20 August, 79[18] becoming more frequent over the next four days, but the warnings were not recognised (it is worth noting the Romans had no word for volcano, and only a hazy concept of other similar mountains like Mount Etna, home of Vulcan), and on the afternoon of 24 August, a catastrophic eruption of the volcano started.^ And there is another warning sign -- frequent small earthquakes.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word volcano comes from the Roman god Vulcan, god of fire.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pompeii takes place several days before the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
  • Pompeii (Paperback) by Robert Harris - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

The eruption devastated the region, burying Pompeii and other settlements. .By coincidence it was the day after Vulcanalia, the festival of the Roman god of fire.^ The word volcano comes from the Roman god Vulcan, god of fire.
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[23][24]

Nature of the eruption

.The eruption of Vesuvius on 24 and 25 August, 79 AD, unfolded in two phases:[25] a Plinian eruption that lasted eighteen to twenty hours and produced a rain of pumice southward of the cone that built up to depths of 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) at Pompeii, followed by a pyroclastic flow or nuée ardente in the second, Peléan phase that reached as far as Misenum but was concentrated to the west and northwest.^ Mount Vesuvius erupted violently on August 24, A.D. 79.
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^ The last large pyroclastic eruption was in 1631.
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^ The Ottaviano eruption of Somma–Vesuvius (8000 y BP): a magmatic alternating fall and flow-forming eruption.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

.Two pyroclastic flows engulfed Pompeii, burning and asphyxiating the stragglers who had remained behind.^ A moment later the heavier pyroclastic flow washed over Pompeii with a destructive of a tidal wave.
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^ But in the early morning of August 25th, a surge of toxic gas overcomes Pompeii and asphyxiates all who remained.
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.Oplontis and Herculaneum received the brunt of the flows and were buried in fine ash and pyroclastic deposits.^ The volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows.
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^ Immediately, it is followed by a ground-hugging flow of heavier ash and rock, which buries the city.
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^ The flow of rock and ash that follows knocks down buildings and buries the dead.
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[26]

The Two Plinys

Pliny the Younger
.The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger, who was 17 at the time of the eruption, to the historian Tacitus.^ The eruption was witnessed by Pliny the Younger who described the events in two letters to Tacitus.
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^ Pliny the Younger was a scholar who watched the eruption cloud from eighteen miles away across the Bay of Naples, where he was staying with his uncle, Pliny the Elder (Van Rose 26).
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^ For insight into the events that destroyed Pompeii, Sigurdsson turned to an ancient document, the only eye witness account of 79 A.D., The Pliny Letters -- written by the youth who had watched the eruption from across the Bay of Naples.
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[27] Observing it from Misenum (across the bay, approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the volcano) whilst his uncle was sailing closer, he saw an extraordinarily dense cloud rising rapidly above the mountain:
.
I cannot give you a more exact description of its appearance than by comparing to a pine tree; for it shot up to a great height in the form of a tall trunk, which spread out at the top as though into branches. ...^ A nearby visitors/cultural centre can give you more information about the mountain.
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^ The risk of getting altitude sickness should not be underestimated and can occur on heights of 3000 metres or more, although usually most people will be fine up to 4000 metres.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cinder cone volcano is formed when an eruption hurls ash and rock that builds up, forming a steep-sided but not very tall volcano.
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Occasionally it was brighter, occasionally darker and spotted, as it was either more or less filled with earth and cinders. (Sixth Book of Letters, Letter 16.)
.This was the eruption column, now estimated to have been more than 32 km (20 miles) tall.^ That's quite a bold step I'd say especially as religion was a far more vindictive affair than it is now.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Lee is your replacing "every bit as beautiful" with "beautiful in its own right" because nothing can be more beautiful than the Renaissance posse in your estimation?
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ They know more than half a million people live in the path of the killer volcano, and they know that to pinpoint the exact timing of the eruption is nearly impossible.
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[citation needed]
.He described the cloud after a time rushing down the flanks of the mountain and covering everything around it, including the surrounding sea.^ Nevado del Ruiz erupted, melted the snow and ice at the summit, and sent a deadly mudflow rushing down the mountain.
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^ The last major eruption was around 1655, although a piece of the top of the mountain came down in 1855/1856.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard tour, including transportation time and a kora around the mountain, takes a minimum of 10 days.
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.This is known today as a pyroclastic flow, which is a cloud of superheated gas, ash and rock that erupts from a volcano.^ Or explosive with pyroclastic flows of gas, rock, and hot ash as in 79 A.D.?
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^ On May 8, 1902, Mount Pélée erupted violently, sending a super-hot cloud of ash, rock and gas (better known as a pyroclastic flow) directly into the city of Saint Pierre.
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^ NARRATOR: The women choked to death on the cloud of hot volcanic ash and gas.
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Geologists have used the magnetic characteristics of over 200 volcanic rocks and pieces of debris (e.g. roof tiles) found in .Pompeii to estimate the temperature of this pyroclastic flow.^ A moment later the heavier pyroclastic flow washed over Pompeii with a destructive of a tidal wave.
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(When molten rock solidifies, magnetic minerals in the rock record the direction of Earth's magnetic field. .If the material is heated above a certain temperature, known as the Curie temperature, the rock's magnetic field may be modified or completely reset.^ We restrict our examination to the instantaneous elastic effects, although viscoelastic rebound of the lower crust or heated rock surrounding a magma body may modify the transfer of stress.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

) .Most of the materials analyzed experienced temperatures between 240 °C (464 °F) and 340 °C (644 °F) (with a few areas showing lower temperatures of only 180 °C (356 °F)).^ Location: Patagonia , on the border between Chile and Argentina Elevation: 3375 metres Climb: Yes, but only very experienced climbers, and they need to be lucky.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This suggests that the ash cloud had a temperature of 850 °C (1,560 °F) when emerging from the mouth of Vesuvius, but had cooled to below 350 °C (662 °F) by the time it reached the city.^ A series of surges and flows on the eastern flank of Vesuvius does not reach the city.
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^ From relative safety, Pliny, the nephew of a naturalist, carefully noted the timing of the 18-hour eruption, the shape of the mushroom cloud, the showers of volcanic ash and rock.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is theorized that turbulence may have mixed cool air into the ash cloud.^ On May 8, 1902, Mount Pélée erupted violently, sending a super-hot cloud of ash, rock and gas (better known as a pyroclastic flow) directly into the city of Saint Pierre.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Cioni, et al., 2004). .This is now called the Plinian stage of the eruption, named after both the younger and elder Plinys.^ The ancient naturalist Pliny the Elder was killed while observing the eruption in AD79 that destroyed Pompeii .
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Pliny the Younger was a scholar who watched the eruption cloud from eighteen miles away across the Bay of Naples, where he was staying with his uncle, Pliny the Elder (Van Rose 26).
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^ The eruption was witnessed by Pliny the Younger who described the events in two letters to Tacitus.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pliny stated that several earth tremors were felt at the time of the eruption and were followed by a very violent shaking of the ground.^ At the time I wondered why they felt so justified in their Refund request to stand their ground like that.
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^ Like Lieutenant Gerard trying to catch the Fugitive, several times I felt I had HSDS in my grip only to have Judy help them escape.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the United States government set up full-time volcano labs in California, Alaska, and Washington.
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.He also noted that ash was falling in very thick sheets and the village he was in had to be evacuated.^ The combination of ash and thick lava in the eruptions make the sides very steep.
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.He also said that the sun was blocked out by the eruption with the remaining daylight hours left in darkness, and that the sea was sucked away and forced back by an "earthquake" (a phenomenon now called a tsunami.^ Why did they remain when so many others fled the city during the early hours of the eruption?
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^ Roshan got right back in my face and said, "Now pick it up, Rick.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NARRATOR: It wasn't until they witnessed more contemporary eruptions of other volcanoes that scientists understood what Pliny had observed 2000 years ago -- the dark and horrible cloud was probably what is now called a pyroclastic flow.
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)
Pliny the Elder
Pliny’s uncle Pliny the Elder was in command of the Roman fleet at Misenum, and had meanwhile decided to take several ships to investigate the phenomenon at close hand. The fleet also attempted a rescue mission for those at the foot of the volcano when, as the ship was preparing to leave the area, a messenger arrived from a friend of Pliny’s living on the coast near the foot of the volcano imploring him to rescue her. .He set off across the bay but encountered thick showers of hot cinders, lumps of pumice and pieces of rock which, altering the shoreline and water depths, blocked his approach to the shore and prevented him from landing there.^ NARRATOR: Protected by thick stone walls, the family waited out the rock showers only to be suffocated later by volcanic gases and ash.
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The prevailing southerly wind also stopped him landing there, but he continued south under it to Stabiae (about 4.5 km from Pompeii) where he landed and took shelter with Pomponianus, a friend. Pomponianus had already loaded a ship with possessions and was preparing to leave, but the wind was against him.
.Pliny and his party saw flames coming from several parts of the mountain (probably pyroclastic flows and surges, which would later destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum).^ The ancient naturalist Pliny the Elder was killed while observing the eruption in AD79 that destroyed Pompeii .
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ NARRATOR: But there was no escape for the people of Herculaneum, scorched and suffocated in the burning surge cloud and then buried under a mountain of pyroclastic debris.
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^ NARRATOR: It wasn't until they witnessed more contemporary eruptions of other volcanoes that scientists understood what Pliny had observed 2000 years ago -- the dark and horrible cloud was probably what is now called a pyroclastic flow.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After staying overnight, the party decided to evacuate in spite of the rain of tephra because of the continuing violent conditions threatening to collapse the building. Pliny, Pomponianus and their companions made their way back towards the beach with pillows tied to their heads to protect them from rockfall. By this time, there was so much ash in the air that the party could barely see through the murk and needed torches and lanterns to find their way. .They made it to the beach but found the waters too violently disturbed from the continuous earthquakes for them to escape safely by sea.^ NARRATOR: These columns are marked with burrows made by sea mollusks, proof that since the columns were constructed two thousand years ago they have been periodically submerged.
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^ At an on-going excavation site in Pompeii the mangled remains of two young women were found scattered in the street -- mowed down as they tried to escape.
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.Pliny the Elder collapsed and died, and in the first letter to Tacitus his nephew suggested that this was due to the inhalation of poisonous, sulphuric gases.^ The eruption was witnessed by Pliny the Younger who described the events in two letters to Tacitus.
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.However, Stabiae was 16 km from the vent (roughly where the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia is situated) and his companions were apparently unaffected by the fumes, and so it is more likely that the corpulent Pliny died from some other cause, such as a stroke or heart attack.^ That's when they decided they liked Marty so much it would be more fun just to take the lesson directly from him and skip the Ghost Town class.
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^ However, if I am going to write about the mistakes of others, my sense of fair play suggests I should share some from my own closet as well.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These two situations together can cause frustration, low self-esteem and failure for some students.
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[28] His body was found with no apparent injuries on 26 August, after the plume had dispersed sufficiently for daylight to return.

