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Victoria Cross
A bronze cross pattée bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription FOR VALOUR. A crimson ribbon is attached

Victoria Cross (Canada) ribbon bar.png

Obverse of the cross. Ribbon: 32 mm, crimson (blue ribbon for naval awards 1856–1918).
Awarded by some British Empire/Commonwealth countries
Type Military decoration
Eligibility Some British Empire/Commonwealth and allied Military personnel. (Eligibility has varied over time.)
Awarded for "... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy."[1]
Status Currently awarded.
Description Bronze Cross pattée with Crown and Lion Superimposed, and motto: 'For Valour'
Post-nominals VC
Established 29 January 1856
First awarded 1856
Last awarded 2006
Total awarded 1,356
Next (higher) None
Equivalent George Cross (for civil gallantry or military actions not in the face of the enemy)[1]
Next (lower) Distinguished Service Order, Conspicuous Gallantry Cross, George Medal[1]

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration which is, or has been, awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. In the United Kingdom, it is usually presented to the recipient or their next of kin, by the British monarch during an investiture held at Buckingham Palace. In those Commonwealth countries where the British monarch is the head of state, the Governor-General usually fulfils the same function. It is the joint highest award for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is the equivalent honour for valour not in the face of the enemy.[2] However, the VC is higher in the order of wear and would be worn first by an individual who had been awarded both decorations (which has not so far occurred).[3]

The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been awarded 1,356 times to 1,353 individual recipients. Only 13 medals, nine to members of the British Army, and four to the Australian Army have been awarded since the Second World War. The traditional explanation of the source of the gunmetal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the siege of Sevastopol. Recent research has thrown doubt on this story, suggesting a variety of origins for the material actually making up the medals themselves.[4] Due to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal can reach over £400,000 at auction.[5] There are a number of public and private collections devoted to it. Lord Ashcroft, whose collection contains over one-tenth of the total VCs awarded, announced in July 2008 a donation to the Imperial War Museum, allowing his collection to be displayed there in a new gallery which will open in 2010.[6]

Since 1990, three Commonwealth countries that retain the Queen as head of state have instituted their own versions of the VC. As a result, the original Victoria Cross is sometimes referred to as the "British Victoria Cross"[7] or the "Imperial Victoria Cross",[8] to distinguish it from the newer awards.



In 1854, after 40 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, and the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded.[9]

Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions whilst a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry. This structure was very limited; in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank.[10] Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field, generally members of the commander's own staff.[11]

Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank; France awarded the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour) and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a growing feeling amongst the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a man's lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856[9][12] (gazetted 5 February 1856)[12] that officially constituted the VC. The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[13]

Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class. The medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services.[14] To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross. The original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to soldiers who have served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.[15] The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.[9] Charles Davis Lucas was the first recipient.

It was originally intended that the VCs would be cast from the bronze cascabels of two cannon that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol.[16][17][18] The historian John Glanfield has since proven through the use of x-rays of older Victoria Crosses that the metal used for VCs is in fact from antique Chinese guns and not of Russian origin.[4][17][18] One theory is that the guns were originally Chinese weapons but the Russians captured them and reused them at Sevastopol. It was also thought that some medals made during the First World War were composed of metal captured from different Chinese guns during the Boxer Rebellion but the original metal was used after the war. It is also believed that another source of metal was used between 1942 and 1945 to create five Second World War VCs when the Sevastopol metal went missing.[4]

The barrels of the cannon in question are on display at Firepower - The Royal Artillery Museum at Woolwich. The remaining portion of the only remaining cascabel, weighing 358 oz (10 kg), is stored in a vault maintained by 15 Regiment Royal Logistic Corps at Donnington, Telford. It can only be removed under armed guard. It is estimated that approximately 80 to 85 more VCs could be cast from this source. A single company of jewellers, Hancocks of London, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception.[19]


The obverse and reverse of the bronze cross pattée medal; obverse showing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription FOR VALOUR with a crimson ribbon; the reverse shows the inscription of the recipient on the bar connecting the ribbon with the regiment in the centre of the medal.
The front and back of Richard Turner's VC.

The decoration is a bronze cross pattée, 41 mm high, 36 mm wide, bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion, and the inscription FOR VALOUR.[20] This was originally to have been FOR THE BRAVE, until it was changed on the recommendation of Queen Victoria, as it implied that not all men in battle were brave.[17] The decoration, suspension bar and link weigh about 0.87 troy ounces (27 g).[21]

The cross is suspended by a ring from a seriffed "V" to a bar ornamented with laurel leaves, through which the ribbon passes. The reverse of the suspension bar is engraved with the recipient's name, rank, number and unit.[14] On the reverse of the medal is a circular panel on which the date of the act for which it was awarded is engraved in the centre.[14]

The Original Warrant Clause 1 states that the Victoria Cross "shall consist of a Maltese cross of bronze".[20] Nonetheless, it has always been a cross pattée; the discrepancy with the Warrant has never been corrected.[22]

