Vicksburg: Wikis


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Vicksburg is the name of some places in the United States of America:


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Vicksburg [1] is a city in west central Mississippi.

The city is most famous as the "Gibraltar of the Confederacy," as cannons on the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River prevented the United States from controlling this vital water route during much of the American Civil War. After lengthy maneuverings to get troops to the city, U.S. Major General Ulysses S. Grant, having failed in a major assualt on May 22, 1863, put the city under siege. The siege lasted until July 4 when C.S. Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton surrendered. Along with the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania the previous day, this marked the turning point of the war.

In addition to the battlefield, the major draw for today's visitors is the collection of "river boat" casinos.

Get in

By car

Interstate 20 (E-W) or U.S. Highway 61 (N-S)

By plane

The closest commercial airport to Vicksburg is Jackson-Evers International Airport [2] in Jackson, about 50 miles east on I-20 (or a little more than 85 kilometers). Vicksburg also has its own municipal airport for general aviation.

By boat

Majestic America Line has terminated riverboat services to Vicksburg, with no future plans to reactivate the service.

By bus

Greyhound Bus Lines (or Delta Bus Lines) has an active (albeit a very small) bus depot just off of I-20 on the Frontage Road (1295 S Frontage Rd), on the Halls Ferry Road exit south bound. You can contact the depot at (601) 638-8389.

By train

Although there are active freight lines that run through Vicksburg; however, there is not a passenger line (I.E. Amtrak) that runs through Vicksburg. The nearest passenger station is in Jackson, MS and it is the New Orleans / Chicago route.

Get around

City Bus

The city of Vicksburg does have a local bus service called the NRoute[3], and there are nine routes throughout the city. The hours of operation are 6 AM till 6 PM Monday through Friday. The main depot where bus passes may be purchased is located at NROUTE Office 2501 Halls Ferry Rd, and may be contacted by calling, Phone: 601-636-1053. Bus riding rules are fairly strict (no food or drink may be consumed while riding, and exact change is required). Bus fares are: $1.50 (transfers are not included in the one-way base fare), Senior Citizen $0.75, Children (ages 3 - 12) $0.50, bus transfer are $0.25 each, and monthly passes are $30. Be aware that bus transfers are only made at the main bus depot.


J 5 Cab was the lone taxi in Vicksburg; however, it recently ceased operations in the city. As of July 24, 2009 there is not taxi service in the city of Vicksburg.