Casualties from the eruption

Pompeii, with Vesuvius towering above
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum
.Along with Pliny the Elder, the only other noble casualties of the eruption to be known by name were Agrippa (a son of the Jewish princess Drusilla and the procurator Antonius Felix) and his wife.^ The ancient naturalist Pliny the Elder was killed while observing the eruption in AD79 that destroyed Pompeii .
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ They were killed along with 39 other people during the 1991 eruption of Mount Unzen in Japan (Sutherland 15).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.Estimates of the population of Pompeii range from 10,000[30] to 25,000,[24] and Herculaneum is thought to have had a population of about 5,000.[31] It is not known how many people the eruption killed, although around 1,150 remains of bodies – or casts made of their impressions in the ash deposits – have been recovered in and around Pompeii.^ This happened in 1845, killing 1,000 people.
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^ It is unclear how many people were killed in the aftermath of the eruption.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ash set like cement around the people killed in Pompeii.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] The remains of about 350 bodies have been found at Herculaneum (300 in arched vaults discovered in 1980).[33] However these figures must represent a great underestimation of the total number of deaths over the region affected by the eruption.
.Thirty-eight percent of the victims at Pompeii were found in the ash fall deposits, the majority inside buildings.^ For the next twelve hours, pumice and ash fall from this cloud onto Pompeii.
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.These are thought to have been killed mainly by roof collapses, with the smaller number of victims found outside of buildings probably being killed by falling roof slates or by larger rocks thrown out by the volcano.^ Ash and other materials are also thrown out during the eruption and these also add to the changing shape of the volcano’s exterior.
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^ And like a number of other countries corrupt builders and regulatory bodies have resulted in buildings not being constructed accordingly.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ A cinder cone volcano is formed when an eruption hurls ash and rock that builds up, forming a steep-sided but not very tall volcano.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This differs from modern experience, since over the last four hundred years only around 4% of victims have been killed by ash falls during explosive eruptions.^ Thirty-four thousand years ago a massive volcanic eruption formed this eight mile wide depression, or "caldera".
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^ Maurice Krafft was a volcanologist killed during the 1991 eruption of Mount Unzen in Japan.
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^ During the past 1000 years, eruptions of Vesuvius have often been accompanied by large earthquakes in the Apennines 50-60 km to the northeast.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The remaining 62% of remains found at Pompeii were in the pyroclastic surge deposits,[32] and thus were probably killed by them – probably from a combination of suffocation through ash inhalation and blast and debris thrown around.^ People in the nearby town of Herculaneum were also killed by the blast of hot ash and gas.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In contrast to the victims found at Herculaneum, examination of cloth, frescoes and skeletons show that it is unlikely that high temperatures were a significant cause.
.Herculaneum, which was much closer to the crater, was saved from tephra falls by the wind direction, but was buried under 23 metres (75 ft) of material deposited by pyroclastic surges.^ NARRATOR: But there was no escape for the people of Herculaneum, scorched and suffocated in the burning surge cloud and then buried under a mountain of pyroclastic debris.
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.It is likely that most, or all, of the victims in this town were killed by the surges, particularly given evidence of high temperatures found on the skeletons of the victims found in the arched vaults, and the existence of carbonised wood in many of the buildings.^ A fluid inclusion and isotope study of calcsilicate ejecta from Mt Somma–Vesuvius: evidence for interaction of high-temperature hypersaline fluids with the sedimentary basement.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Greece, like many countries in quake zones has building codes that require buildings to be constructed to provide reasonable levels of safety in the event of one.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

Pompeii and Herculaneum were never rebuilt, although surviving townspeople and probably looters did undertake extensive salvage work after the destructions. The eruption changed the course of the Sarno River and raised the sea beach, so that Pompeii was now neither on the river nor adjacent to the coast.
.The towns' locations were eventually forgotten until their accidental rediscovery in the 18th century.^ The two towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum went virtually forgotten until excavations began in the 18 th century.
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Vesuvius itself underwent major changes – its slopes were denuded of vegetation and its summit had changed considerably due to the force of the eruption.[34]

Date of the eruption

.The eruption of AD 79 was referred to by contemporary writers (apart from being described by Pliny) and is near universally accepted as having started on 24 August.^ Mount Vesuvius erupted violently on August 24, A.D. 79.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compositional layering and syn-eruptive mixing of a periodically refilled shallow magma chamber, the AD 79 plinian eruption of Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption).
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

.However archaeological excavations at Pompeii have uncovered some evidence suggesting that the town was buried about two or three months later.^ The two towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum went virtually forgotten until excavations began in the 18 th century.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if I am going to write about the mistakes of others, my sense of fair play suggests I should share some from my own closet as well.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1999 Houston Press Best Of Houston issue had named some obscure gay bar that went out of business a month later as the "Best Place to Swing Dance".
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] For example, people buried in the ashes appear to be wearing warmer clothing than the light summer clothes that would be expected in August. The fresh fruit, olives and vegetables in the shops are typical of October, and conversely the summer fruit that would have been typical of August was already being sold in dried, or conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed over, and this would have happened around the end of October. The coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the ash include a conmemorative coin that should have been minted at the end of September. .So far there is no definitive theory as to why there should be such an apparent discrepancy.^ There is no such thing as a closed system.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

A possible explanation can be found in the Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, which states that the eruption started around Oct 24 (?), 79 AD and ended on the Oct 28 ±1 day, 79 AD.[5]

Later eruptions from the 3rd to the 19th century

.
An eruption of Vesuvius seen from Portici, by Joseph Wright (ca.
^ The other day I looked at Joseph Wright of Derby's spectacular 18th-century painting of Vesuvius in eruption at Tate Britain.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Upper image: The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, As Seen From Naples.
  • Antique Prints of Volcanos and Volcanology - Vulkane 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.philographikon.com [Source type: General]

1774-6)
.Since the eruption of 79 AD, Vesuvius has erupted around three dozen times.^ Volatile content and degassing processes in the AD 79 magma chamber at Vesuvius (Italy).
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The AD 472 bPollenaQ eruption: volcanological and petrological data for this poorly-known, plinian-type event at Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption).
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

It erupted again in 203, during the lifetime of the historian Cassius Dio. In 472, it ejected such a volume of ash that ashfalls were reported as far away as Constantinople. .The eruptions of 512 were so severe that those inhabiting the slopes of Vesuvius were granted exemption from taxes by Theodoric the Great, the Gothic king of Italy.^ The second section of the curriculum unit will explore several famous volcanoes from around the world and significant volcanic eruptions connected to those volcanoes.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Further eruptions were recorded in 787, 968, 991, 999, 1007 and 1036 with the first recorded lava flows. The volcano became quiescent at the end of the 13th century and in the following years it again became covered with gardens and vineyards as of old. Even the inside of the crater was filled with shrubbery.
.Vesuvius entered a new and particularly destructive phase in December 1631, when a major eruption buried many villages under lava flows, killing around 3,000 people.^ This happened in 1845, killing 1,000 people.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is unclear how many people were killed in the aftermath of the eruption.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within minutes, the poisonous cloud killed 34,000 people.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Torrents of boiling water were also ejected, adding to the devastation. Activity thereafter became almost continuous, with relatively severe eruptions occurring in 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, 1906, 1926, 1929, and 1944.

Eruptions in the 20th century

The March 1944 eruption of Vesuvius, by Jack Reinhardt, B-24 tailgunner in the USAAF during WWII
.The eruption of 1906 was particularly destructive, killing over 100 people and ejecting the most lava ever recorded from a Vesuvian eruption.^ It is unclear how many people were killed in the aftermath of the eruption.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were killed along with 39 other people during the 1991 eruption of Mount Unzen in Japan (Sutherland 15).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ash is swept off the wings of a North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber of the 340th Bombardment Group on March 23, 1944 after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
.The last major eruption was in March 1944 and it destroyed the villages of San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano, and part of San Giorgio a Cremano.^ In the aftermath of Krakatoa’s eruption, 165 villages were destroyed and nearly 37,000 people died.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .At the time of the eruption, the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) 340th Bombardment Group was based at Pompeii Airfield near Terzigno, Italy, just a few kilometers from the eastern base of the mountain.^ After the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the United States government set up full-time volcano labs in California, Alaska, and Washington.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The tephra and hot ash was particularly damaging to the fabric control surfaces, the engines, and the Plexiglass windshields and gun turrets of the 340th's B-25 Mitchell medium bombers. .Although estimates ranged from 78 to 88 aircraft destroyed,[36] no USAAF personnel were killed or seriously injured due to the eruption[37] as World War II continued to rage in Italy.^ In the aftermath of Krakatoa’s eruption, 165 villages were destroyed and nearly 37,000 people died.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From 6 January to 23 February 1944, lava flows appeared within the rim and there were outflows. The activity paused on 23 February and resumed on 13 March. .Small explosions then occurred until the major explosion took place on 18 March 1944.[38] The eruption could be seen from Naples and several photos have been taken.^ Upper image: The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, As Seen From Naples.
  • Antique Prints of Volcanos and Volcanology - Vulkane 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.philographikon.com [Source type: General]

[39] .Several other USAAF groups were based near the volcano so different perspectives of the eruption and the damage caused to the local villages were recorded by USAAF photographers and personnel.^ Ash and other materials are also thrown out during the eruption and these also add to the changing shape of the volcano’s exterior.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several points that I want my students to discuss after studying these volcanoes and their devastating eruptions.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They study volcanoes so that they can tell when and how the volcano might erupt, and they record details of the eruptions.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
The volcano has been quiescent since then. .Over the past few centuries, the quiet stages have varied from 18 months to 7½ years, making the current lull in activity the longest in nearly 500 years.^ The islanders tried to make Pele happy, but nevertheless, she erupted every few years.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Vesuvius is not thought likely to erupt in the immediate future, the danger posed by future eruptions is seen as very high in light of the volcano's tendency towards sudden, extremely violent explosions, and the very dense human population on and around the mountain.^ Eruptive dynamics and petrogenetic processes in a very shallow magma reservoir: the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I want my students to know that being a volcanologist can be very exciting and dangerous when the volcano is active.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mount Vesuvius erupted violently on August 24, A.D. 79.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The future