The ribbon is crimson, 38 mm (1.5 inches) wide. The original (1856) specification for the award stated that the ribbon should be red for army recipients and blue for naval recipients.[23] However the dark blue ribbon was abolished soon after the formation of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918. On 22 May 1920 King George V signed a warrant that stated all recipients would now receive a red ribbon and the living recipients of the naval version were required to exchange their ribbons for the new colour.[24] Although the Army warrants state the colour as being red it is defined by most commentators as being crimson or "wine-red".[25]

Award process

The Victoria Cross is awarded for

... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy.[1]

A recommendation for the VC is normally issued by an officer at regimental level, or equivalent, and has to be supported by three witnesses, although this has been waived on occasion.[26] The recommendation is then passed up the military hierarchy until it reaches the Secretary of State for Defence. The recommendation is then laid before the monarch who approves the award with his or her signature. Victoria Cross awards are always promulgated in the London Gazette with the single exception of the award to the American Unknown Soldier in 1921.[27] The Victoria Cross warrant makes no specific provision as to who should actually present the medals to the recipients. Queen Victoria indicated that she would like to present the medals in person and she presented 185 medals out of the 472 gazetted during her reign. Including the first 62 medals presented at a parade in Hyde Park on 26 June 1857 by Queen Victoria, nearly 900 awards have been personally presented to the recipient by the reigning British monarch. Nearly 300 awards have been presented by a member of the royal family or by a civil or military dignitary. About 150 awards were either forwarded to the recipient or next of kin by registered post or no details of the presentations are known.[28]

The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between the Indian Mutiny and 1897 and the beginning of the Second Boer War the names of six officers and men were published in the London Gazette with a memorandum stating they would have been awarded the Victoria Cross had they survived. A further three notices were published in the London Gazette in September 1900 and April 1901 for gallantry in the Second Boer War. In a partial reversal of policy, six posthumous Victoria Crosses, all for South Africa including the three officers and men mentioned in the notices in 1900 and 1901 were granted on 8 August 1902. Five years later in 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men.[29] The awards were mentioned in notices in the Gazette dating back to the Indian Mutiny. The Victoria Cross warrant was not amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for World War I were posthumous.[30][31] Although the 1920 Royal Warrant made provision for awards to women serving in the Armed Forces, no women have been awarded a VC.

In the case of a gallant and daring act being performed by a squadron, ship's company or a detached body of men (such as marines) in which all men are deemed equally brave and deserving of the Victoria Cross then a ballot is drawn. The officers select one officer, the NCOs select one individual and the private soldiers or seamen select two individuals.[32] In all 46 awards have been awarded by ballot with 29 of the awards during the Indian Mutiny. Four further awards were granted to Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery at Korn Spruit on 31 March 1900 during the Second Boer War. The final ballot awards for the Army were the six awards to the Lancashire Fusiliers at W Beach during the landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 although three of the awards were not gazetted until 1917. The final seven ballot awards were the only naval ballot awards with three awards to two Q-Ships in 1917 and four awards for the Zeebrugge Raid in 1918. The provision for awards by ballot is still included in the Victoria Cross warrant but there have been no further such awards since 1918.[26]

Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[33] Six such awards were made during this period—five of them for a single incident during an Expedition to the Andaman Islands in 1867.[34] In 1881, the criteria were changed again and the VC was only awarded for acts of valour "in the face of the enemy".[34] Due to this it has been suggested by many historians including Lord Ashcroft that the changing nature of warfare will result in fewer VCs being awarded.[35] The prevalence of more remote fighting techniques has meant that the opportunity to carry out acts of bravery are diminishing. Since 1940, military personnel who have distinguished themselves for gallantry not in the face of the enemy have been awarded the George Cross, which ranks immediately after the VC in the Order of Wear.


Colonial awards

The Victoria Cross was extended to colonial troops in 1867. The extension was made following a recommendation for gallantry regarding colonial soldier Major Charles Heaphy for action in the New Zealand land wars in 1864.[36] He was operating under British command and the VC was gazetted in 1867. Later that year, the Government of New Zealand assumed full responsibility for operations but no further recommendations for the Victoria Cross were raised for local troops who distinguished themselves in action.[37] Following gallant actions by three New Zealand soldiers in November 1868 and January 1869 during the New Zealand land wars, an Order-in-Council on 10 March 1869 created a “Distinctive Decoration” for members of the local forces without seeking permission from the Secretary of State for the Colonies.[38] Although the Governor was chided for exceeding his authority, the Order in Council was ratified by the Queen. The title “Distinctive Decoration” was later replaced by the title New Zealand Cross.[37]