  • Vicksburg National Military Park, 3201 Clay Street, Phone: 601-636-0583, [4]. Commemorates the 1863 battle and siege of the city during the Civil War. The park includes a visitor center, an impressive collection of monuments along the 16-mile tour route, and the USS Cairo, a salvaged ironclad gunboat. Allow at least half day (2-4 hours bare minimum) to tour the park by car, and longer by bicycle. $8 per vehicle entrance fee, good for one week after the date of purchase. The park is open daily, but closed on the following national holidays: New Years (January 1), Thanksgiving Day (the last Thursday of November), and Christmas Day (December 25).
  • Catfish Row Landin, Clay and Levee Street. Phone: 601-634-4553, [5]. Dawn till dusk year-round; Handicapped Accessible. Enjoy outdoor exhibits depicting Vicksburg's rich history. Explore playful areas, gardens, fountains, art murals and unique exhibits.
  • Biedenharn Museum of Coca-Cola® Memorabilia, 1107 Washington Street, Phone: 601-638-6514 or 601-636-5010, [6]. Restored 1890 building where Coca-Cola® was first bottled in 1894. Museum contains reproduction bottling works, Coca-Cola® memorabilia, 1900 soda fountain and restored 1890 candy store. Fountain Cokes, ice cream floats, Mississippi-made Ford's dipped ice cream and over 100 Coca-Cola® items for sale in the museum's gift shop. Adults: $2.75, Under 12: $1.75
  • Old Court House Museum-Eva W. Davis Memorial, 1008 Cherry Street, Phone: 601-636-0741, [7]. Vicksburg's most historic building, it was constructed by slaves in 1858, has hosted such great Americans as Jefferson Davis, Theodore Roosevelt, John Breckinridge, Booker T. Washington, William McKinley and U.S. Grant. Self-guided tour. Adults: $5, Students Grade 1-12: $3, 65+: $4.50
  • Bottleneck Blues Bar, Ameristar Casino, 4116 Washington Street, Phone: 601-638-1000 [8]. This is about as close as it comes to a blues bar in Vicksburg (without searching for a juke-joint in the Marcus Bottom area). Patrons must be 21 years old to enter (as you have to enter the casino) and have valid ID (a US driver's license or a passport for foreign nationals). Oddly, smoking is permitted during non-ticketed events, but prohibited during ticketed events. Most events are free, but occasionally you'll have to purchase tickets to some of the big name events.
  • Casinos - Ameristar, DiamondJacks, Horizon, Riverwalk, and Rainbow Casino. Note - Horizon casino (as of 12/09/09) only has one of its three gaming floors open, of which consists only of slot machines (no table games such as: blackjack, roulette, or craps).
  • Gold In The Hills at the Parkside Playhouse, Phone: 601-636-0471, [9]. In its 70th season, it is the longest running melodrama in the world. Spring/summer only. $10 adults and $5 children.
  • Riverfest[10] held in downtown Vicksburg in mid-April, part music festival, part arts & crafts show.
  • Ameristar Casino Hotel Vicksburg, 4116 Washington Street, 601-638-1000, [11]. Ameristar Casino Hotel Vicksburg contains a 70,000-square-foot riverboat casino that has brought nonstop action to Vicksburg, including 1,800 of the latest and most popular slot machines, 36 table games, a newly-opened ten-table poker room and variety of exquisite dining options. This just wouldn't be Mississippi if there wasn't great music – be sure to check it out at Ameristar's classic blues bar on Friday and Saturday.  edit
  • Historic Downtown Vicksburg, Washington Street I-20 Exit 4B or Exit 1A, Phone: 601-634-4527. Whether your interests lies in touring museums and attractions, taking a carriage ride or riverboat ride, antiquing, shopping, gaming or dining, Downtown Vicksburg meets your every need. The downtown businesses are known for their hospitality. They offer a unique blend of prompt, friendly and courteous service which makes your experience all the more enjoyable.
  • Pemberton Square Mall, 3505 Pemberton Boulevard, Phone: 601-634-0823, [12].
  • Vicksburg Factory Outlets, 4000 South Frontage Road, Phone: 601-636-7434, [13].
  • The Belle Boutique, 508 Klein Street, Phone: 601-634-0737, [14]. Located on the beautiful grounds of Ahern's Belle of the Bends Bed and Breakfast and Tour Home. For gifts that are Unique and gifts that are Antiques.
  • Walnut Hills, 1214 Adams Street, Phone: 601-638-4910, [15]. Known for its round table service at lunch time: southern home style food served on a lazy-susan, $11.
  • Goldie's Trail BBQ, 4127 Washington Street, Phone: 601-636-9839. Goldie's famous true pit barbecue and "down-home" atmosphere are widely known. Goldie's has been featured in Southern Living Magazine, Southern Magazine and the book Real BBQ. $3-$12.
  • Rusty's Riverfront Grill, 901 Washington Street, Phone: 601-638-2030. Casual dining at its best. Located in historic downtown Vicksburg. Daily lunch and dinner specials. $6-$25.
  • El Sombrero, 1820 South Frontage Road, Phone: 601-638-1388. Authentic Mexican cuisine.
  • Highway 61 Coffee Shop, 1101 Washington St, 601-638-9221, [16]. Besides the coffee, teas, and espresso, Highway 61 also hosts local musicians every Thursday night. Be sure to check out the Attic Gallery, filled with gorgeous folk art, located upstairs.  edit
  • Gregory's Kitchen, 815 Highway 61 North (Take US-61 N exit 5A / Rolling Fork , Bear right at US-61 N , Third Building on the left., Look for the Yellow Building), 601-634-0208, [17]. Great Catfish  edit
  • Pig Willies, 1416 Washington Street, Phone: 601-634-6872, upstairs from Country Junction BBQ Bar/Restaurant. One of only a handful of Blues music bars still active in Vicksburg. Live Blues music every weekend from 9 PM till 1 AM. The environment can be lively, and the BBQ is highly recommended.
  • The Biedenharn Museum (see above) showcases an old-fashioned soda fountain, complete with authentic fountain drinks including all the Coke you can drink.
  • Be aware that Vicksburg does have what are called "local option" laws pertaining to the consumption and sale of alcohol. Beer and light wines are not sold between 2:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. on Monday through Saturday, and between the hours of 2:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m.(Noon) on Sunday. Also be aware that it is illegal to consume alcohol in an open container outside of a bar / casino. Penalties for public consumption violations can be as severe as a fine of $1000 and/or 90 days in the city jail.
  • Battlefield Inn, 4137 I-20 N. Frontage Road, 1-800-359-9363 or 601-638-5811, [18]. Modest rooms, pool, complimentary evening cocktails and breakfast buffet.
  • Cedar Grove Mansion Inn, 2200 Oak Street, (601) 636-1000 Toll Free:(800) 862-1300, [19]. Elegant rooms furnished in period and reproduction antiques, pool, on-site restaurant and bar, river views, turn down service, tour of the historic mansion.