The 1822 eruption was one of five explosive subplinian eruptions which have taken place since the 1631 eruption. The eruption column rose to about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi).
.Large plinian eruptions which emit magma in quantities of about 1 cubic kilometre (0.24 cu mi), the most recent of which overwhelmed Pompeii, have happened after periods of inactivity of a few thousand years.^ Scientists have been studying the area ever since to learn about the effects of the eruption and the return to life in the area (Lauber 24).
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subplinian eruptions producing about 0.1 cubic kilometres (0.024 cu mi), such as those of 472 and 1631, have been more frequent with a few hundred years between them.^ Thus the physical model proposed to explain the link between southern Apennine earthquakes and Vesuvius eruptions is consistent with the past 300-year record.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sub-Plinian eruptions occurred during the interval A.D. 79 to 1631, including those in A.D. 472 (~0.4 km 3 [ Rosi et al., 1983]), 512, and 1139.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Following the 1631 eruption until 1944 every few years saw a comparatively small eruption which emitted 0.001-0.01 km³ of magma.^ Magma contamination by direct wall rock interaction, constraints from xenoliths from the walls of a carbonate-hosted magma chamber (Vesuvius 1944 eruption).
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New insights on the thermometamorphic–metasomatic magma chamber shell of the 1944 eruption of Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Shallow and deep reservoirs involved in magma supply of the 1944 eruption of Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

.It seems that for Vesuvius the amount of magma expelled in an eruption increases very roughly linearly with the interval since the previous one, and at a rate of around 0.001 cubic kilometres (0.00024 cu mi) for each year.^ Fourteen years earlier I had been thoroughly outclassed in Spin Control by my former wife Pat in the Slapping Incident from Trilogy One.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eruptive dynamics and petrogenetic processes in a very shallow magma reservoir: the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During my March 2000 interview with a Houston Press reporter, by coincidence I made a discovery that raised a cloud of suspicion about a controversy from the previous year.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

This gives an extremely approximate figure of 0.06 cubic kilometres (0.014 cu mi) for an eruption after 60 years of inactivity.[41]
.Magma sitting in an underground chamber for many years will start to see higher melting point constituents such as olivine crystallising out.^ It's such a wonderful exercise for pointing out the difference between what we think we see, and what we actually do see!
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ However, we also consider other types of volcanic sources, such as a spherical magma chamber, a sill, or a dike oriented perpendicular to the Apennine chain.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

The effect is to increase the concentration of dissolved gases (mostly steam and carbon dioxide) in the remaining liquid magma, making the subsequent eruption more violent.[13] .As gas-rich magma approaches the surface during an eruption, the huge drop in pressure caused by the reduction in weight of the overlying rock (which drops to zero at the surface) causes the gases to come out of solution, the volume of gas increasing explosively from nothing to perhaps many times that of the accompanying magma.^ Vesuvian activity: Large-scale explosive Plinian eruptions, whose eruptive volumes are larger than 1 km 3 ; intermediate sub-Plinian explosive eruptions, with eruptive volumes of ~0.1 km 3 ; and small scale effusive eruptions with volumes of ~0.01 km 3 .
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Roshan had put the pressure squarely on my shoulders and the pressure almost caused a huge blunder.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U-series disequilibria in young (AD 1944) Vesuvius rocks, preliminary implications for magma residence times and volatile addition.
  • Earth-prints: Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt.Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.earth-prints.org [Source type: Academic]

Additionally, the removal of the lower melting point material will raise the concentration of felsic components such as silicates potentially making the magma more viscous, adding to the explosive nature of the eruption.
The emergency plan for an eruption therefore assumes that the worst case will be an eruption of similar size and type to the 1631 VEI 4[42] one. .In this scenario the slopes of the mountain, extending out to about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the vent, may be exposed to pyroclastic flows sweeping down them, whilst much of the surrounding area could suffer from tephra falls.^ By answering as fast as I could, my quick response at least neutralized his head start advantage before it could get much momentum.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had expected at least some damage, but to my surprise, there were absolutely no negative consequences or fall-out from the email hatchet job.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From what I've seen ( not as much as you it sounds but I've kept my hand in, as it were ) the success rate is about the same too.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

Because of prevailing winds, towns to the south and east of the volcano are most at risk from this, and it is assumed that tephra accumulation exceeding 100 kg/m² – at which point people are at risk from collapsing roofs – may extend out as far as Avellino to the east or Salerno to the south east. Towards Naples, to the north west, this tephra fall hazard is assumed to extend barely past the slopes of the volcano.[41] The specific areas actually affected by the ash cloud will depend upon the particular circumstances surrounding the eruption.[43]
The area around the volcano is now densely populated.
The plan assumes between two weeks and 20 days [44][45] notice of an eruption and foresees the emergency evacuation of 600,000 people, almost entirely comprising all those living in the zona rossa ("red zone"), i.e. at greatest risk from pyroclastic flows. The evacuation, by trains, ferries, cars, and buses is planned to take about seven days, and the evacuees will mostly be sent to other parts of the country rather than to safe areas in the local Campania region, and may have to stay away for several months. .However the dilemma that would face those implementing the plan is when to start this massive evacuation, since if it is left too late then many people could be killed, whilst if it is started too early then the precursors of the eruption may turn out to have been a false alarm.^ It is unclear how many people were killed in the aftermath of the eruption.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 5, 1902, twenty people were killed as a result of these emissions.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure out who lives in the danger zones in Naples, and why the "evacuation plan" is a sad joke.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.In 1984, 40,000 people were evacuated from the Campi Flegrei area, another volcanic complex near Naples, but no eruption occurred.^ In the aftermath of Krakatoa’s eruption, 165 villages were destroyed and nearly 37,000 people died.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government officials as well as people living in the danger zones must be willing to evacuate the area when the scientists give their warnings.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people were evacuated from the areas surrounding the volcano when she began to demonstrate activity.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.Ongoing efforts are being made to reduce the population living in the red zone, by demolishing illegally constructed buildings, establishing a national park around the upper flanks of the volcano to prevent the erection of further buildings[45] and by offering financial incentives to people for moving away.^ And like a number of other countries corrupt builders and regulatory bodies have resulted in buildings not being constructed accordingly.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Greece, like many countries in quake zones has building codes that require buildings to be constructed to provide reasonable levels of safety in the event of one.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This informative text provides very in depth information about volcanoes that are found in America’s national parks.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The underlying goal is to reduce the time needed to evacuate the area, over the next 20 or 30 years, to two or three days.[46]
.The volcano is closely monitored by the Osservatorio Vesuvio in Naples with extensive networks of seismic and gravimetric stations, a combination of a GPS-based geodetic array and satellite-based synthetic aperture radar[47] to measure ground movement, and by local surveys and chemical analyses of gases emitted from fumaroles.^ The volcanologists use a combination of ground instruments and space satellites to measure the movement of materials in the volcano.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All of this is intended to track magma rising underneath the volcano. .So far, no magma has been detected within 10 km of the surface, and so the volcano was, in 2001, at worst only in the very early stages of preparing for an eruption.^ Coulomb stress change on fault A (dipping NE) caused by a 0.1 km 3 eruption from a 10-km-deep magma reservoir, as a function of the magma body geometry.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ During periods in which the conduit is open, the magma reservoir replenishes within 1-2 decades after the preceding eruption.
  • Nostro et al: Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quake.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ One or more vents allow the magma to rise to the surface where it escapes through the volcano’s mouth.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] This status has apparently not changed much to date.[48]

