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Vice is a practice or a habit considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness and corruption. The modern English term that best captures its original meaning is the word vicious, which means "full of vice". In this sense, the word vice comes from the Latin word vitium, meaning "failing or defect". Vice is the opposite of virtue.

Vice is also a generic legal term for criminal offenses involving prostitution, lewdness, lasciviousness and obscenity. Illegal forms of gambling are also often included as a vice in law enforcement departments that deal with gambling as a crime.

Contents

The Christian vices

Virtues fighting vices, stained glass window (14th century) in the Niederhaslach Church

Christians believe there are two kinds of vice:

  • Vices that come from the physical organism as perverse instincts (such as lust)
  • Vices that come from false idolatry in the spiritual realm

The first kind of vice, though sinful, is believed less serious than the second. Vices recognized as spiritual by Christians include blasphemy (holiness betrayed), apostasy (faith betrayed), despair (hope betrayed), hatred (love betrayed), and indifference (scripturally, a "hardened heart"). Christian theologians have reasoned that the most destructive vice equates to a certain type of pride or the complete idolatry of the self. It is argued that through this vice, which is essentially competitive, all the worst evils come into being. In Judeo-Christian creeds it originally led to the Fall of Man, and as a purely diabolical spiritual vice, it outweighs anything else often condemned by the Church.

Roman Catholic teachings concerning vices

The Roman Catholic Church distinguishes between vice, which is a habit inclining one to sin, and the sin itself, which is an individual morally wrong act. Note that in Roman Catholicism, the word "sin" also refers to the state that befalls one upon committing a morally wrong act. In this section, the word always means the sinful act. It is the sin, and not the vice, that deprives one of God's sanctifying grace and renders one deserving of God's punishment. Thomas Aquinas taught that "absolutely speaking, the sin surpasses the vice in wickedness".[1] On the other hand, even after a person's sins have been forgiven, the underlying habit (the vice) may remain. Just as vice was created in the first place by repeatedly yielding to the temptation to sin, so vice may be removed only by repeatedly resisting temptation and performing virtuous acts; the more entrenched the vice, the more time and effort needed to remove it. Saint Thomas Aquinas says that following rehabilitation and the acquisition of virtues, the vice does not persist as a habit, but rather as a mere disposition, and one that is in the process of being eliminated.

Dante's seven deadly vices

The poet Dante Alighieri listed the following seven deadly vices:

  1. Pride or vanity — an excessive love of the self (holding the self outside of its proper position regarding God or fellows; Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbor"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, pride is referred to as superbia.
  2. Avarice (covetousness, greed) — a desire to possess more than one has need or use for (or according to Dante, "excessive love of money and power"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, avarice is referred to as avaritia.
  3. Lust — excessive sexual desire. Dante's criterion was that "lust detracts from true love". In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, lust is referred to as luxuria.
  4. Wrath or anger — feelings of hatred, revenge or denial, as well as punitive desires outside of justice (Dante's description was "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, wrath is referred to as ira.
  5. Gluttony — overindulgence in food, drink or intoxicants, or misplaced desire of food as a pleasure for its sensuality ("excessive love of pleasure" was Dante's rendering). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, gluttony is referred to as gula.
  6. Envy or jealousy - resentment of others for their possessions (Dante: "love of one's own good perverted to a desire to deprive other men of theirs"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, envy is referred to as invidia.
  7. Sloth or laziness; idleness and wastefulness of time and/or other allotted resources. Laziness is condemned because it results in others having to work harder; also, useful work will not be done. Sloth is referred to in Latin as accidie or acedia.

Popular usage

The term vice is also popularly applied to various activities considered immoral by some: a list of these might include the abuse of alcohol and other recreational drugs, gambling, smoking, recklessness, cheating, lying and selfishness. It is also used in reference to police vice units who prosecute crimes associated with these activities. Often, vice particularly designates a failure to comply with the sexual mores of the time and place such as sexual promiscuity.

Behaviors or attitudes going against the established virtues of the culture may also be called vices: for instance, effeminacy is considered a vice in a culture espousing masculinity as an essential element of the character of males.