  • Anchuca Historic Mansion & Inn (circa 1830), 1010 First East Street, 601-661-0111 Toll Free: 888-686-0111, [20]. Stately live Oaks surround this magnificently furnished antebellum home, completed in 1847, it represents the first columned mansion built in Vicksburg. Located in the heart of Vicksburg's Historic District.
  • Stained Glass Manor (1902-1908), 2430 Drummond Street, 601-638-8893 Toll Free: 800-771-8893, [21]. Includes tour and "New Orleans" breakfast. Sumptuous rooms furnished in period-style antique pieces, enhanced by a grand staircase.
  • Ahern's Belle of the Bends (1876), 508 Klein Street. Phone: 601-634-0737 or 800-844-2308, [22]. Majestic postbellum home in Vicksburg's historic Garden District. All rooms are located inside the home, are individually climate controlled, and include beautiful antique furnishings. The home is equipped with high-speed wireless internet. Also included are a full gourmet breakfast and historic tour. Ask about our romantic packages!
  • Wingate by Wyndham Vicksburg, 115 Cypress Centre Blvd, Vicksburg, MS 39180, (678) 903-0400, [23].  edit
  • The Ware House Resort, 1412 Washington Street (I20 - Clay Street to Washington St.), 601-634-1000, [24]. Boutique hotel - 10 suites + 3 hotel rooms. Property includes Sports Bar & Grill and also The Lounge. Located in historic downtown Vicksburg. Parking garage behind property. Close to area specialty shopping, local restaurants & casino.  edit
  • Ameristar Casino Hotel Vicksburg, 4116 Washington Street, 601-638-1000, [25]. The recently renovated Ameristar Casino Hotel Vicksburg features 149 luxurious guest rooms at their Mississippi hotel that are designed with a crisp, modern look and unparalleled comfort. You’ll find it all here at the Ameristar Casino Hotel in Vicksburg, from exquisitely designed custom furniture, to European-style bedding, high-tech lighting fixtures, LCD flat screen televisions and wireless high-speed internet access. Guests enjoy beautiful views of the Mississippi River and enticing dining options.  edit
  • There are some areas of the city you wouldn't want to stroll alone at night, and should use the same level of caution and street smarts (your wits) you would use in any large city. Pretty much all of Clay street (from Levee Street to I-20) you should be aware of your surroundings after dark, but pay particular attention to your surroundings nearby the Horizon Casino on the corner of Cherry and Clay Street. You won't have problems driving in your vehicle directly along Clay, but you would be very foolish to walk down this street alone at night.
  • Along Washington Street (the street with all of the casino's) areas on this street can be a little intimidating to walk down at night. You shouldn't have problems driving between the casinos on this route, but it is not recommended to walk this road at night between the casinos and the historic downtown area.
  • Traffic near the casinos (on both Washington Street and Warrenton Road - it's the same north/south road on the map) can be very congested on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights (and on major holidays). Be alert for often careless, and sometimes drunk drivers (and pedestrians) on the weekends.
  • During the 1920's an area of the city was called "Marcus Bottom" (north bound on Halls Ferry Road in the area nearby the intersections of Bowmar Avenue and Speed Street) that used to be a center for black music and culture that helped inspire blues music in Mississippi. Today, it's become a dilapidated area plagued with one of the highest crime rates in the city, and an area you may want to consider avoiding. Typically, this is not an area of the city where tourist tend to visit; although, there are a few B&B's (bed and breakfast's) in a neighborhood that's nearby on Washington Street.
  • Be aware when hiking into the wooded areas of Vicksburg, that you may encounter a black bear (the proper description is the Louisiana Black Bear). Bear sighting typically increase during June and July (breading season), and have recently have been spotted north in the forests of the cities of Redwood and Steele Bayou. If you do see a bear or its cubs while in the woods, you are much too close to the bears, and need to carefully but quickly, backtrack from where you came. Black bears are typically not as aggressive as the grizzly bears, but attacks on humans have been known to occur.
  • When visiting the casinos in Vicksburg, be sure that you lock your vehicle, and ensure that all valuables are locked away in your trunk (if at all possible) and kept out of plain sight. Recently, there have been a spate of car break-in's at the casino parking lots (particularly at the Ameristar Casino, but it's definitely not the only casino this activity will occur). It would be very wise to not leave any valuables in your vehicle, even if you only plan to make a very brief visit to the casinos (it only takes half a minute for a thief to steal everything out of your car, and the casino's security department does not have the manpower to constantly patrol their parking lots for criminal activity).
  • Be aware when diving in the city, that local authorities are very aggressive in issuing traffic citations (IE: traffic tickets) for speeding, failure of occupants to wear a seat belt, and driving without either a license or automobile insurance. Expect high patrolling by the police of the Highway 61 area and the main thoroughfares of Vicksburg.
  • Care should be taken when participating in water sports (i.e., boating) in the Mississippi River. The currents are very strong, large barges traveling up and down the river generate strong wakes, the water is tan-brown (so you can’t see if you’re about to hit something floating just beneath the surface of the river), poisonous snakes (vipers commonly called a “water moccasin”) are a concern, and occasionally an alligator might be lurking in the water. Swimming in or across the river is a very foolish thing to consider, and you’ll rarely see any sane person even attempting this feat.
  • The largest hospital in Vicksburg is the River Region Medical Center (1-601-883-5000). It is a modern full-care center, and is equipped to handle nearly most major medical problems and emergencies. As with any hospital stay in the USA, be sure that you are adequately insured (or expect a very large bill for services which can easily cost into the tens of thousands of dollars for serious medical treatment in an emergency room) as there is not a national health care system.
  • Be aware that humidity and the summer heat can be very intense. Be sure to hydrate yourself with either sports drinks or water (consumption of alcohol is not recommended regardless of what some may otherwise claim).
  • Mosquitoes along the riverfront can be annoying during the warmer months. Be sure to wear repellents that have a high concentration of DEET to reduce the risk of mosquito transmitted diseases. Percentages of 25% or more DEET is recommended to repel most of the insects.
Routes through Vicksburg
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