The question of whether recommendations could be made for colonial troops not serving with British troops was not asked in New Zealand, but in 1881, the question was asked in South Africa. Surgeon John McCrea, an officer of the South African forces was recommended for gallantry during hostilities which had not been approved by British Government. He was awarded the Victoria Cross and the principle was established that gallant conduct could be rewarded independently of any political consideration of military operations. More recently, four Australian soldiers were awarded the Victoria Cross in Vietnam although Britain was not involved in the conflict.[39]

Indian troops were not originally eligible for the Victoria Cross since they had been eligible for the Indian Order of Merit since 1837 which was the oldest British gallantry award for general issue. When the Victoria Cross was created, Indian troops were still controlled by the Honourable East India Company and did not come under Crown control until 1860. European officers and men serving with the Honourable East India Company were not eligible for the Indian Order of Merit and the Victoria Cross was extended to cover them in October 1857. It was only at the end of the 19th Century that calls for Indian troops to be awarded the Victoria Cross intensified. Indian troops became eligible for the award in 1911. The first awards to Indian troops appeared in the London Gazette on 7 December 1914 to Darwan Sing Negi and Khudadad Khan. Negi was presented with the Victoria Cross by King George V during a visit to troops in France. The presentation occurred on 5 December 1914 and he is one of a very few soldiers presented with his award before it appeared in the London Gazette.[40]

Separate Commonwealth awards

The cross pattée bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription FOR VALOUR etched into stone.
Victoria Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.

In recent years, several Commonwealth countries have introduced their own honours systems, separate from the British Honours System. This began with the Partition of India in 1947, when the new countries of India and Pakistan introduced their own systems of awards. The VC was replaced by the Param Vir Chakra (PVC) and Nishan-e-Haider respectively, although the new countries continued to permit winners of British honours to wear their awards. Several Pakistani soldiers and officers were authorised to wear both the British medals and the ones earned in the later Indo-Pakistani wars. Three Commonwealth realmsAustralia, Canada and New Zealand[41]—have each introduced their own decorations for gallantry and bravery, replacing British decorations such as the Military Cross with their own. Most Commonwealth countries, however, still recognise some form of the VC as their highest decoration for valour.[3]

Australia was the first Commonwealth realm to create its own VC, on 15 January 1991. Although it is a separate award, its appearance is identical to its British counterpart.[42] Canada followed suit when in 1993 Queen Elizabeth signed Letters Patent creating the Canadian VC, which is also similar to the British version, except that the legend has been changed from FOR VALOUR to the Latin PRO VALORE This language was chosen so as to favour neither French nor English, the two official languages of Canada.[43] New Zealand was the third country to adapt the VC into its own honours system. While the New Zealand and Australian VCs are technically separate awards, the decoration is identical to the British design, including being cast from the same Crimean War gunmetal as the British VC.[41][42] The Canadian Victoria Cross also includes metal from the same cannon, along with copper and other metals from all regions of Canada.[44]

As of January 2009, only two of the separate VCs have been awarded. Willie Apiata received the Victoria Cross for New Zealand on 2 July 2007, for his actions in the War in Afghanistan in 2004. Mark Donaldson was awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia on 16 January 2009 for actions during Operation Slipper, the Australian contribution to the War in Afghanistan.[45] A Canadian version has been cast that was originally to be awarded to the Unknown Soldier at the rededication of the Vimy Memorial on 7 April 2007. This date was chosen as it was the 90th anniversary of the battle of Vimy Ridge but pressure from Veterans organisations caused the plan to be dropped.[46]

Authority and privileges

As the highest award for valour of the United Kingdom, the Victoria Cross is always the first award to be presented at an investiture, even before knighthoods, as was shown at the investiture of Private Johnson Beharry who received his medal before General Sir Mike Jackson received his knighthood.[16] Due to its status, the VC is always the first decoration worn in a row of medals and it is the first set of post-nominal letters used to indicate any decoration or order.[3] Similar acts of extreme valour that do not take place in the face of the enemy are honoured with the George Cross, which has equal precedence but is awarded second due to fact that the GC is newer.[2]

There is a widespread erroneous myth that it is statutory for "all ranks to salute a bearer of the Victoria Cross". There is no official requirement that appears in the official Warrant of the VC, nor in Queen's Regulations and Orders, but tradition dictates that this occurs and as such the Chiefs of Staff will salute a Private awarded a VC or GC.[2]

The Victoria Cross was at first worn as the recipient fancied. It was popular to pin it on the left side of the chest over the heart, with other decorations grouped around the VC. The Queen's Regulations for the Army of 1881 gave clear instructions on how to wear it; the VC had to follow the badge of the Order of the Indian Empire. In 1900 it was ordained in Dress Regulations for the Army that it should be worn after the cross of a Member of the Royal Victorian Order. It was only in 1902 that King Edward VII gave the cross its present position on a bar brooch.[47] The cross is also worn as a miniature decoration on a brooch or a chain with mess jacket, white tie or black tie. As a bearer of the VC is not a Companion in an Order of Chivalry, the VC has no place in a coat of arms.[48]


