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Victorian Era
1837–1901

.Queen Victoria, after whom the era is named.^ Queen Victoria has to have position number one on this list because the era is named for her and, frankly, she was bloody creepy.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Preceded by   Georgian era
Followed by   Edwardian era
Monarch Queen Victoria
Periods and eras in English History
Tudor period Tudors.JPG (1485–1603)
Elizabethan era Elizabeth I (Armada Portrait).jpg (1558–1603)
Stuart period James I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpg (1603–1714)
Jacobean era James I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpg (1603–1625)
Caroline era Carolus I.jpg (1625–1642)
Georgian era The.circus.bath.arp.jpg (1714–1830)
British Regency George IV bust1.jpg (1811–1820)
Victorian era Queen Victoria 1887.jpg (1837–1901)
Edwardian era Edward vii england.jpg (1901–1910)
.The Victorian era of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from June 1837 until her death on the 22nd of January 1901.[1] The reign was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed an educated middle class to develop.^ Well after the Victorian era ended.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ A detailed overview of Victorian fashion for middle- and working-class men, women, children (from The Victorian Web ).
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The site's searchable database gives you access to publication information for scholarly works on the British Romantic and Victorian periods.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some scholars extend the beginning of the period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political games that have come to be associated with the Victorians—back five years to the passage of the Reform Act 1832.^ I had a similar epiphany a couple years back chatting with Darren Watts, who wants to write Victorian Hero rather badly.
  • Throw me some Victorian era superheroes and supervillains [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rosemary VanArsdel's Victorian Periodicals: Aids to Research, A Selected Bibliography offers an annotated bibliography of selected titles to aid students and scholars interested in Victorian newspapers and magazines.
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The era was preceded by the Georgian period and succeeded by the Edwardian period. .The latter half of the Victorian era roughly coincided with the first portion of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe and the Gilded Age of the United States.^ Victorian First and Second Bustle Era 1870s and 1880s 1870s in fashion Information from Answers.com Digital Collection - Plaid boy's suit, c.1870 Digital Collection - Boy's Suit c.
  • The Costumer's Manifesto: Victorian Fashion Links 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.costumes.org [Source type: General]

^ J. H. McLeary was an ex-justice of the United States Supreme Court for Montana during Grover Cleveland's first term and former attorney general of Texas.

^ In the United States this era was also rocked by war, pushed by westward expansion and impacted by waves of immigration.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The era is often characterized as a long period of peace, known as the Pax Britannica, and economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation, temporarily disrupted by the Crimean War, although Britain was at war every year during this time.^ He was twenty-one; the Crimean War broke out; and before the year was over, he had managed to get himself transferred to Balaclava.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Industrialization and Invention : The prosperity of the Victorian age was built on a period of rapid economic growth that had its roots in the Industrial Revolution.
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^ Surgery techniques were not sanitary, but during the war the general understanding of medicine and surgery advanced farther and faster than it had in the previous 200 years.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.Towards the end of the century, the policies of New Imperialism led to increasing colonial conflicts and eventually the Anglo-Zanzibar War and the Boer War.^ Dueling would survive into the end of the 19 th century, primarily in the environs of New Orleans, but its day had passed.

^ Towards the end of the nineteenth century, conditions gradually improved in the workhouse, particularly for the elderly and infirm, and for children.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform and the widening of the voting franchise.
.The population of England had almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901.[2] Ireland’s population decreased rapidly, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901.[3] At the same time, around 15 million emigrants left the United Kingdom in the Victorian era and settled mostly in the United States, Canada, and Australia.^ English food can be creepy at the best of times, but especially so in the Victorian era (disclaimer: England currently produces some of the finest food in the world).
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Victorian era life didn’t get much worse than that of a poorhouse resident.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In the United States this era was also rocked by war, pushed by westward expansion and impacted by waves of immigration.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.During the early part of the era, the House of Commons was headed by the two parties, the Whigs and the Tories.^ Era: circa 1900 Given the popularity of the two-step in the early years of the 20th century, it is surprising how few variations were recorded for the dance.
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From the late 1850s onwards, the Whigs became the Liberals; the Tories became the Conservatives. .These parties were led by many prominent statesmen including Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, William Gladstone, Benjamin Disraeli, and Lord Salisbury.^ What other nation on the face of the earth could have produced Mr. Gladstone and Sir Evelyn Baring and Lord Hartington and General Gordon?
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement.^ David Nash 12-26-2005, 09:39 AM Dammit, now I really want to play in a Victorian-era superhero game.
  • Throw me some Victorian era superheroes and supervillains [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Topics related to Victorian philosophy from The Victorian Web include overviews of religious and moral, aesthetic, political philosophical trends and debates in the nineteenth century.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PDA View Full Version : Throw me some Victorian era superheroes and supervillains .
  • Throw me some Victorian era superheroes and supervillains [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

Indeed these issues would eventually lead to the Easter Rising of 1916 and the subsequent domino effect that would play a large part in the fall of the empire.
The reign of Victoria is the longest in British history; it would be exceeded if the present monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) remains on the throne to 2017.