Vesuvius today

Inside the crater of Vesuvius
The area around Vesuvius was officially declared a national park on 5 June 1995.[49] The summit of Vesuvius is open to visitors and there is a small network of paths around the mountain that are maintained by the park authorities on weekends.
There is access by road to within 200 metres (660 ft) of the summit (measured vertically), but thereafter access is on foot only. There is a spiral walkway around the mountain from the road to the crater.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Summary of the eruptive history of Mt. Vesuvius". Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. http://www.ov.ingv.it/inglese/vesuvio/storia/storia.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  2. ^ "The Pomici Di Base Eruption". Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. http://www.ov.ingv.it/inglese/vesuvio/storia/pomici_base.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  3. ^ Vesuvius, Italy, Volcano World
  4. ^ The world's top volcanoes, Scentia
  5. ^ a b c d e "Vesuvius". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0101-02=. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  6. ^ "Definition of somma volcano". Volcano Live. http://www.volcanolive.com/somma.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  7. ^ Pliny the Younger, Letters 6.16.
  8. ^ Garrett, Roger A. (April 2005). "Vesuvius’ next eruption". Geotimes. doi:10.1002/9780470750865. http://www.geotimes.org/apr05/NN_Vesuvius.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  9. ^ a b "Somma-Vesuvius". Department of Physics, University of Rome. http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/vesuvio/vesuviustext.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  10. ^ "An ancient Bronze Age village (3500 bp) destroyed by the pumice eruption in Avellino (Nola-Campania)". http://www.meridies-nola.org/nola/villaggiopreistoricoing.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08.  "Vesuvius' Next Eruption May Put Metro Naples at Risk - Lesson from Katrina is need to focus on "maximum probable hazard"". State University of New York. http://www.buffalo.edu/news/fast-execute.cgi/article-page.html?article=78030009. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  11. ^ "Pomici di Avellino eruption". Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. http://www.ov.ingv.it/inglese/vesuvio/storia/avellino.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  12. ^ Stothers, R.B. (2002). "The case for an eruption of Vesuvius in 217 BC (abstract)". Ancient Hist. Bull. 16: 182–185. doi:10.1002/9780470750865. 
  13. ^ a b de Boer, Jelle Zeilinga & Sanders, Donald Theodore (2002). Volcanoes in Human History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05081-3. 
  14. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) (translation)
  15. ^ Strabo: Geography Book V Chapter 4 (translation)
  16. ^ Marcus Vitruvius Pollio: de Architectura, Book II (translation)
  17. ^ Patterns of Reconstruction at Pompeii
  18. ^ a b "Visiting Pompeii - AD 79 - Vesuvius explodes". Current Archeology. http://www.archaeology.co.uk/cwa/issues/cwa4/pompeii/eruption.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  19. ^ "Three Decades of Seismic Activity at Mt. Vesuvius: 1972–2000". 
  20. ^ The Life of Nero, Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars
  21. ^ The Annals by Publius Cornelius Tacitus - Book 15
  22. ^ Pompeii at the Minnesota State University E-museum
  23. ^ Area Vesuvio (in Italian) Retrieved on 18 August 2007
    Account of 1785 eruption by Hester Thrale
    Stromboli Online - Vesuvius & Campi Flegrei
    Visiting Pompeii Retrieved on 18 August 2007
    Wall painting of Vesuvius found in Pompeii
  24. ^ a b "The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD". Eyewitness to History. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/pompeii.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  25. ^ Haraldur Sigurdsson, Stanford Cashdollar and Stephen R. J. Sparks, "The eruption The Eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79: Reconstruction from Historical and Volcanological Evidence" American Journal of Archaeology '86.1 (January 1982), pp. 39-51.
  26. ^ 52 Minute MP3 Audio Discussion on the Theological significance of AD79
    Erupt Project - Vesuvius
    Herculaneum: Destruction and Re-discovery
    Live Mount Vesuvius Webcams: from Casalnuovo, from Sorrento
    Official Vesuvius National Park website (in Italian) Retrieved on 18 August 2007
  27. ^ Pliny the Younger: eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, AD 79 and The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD, Translation of Pliny's letters. Original
  28. ^ Jules Janick, Purdue University (2002). "Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman Agricultural Writers". History of Horticulture. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture19/lec19.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
    "Derivation of the name "Plinian"". The Volcano Information Center. http://volcanology.geol.ucsb.edu/pliny.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  29. ^ Mentioned in Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, xx.7.2, and in a lost section of the work.
  30. ^ Doug Criner. "Engineering of Pompeii". http://enginova.com/engineering_of_pompeii.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  31. ^ "Vesuvius, Italy". Volcano World. http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/img_vesuvius.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  32. ^ a b Lisetta Giacomelli, Annamaria Perrotta, Roberto Scandone, Claudio Scarpati (September 2003). "The eruption of Vesuvius of 79 AD and its impact on human environment in Pompei" (PDF). Episodes 26. doi:10.1002/9780470750865. http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/lavori/episodes.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  33. ^ "Pompeii, Stories from an eruption". The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. http://www.fieldmuseum.org/pompeii/herculaneum_2.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  34. ^ Vesuvius National Park brochure (Adobe PDF)
    Vesuvius National Park
    Disaster preparedness page for the US Naval Support Actitivy Naples
    Guardian Newspaper article "Italy ready to pay to clear slopes of volcano"
    Tango Diva article - "Mount Vesuvius, the sleeping giant"
    Explore Italian Volcanoes, at Dipartimento di Fisica "E. Amaldi" Universita' Roma Tre, Italy
    Image of Vesuvius at Volcano World
    Top volcanoes worldwide (i.e. Famous and recent eruptions)
    BBC article discussing potential danger to modern inhabitants.
  35. ^ Grete Stefani (October 2006). "La vera data dell'eruzione" (in Italian). Archeo (260): 10–14. http://www.capitoloprimo.it/archivio/2007_2008/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=572. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
    Gabi Laske. "The A.D. 79 Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius". Lecture notes for UCSD-ERTH15: "Natural Disasters". http://quakeinfo.ucsd.edu/~gabi/erth15/lecture08/pliny.html. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  36. ^ a b Aviation and the effects of Volcano Ash, Federal Aviation Authority
  37. ^ Casper, Jack A. and Ver Keljik, Eds., 489th Bomb Squadron Book, 1947.
  38. ^ "The eruption of Vesuvius of 1944". Vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it. http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/vesuvio/1944eng.html. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  39. ^ "Mt. Vesuvius eruption, as seen from Naples, 1944". Digitallibrary.smu.edu. http://digitallibrary.smu.edu/cul/gir/ww2/mcsc/italy/pages/mcs115it.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  40. ^ "The Mount Vesuvius Eruption of March 1944". Warwingsart.com. http://www.warwingsart.com/12thAirForce/Vesuvius.html. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  41. ^ a b c Kilburn, Chris & McGuire, Bill (2001). Italian Volcanoes. Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-04-1. 
  42. ^ "Activity of Vesuvio between 1631 and 1799". Explore Italian Volcanoes. http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/vesuvio/VESUVIO_1631-1944.html. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  43. ^ "Emergency plan (Italian)". http://www.virtualtorre.com/servizi/vesuvio/piano/b1.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  44. ^ In the shadow of the volcano, UK Guardian newspaper, 16 October 2003
  45. ^ a b c "Italians trying to prevent a modern Pompeii". USA Today. 21 October 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-10-20-vesuvius-usat_x.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  46. ^ "Early Warning of Volcanic eruptions and Earthquakes in the neapolitan area, Campania Region, South Italy" (PDF). Second International Conference on Early Warning, Bonn, Germany, 16–18 October 2003. http://www.ewc2.org/upload/downloads/Gasparini2003AbstractEWC2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  47. ^ "ESA press release on satellite monitoring of Vesuvius". http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/vw_news/vesuvius.html. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  48. ^ "Monitoring of Mount Vesuvius". Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. http://www.ov.ingv.it/inglese/vesuvio/vesuvio.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
    "Present level of alert on Vesuvius". Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. http://www.ov.ingv.it/inglese/vesuvio/livelli.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  49. ^ Vesuvius portal website

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.Mount Vesuvius is in Campania, in Italy, overshadowing the Bay of Naples.^ For tourist who travel to Panama and who are not from Italy, the name of the Restaurant Vesuvio comes from the “Monte Vesuvio” (Mount Vesuvius).
  • Panama real estate News :: VESUVIO RESTAURANT - ITALIAN CUISINE AT ITS BEST 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.interpanama.com [Source type: General]

^ Cheer Flag by pointofnoreturn on August 28, 2007 Mount Vesuvius Vesuvius National Park Naples .
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

^ Mount Vesuvius stands within the Naples megalopolis of five million inhabitants.
  • Cochise College                P 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

View over the Bay of Naples
View over the Bay of Naples
.Mount Vesuvius is perhaps best known for its eruption in Roman times (24 August 79 AD), described [1] by Pliny the younger, when Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed.^ Pompeii was destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. It is an incredibly fascinating place.
  • Pompeii Tour of Scenic & Historic Sights by World Class Travel & Tours 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.goworldclass.com [Source type: News]

^ Herculaneum - The 79 AD sea-shore of Herculaneum  .
  • The AD 79 Eruption of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The AD 79 Eruption of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC 193.204.162.114 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monte Vesuvio (Mount Vesuvius) is perhaps one of the best known volcanoes in the world.
  • SummitPost - Mount Vesuvius / Monte Vesuvio -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eruption left a large crater that can still be visited today.^ A large portion of old Herculaneum is still buried under the modern town and even today excavations are going on to discover what treasures lie buried under the rock.
  • Excursions to Capri Amalfi Ischia Procida Pompeii Hercolaneum Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hotelantichemura.com [Source type: General]
  • Hotels Amalfi Coast Departure for Capri and Pompeii from the Hotels Amalfi Coast 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ondaverde.it [Source type: General]

^ His nephew described the eruption in a letter still used as evidence by vulcanologists today.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ At the summit of the cone is a large crater, about 1,000 ft deep and 2,000 ft across, formed in the eruption of 1944.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a currently dormant volcano that occasionally emits streams of lava (last minor eruption in the 1950's; although its dormant state could be an indication of a build-up of pressure and a coming explosive eruption).^ The last of these eruptions was in 1950.
  • Travel Hot Spots – 11 Volcanic Regions Around the World : Kathika Travel Website 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC kathika.com [Source type: News]

^ I could not come up with an answer to that question.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a volcano experiences no activity for a long time, the magma accumulating in the chamber undergoes certain chemical changes that lead to a build-up of gases in the magma.
  • Earlham College-Geology 211-Archaeology 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the top of the volcano is a crater rim that affords a view into the crater that still fumes slightly.^ It might sound like a dubious invitation (Vesuvius, after all, is an active volcano), but it's possible to visit the rim of the crater's mouth.
  • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ It is still regarded as an active volcano although its activity currently is limited to little more than steam from vents at the bottom of the crater.
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time and place that afforded past travelers a daydream still evokes a contentment that seeps into my soul, decades, and sometimes centuries later.
  • Slow Travel - Ginda's Umbria and Beyond, Visiting Vesuvius, volcano near Naples 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: News]

.Besides that you will have (only on clear days, but the mountain is notoriously covered in fog or clouds) a stunning panorama overseeing the Bay of Naples, Naples, Capri, Ischia, the edge of the Amalfi Coast and more.^ There isn't much to say about mountain conditions, besides the fact that breathing the air in Naples equals smoking 8 cigarettes, which problem you don't have on Vesuvio...
  • SummitPost - Mount Vesuvius / Monte Vesuvio -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dark black cloud of smoke called nuee ardente covered the city and claimed many more victims due to its sheer heat.
  • 10 Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hottnez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once on the rim of the crater walls, you shall walk some way around the edge with an official alpine guide to enjoy this natural phenomenon and, of course, a panoramic view of Naples and the bay.
  • Mt. Vesuvius & Pompeii 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.carnival.com [Source type: General]
  • Mt. Vesuvius & Pompeii 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.carnival.com [Source type: General]

.Be warned: Going there will make you sweat a lot and set you back about 15€ (including private taxi up the hill).^ Do you know a lot about it?
  • Naples Italy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ This will set you back 6.50 euro.
  • SummitPost - Mount Vesuvius / Monte Vesuvio -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You take your car (or public transport) up to the parking lot near the summit, from where it's a fairly steep twenty minute climb to the top.
  • Mount Vesuvius - Naples - Reviews of Mount Vesuvius - TripAdvisor 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

Get in

By Public Transport

.Take the Circumvesuviana railway or bus to Ercolano Scavi station in Herculaneum or the Pompei Scavi station.^ Pugliano Station was replaced by Ercolano, a new station from where the bus for Vesuvius now departs, although most visitors travel by car or excursion coach from Naples.
  • Thomas Cook & Son's Vesuvius Railway 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jrtr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Pompei Scavi train station, turn right and walk down the road about a block to the entrance (first left turn).
  • Rick Steves' Europe: Pompeii: A Guided Walk 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ricksteves.com [Source type: General]

^ Busses leave from the piazza in front of the Ercolani Scavi (Herculaneum) station on the Circumvesuviana train line.
  • SummitPost - Mount Vesuvius / Monte Vesuvio -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From there you have two choices:
.You can either wait for the local bus that costs around €8.70 return (from Pompeii, cheaper from Herculaneum).^ I took the bus from Pompeii, which cost €9.
  • Mount Vesuvius - Pompeii - Reviews of Mount Vesuvius - TripAdvisor 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ This allows you to connect Naples to Pompeii, Herculaneum and Vesuvius.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

^ If you're planning to go to Vesuvius, Pompeii, or Herculaneum or more than one of these places in a single day, it's vital to plan it out accordingly.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

The bus goes only around twice a day from Herculaneum - at 8:45 AM and 12:45 PM. It goes more often from Pompeii.twsebhnt
.Or you can use a private taxi company.^ If you want to share photos marked as friends, family or private, use a Guest Pass.
  • Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are easily found by going to the tourist center on the left as you come out from the Ercolano station.^ You will come out directly on the arena.
  • Walkthrough: Pompei/Timescape 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC justadventure.com [Source type: General]