The original warrant stated that NCOs and private soldiers or seamen on the Victoria Cross Register were entitled to a £10 per annum annuity.[49] In 1898, Queen Victoria raised the pension to £50 for those that could not earn a livelihood, be it from old age or infirmity.[50] Today holders of the Victoria Cross or George Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government. Since 2002, the annuity paid by the British government is £1,495 per year.[51] As of January 2005, under the Canadian Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland receive Can$3,000 per year.[52] Under Subsection 103.4 of the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986, the Australian Government provides a Victoria Cross Allowance.[53] Until November 2005 the amount was Aus$3,230 per year. Since then this amount has been increased annually in line with the Australian Consumer Price Index.[54][55]

Forfeited awards

See also Category:Victoria Cross forfeitures

The original Royal Warrant involved an expulsion clause that allowed for a recipient's name to be erased from the official register in certain wholly discreditable circumstances, and his pension cancelled.[56] King George V though felt very strongly that the decoration should never be forfeited and in a letter to his Private Secretary, Lord Stamfordham, on 26 July 1920, his views are forcibly expressed:

The King feels so strongly that, no matter the crime committed by anyone on whom the VC has been conferred, the decoration should not be forfeited. Even were a VC to be sentenced to be hanged for murder, he should be allowed to wear his VC on the gallows.[27]

The power to cancel and restore awards is still included in the Victoria Cross warrant but none has been forfeited since 1908.[27]


Burning hut in the background; red-jacketed soldiers fighting in the foreground
The largest number of VCs awarded in a single action was 11 at Rorke's Drift on 22 January 1879; painting by Lady Butler

A total of 1,356 Victoria Crosses have been awarded since 1856 to 1,353 men.[57] There are several statistics related to the largest number of VCs awarded in individual battles or wars. The largest number awarded for actions on a single day was 24 on 16 November 1857, at the relief of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny and the number awarded in a single action was 11 for the defence of Rorke's Drift on 22 January 1879 during the Zulu War. The record for the number of Victoria Crosses awarded in a single conflict was 628 during the First World War.[58] There are only seven living holders of the VC—three British, one Australian, three Gurkhas—three of them for exploits during the Second World War; in addition one New Zealander holds the Victoria Cross for New Zealand and one Australian holds the Victoria Cross for Australia. Eight of the then-twelve surviving holders of the Victoria Cross attended the 150th Anniversary service of remembrance at Westminster Abbey on 26 June 2006.[59]

In 1921 the Victoria Cross was given to the American Unknown Soldier of the First World War. (The British Unknown Warrior was reciprocally awarded the US Medal of Honor.)[60] One VC is in existence that is not counted in any official records. In 1856, Queen Victoria laid a Victoria Cross beneath the foundation stone of Netley Military hospital.[61] When the hospital was demolished in 1966 the VC, known as "The Netley VC", was retrieved and is now on display in the Army Medical Services Museum, Mytchett, near Aldershot.[61]

Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, the bar representing a second award of the VC. They are: Noel Chavasse and Arthur Martin-Leake, both doctors in the Royal Army Medical Corps, for rescuing wounded under fire; and New Zealander Charles Upham, an infantryman, for pure combat actions.[62] Upham remains the only combatant soldier to have received a VC and Bar. An Irishman, Surgeon General William Manley, remains the sole recipient of both the Victoria Cross and the Iron Cross. The VC was awarded for his actions during the Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand on 29 April 1864 whilst the Iron Cross was awarded for tending the wounded during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.[63] New Zealand Flying Officer Lloyd Trigg, has the distinction of being the only serviceman ever awarded a VC on evidence solely provided by the enemy, for an action in which there were no surviving Allied witnesses.[64] The recommendation was made by the captain of the German U-boat U-468 sunk by Trigg's aircraft. Lieutenant-Commander Gerard Roope was also awarded a VC on recommendation of the enemy, the captain of the Admiral Hipper, but there were also numerous surviving Allied witnesses to corroborate his actions.[65]

Since the end of the Second World War the original VC has been awarded 13 times: four in the Korean War, one in the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1965, four to Australians in the Vietnam War, two during the Falklands War in 1982, one in the Iraq War in 2004, and one in the War in Afghanistan in 2006.[60] The Victoria Cross for New Zealand has been awarded once, which was earned in Afghanistan in 2004 but awarded in 2007. The Victoria Cross for Australia has been awarded once, which was earned in Afghanistan in 2008 but awarded in 2009.

