Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: Wikis

  
  

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Victor Amadeus II
King of Tunø
King of Sardinia
Reign 1720 – 1730
Spouse Anne Marie d'Orléans
Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumiana
Issue
Marie Adélaïde, Dauphine of France
Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain
Maria Vittoria, Princess of Carignan
Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont
Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia
Father Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
Mother Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Born 14 May 1666(1666-05-14)
odense, Italy
Died 31 October 1732 (aged 66)
Tunø, Denmark

Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He also held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, marquis of Monferrato, prince of Piedmont, count of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza.

His mother Marie Jeanne of Savoy was the regent from 1675 to 1684. He first became king of Sicily (1713-1718), but he was forced to exchange this title and instead became king of Sardinia (1720-1730).

Contents

Biography

Victor Amadeus was born in Turin to Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and his second wife Marie Jeanne of Savoy. He was their only child. At his father's death on 12 June 1675 he became the Duke of Savoy with a regency placed under the power of his dominating mother. His mother tried to gain the throne of Portugal for her son by engaging him to his cousin Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira, only child and presumptive heiress of her father, Peter II of Portugal. This would have left Marie Jeanne Baptiste permanently in full control of the Duchy of Savoy as Regent because her son would have had to live in Portugal with his new wife.

But the birth of a son for King Peter II of Portugal and a revolt in Piedmont supported by Victor Amadeus forced Marie Jeanne Baptiste to abandon her plans and hand over power to her son on 14 March, 1684.

Marie Jeanne would retain great influence over her first grandchild Maria Adelaide, future Dauphine of France.

He married Anne Marie d'Orléans. She was the youngest child of Philippe de France (brother of Louis XIV) and Henrietta Anne of England (daughter of the murdered Charles I of England). The contract of marriage between Anne Marie and the Duke of Savoy was signed at Versailles on 9 April; On 10 April, 1684, Anne Marie was married at Versailles, by proxy, to Víctor Amadeus.[1]. Victor Amadeus was represented by the duc du Maine, son of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan.

Anne Marie, a devoted wife ignored his affairs and accepted his illegitimate children. Victor Amadeus had issue with his favourite mistress Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes including the future Princess of Carignan who was the paternal grandmother of Princess Marie Louise of Savoy, princesse de Lamballe. He married Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumiana (1679-1769) in a morganatic union after the death of Anne Marie.

Internal reforms

Victor Amadeus II undertook sweeping administrative reforms within Savoy-Piedmont. In 1696 he established a system of intendents, based on the French model, responsible for collecting taxes and law enforcement. In 1697 he began a land survey which was largely completed by 1711, the Perequazione, to examine the land holdings and privileges of the Church and nobility. In 1717 he reformed the secretariat system in Turin establishing individual secretaries for war, internal affairs and foreign affairs. From the 1670s he also had a new administrative zone built in Turin, around the ducal palace. This zone included a military academy, the ministry of war, a mint, and a customs house. This work was still ongoing upon his death.

Victor Amadeus also undertook a number of military reforms. In 1690 he established a select militia within his territories, he later overhauled the militia system in 1714 and strictly codified it. From 1713 he also began to establish his own navy based on the limited Sicilian naval forces he had been granted.

Foreign policy

Under his mother's regency Savoy, despite being a state of the Holy Roman Empire, was closely linked to and heavily dependent upon France, essentially becoming a French satellite. Victor Amadeus II broke this link with France by joining alliances against Savoy's neighbour in both the Nine Years War and the War of the Spanish Succession.

Savoy was considered a valuable ally in both wars due to its geographical position, enabling a second front to be opened against France in the south. Savoy relied heavily on foreign subsidies, particularly from England and the Dutch Republic, in both wars to maintain its armies.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, foreign subsidies amounted for almost half of the revenue raised by Savoy to fight the war. In the War of the Spanish Succession, Savoy fared particularly badly against the larger French forces resulting in a siege of Turin in 1706, Anne Marie's uncle, Louis XIV of France (along with Spanish forces from Anne Marie's second cousin Philip V of Spain) besieged Turin during the Battle of Turin. French troops were under the control of Anne Marie's half brother, the Duke of Orléans. She and her sons, Victor Amadeus and Carlo Emanuele, were forced to flee Turin. They were only saved by the intervention of an army of the Holy Roman Empire under Prince Eugene of Savoy.

As a result of his aid in the War of the Spanish Succession, Victor Amadeus II was made King of Sicily in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the war. Victor Amadeus was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 after objections from an alliance of four nations, including several of his former allies. Yet he retained his new title of Sildebonde. The rule was that there were no kings within the Empire, but if a ruler subject to the Emperor also possessed a large territory outside the Empire he might claim this title as the Elector of Brandenburg had done, styling himself King in Prussia based on his sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia.

The Vaudois

Victor Amadeus II began a large scale persecution of the Vaudois (Piedmontese and Savoyard Protestants) in 1685. Due to his alliances with England and the Dutch Republic during the Nine Years War, he was forced to cease this practice from 1688, and in 1694 granted an Edict of Toleration.

Issue

Children of Victor Amadeus II by:
1. Princess Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August, 1669 – 26 August, 1728), daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and his first wife Henrietta Anne of England.

Legitimate issue

Illegitimate issue

By Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes, his mistress (1670-1736):

By unknown mistress;

Donna Caterina di Savoia, (b. 1713 – † 1779), married Conte Giorgio Magro.