^ Pompei ” griswalds_9 3 contributions australia Dec 8, 2009 Mt Vesuvius is a great place to go to get the full picture of what happened in 79AD. It is still active and you can still see the steam coming out of the vent holes.
  • Mount Vesuvius - Pompeii - Reviews of Mount Vesuvius - TripAdvisor 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ When you're ready to leave, backtrack to the main road and turn left, going uphill to the Forum, where you'll find the main entrance/exit.
  • Rick Steves' Europe: Pompeii: A Guided Walk 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ricksteves.com [Source type: General]

.Note: They offer a lift up and down the mountain for about 10€ each person.^ Meanwhile, Thomas Cook & Son still owned the run-down Hermitage Hotel at Eremo, but in 1949, they put it up for sale.
  • Thomas Cook & Son's Vesuvius Railway 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jrtr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The road up the mountain is curvey but it offers nice...
  • Mount Vesuvius - Pompeii - Reviews of Mount Vesuvius - TripAdvisor 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ If my students are excited about volcanoes as a result of this curriculum unit, then just maybe they will become excited about working with them when they grow up.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For €16.50, they will offer a ticket with entry to the crater.^ If you opt to take a taxi, you'll be required to pay the admission fee for entry to the crater (€6.50) ahead of time.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted On March 16, 2008 04:46:50 AM I'm actually Irish and Scottish and the only chagrin I've ever had drinking was when they ran out.
  • Naples Italy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Audioguides are available from a kiosk near the ticket booth at the Porta Marina entrance (€6.50, €10 /2 people, ID required), but they offer basically the same info as your free booklet.
  • Rick Steves' Europe: Pompeii: A Guided Walk 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ricksteves.com [Source type: General]

.Note: They are able to get special entry tickets for €4.50, so when you purchase the package, they keep €12, instead of €10. They will typically wait until a car is full and leave then.^ The cars seem to have an elevation limit though - once you cross a certain meter mark above sea level, they seem to disappear.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

^ They determined that the gas consisted of 10 percent “vital air, or oxygenous gas,” 40 percent “fixed air, or carbonic acid,” and 50 percent “phlogisticated air, or azotic gas” (Spallanzani, 1798, p.
  • Sample Chapter for Young, D.A.: Mind over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology. 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you opt to take a taxi, you'll be required to pay the admission fee for entry to the crater (€6.50) ahead of time.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

.They will agree with all people in the car to wait for all of you at the upper car park for an hour.^ Available: all year round Tour length: 9 hours Stops: Pompeii - Herculaneum - Vesuvius area and other sites you may be interested in.
  • Naples shore excursions: Pompeii, Herculaneum and Vesuvius area 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.italylimo.com [Source type: General]

^ The cars seem to have an elevation limit though - once you cross a certain meter mark above sea level, they seem to disappear.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Some people have been known to send back lava samples they have taken from the Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park because of the bad luck they associate with Pele.

.That however is quite tough, because you will need to hike up the last bit before you can actually see anything exciting.^ When the web first emerged, video clips were rarely used because, to watch them, you had to download the entire video file (which can be several megabytes for even short segments) before you could see anything.

^ And please do not buy into management telling you that orders are up, all you have to do is go to layoffdaily and see the truth.
  • JG-TC.com > News > More than 20 to lose jobs at Charleston's Vesuvius plant 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jg-tc.com [Source type: General]

^ It isn't too tough when you ask every other person you see walking down the street.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

.That leaves you with only about 15 minutes to photograph the crater, memorize it for the rest of your life etc.^ The priest leaves you for a few minutes.
  • Walkthrough: Pompei/Timescape 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC justadventure.com [Source type: General]

^ You can understand how it might be possible to live life in that city only half aware of the volcano on whose slopes your home is constructed, and whose whim might control your continued existence.
  • Random House, Inc. Academic Resources | Earth by Richard Fortey 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.randomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are concerned about your Reputation, then Learning to Work the Ref becomes a major survival skill in today's world.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

.When you come back to the car (probably already 15 minutes late), you will be the first, the driver waits usually for all to return, and you regret not to have stayed a bit longer up there.^ You can watch it in the breakroom, while your waiting on orders to come in.
  • JG-TC.com > News > More than 20 to lose jobs at Charleston's Vesuvius plant 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jg-tc.com [Source type: General]

^ When I returned, Roshan and Kathy were there waiting for me and so was the Wedding Couple sitting on the couch 15 feet away.
  • Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Already in the North, birds which are at home there all year, begin to fly to the warmer South for winter, and already within a hundred years, these feathered animals will not be at home in the North any longer.
  • Newsletter of March 2005 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.theyfly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you have missed the public bus, this will be your only option to get up to the mountain.^ We've cooked up some fun dynamic images for you to put on your homepage.
  • Vesuvius, Virginia (24483) Conditions & Forecast : Weather Underground 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: General]
  • Vesuvius, Virginia Vær : Weather Underground 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC norwegian.wunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vesuvius, Virginia Wetter : Weather Underground 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC deutsch.wunderground.com [Source type: General]
  • Vesuvius, Virginia (24483) Conditions & Forecast : Weather Underground 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: General]

^ To reach Vesuvius from Naples, take the Circumvesuviana Railway or (summer only) bus service from Piazza Vittoria, which hooks up with bus connections at Pugliano.
  • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ The taxis leave more frequently than the bus so that way if you miss the bus, you can opt for a taxi.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

.You can also do a 6km hike to the summit along the winding roads.^ You then go down to Capri town which is very chic with shops, hotels and restaurants along winding streets.
  • Excursions to Capri Amalfi Ischia Procida Pompeii Hercolaneum Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hotelantichemura.com [Source type: General]

.To do this you will need to take the local bus service ANM 5 or 176 from Ercolano to San Vitto.^ To reach Vesuvius from Naples, take the Circumvesuviana Railway or (summer only) bus service from Piazza Vittoria, which hooks up with bus connections at Pugliano.
  • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Any pizza tour of Italy, needs to take you to Naples, by far the best in Italy.
  • Naples Italy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Some bus or van will generally be on hand to take you from Herculaneum to the top.
  • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.From there you will be able to walk to the summit.^ This guided walk will save you the hassle and expense of finding a guide once you get there.
  • Rick Steves' Europe: Pompeii: A Guided Walk 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ricksteves.com [Source type: General]

^ The downside to Pompeii is that it's massive - there is a lot of ground to cover so that means you'll be walking for a good portion of the day in the hot sun (Pompeii is not shaded).
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

.You can take in the views of the national park and enjoy the local wildlife.^ As you drive up, the guide will point out geographical characteristics of the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex and the Vesuvius National Park.
  • Naples and Mount Vesuvius Tour - Piazza del Plebiscito, Royal Palace, Basilica of San Francesco di P 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

^ We stopped at the top as well, parked the bikes, let them take a nap with the local dog, and had an ice cream.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

^ From this flat and dusty park you will have chances of seeing lots of wildlife and the elephants, giraffes and zebras with in the background the Kilimanjaro might just be the highlight of your trip.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will still need to pay the entrance fee when you arrive at the crater, but for the energetic ones it is a must!^ If you opt to take a taxi, you'll be required to pay the admission fee for entry to the crater (€6.50) ahead of time.
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

^ The fee to use the one mile/1700 meter trail from the parking lot to the souvenir stand on the crater rim is 6.50 euro.
  • SummitPost - Mount Vesuvius / Monte Vesuvio -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have arranged for You accommodation (half board), tours with a private English-speaking guide, entrance fees and transfers included.
  • Pompeii tour guide - Capri tour guides - Amalfi Coast tour guides 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pompeii.org.uk [Source type: General]

By Car

You can get to the upper parking area, but be prepared to part with an arm and a leg for the parking fee.
  • By Foot: Afraid, no choice. Everyone has to walk up the last 500m steeply uphill. That includes busloads of German pensioners which on busy days will congest the path and give up half the way. Closed-in strong shoes are essential, as the path is dust and loose rock. .You probably want to get hold of one or two walking sticks provided.^ Have a Fantastic Foamalicious New Years & remember if you want amazing foam stick with the true foam experts!
    • Vesuvius on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You will be charged a modest amount for them (one to two sestertia).
    • Walkthrough: Pompei/Timescape 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC justadventure.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Whichever ones they all want you to have a little different job Arianna.
    • Arianna Huffington: Why Visiting Pompeii Has Me Thinking About the Smoke Billowing Out of Our Economic Mt. Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    And there is a small entrance fee of €6.50(adults)/€4.50 (students).
Crater of Vesuvius
.
Crater of Vesuvius
  • The crater with its rising fumes.
  • The different lava stones, changing colour as you walk uphill and around the crater.
  • The view of the Bay of Naples and Pompeii in good weather.
  • The scarred landscape where the 1950's lava streams went downhill.
  • The remains of the funicular railway built in 1870, and which operated until the volcano's last major eruption in 1944. The song Funiculì, Funiculà was written by composer Peppino Turco, to commemorate the opening of the railway.
  • All the other tourists.
  • Dynamic Earth Adventures, (), [2].^ This allows you to connect Naples to Pompeii, Herculaneum and Vesuvius.
    • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The last eruption of the mountain was in 1944.
    • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vesuvius, with the option to walk to the summit of the crater.
    • Pompeii tour guide - Capri tour guides - Amalfi Coast tour guides 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.pompeii.org.uk [Source type: General]

    .An organization that arranges personalised tours to Vesuvius and Pompeii led by experienced tour guides and academics in the field.  edit
  • bike excursions company, naples, ().^ Begin your tour with two exquisite nights in Naples where you’ll delight in a visit to the leisurely island of Capri and marvel at Pompeii .
    • Travel to Italy :: Perillo Tours - Since 1945 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.perillotours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mt Vesuvius and Pompeii Day Trip from Naples 118 reviews .
    • Mt Vesuvius Half-Day Trip from Naples 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.partner.viator.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nine miles northwest of Pompeii, the seaside resort of Herculaneum experienced Vesuvius’ fury in a different way.
    • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    .An organization that arranges personalised bike/trekking tours at Mount Vesuvius and bay of Naples (from easy to hard biking itineraries).  edit
  • Make a photograph that looks like you are going to parachute down the mountain.
  • Enjoy the natural beauty of this worldly wonder.
  • Geological collection sets with rare original Vesuvius stones.^ Mount Vesuvius dominates the Bay of Naples.
    • Excursions to Capri Amalfi Ischia Procida Pompeii Hercolaneum Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hotelantichemura.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Herculaneum was located on the shore of the Bay of Naples at the base of Mount Vesuvius.
    • Volcanic Case Histories 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vesuvius looms menacingly over the Bay of Naples.
    • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

    These are spray painted fakes.
  • Postcards with a helicopter view of the volcano (since you won't get into one to snap the shots yourself).
  • Property on the lower slopes of Vesuvius is very attractively priced.
  • Lacryma Christi wine is produced from grapes grown on the lower slopes of the volcano.
  • While there are no pubs or restaurants, there are several small shops up the last 500m or so to the crater and you can pick up snacks and a cool drink here but don't expect any meals, come well prepared!