The two awards given in the 21st century to British personnel have been for actions in the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. On 18 March 2005, Lance Corporal (then Private) Johnson Beharry of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment became the first recipient of the VC since Sergeant Ian McKay in 1982.[16] The most recent award of the Victoria Cross to a British service person was the posthumous award on 14 December 2006 to Corporal Bryan Budd of 3 Para. It was awarded for two separate acts of "inspirational leadership and the greatest valour" which led to his death, during actions against the Taliban in Afghanistan in July and August 2006.[66]


Medal sales

Some recipients have felt the need to sell their medals, often to avoid rows between their children:[2]

By selling the medal they're taking the problem away. Now that they sell for such a huge sum, it is very difficult for someone to leave their medal to a regiment. The most important thing is that it is on display somewhere to serve as a future inspiration.—Didy Grahame, Secretary to the VC and GC Association[2]

The value of the VC can be seen by the increasing sums that the medals reach at auction. In 1955 the set of medals awarded to Edmund Barron Hartley was bought at Sotheby's for the then record price of £300. In October 1966 the Middlesex Regiment paid a new record figure of £900 for a VC awarded after the Battle of the Somme. In January 1969 the record reached £1700 for the medal set of William Rennie[67] In April 2004 the VC awarded in 1944 to Sergeant Norman Jackson, RAF, was sold at auction for £235,250.[68]

On 24 July 2006, an auction at Bonhams in Sydney of the VC awarded to Captain Alfred Shout fetched a world record hammer price of AU$1 million.[5] Captain Alfred Shout was awarded the VC posthumously in 1915 for hand-to-hand combat at the Lone Pine trenches in Gallipoli Turkey. The buyer, Kerry Stokes has since donated the medal set to the Australian War Memorial. It is on display with the eight other VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli.[68]


Several VCs have been stolen and being valuable have been placed on the Interpol watch-list for stolen items.[69] The VC awarded to Milton Gregg, which was donated to the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum in London, Ontario Canada in 1979, was stolen on Canada Day, (1 July 1980), when the museum was overcrowded[70] and has been missing since. A VC awarded in 1917 to Canadian soldier Corporal Filip Konowal[71] was stolen from the same museum in 1973 and was not recovered until 2004.[72]

On 2 December 2007, 9 VCs were among 100 medals stolen from locked, reinforced glass cabinets at the QEII Army Memorial Museum in Waiouru, New Zealand with a value of around NZD$20 million. Charles Upham's VC and Bar was among these.[73] A reward of NZ$300,000 was posted for information leading to the recovery of the decorations and conviction of the thieves, although at the time there was much public debate about the need to offer reward money to retrieve the medals.[74] On 16 February 2008 New Zealand Police announced all the medals had been recovered.[75]


Public collections

Museums with holdings of ten or more VCs include:[76][77]

In the UK
Museum Location Number of VCs
The Imperial War Museum Kennington, London 50
The National Army Museum Chelsea, London 39
The Royal Green Jackets Museum Winchester, Hampshire 34
The Royal Engineers Museum Gillingham, Kent 26
The Army Medical Services Museum Mytchett, Surrey 22
Firepower, The Royal Regiment of Artillery Museum Woolwich, London 20
The Queen's Own Highlanders Museum Ardersier, Inverness-shire 16
The South Wales Borderers Museum Brecon, Wales 16
The Green Howards Regimental Museum Richmond, Yorkshire 15
The Royal Fusiliers Museum Tower of London 12
The Gordon Highlanders Museum Aberdeen 12
The National Maritime Museum Greenwich, London 11
The National War Museum of Scotland Edinburgh Castle 11
The RAF Museum Hendon, London 11
The Sherwood Foresters Museum Nottingham 11
The Gurkha Museum Winchester, Hampshire 10
The Royal Marines Museum Portsmouth, Hampshire 10
The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum Caernarfon Castle, Wales 10
Outside the UK
Australian War Memorial Canberra, Australia 61 (note 2)
Canadian War Museum Ottawa, Ontario 33
QEII Army Memorial Museum Waiouru, New Zealand 11

(note 1 = Many VCs are on loan to the museums and are owned by individuals and not owned by the museums themselves.)[76]
(note 2 = It is the largest publicly held collection in the world,[78] including all nine VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli.)

Private collections

British businessman and politician Lord Ashcroft has amassed a private collection of over 150 VCs. Lord Ashcroft purchased his first in 1986 and the collection now contains over a tenth of the VCs ever awarded, the largest private or public collection of such decorations ever accumulated. The collection is administered by The Ashcroft Collection Trust. Victoria Cross Heroes by Michael Ashcroft was published in November 2006.[79] It was announced in July 2008 that Lord Ashcroft is donating £5 million for a permanent gallery at the Imperial War Museum where the 50 VCs held by the museum will be put on display alongside his own collection of 152 VCs.[80]



In 2004 a national Victoria Cross and George Cross memorial was installed in Westminster Abbey close to the tomb of The Unknown Warrior.[81] Westminster Abbey is a living monument to British history in that it contains monuments and memorials to central figures in British History including Charles Darwin and James VI & I. As such it was a significant honour for the VC to be commemorated in Westminster Abbey.[82]