VICKSBURG, a city and the county-seat of Warren (disambiguation)|Warren county, Mississippi, U.S.A., on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers,' 44 m. by rail W. of Jackson, and 236 m. N. by W. of New Orleans. Pop. (1890) 1 3,373; (1900) 1 4, 8 34, of whom 8147 were negroes; (1910 census) 20,814, being the second largest city in Mississippi. It is served by the Alabama & Vicksburg, the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and by steamboat lines. It is built among the Walnut Hills, which rise about 260 ft. above the river. Among the principal buildings and institutions are the court-house, standing on one of the highest hills, a fine Federal building, the city hall, a state charity hospital, an ' The channel of the Mississippi has changed greatly: until 1876 the entire city was on the Mississippi, which made a bend forming a tongue of land opposite the city; in 1876 the river cut across this tongue and formed an island, making the northern part of the city front on the shallow "Lake Centennial." The Federal government, by turning the Yazoo through a canal across the upper end of the old channel, gave the city a river front once more.

infirmary, a sanatorium, a public library, the medical college of the university of Mississippi, All Saints' Episcopal College (Protestant Episcopal, 1909) for girls, Saint Francis Xavier's Academy, and Saint Aloysius College (Roman Catholic). The Civil War battle-ground has been converted into a beautiful National Military Park, embracing 1283 acres and containing numerous markers, memorials and monuments, including one (1910) to Lieut.-General Stephen Dill Lee, who was superintendent of the Military Park from 1899 until his death in 1908. On the bluffs just beyond the northern limits of the city and adjoining the Military Park is the Vicksburg National Cemetery, in which are the graves of 16,892 Federal soldiers (12,769 unknown). The principal industry of Vicksburg is the construction and repair of rolling stock for steam railways. It has also a dry dock and cotton compresses; and among its manufactures are cottonseed oil and cake, hardwood lumber, furniture, boxes and baskets. In 1905 the factory products were valued at $1,887,924. The city has a large trade in long-staple cotton grown in the surrounding country. It is a port of entry but has practically no foreign trade.