Stay safe

.Vesuvius is an active volcano and may erupt any time in the near future.^ What time does the volcano erupt?
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Vesuvius is an active volcano.
  • Seeing is believing at Vesuvius | Art and design | guardian.co.uk 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Vesuvius has erupted many times.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the last few centuries, Vesuvius has erupted at intervals ranging from 18 months to 7½ years, making the current lull the longest in 500 years.^ Over the past few centuries, the quiet stages have varied from 18 months to 7½ years, making the current lull in activity the longest in nearly 500 years.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After several centuries of quiescence, a series of earthquakes, lasting for six months and gradually increasing in violence, preceded a major eruption of Vesuvius that took place on December 16, 1631.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vesuvius has erupted periodically ever since (thousands were killed in 1631): The last major spouting of lava occurred in the 20th century (it blew off the ring of its crater in 1906).
  • Attractions in Pompeii at Frommer's 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.Its lack of eruption may merely indicate a build-up of pressure, which may result in a more explosive next eruption, posing a lethal hazard to over 500,000 residents living in the same place that got destroyed in 79 A.D. (obviously, they have not learned).^ An estimated 80 percent of Pompeii’s residents likely fled to the safety of neighboring villages, but more than 2,000 stayed behind, huddled inside buildings.
  • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The Mercato eruption (also known as Pomici Gemelle or Ottaviano), 8,000 years ago, VEI 6, followed a smaller explosive eruption around 11,000 years ago (called the Lagno Amendolare eruption).
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its most famous eruption, on 24 August 79 A.D., completely destroyed the city of Pompeii and the town of Herculaneum.

.Listen to local authorities if there is any news about the state of Vesuvius, and do not wander any further than the trails go.^ The summit of Vesuvius is open to visitors and there is a small network of paths around the mountain that are maintained by the park authorities on weekends.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The minerals that occur about Vesuvius, which now number more than one hundred and fifty species, may be arranged genetically into four groups: .
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An emergency plan for such a high risk zone must certainly involve the local and state authorities and your note on this issue is very positive.
  • VESUVIUS: The making of a catastrophe 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Combine the trip to Vesuvius with visiting Herculaneum or Pompeii afterwards to make more of the day.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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.VESUVIUS (also Vesevus in ancient poets), a volcano rising from the eastern margin of the Bay of Naples in Italy, about 7 m.^ Mount Vesuvius dominates the Bay of Naples.
  • Excursions to Capri Amalfi Ischia Procida Pompeii Hercolaneum Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hotelantichemura.com [Source type: General]

^ Vesuvius across the Bay of Naples .

^ VESUVIUS (also Vesevus in ancient poets), a volcano rising from the eastern margin of the Bay of Naples in Italy , about 7 m.

.E.S.E. of Naples, in the midst of a region which has been densely populated by a civilized community for more than twenty-five centuries.^ The Naples area is the most densely populated volcanic region in the world.

^ E.S.E. of Naples, in the midst of a region which has been densely populated by a civilized community for more than twenty-five centuries.

^ VESUVIUS , the most celebrated volcano in the world, rises from the eastern margin of the Bay of Naples in Italy, in the midst of a region which has been densely populated by a civilized community for more than twenty centuries.

.Hence the mountain has served as a type for the general popular conception of a volcano, and its history has supplied a large part of the information on which geological theories of volcanic action have been based.^ Hence the mountain has served as a type for the general popular conception of a volcano, and its history has supplied a large part of the information on which geological theories of volcanic action have been based.

^ Hence it has served as a type for the general popular conception of a volcano, and its history has supplied a large part of the information on which geological theories of volcanic action have been based.

^ Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the image.
  • SIR-C/X-SAR image Vesuvius, Italy 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jpl.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The height of the mountain varies from time to time within limits of several hundred feet, according to the effects of successive eruptions, but averages about 4000 ft.^ The height of the mountain varies from time to time within limits of several hundred feet, according to the effects of successive eruptions, but averages somewhere about 4000 feet above the sea.

^ It is the largest active volcano in Europe, currently standing about 3,326 m (10,910 ft) high, though it should be noted that this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21.6 m (71 ft) lower now than it was in 1865.
  • Italian Visits - All about Italy - Mount Aetna or Mount Etna 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.italianvisits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last serious outbreak of volcanic activity occurred in 1944 when a violent surge added nearly 150 m (500 ft) to the height of the mountain.
  • BikeAbout Trip Log: May 13, 1998 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.bikeabout.org [Source type: General]

above sea-level .(in June 1900, 4275 ft., but after the eruption of 1906 considerably less).^ June 1900, 4275 ft., but after the eruption of 1906 considerably less).

^ The height of the cone in 1980 was 4,198 ft (1,280 m), but it varies considerably after each major eruption.
  • Vesuvius (volcano, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subplinian eruption in 1631 was considerably less powerful but much more devastating, simply because the territory was more populated [3].
  • Critique of Science's Perspectives on Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vesuvius consists of two distinct portions.^ Vesivius consists of two distinct portions.

^ Vesuvius consists of two distinct portions.

^ The Trail The 16.2-mile Vesuvius Backpack Trail is an easy to follow trail with two distinct halves: upper and lower.
  • BackpackOhio.com - Vesuvius Backpack Trail 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC backpackohio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the northern side a lofty semicircular cliff, reaching a height of 3714 ft., half encircles the present active cone, and descends in long slopes towards the plains below.^ On the northern side of lofty semicircular cliff, reaching a height of 3747 feet, half encircles the resent active cone, and descends in long slopes towards the plains below.

^ Monte Somma is 1,149 m (3,770 ft) high, separated from the main cone by the valley of Atrio di Cavallo, which is some 3 miles (5 km) long.
  • Vesuvius.eu 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.vesuvius.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second summit, Monte Somma (3,770 ft/1,149 m) is a ridge that half encircles the cone and is separated from it by a valley (c.3 mi/5 km long).
  • Vesuvius Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0850774.html 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This precipice, known as Monte Somma, forms the wall of an ancient prehistoric crater of vastly greater size than that of the present volcano.^ This precipice, known as Monte Somma, forms the wall of an ancient prehistoric crater of vastly greater size than that of the present volcano.

^ Parts of the ring form the present Monte Somma.
  • Vesuvius, 79 AD 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The present crater-wall of Somma is doubtless a relic of that time.

.The continuation of the same wall round its southern half has been in great measure obliterated by the operations of the modern vent, which has built a younger cone upon it, and is gradually filling up the hollow of the prehistoric crater.^ The continuation of the same wall round its southern half has been in great measure obliterated by the operations of the modern vent, which has built a younger cone upon it, and is gradually filling up the hollow of the prehistoric crater.

^ This precipice, known as Monte Somma, forms the wall of an ancient prehistoric crater of vastly greater size than that of the present volcano.

^ The cone going up to the crater shows you how big volcanic bombs can be .
  • Vesuvius and Pompeii 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sln.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the time of its greatest dimensions the volcano was perhaps twice as high as it is now.^ At the time of its greatest dimensions the volcano was perhaps twice as high as it is now.

^ Since 1631, the 4,200 foot high volcano has erupted at least 21 times.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Mt. Vesuvius Reading Comprehension 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Venus may have at one time produced more volcanoes than any other planet in our solar system, though they are all now extinct.

.By a colossal eruption, of which no historical record remains, the upper half of the cone was blown away.^ By a colossal eruption, of which no historical record remains, the upper half of the cone was blown away.

^ In fact, in the 472 and 1631 eruptions, Mount Vesuvius has gone on record for the ash falling as far away as Constantinople in Istanbul a good 1,200 km away!
  • Facts About Mount Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Plinian derives from the name of Pliny the Younger, whose written observations of the 79 eruption form an important part of the historic record of Pompeii.

.It was around this truncated cone that the early Greek settlers founded their little colonies.^ It was around this truncated cone that the early Greek settlers founded their little colonies.

^ The area around the Bay of Naples was colonized by the Greeks as early as the 8th century BCE. Naples takes it name from the Greek word neapolis for new city.
  • EDSITEment - NEH Spotlight 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC ed2.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traces of Naples' early history can be found in the Greek city walls, and in the Via Anticaglia.
  • Naples Praiano Positano Amalfi Ravello Capri Sightseeing Scenery 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uniquecostiera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the beginning of the Christian era, and for many previous centuries, no eruption had been known to take place from the mountain, and the volcanic nature of the locality was perhaps not even suspected by the inhabitants who planted their vineyards along its fertile slopes, and built their numerous villages and towns around its base.^ At the beginning of the Christian era, and for many previous centuries, no eruption had been known to take place from the mountain, and the volcanic nature of the locality was perhaps not even suspected by the inhabitants who planted their vineyards along its fertile slopes, and built their numerous villages and towns around its base.

^ The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture , with vineyards and orchards spread across the...
  • Find Your Pictures on GotSaga | GotSaga 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gotsaga.com [Source type: General]

^ Its lower slopes are incredibly fertile and are covered 18 small towns (number from 2003) and numerous vineyards, which produce the famous Lachryma Christi wine.
  • Earlham College - Geology 211 - Template 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The geographer Strabo, however, detected the probable volcanic origin of the cone and drew attention to its cindery and evidently fire-eaten rocks.^ The sagacious and observant geographer Strabo, however, detected the probable volcanic origin of the cone and drew attention to its cindery and evidently fire-eaten rocks.

^ The geographer Strabo , however, detected the probable volcanic origin of the cone and drew attention to its cindery and evidently fire-eaten rocks.

^ The original village of Pompeii, however, was built on a volcanic ridge produced by a prehistoric lava flow by native Italian people, the Oscans.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), Pompeii 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, as they are still, the vineyards being of extraordinary fertility.^ From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, as they are still, the vineyards being of extraordinary fertility.

^ From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, but towards the top the upward growth of vegetation had not concealed the loose ashes which still remained as evidence of the volcanic nature of the place.

^ Excavations began in the 18th century and are still being carried out.
  • Pompeii and Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

.The wine they produce is known as Lacrimae Christi.^ The wine they produce is known as Lacrimae Christi.

^ Lacrima Cristi , one of the regions most famous vineyards, produces both red and white wines.

^ Its lower slopes are incredibly fertile and are covered 18 small towns (number from 2003) and numerous vineyards, which produce the famous Lachryma Christi wine.
  • Earlham College - Geology 211 - Template 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But towards the top the upward growth of vegetation had not concealed the loose ashes which still remained as evidence of the volcanic nature of the place.^ But towards the top the upward growth of vegetation had not concealed the loose ashes which still remained as evidence of the volcanic nature of the place.