Canon William Lummis, MC, was a military historian who built up an archive on the service records and final resting places of Victoria Cross holders.[83] This was then summarised into a pamphlet which was taken to be an authoritative source on these matters. However, Lummis was aware of short-comings in his work and encouraged David Harvey to continue it. The result was Harvey's seminal book Monuments to Courage. In 2007 the Royal Mail used material from Lummis' archives to produce a collection of stamps commemorating Victoria Cross recipients.[84]

In art

The subject of soldiers winning the VC has been popular with artists since the medal's inception. In particular are the fifty paintings by Louis William Desanges that were painted in the late 1850s and early 1860s. Many of these were exhibited at the Egyptian Gallery in Piccadilly, but in 1900, they were brought together by Lord Wantage as the Victoria Cross Gallery and exhibited in the town of Wantage, Berkshire. Later the collection was broken up and many of the paintings were sent to the various regiments depicted. Some were damaged or destroyed.[85] A number of the acts were also portrayed in a Second World War propaganda pamphlet, and the images commissioned by the Ministry of Information are presented in an online gallery available on the website of The National Archives.[86]

Soldiers' club naming traditions

It is a tradition within the Australian Army for soldiers' recreational clubs on military bases to be named after a particular recipient of the Victoria Cross, usually one with whom the unit is historically associated. Permission for such naming rights is usually obtained not only from the relevant command hierarchy within the military itself, but also from the family of the recipient. Once dedicated, the club and its participants typically take great pride in the deeds of the person with whom they are associated, and often family members will be invited to attend certain functions held by the club as a mark of thanks and respect.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "Military Honours and Awards". Defence Internet. UK Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2007-01-30.  
  2. ^ a b c d e "The world's most exclusive club". Ministry of Defence. 2007-04-30. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  3. ^ a b c London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 56878, pp. 3351–3355, 17 March 2003. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. The Gazette containing the most up-to-date Order of Precedence
  4. ^ a b c Davies, Catronia (2005-12-28). "Author explodes myth of the gunmetal VC". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  5. ^ a b "The Victoria Cross ... awarded to Captain Alfred Shout have been sold at auction". Iain Stewart, Victoria Retrieved 2008-04-09.  
  6. ^ "Lord Ashcroft's Victoria Cross collection". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 2008-07-22.  
  7. ^ "Modern Canadian Victoria Cross unveiled at Rideau Hall". National Defence; Government of Canada. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  
  8. ^ "Victoria Cross for Australia" (PDF). Australian Government. Retrieved 2007-07-02.  
  9. ^ a b c Ashcroft, Michael, Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes
  10. ^ Original Warrant Foreword: And, whereas, the third class of Our Most Honourable Order of the Bath is limited, except in very rare cases, to the higher ranks of both services, and the granting of Medals, both in Our Navy and Army, is only awarded for long service or meritorious conduct, rather than for bravery in action or distinction before an enemy,
  11. ^ British Gallantry Awards, p283
  12. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 21846, pp. 410–411, 5 February 1856. Retrieved on 2008-01-12. The Gazette publishing the original Royal Warrant
  13. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.7-10
  14. ^ a b c "The Victoria Cross". Vietnam Veterans Of Australia. Retrieved 2007-06-15.  
  15. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 5:Fifthly. It is ordained that the Cross shall only be awarded to those officers and men who have served Us in the presence of the enemy, and shall have then performed some signal act of valour or devotion to their country.
  16. ^ a b c Beharry, Johnson p.359
  17. ^ a b c "150 years of the Victoria Cross". Royal Naval Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2008-07-02.  
  18. ^ a b "Hancocks of London History of VC". Hancocks of London. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  
  19. ^ "Hancocks Jewellers". Hancocks of London. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  20. ^ a b Original Warrant, Clause 1: Firstly. It is ordained that the distinction shall be styled and designated "The Victoria Cross", and shall consist of a Maltese cross of bronze, with our Royal crest in the centre, and underneath with an escroll bearing the inscription "For Valour".
  21. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.16
  22. ^ Abbott and Tamplin (1981). British Gallantry Awards. Nimrod Dix and Co.. ISBN 0902633740.
  23. ^ Original warrant, Clause Two: Secondly. It is ordained that the Cross shall be suspended from the left breast by a blue riband for the Navy, and by a red riband for the Army
  24. ^ "The Victoria Cross mentioned in newsletter" (PDF). Army Museum of Western Australia. 2006-09-01. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2007-06-21.  
  25. ^ "The Victoria Cross". Imperial War Museum Exhibits and Firearms Collections. Retrieved 2006-09-30.  
  26. ^ a b Crook, MJ, Chapter 18, p.204
  27. ^ a b c "Posthumous VCs". National Army Museum. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  28. ^ Pillinger, Dennis; Staunton, A, p.73
  29. ^ London Gazette: no. 27986, p. 325, 15 January 1907. Retrieved on 28 August 2008.
  30. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  31. ^ London Gazette: no. 31946, p. 6702, 18 June 1920. Retrieved on 19 September 2008.
  32. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 13: Thirteenthly. It is ordained that in the event of a gallant and daring act having been performed by a squadron, ship's company, or detached body of seamen and marines not under fifty in number, or by a brigade, regiment, troop or company in which the admiral, general, or other officer commanding such forces may deem that all are equally brave and distinguished, and that no special selection can be made by them, then is such case the admiral, general, or other officer commanding, may direct that for any such body of seamen or marines, or for every troop or company of soldiers, one officer shall be selected by the officers engaged for the Decoration, and in like manner one petty officer or non-commissioned officer shall be selected by the petty officers and non-commissioned officers engaged, and two seamen or private soldiers or marines shall be selected by the seamen, or private soldiers, or marines engaged, respectively for the Decoration, and the names of those selected shall be transmitted by the senior officers in command of the Naval force, brigade, regiment, troop, or company, to the admiral or general officer commanding, who shall in due manner confer the Decoration as if the acts were done under his own eye.
  33. ^ Warrant Amendment dated 1858-08-10: subject to the rules and ordinances already made, on Officers and Men of Her Majesty's Naval and Military Services, who may perform acts of conspicuous courage and bravery under circumstances of extreme danger, such as the occurrence of a fire on board ship, or the foundering of a vessel at sea, or under any of the other circumstance in which, through the courage and devotion displayed, life or public property may be saved.