The French built Fort St Peter near the site of Vicksburg early in the 18th century, and on the 2nd of January 1730 its garrison was murdered by the Yazoo Indians. As early as 1783 the Spanish erected Fort Nogales, and in 1798 this was taken by some United States troops and renamed Fort McHenry. The first permanent settlement in the vicinity was made about 1811 by Rev. Newell (or Newit) Vick (d. 1819), a Methodist preacher. In accordance with his will a town was laid out in 1824; and Vicksburg was incorporated as a town in 1825, and was chartered as a city in 1836. The campaigns of which it was the centre in 1862 and 1863 are described below. Vicksburg was the home of Seargent Smith Prentiss from 1832 to 1845.

See H. F. Simrall, "Vicksburg: the City on the Walnut Hills," in L. P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900). 1900).

Campaign of 1862-63. - Vicksburg is historically famous as being the centre of interest of one of the most important campaigns of the Civil War. The command of the Mississippi, which would imply the severance of the Confederacy into two halves, and also the reopening of free commercial navigation from St Louis to the sea, was one of the principal objects of the Western Union armies from the time that they began their southward advance from Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky in February 1862. A series of victories in the spring and summer carried them as far as the line Memphis-Corinth, but in the autumn they came to a standstill and were called upon to repulse the counter-advance of the Southern armies. These armies were accompanied by a flotilla of thinly armoured but powerful gunboats which had been built on the upper Mississippi in the autumn of 1861, and had co-operated with the army at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Island No. 10, besides winning a victory on the water at Memphis.

At the same time a squadron of sea-going vessels under Flag-officer Farragut had forced the defences of New Orleans and, accompanied by a very small military force, had steamed up the great river. On reaching Vicksburg the heavy vessels again forced their way past the batteries, but both at Vicksburg and at Port Hudson they had to deal, no longer with low-sited fortifications, but with inconspicuous earthworks on bluffs far above the river-level, and they failed to make any impression. Farragut then returned to New Orleans. From Helena to Port Hudson the Confederates maintained complete control of the Mississippi, the improvised fortresses of Vicksburg, Port Hudson and Arkansas Post (near the mouth of Arkansas river) being the framework of the defence. It was to be the task of Grant's army around Corinth and the flotilla at Memphis to break up this system of defences, and, by joining hands with Farragut and clearing the whole course of the Mississippi, to cut the Confederacy in half.

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The long and painful operations by which this was achieved group themselves into four episodes: (a) the Grenada expedition of Grant's force, (b) the river column under McClernand and Sherman, (c) the operations in the bayoux, and (d) the final "overland" campaign from Grand Gulf. The country in which these operations took place divides itself sharply into two zones, the upland east of the river, upon which it looks down from high bluffs, and the levels west of it, which are a maze of bayoux, backwaters and side channels, the intervening land being kept dry near the river itself by artificial banks (levees) but elsewhere swampy. At Vicksburg, it is important to observe, the bluffs trend away from the Mississippi to follow the course of the Yazoo, rejoining the great river at Memphis. Thus there are two obvious lines of advance for the Northern army, on the upland (Memphis and Grand Junction on GrenadaJackson), and downstream through the bayou country (Memphis-Helena-Vicksburg). The main army of the defenders, who were commanded by Lieut.-General J. C. Pemberton, between Vicksburg and Jackson and Grenada, could front either north against an advance by Grenada or west along the bluffs above and below Vicksburg.

The first advance was made at the end of November 1862 by two columns from Grand Junction and Memphis on Grenada. The Confederates in the field, greatly outnumbered, fell back without fighting. But Grant's line of supply was one long single-line, ill-equipped railway through Grand Junction to Columbus, and the opposing cavalry under Van Dorn swept round his flank and, by destroying one of his principal magazines (at Holly Springs), without further effort compelled the abandonment of the advance. Meantime one of Grant's subordinates, McClernand, was intriguing to be appointed to command an expedition by the river-line, and Grant meeting half-way an evil which he felt himself unable to prevent, had sent Sherman with the flotilla and some 30,000 men to attack Vicksburg from the water-side, while he himself should deal with the Confederate field army on the high ground. But the scheme broke down completely when Van Dorn cut Grant's line of supply, and the Confederate army was free to turn on Sherman. The latter, ignorant of Grant's retreat, attacked the Yazoo bluffs above Vicksburg (battle of Chickasaw Bayou) on December 29th; but a large portion of Pemberton's field army had arrived to help the Vicksburg garrison, and the Federals were easily repulsed with a loss of 2000 men. McClernand now appeared and took the command out of Sherman's hands, informing him at the same time of Grant's retreat. Sherman thereupon proposed, before attempting fresh operations against Vicksburg, to clear the country behind them by destroying the Confederate garrison at Arkansas Post. This expedition. was completely successful: at a cost of about 1000 men the fort and its 5000 defenders were captured on the nth of January 1863. McClernand, elated at his victory, would have continued to ascend the Arkansas, but such an eccentric operation would have been profitless if not dangerous, and Grant, authorized by the general-in-chief, Halleck, peremptorily ordered McClernand back to the Mississippi.