^ From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, but towards the top the upward growth of vegetation had not concealed the loose ashes which still remained as evidence of the volcanic nature of the place.

^ The finer volcanic ash particles that remained in the atmosphere led to pronounced optical phenomenon creating vibrant sunset hues.
  • 10 Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hottnez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On this barren summit lay a wide flat depression, surrounded with rugged walls of rock, which were festooned with wild vines.^ On this barren summit lay a wide flat depression, surrounded with rugged walls of rock, which were festooned with wild vines.

^ In 73 BC, Spartacus and his army of slaves was besieged by the praetor Publius Claudius Pulcher on the summit of Vesuvius, which was then a wide, flat depression walled by rugged rocks festooned with wild vines.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smoke, mud, flames and burning stones spewed from the summit of the mountain, sending a rain of ash and rock through the surrounding countryside.
  • What happened to the roman town pompey? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The present crater-wall of Monte Somma is doubtless a relic of that time.^ The present crater-wall of Monte Somma is doubtless a relic of that time.

^ The present crater-wall of Somma is doubtless a relic of that time.

^ At 16.30 (local time) of the 18th a lava flow was rapidly emitted form the remains of the conelet, overcome the crater wall on the northern side and reached the Somma caldera wall  below the Punta del Nasone.
  • The eruption of 1944 of Mount Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it [Source type: Academic]

.It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.^ In 73 bc the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Publius Claudius Pulcher on the barren summit of Mt.
  • Vesuvius (volcano, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He and his men escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater rim.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.

.A painting found in Pompeii in 1879 represents Vesuvius before the eruption (Notizie degli scan, 1880, pi.^ The description of the eruption of Vesuvius and the destruction of Pompeii in a.d.
  • Random House, Inc. Academic Resources | Earth by Richard Fortey 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.randomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A painting found in Pompeii in 1879 represents Vesuvius before the eruption (Notizie degli scan, 1880, pi.

^ Geologists found evidence for eight mighty "Plinian eruptions" in the rock layers of Vesuvius -- all within the past 25,000 years.
  • Life Under the Volcano: Preparing for the Wrath of Vesuvius - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.spiegel.de [Source type: News]

vii.).
.After centuries of quiescence the volcanic energy began again o manifest itself in a succession of earthquakes, which spread ci larm through Campania.^ After centuries of quiescence the volcanic energy began again to manifest itself in a succession of earthquakes, which spread alarm far and wide through Campania.

^ After centuries of quiescence the volcanic energy began again o manifest itself in a succession of earthquakes, which spread ci larm through Campania .

^ The mountain subsequently went through several centuries of quiescence and was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards, except at the top which was craggy.
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For some sixteen years after 63 t]
hese convulsions continued, doing much damage to the sur- 0:
Dunding towns. .At Pompeii, for example, among other de- a astation, the temple of Isis was~ shaken into ruins, and, as an ii iscription records, it was rebuilt from the foundations by the d sunificence of a private citizen.^ At Pompeii, for example, among other devastation, the temple of Isis was shaken into ruins, and, as an inscription records, it was rebuilt from the foundation by the munificence of a private citizen.

^ There are other sources that put the eruption date into October (derived from the fact that fresh olives were found in some houses in Pompeii).
  • ERTH15: 79 A.D. Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC quakeinfo.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Daily Life in Rome Read an essay about public and private life in the Roman Empire that includes images and examples from Pompeii.
  • Pompeii | eThemes | eMINTS 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.emints.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the 24th of August 79 ri he earthquakes, which had been growing more violent, culmi- 11
ated in a tremendous explosion of Vesuvius. .A contemporary t ccount of this event has been preserved in two letters of the tl ounger Pliny to the historian Tacitus.^ The eruption was witnessed by Pliny the Younger who described the events in two letters to Tacitus.
  • Volcanoes and Their Impact on Humans 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pliny the Younger was a writer and he recorded what he saw in his letters to the historian Tacitus.
  • Mount Vesuvius - Italiansrus.com 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC italiansrus.com [Source type: General]

^ (Pliny the Younger in a letter to Tacitus) .

He was staying at ~
lisenum with his uncle, .the elder Pliny, who was in command d f the fleet.^ Pliny , who was in command d f the fleet.

^ He (Pliny the Elder) was at that time with the fleet under his command at Misenum.
  • Vesuvius and the Destruction of Pompeii 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The uncle of Pliny the Younger, known as Pliny the Elder, was a commander of a fleet of war ships at Misenum (see map).
  • mount vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.cotf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The latter set out on the afternoon of the 24th to lc ttempt to rescue people at Herculaneum, but came too late, and rent to Stabiae, where he spent the night, and died the following h ~orning, suffocated by the poisonous fumes which were ex- A
aled from the earth. .This eruption was attended with great it estruction of life and property.^ This eruption was attended with great destruction of life and property.

^ This eruption was attended with great it estruction of life and property.

^ Here again we have an example of the electrical fire attending a great eruption .
  • http://www.dartmouth.edu/~volcano/HaNuov.html 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Three towns are known to d ave been destroyedHerculaneum at the western base of the y olcano, Pompeii on the south-east side, and Stabiae, still farther sl outh, on the site of the modern Castellamare.^ Three towns are known to have been destroyed -- Herculaneum at the western base of the volcano, Pompeii on the south-east side, and Stabiae, still farther south on the site of the modern Castellamare.

^ Three towns are known to d ave been destroyedHerculaneum at the western base of the y olcano, Pompeii on the south-east side, and Stabiae, still farther sl outh, on the site of the modern Castellamare.

^ Around 25,000 years old, Mount Vesuvius is best known for its nearly instantaneous decimation of neighboring towns Pompeii and Herculaneum in A.D. 79.
  • Howstuffworks "What would happen if Mount Vesuvius erupted today?" 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

There is no evi- 0
ence that any .lava was emitted during this eruption.^ There is no evidence that any lava was emitted during this eruption.

^ Both can contain (a) volcanic debris, such as tephra of varying sizes ejected during an ongoing eruption, and (b) lava and rocks from previous eruptions that were deposited on the volcano's slopes.
  • USGS Geography Products 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC edc2.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These volcanoes usually emit two kinds of eruptions: one, producing mostly ash and cinders, and the other producing lava.
  • Cochise College                P 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the bundant steam given off by the volcano seems to have con- c ensed into copious rain, which, mixing with the light volcanic V
ust and .ash, gave rise to torrents of pasty mud, that flowed p own the slopes and overwhelmed houses and villages.^ In  June 1929 a major lava flow  extended outside the Somma caldera rim and reached the village of Terzigno on the eastern slope of the volcano.
  • The eruption of 1944 of Mount Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it [Source type: Academic]

^ A vigorous plinian eruption column rises from the summit crater, and ash columns also rise from a NW-flank fissure that fed a lava flow that traveled far down the west flank, overrunning several villages.
  • Global Volcanism Program | Vesuvius | Photo Gallery 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.volcano.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When this column collapsed under its own weight, the pyroclastic flows could have hurtled down the slope, catching many of those who had stayed behind unawares.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A28303968 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hercu- a ineum is believed to have been destroyed by these water h was, and there is reason to suppose that similar materials a lied the cellars and lower parts of Pompeii.^ Hercu- a ineum is believed to have been destroyed by these water h was, and there is reason to suppose that similar materials a lied the cellars and lower parts of Pompeii.

^ Herculaneum is believed to have been destroyed by these "water lavas," and there is reason to suppose that similar materials filled the cellars and lower parts of Pompeii.

^ Pliny and his party saw flames coming from several parts of the mountain (probably a sign of superheated pyroclastic flows, which would later destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum ).
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Comparing the si tatements of Pliny with the facts still observable in the district, 0
re perceive that this first recorded eruption of Vesuvius belongs a o that phase of volcanic action known as the paroxysmal, when, c fter a longer or shorter period of comparative tranquillity, a U
olcano rapidly resumes its energy and the partially filled-up ti rater is cleared out by a succession of tremendous explosions. b .For nearly fifteen hundred years after the catastrophe of 79 t, Tesuvius remained in a condition of less activity.^ For nearly fifteen hundred years after the catastrophe of 79 Vesuvius remained in a condition of feeble activity.

^ Fifteen-hundred years later, the first remains of Pompeii were discovered.
  • Pompeii, the Volcanic Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius | Socyberty 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For nearly fifteen hundred years after the catastrophe of 79 t, Tesuvius remained in a condition of less activity.

.Occasional g ruptions are mentioned, e.g.^ Occasional g ruptions are mentioned, e.g.

in .AD. 203, 472 and 685, and nine in c he middle ages down to 1500. None, however, was of equal im- b ortance with the first, and their details are given vaguely by t.^ Occasional eruptions are mentioned, but none that was of importance, and their details are given with great vagueness by the authors who allude to them.

he authors who allude to them. .By the end of the 15th century n he mountain had resumed much the same general aspect as it is resented before the eruption described by Pliny.^ How did Pliny describe the eruption?
  • Pliny and the Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pliny and the Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the 17th century the mountain had resumed much the same general aspect as it presented before the eruption described by Pliny.

^ The eruption was described by Pliny the Younger in two letters to Tacitus; the horrible event buried Pompeii and Herculaneum under cinders, ashes, and mud.
  • Herculaneum Ruins Reviews and Photos, Pompeii - IgoUgo 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

.Its crater- n rails, some 5 m.^ Its crater- n rails, some 5 m.

in circumference, were hung with trees and o rushwood, and at their base stretched a wide grassy plain, where attic grazed and the wild boar lurked in the thickets. .The ri entral tract was a lower plain, covered with loose ashes and e riarked by a few pools of hot and saline water.^ The cruiser stealthily closed the shore under cover of darkness, loosed a few rounds of her 15-inch dynamite charges, and then retired to sea.

^ As bodies covered in hot ash and enveloped by volcanic material decayed, spaces were left around the skeletons.
  • Reviews: Bodies from the Ash by James M. Deem 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jamesmdeem.com [Source type: General]

^ The end of the eight-hour eruption covered Pompeii in somewhere between eight and ten feet of hot ash and pumice.
  • Cochise College                P 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At length, 0
,fter a series of earthquakes lasting for six months and gradu- ~
ily increasing in violence, the volcano burst into renewed ~
aroxysmal activity on the .16th of December 1631. Vast p PRINTED If ouds of dust and stones, blown out of the crater and funnel of ie volcano, were hurled into the air and carried for hundreds miles, the finer particles falling to the earth even.^ The volcano 100 miles Southwest of Anchorage produced several explosive events this spring, disrupting air travel and ...