  34. ^ a b "VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  35. ^ "Victoria Cross TV programme notes". fiveTV. Retrieved 2007-06-17.  
  36. ^ "Charles heaphy biography". New Zealand Encyclopedia. 1966. Retrieved 2007-06-17.  
  37. ^ a b Abbott PE, Tamplin JMA, Chapter 34, 230–236
  38. ^ "New Zealand Cross". New Zealand Encyclopedia. 1966. Retrieved 2007-06-17.  
  39. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 19, pp.242–251
  40. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 11. pp 117–125
  41. ^ a b "New Zealand Honours". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 2007-01-30.  
  42. ^ a b "The Victoria Cross for Australia". The Government of Australia. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  43. ^ (2007-03-03). "Top military honour now cast in Canada". CTV news. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  
  44. ^ "Canadian Victoria Cross". Natural Resources Canada. 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-16.  
  45. ^ "Australian SAS soldier Mark Donaldson awarded Victoria Cross". The Australian (News Limited). 2009-01-16.,25197,24920340-601,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  
  46. ^ Teotonio, Isabel (2007-03-07). "Vets irate at Victoria Cross proposal". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  
  47. ^ Sir Ivan de la Bère, The Queen's Orders of Chivalry, 1964
  48. ^ The complete book of Heraldry by Stephen Slater, 2002
  49. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 14: It is ordained that every warrant officer, petty officer, seaman or marine, or non-commissioned officer, or soldier who shall have received the Cross, shall, from the date of the act by which the Decoration has been gained be entitled to a special pension of 10 pounds a year, and each additional bar conferred under Rule 4 on such warrant or petty officers, or non-commissioned officers or men, shall carry with it an additional pension of 5 pounds per annum.
  50. ^ Warrant Amendment 1898-07-1898 ...authorize the increase of the Victoria Cross pension from 10 pounds to 50 pounds per annum, the condition to be satisfied in such cases being inability to earn a livelihood, in consequence of age or infirmity occasioned by causes beyond an Annuitant's control.
  51. ^ Glanfield, John, Chap1
  52. ^ "Canadian Gallantry Awards Order". Canadian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  53. ^ "Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  54. ^ Australian Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986, Clause 103, Victoria Cross allowance granted to a veteran under this section is payable at the rate of Aus$3,230 per year. The amount fixed by this subsection is indexed annually in line with CPI increases., (accessdate=2007-06-30)
  55. ^ "Veteran's Entitlement Act 1986, Clause 198a,". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  56. ^ Original Warrant Clause 15: Fifteenthly. In order to make such additional provision as shall effectually preserve pure this most honourable distinction, it is ordained that, if any person be convicted of treason, cowardice, felony, or of any infamous crime, or if he be accused of any such offence, and doth not after a reasonable time surrender himself to be tried for the same, his name shall forthwith be erased from the registry of individuals upon whom the said Decoration shall have been conferred, and by an especial Warrant under Our Royal Sign Manual, and the pension conferred under Rule 14 shall cease and determine from the date of such Warrant. It is hereby further declared, that We, Our Heirs and Given Successors, shall be the all judges of the circumstances requiring such expulsion; moreover, We shall at all times have power to restore such persons as may at any time have been expelled, both to the enjoyment of the Decoration and Pension.
  57. ^ "The Victoria Cross factsheet". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  58. ^ Arthur, Max; pp.185–371
  59. ^ "Service of Remembrance Coverage". BBC. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  60. ^ a b Victoria Cross Register
  61. ^ a b "Netley Hospital information". QARANC - Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  62. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, Introduction: A brief History of the VC (p.14-18)
  63. ^ "Awards to Imperial Servicemen During the 2nd Maori War". New Zealand Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  64. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p.296-298, Information on Flying Officer Lloyd Allan Trigg
  65. ^ Singh Gill, Himmat. "Of blood red in olive green". India Sunday Tribune. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  66. ^ "Operational Honours: VC and GC for acts of exceptional valour". MOD press release. 2006-12-24. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  67. ^ £1700 World Record...;The Times; 22 January 1969; pg 12 col F
  68. ^ a b "Gallipoli VC medal sets auction record". The Age. 2006-07-24. Retrieved 2007-01-30.  
  69. ^ "List of stolen VCs". Iain Stewart, Victoria Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  70. ^ ""Victoria Cross: Theft of the VC". Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  71. ^ "Information on Konowal". Lubomyr Y. Luciuk and Ron Sorobey. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  72. ^ "Stolen VC back on display". CBC Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  73. ^ "Army medal theft 'insult' to our nation's heritage". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2007-12-02.  
  74. ^ Wall, Tony (2008-02-20). "Why gangland figure got our medals back". Stuff. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  
  75. ^ "Stolen War Medals Recovered". New Zealand Police. 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  
  76. ^ a b "List of Museums". Victoria Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  77. ^ "Collections and exhibitions". Gordon Highlanders' Museum. Retrieved 2008-08-11.  
  78. ^ Australian War Memorial "List of Australian Victoria Cross". Australian War memorial. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 2007-06-17.  
  79. ^ "Ashcroft Collection website". Lord Ashcroft. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  80. ^ Pierce, Andrew (2008-07-08). "World's largest VC collection to go on show". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  
  81. ^ "News of Memorial". MoD. Retrieved 2007-06-16.  
  82. ^ "Westminster Abbey, a history". Sacred Destinations guide. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  
  83. ^ "Lummis cited as 'leading VC researcher'". Michael Daniels pHd. 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-06-15.  
  84. ^ "The Post Office issues VC stamps in 2007 illustrated with artifacts from the collection of Canon Lummis in the National Army Museum". Royal Mail. 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-06-15.  
  85. ^ See Sally Whipple. (2001). Catalogue of the Series of Historical Pictures by Chevalier L. W. Desanges. (Wantage, 2000). This was the catalogue to an exhibition of photographic reproductions of many of the paintings held in Wantage to honour the Millenium.
  86. ^ "Victoria Cross". Online Exhibitions—The Art of War—Valour & Gallantry—Valour. The National Archives. Retrieved 24 December 2009.  