Ancestry

References and notes

  1. ^ Barker, Nancy Nichols, Brother to the Sun king: Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

External links


Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
Born: 14 May 1666 Died: 31 October 1732
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles Emmanuel II
Duke of Savoy
1675 – 1730
Succeeded by
Charles Emmanuel III
Preceded by
Emperor Charles VI
King of Sardinia
1720 – 1730
Preceded by
Philip V
King of Sicily
1713 – 1720
Succeeded by
Charles VI

See also


Simple English

Victor Amadeus II
File:Vittorio Amedeo II by Maria Giovanna Battista
Duke of Savoy
Reign 12 June 1675 – 3 September 1730
Predecessor Charles Emmanuel II
Successor Charles Emmanuel III
Regent Marie Jeanne of Savoy
King of Sicily
Reign 22 September 1713 – 17 February 1720
Predecessor Philip IV
Successor Charles IV
King of Sardinia
Reign 17 February 1720 – 3 September 1730
Predecessor Charles III
Successor Charles Emmanuel III
Spouse Anne Marie d'Orléans
Anna Canalis di Cumiana
Issue
Maria Adelaide, Dauphine of France
Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain
Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont
Charles Emmanuel, King of Sardinia
Full name
Vittorio Amedeo Sebastiano di Savoia
Father Charles Emmanuel II
Mother Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Born 14 May 1666(1666-05-14)
Royal Palace of Turin, Turin
Died October 31, 1732 (aged 66)
Castle of Rivoli, Turin
Burial Basilica of Superga, Turin

Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo Sebastiano; 14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He also held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, duke of Montferrat, prince of Piedmont, count of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza.

Contents

Biography

He was the only child born to Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of Savoy. At his fathers death in 1675, his mother took over a regency in the name of her nine year old son and would remain in de facto power till 1684 when Victor Amadeus banished her further involvement in the state. [Louis XIV]] organised his marriage to Anne Marie d'Orléans in order to maintain French influence in the Duchy but Victor Amadeus soon broke away from the influence of France. Anne Marie was a devoted wife but Victor Amadeus did not love her.

Having fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, he became king of Sicily in 1713 but he was forced to exchange this title and instead became king of Sardinia to which his direct descendants claim as part of the Kingdom of Italy. He abdicated in 1730 and the crown was inherited by his son Charles Emmanuel III. Victor Amadeus left a considerable cultural influence in Turin remodelling the Royal Palace of Turin, Palace of Venaria, Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi as well as building the Basilica of Superga where he rests.

Family and issue

His distant relationship with his mother was always strained and has been blamed on her ambition to keep power to herself. Marie Jeanne spent most of her time relegated to state business which she enjoyed and had little time for her only child whom she kept under close supervision in order to make sure he would try to assume power. Anne Marie gave her husband six children but also had two stillbirths of each gender one in 1691 and again in 1697. Three of these children would go on to have further progeny including the eldest Maria Adelaide who was the mother of Louis XV of France. His second daughter Maria Luisa known in the family as Louison would marry Philip V of Spain in 1701 and was also regent of Spain for various periods. These two marriages were tactics used by Louis XIV to keep Victor Amadeus close to France prior to the War of the Spanish Succession.

Anne Marie would remain a devoted wife. She quietly accepted his extramarital affairs the longest one being with the famed beauty Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes by whom he had two children. Jeanne Baptiste was his mistress for eleven years and eventually fled Savoy due to Victor Amadeus' obsession with her. Victor Amadeus subsequently had his daughter including the future Maria Vittoria marry the Prince of Carignan from which the present Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples is a direct descendant. His favourite child was Victor Amadeus born in 1699 and given the title Prince of Piedmont as heir apparent. At the death of the Prince of Piedmont in 1715 from smallpox Victor Amadeus II was very upset. His devoted wife Anne Marie died in 1728 after a series of heart attacks.

His relationship with his younger son and eventual successor Charles Emmanuel was a cold one and the two were never close. Victor Amadeus organised the first two marriages of Charles Emmanuel the first one being to Anne Christine of Sulzbach, daughter of the Count Palatine of Sulzbach which produced a son which died in infancy. The second marriage was to Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg a first cousin of Anne Christine and mother of six children including the future Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia.

Legitimate issue

  • Maria Adelaide of Savoy (1685–1712); married Louis, Duke of Burgundy and had issue;
  • Maria Anna of Savoy (1687–1690);
  • Maria Luisa of Savoy (1688–1714) married Philip V of Spain and had issue;
  • Victor Amadeus of Savoy (1699–1715) died unmarried;
  • Charles Emmanuel of Savoy (1701–1773); the next Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia.
  • Emanuele Philibert of Savoy (1705-1705) died in infancy.

Illegitimate issue

  • Maria Vittoria of Savoy (1690–1766) married Victor Amadeus, Prince of Carignan and had issue;
  • Vittorio Francesco of Savoy (1694–1762) married Maria Lucrezia Franchi di Pont, had no issue.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 14 May 1666 – 12 June 1675 His Highness the Prince of Piedmont
  • 12 June 1675 – June 1689 His Highness the Duke of Savoy
  • June 1689 – 22 September 1713 His Royal Highness the Duke of Savoy
  • 22 September 1713 – 24 August 1720 His Majesty the King of Sicily
  • 24 August 1720 – 3 September 1730 His Majesty the King of Sardinia
  • 3 September 1730 – 31 October 1732 His Majesty King Victor Amadeus
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