Campaign against Vicksburg April and May, 1863 o { t. Retreating from the upland, Grant sailed down the river and joined McClernand and Sherman at Milliken's Bend at the beginning of February, and, superseding the resentful McClernand, assumed command of the three corps (XIII., McClernand; XV., Sherman; XVII., McPherson) available. He had already imagined the daring solution of his most difficult problem which he afterwards put into execution, but for the present he tried a series of less risky expedients to reach the high ground beyond Pemberton's flanks, without indeed much confidence in their success, yet desirous in these unhealthy flats of keeping up the spirits of his army by active work, and of avoiding, at a crisis in the fortunes of the war, any appearance of discouragement. Three such attempts were made in all, with the co-operation of the flotilla under Captain David D. Porter. First, Grant endeavoured to cut a canal across the bend of the Mississippi at Vicksburg, hoping thus to isolate the fortress, to gain a water connection with the lower river, and to land an army on the bluffs beyond Pemberton's left flank. This was unsuccessful. Next he tried to make a practicable channel from the Mississippi to the upper Yazoo, and so to turn Pemberton's right, but the Confederates, warned in time, constructed a fort at the point where Grant's advance emerged from the bayoux. Lastly, an advance through a maze of creeks (Steele's Bayou expedition), towards the middle Yazoo and Haines's Bluff, encountered the enemy, not on the bluffs, but in the low-lying woods and islands, and these so harassed and delayed the progress of the expedition that Grant recalled it. Shortly afterwards Grant determined on the manoeuvre in rear of Vicksburg which established his reputation. The troops marched overland from Milliken's Bend to New Carthage, and on the 16th of April Porter's gunboat flotilla and the transports ran past the Vicksburg batteries. All this, which involved careful arrangement and hard work, was done by the 24th of April. General Banks, with a Union army from New Orleans, was now advancing up the river to invest Port Hudson, and by way of diverting attention from the Mississippi, a cavalry brigade under Benjamin Grierson rode from La Grange to Baton Rouge (600 m. in 16 days), destroying railways and magazines and cutting the telegraph wires en route. Sherman's XV. corps, too, made vigorous demonstrations at Haines's Bluff, and in the confusion and uncertainty Pemberton was at a loss.

On the 30th of April McClernand and the XIII. corps crossed the Mississippi 6 m. below Grand Gulf, followed by McPherson. The nearest Confederate brigades, attempting to oppose the advance at Port Gibson, were driven back. Grant had now deliberately placed himself in the middle of the enemy, and although his engineers had opened up a water-line for the barges carrying his supplies from Milliken's Bend to New Carthage, his long line of supply curving round the enemy's flank was very exposed. But his resolute purpose outweighed all text-book strategy. Having crossed the Mississippi, he collected wheeled transport for five days' rations, and on Sherman's arrival cut loose from his base altogether (May 7th). Free to move, he aimed north from the Big Black river, so as to interpose between the Confederate forces at Vicksburg and those at Jackson. A fight took place at Raymond on the 12th of May, and Jackson was captured just in time to forestall the arrival of reinforcements for Pemberton under General Joseph E. Johnston. The latter, being in supreme command of the Confederates, ordered Pemberton to come out of Vicksburg and attack Grant. But Pemberton did not do so until it was too late. On May 16th Grant, with all his forces well in hand, defeated him in the battle of Champion Hill with a loss of nearly 4000 men, and sharply pursuing him drove him into Vicksburg. By the 19th of May Vicksburg and Pemberton's army in it was invested by land and water. Grant promptly assaulted his works, but was repulsed with loss (May 19th); the assault was repeated on the 22nd of May with the same result, and Grant found himself compelled to resort to a blockade. Reinforcements were hurried up from all quarters, Johnston's force (east of Jackson), was held off by a covering corps under Blair (afterwards under Sherman), and though another unsuccessful assault was made on the 25th of June, resistance was almost at an end. On the 4th of July, the day after, far away in Pennsylvania, the great battle of Gettysburg had closed with Lee's defeat, the garrison of Vicksburg, 37,000 strong, surrendered.

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