  • The Register of the Victoria Cross. This England. 1997. ISBN 0-906324-03-3.  
  • Abbott and Tamplin (1981). British Gallantry Awards. Nimrod Dix and Co.. ISBN 0902633740.  
  • Arthur, Max (2005). Symbol of Courage; Men behind the Medal. Pan Books. ISBN 978 0 330 49133 4.  
  • Ashcroft, Michael (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0755316320.  
  • Beharry, Johnson (2006). Barefoot Soldier. Sphere. ISBN 0-316-73321-0.  
  • Crook, M.J. (1975). The Evolution of the Victoria Cross. Midas Books. ISBN 0 85936 041 5.  
  • Duckers, Peter (2006). British Gallantry Awards, 1855–2000. Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747805164.  
  • Glanfield, John (2005). Bravest of the Brave. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0750936959.  
  • Harvey, David (2000). Monuments to Courage. Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 1843423561.  
  • Pillinger, Dennis; Staunton, Anthony (2000). Victoria Cross Presentations and Locations. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Woden. ISBN 0646397419.  
  • Ross, Graham (1995). Scotland's Forgotten Valour. MacLean Press. ISBN 1-899272-00-3.  

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Wikipedia has an article on:


Victoria Cross (or VC)

  1. Britain’s highest military award, a bronze Maltese cross - For Valour

Simple English

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military medal given for bravery "in the face of the enemy" to members of the defence forces of Commonwealth countries, and former British Empire territories. It is the most important medal, more important than all other orders, decorations and medals.[1]

It may be given to a person of any rank in any service (army, navy or air force) or anyone working for the military. It is usually presented to the person, or a family member if they were killed, by the British monarch during a ceremony at Buckingham Palace. It can be presented by the Governor-General for awards made by other Commonwealth countries.

It is the joint highest medal for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is for bravery not in the face of the enemy. However, the VC is higher in the order of importance and would be worn first by a person who had been given both medals (which has not happened).[2]

The VC was begun on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria for acts of bravery during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been given 1,356 times to 1,353 people. Only 13 medals, nine to members of the British Army, and four to the Australian Army have been presented since the Second World War.

Since 1990, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, have started their own versions of the VC. Because of this, the Victoria Cross is sometimes called the "British Victoria Cross"[3] or the "Imperial Victoria Cross".[4].

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