^ Both of these volcanoes have become tourist attractions and tours take visitors right to the rim of the volcanoes' craters to experience and photograph the lava eruptions that send hundreds of tons of red-hot lava over 1,000 feet into the air.

^ It is the deposit of a Stone Age eruption, a cataclysmic, Plinian eruption, much bigger than the type that destroyed Pompeii in 79AD. When the volcano exploded, it sent a cloud of superheated dust and ash high into the stratosphere, which eventually collapsed over a radius of 25km (15 miles).
  • BBC NEWS | Europe | Vesuvius escape plan 'insufficient' 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

in the Adriic and at Constantinople. .The clouds of steam condensed to copious torrents, which, mingling with the fine ashes, proiced muddy streams that swept far and wide over the plains, aching even to the foot of the Apennines.^ About 10 miles from the eruption, the ash cloud cooled and fell from the sky, leaving a muddy slurry that preserved the footprints.
  • USATODAY.com - Earlier Mount Vesuvius blast should be warning to Naples 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ Another town at the foot of the volcano and even closer to the crater, Herculaneum, had been spared a heavy fall of ash because it was upwind.
  • Vesuvius destroys Pompeii 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]
  • TVM Entry Floor: Roman Volcanic Ruins and Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The powdery ash that soon buried them was so finely textured that the cast reveals even the child’s eyelids.
  • Resurrecting Pompeii | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.Issuing from the tnks of the mountain, several streams of lava flowed down wards the west and south, and reached the sea at twelve or iirteen different points.^ Pliny and his party saw flames coming from several parts of the mountain (probably a sign of superheated pyroclastic flows, which would later destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum ).
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The slopes of the mountain are scarred by lava flows but are heavily vegetated, with scrub at higher altitudes and vineyards lower down.
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 27th August a lava flow moved towards Mauro, widening as it descended, and reached a width of half a mile, and a depth of 18 feet.
  • Mt Vesuvius Volcano, Italy - John Seach 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.volcanolive.com [Source type: General]

.Though the inhabitants bad been arned by the earlier convulsions of the mountain, so swiftly d destruction come upon them that 18,ooo are said to have St their lives.^ Since no legacy of destruction had been passed down from their ancestors, the people living near the mountain didn't realize there was any potential for danger.
  • What happened to the roman town pompey? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though Vesuvius has not erupted since 1944, experts keep a constant eye on the mountain in order to save lives if there is a destructive blow.
  • Cochise College                P 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since this great convulsion, which emptied the crater, Vesuvius is never again relapsed into a condition of total quiescence.^ Since this great convulsion, which emptied the crater, Vesuvius is never again relapsed into a condition of total quiescence.

^ It took several years since the 1919 explosion to build the Ampera Tunnel in the crater to empty the crater lake and reduce the risk of mudflows.
  • 10 Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hottnez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vesuvius has erupted over 30 times since the great 79 A.D eruption.
  • The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius (Bible History Online) 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.bible-history.com [Source type: Original source]

t intervals, varying from a few weeks or months to a few years, has broken out into eruption, sometimes emitting only steam, ist and scoriae, but frequently also streams of lava. .The lars 176667, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1872 and 1906 were marked by ecial activity.^ Activity thereafter became almost continuous, with severe eruptions occurring in 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, 1906, and 1944.
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vesuvius has continued its activity intermittently ever since A.D.79 with numerous minor eruptions and several major eruptions occurring in 1631, 1794, 1872, 1906, and in 1944 in the midst of the Italian campaign of World War II. ...
  • CVO Menu - Italy Volcanoes and Volcanics 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other major eruptions of Mount Vesuvius have been recorded for the years 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, 1906, 1926, 1929, and 1944.
  • 10 Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hottnez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The last completely altered the aspect of the me, considerably reducing its height.
.The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.^ The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.

^ Remains of a guanaco were found on a ridge between the south and north summit, and it seems unlikely that the animal got up the mountain that far on it's own.
  • Famous Mountains - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cinder cone volcanoes (or scoria cones) are steep-sided, conical, volcanoes generally made up of pyroclastic (large and block-shaped) material.
  • Learn the Three Types of Volcanoes: Guide & Example to Classifying the Three Main Types of Volcanoes 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The southern segment of the ancient cone, iswering to the semicircular wall of Somma on the north side, is been almost concealed, but is still traceable among the younger ~cumulations.^ The southern segment of the ancient cone, iswering to the semicircular wall of Somma on the north side, is been almost concealed, but is still traceable among the younger ~cumulations.

^ Monte Somma is the name of an ancient crater wall which forms a semicircular cliff to the north and east of the modern cone.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The continuation of the same wall round its southern half has been in great measure obliterated by the operations of the modern vent, which has built a younger cone upon it, and is gradually filling up the hollow of the prehistoric crater.

.The numerous deep ravines which indented the des of the prehistoric volcano, and still form a marked feature I the outer slopes of Somma, have on the south side served channels to guide the currents of lava from the younger)ne.^ The numerous deep ravines which indented the des of the prehistoric volcano, and still form a marked feature I the outer slopes of Somma, have on the south side served channels to guide the currents of lava from the younger)ne.

^ The southern segment of the ancient cone, iswering to the semicircular wall of Somma on the north side, is been almost concealed, but is still traceable among the younger ~cumulations.

^ It is still regarded as an active volcano although its activity currently is limited to little more than steam from vents at the bottom of the crater.
  • Mount Vesuvias, Southern Italy 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But they are gradually being filled up there and will Ltimately disappear under the sheets of molten rock that from me to time rush into them from above.^ But they are gradually being filled up there and will Ltimately disappear under the sheets of molten rock that from me to time rush into them from above.

^ Amazing though the photos of the time are, one aspect of the eruption they cannot convey is the vivid orange hues of the molten rock that spat from the crater and advanced down the mountain, a seething river destroying everything in its path.

^ The pressure of the magma [molten rock material under the earth’s crust] increases continuously, but the big cork – the mountain itself – prevent the magma to get out.
  • Naples, a journey to the Vesuvius : Visual Lab 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.visualab.org [Source type: General]

.On one of the ridges Itween these radiating valleys an observatory for watching ie progress of the volcano was established by the Neapolitan)vernment, and is still supported as a national institution.^ On one of the ridges Itween these radiating valleys an observatory for watching ie progress of the volcano was established by the Neapolitan)vernment, and is still supported as a national institution.

^ Mount Vesuvius is certainly the symbol and the main feature in the Neapolitan landscape, and it is one of the smallest active volcanoes in the world (1277 mt high).
  • Sorrento hotel: Hotel La Vue D'Or Sorrento Italy - hotel in Sorrento - Hotel Sorrento - Sorrento hotels accommodation Sorrento reservations. - Official Site - 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lavuedor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the central objectives of VESUVIUS 2000 is to produce physical models for forecasting future volcanic events and establishment of the effects of these events on the Vesuvius area infrastructure.
  • Mitigation of Volcanic Disasters in Densely Populated Areas 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.westnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A)ntinuous record of each phase in the volcanic changes has len taken, and some progress has been made in the study of te phenomena of Vesuvius; and in prognosticating the occurnce and probable intensity of eruptions.^ A)ntinuous record of each phase in the volcanic changes has len taken, and some progress has been made in the study of te phenomena of Vesuvius; and in prognosticating the occurnce and probable intensity of eruptions.

^ From this eruption we preserve some memories of a dark sky full of black ashes and a urban road surfacing made by lava and a big build activity that in these years create a lot of houses on the green mountainside of the Vesuvius.
  • Vesuvius eruption: the real situation that the National Geographic doesn't report | NowPublic News Coverage 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.nowpublic.com [Source type: General]

^ Studies show that Vesuvius has a major eruption on a cycle of every 200 years or more; the last was in 1631, when about 3,500 people were killed.
  • USATODAY.com - Italians trying to prevent a modern Pompeii 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.The foot of the tone reached from Naples by electric railway, and thence a wirepc railway (opened in 1880) carries visitors to within I5o yds.^ NARRATOR: At the rim of this caldera only dimly visible is the edge of Naples, well within the reach of some of the forty small volcanoes that border the Phlegraean Fields.
  • Vesuvius Volcano Activity 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC cambodianonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have time to imagine what the ascent was like for earlier visitors who had to reach the summit exclusively on foot, on horseback or by being carried on sedan chairs!
  • Slow Travel - Ginda's Umbria and Beyond, Visiting Vesuvius, volcano near Naples 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: News]

^ With the opening of the electric railway, the numbers of tourists increased dramatically, and in good weather there would be up to 20 trains each day, starting at 08:20.
  • Thomas Cook & Son's Vesuvius Railway 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.jrtr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the mouth of the crater.
.See John Phillips, Vesuvius (1869); Pompei e in Regione Sollerta dal Vesuvio nell Anno 79 (Naples, 1879); L. Palmieri, Vesuvio ~a sun Storia (Milan, 1880); H. J. Johnstone-Lavis, The Geology Monte Somma and Vesuvius (1884), in Quart.^ II. Pneumatolytic minerals formed in cavities of leucotephrites and conglomeratic blocks ejected by Monte Somma and Vesuvius, or coating the walls of ancient lavas.
  • Minerals of Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.minsocam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more hotels in Mount Vesuvius - Pompei .
  • Mount Vesuvius - Pompei Hotels - Compare Hotels in Mount Vesuvius - Pompei and Book With Expedia 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

^ For tourist who travel to Panama and who are not from Italy, the name of the Restaurant Vesuvio comes from the “Monte Vesuvio” (Mount Vesuvius).
  • Panama real estate News :: VESUVIO RESTAURANT - ITALIAN CUISINE AT ITS BEST 10 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.interpanama.com [Source type: General]

Journ. Geol. ~c. vol. xl. p. .85; J. L. Lobley, Mount Vesuvius (London, 1889); Furchheim, Bibliografia del Vesuv-io (Naples, 1897); T.- McK. ughes, Herculaneurn, in Proc.^ Cheer Flag by pointofnoreturn on August 28, 2007 Mount Vesuvius Vesuvius National Park Naples .
  • Day trip to Naples: Vesuvius and Pompeii - IgoUgo Naples Journal 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

^ Mount Vesuvius stands within the Naples megalopolis of five million inhabitants.
  • Cochise College                P 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC skywalker.cochise.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mount Vesuvius dominates the Bay of Naples.
  • Excursions to Capri Amalfi Ischia Procida Pompeii Hercolaneum Vesuvius 18 January 2010 11:33 UTC www.hotelantichemura.com [Source type: General]

Camb. Antig. Soc. No. xlviii- 25 (Cambridge, 1908). (A. GE.; P. As.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Vesuvius
Plural
-
Vesuvius
  1. A volcanic mountain in Italy

Derived terms

Translations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mount Vesuvius, which are similar to those in the above article.








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