The names of Dante's seven vices (which parallel the Seven Deadly Sins) have been used in various works of fiction to provide names/titles for villians.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Entry for vice at NewAdvent.org online Catholic Encyclopedia.

References

  • Aristotle, trans. H. Rackman. Virtues and Vices, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992. vol. 285.
  • Newhauser, Richard, ed. In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto 2005. ISBN 0-88844-818-X

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

VICE. (r) (Through Fr. from Lat. vitium), a fault, blemish, more specifically a moral fault, hence depravity, sin, or a particular form of depravity. In the medieval morality plays a special character who acted as an attendant on the devil was styled "the Vice," but sometimes took the name of specific vices such as Envy, Fraud, Iniquity and the like. He was usually dressed in the garb that is identified with that of the domestic fool or jester, and was armed with a wooden sword or dagger. (2) (M.E. vyce, vise or vyse; Fr. vis; Lat. vitis, a vine, or bryony, i.e. something that twists or winds), a portable or fixed tool or appliance which holds or grips an object while it is being worked; a special form of clamp. The tool consists essentially of movable jaws, either jointed by a hinge or moving on slides, and the closing motion is applied by a screw, whence the name, as of something which turns or winds, or by a lever, ratchet, &c. (see Tools). (3) (Lat. vice, in place of, abl. sing. of a noun not found in the nom.), a word chiefly used as a prefix in combination with names of office-holders, indicating a position subordinate or alternative to the chief office-holder, especially one who takes second rank or acts in default of his superior, e.g. vice-chairman, vice-admiral, &c.


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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Vice


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Game Series King of Fighters series
1st Appearance The King of Fighters '96
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The King of Fighters series
Main series
The King of Fighters '94 | The King of Fighters '95 | The King of Fighters '96 | The King of Fighters '97 | The King of Fighters '98 | The King of Fighters '99 | The King of Fighters 2000 | The King of Fighters 2001 | The King of Fighters 2002 | The King of Fighters 2003 |The King of Fighters XI
Maximum Impact
Maximum Impact | Maximum Impact 2
Spin-Offs, Updates & Compilations
The King of Fighters EX: Neo Blood | The King of Fighters EX2: Howling Blood | Neowave| The King of Fighters R-1 | The King of Fighters R-2 | The King of Fighters Kyo | Compilations/Updates | The King of Fighters: Another Day
Characters
Adelheid Bernstein - Alba Meira - Andy Bogard - Angel - Ash Crimson - Athena Asamiya - Bao - Benimaru Nikaido - Billy Kane - Blue Mary - Bonne Jenet - Brian Battler - Chae Lim - Chang Koehan - Chin Gentsai - Chizuru Kagura - Choi Bounge - Chris - Clark Steel - Duck King - Duo Lon - Eiji Kisaragi - Elisabeth Blanctorche - Foxy - Gai Tendo - Gato - Geese Howard - Goenitz - Goro Daimon - Heavy D! - Heidern - Hinako Shijou - Hotaru Futaba - Igniz - Iori Yagami - Jhun Hoon - Joe Higashi - Jun Kagami - K' - K9999 - Kasumi Todoh - Kim Kaphwan - King - Krizalid - Kula Diamond - Kyo Kusanagi - Kyo Kusanagi 1 - Kyo Kusanagi 2 - Kusanagi (Cloned Kyo) - Leona Heidern - Lien Neville - Lin - Li Xiangfei - Lucky Glauber - Luise Meyrink - Magaki - Mai Shiranui - Maki Kagura - Malin - Mature - Maxima - May Lee - Mignon Beart - Miu Kurosaki - Moe Habana - Momoko - Mr. Big - Mukai - Nagase - Ninon Beart - Orochi - Oswald - Ralf Jones - Ramon - Reiji Oogami - Robert Garcia - Ron - Rugal Bernstein - Ryo Sakazaki - Ryuji Yamazaki - Saisyu Kusanagi - Seth - Shen Woo - Shermie - Shingo Yabuki - Shion - Sie Kensou - Sinobu Amou - Soiree Meira - Takuma Sakazaki - Terry Bogard - Tizoc - Vanessa - Vice - Whip - Wolfgang Krauser - Yashiro Nanakase - Yuki - Yuri Sakazaki - Clone Zero - Original Zero

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