Contents

Culture

Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant in the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals. Charles Barry's architecture for the new Palace of Westminster, which had been badly damaged in an 1834 fire, built in the medieval style of Westminster Hall, the surviving part of the building. .It constructed a narrative of cultural continuity, set in opposition to the violent disjunctions of Revolutionary France, a comparison common to the period, as expressed in Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution: A History, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens and Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities.^ Two popular ones were the Basket Figure and the Star Figure , with the Basket being slightly more common in period sources.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

^ Discovering Dickens offers downloadable (pdf) facsimiles of Hard Times , A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations in their original serialized forms, as well as background information on these novels.
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^ The history of periodicals research has always been one of collaboration, sharing for the common good.

.Gothic was also supported by the critic John Ruskin, who argued that it epitomised communal and inclusive social values, as opposed to Classicism, which he considered to epitomise mechanical standardisation.^ The perspectives of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo are presented in addition to opposing view-points from Thomas Carlyle, Charles Dickens,and John Ruskin.
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.The middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair, and showcased the greatest innovations of the century.^ Era: 1850s-1870s Origins of the Schottische One of the most popular couple dances of the mid- to late 19th century, the schottische first began appearing in dance manuals in the 1850s.
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At its centre was the Crystal Palace, a modular glass and iron structure - the first of its kind. It was condemned by Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanisation in design, but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture. .The emergence of photography, which was showcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art with Queen Victoria being the first British Monarch to be photographed.^ The online photography collection of the George Eastman House Museum offers Victorian era photographs from Great Britain, the US, and Europe, and includes indexes organized by photographer and subject, and collections of lantern slides.
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^ Preliminary research has also been carried out on development of the periodical press in British colonial society: see two references; Vann and VanArsdel, Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society (1994) and Periodicals of Queen Victorias Empire (1996).

^ Queen Victoria is one creepy monarch, & remember that it was a lot her descendants leading the major powers of Europe in WWI. I’m not blaming the British for this; I may be American, but I’ve been accused of being an Anglophile.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

John Everett Millais was influenced by photography (notably in his portrait of Ruskin) as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. .It later became associated with the Impressionistic and Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl.^ It was the Victorian period that gave us such great works of terror as Dracula, and the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
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^ A year later Brau would die in another duel, this one employing pistols.

Events

1832
Passage of the first Reform Act.[5]
1837
Ascension of Queen Victoria to the throne.[5]
1840
New Zealand becomes a British colony, through the Treaty of Waitangi.
1840
Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield. He had been naturalised and granted the British style of Royal Highness beforehand. For the next 17 years, he was known as HRH Prince Albert
1840
Birth of the Queen's first child The Princess Victoria. Within months she was granted the title Princess Royal
1841
Birth of the Queen's heir-apparent The Prince Albert Edward, Duke of Cornwall (Duke of Rothesay). He was swiftly made Prince of Wales
1842
Massacre of Elphinstone's Army by the Afghans in Afghanistan results in the death or incarceration of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.[6] .The Mines Act of 1842 banned women/children from working in coal, iron, lead and tin mining.^ A detailed overview of Victorian fashion for middle- and working-class men, women, children (from The Victorian Web ).
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[5] .The Illustrated London News was first published.^ It may have first been published in Crompton's own book, Theory and Practice of Modern Dancing (London, c1891).
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^ First, they illustrate how GIS methods combining mapping and data analysis make it possible to extend a study of an historical problem in new directions.
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^ Indexes to Fiction in the Illustrated London News (1842-190l) and the Graphic, (1869-190l) .

[7]
1843
Birth of The Princess Alice
1844
Birth of The Prince Alfred
1845
The Irish famine begins. Within 5 years it would become the UK's worst human disaster, with starvation and emigration reducing the population of Ireland itself by over 50%. .The famine permanently changed Ireland’s and Scotland's demographics and became a rallying point for nationalist sentiment that pervaded British politics for much of the following century.^ "In that burst of high spirits and extravagance which often seems to follow a war, the social whirl became lavish to the point of absurdity-but great fun.

^ Most people just don’t photograph them, but I’ve seen enough funerals in this century to say we haven’t changed much.
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1846
Repeal of the Corn Laws.[5]
1846
Birth of The Princess Helena
1848
Death of around 2,000 people a week in a cholera epidemic.
1848
Birth of The Princess Louise
1850
Restoration of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in Britain.
1850
Birth of The Prince Arthur
1851
.The Great Exhibition (the first World's Fair) was held at the Crystal Palace[5], with great success and international attention.^ "A party signing himself Captain E. N. Jennings writes that he is the champion swordsman of the world; that he originated horseback sword contests; that he has just returned from a successful tour of Australia; and he wants to give exhibitions at the Texas State Fair.

The Victorian gold rush. In ten years the Australian population nearly tripled.[8]
1853
Birth of The Prince Leopold
1854
Crimean War: The United Kingdom declared war on Russia.
1857
The Indian Mutiny, a widespread revolt in India against the rule of the British East India Company, was sparked by sepoys (native Indian soldiers) in the Company's army. The rebellion, involving not just sepoys but many sectors of the Indian population as well, was largely quashed within a year. In response to the mutiny, the East India Company was abolished in August 1858 and India came under the direct rule of the British crown, beginning the period of the British Raj. Prince Albert was given the title The Prince Consort
1857
Birth of The Princess Beatrice
1858
The Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, responded to the Orsini plot against French emperor Napoleon III, the bombs for which were purchased in Birmingham, by attempting to make such acts a felony, but the resulting uproar forced him to resign.
1859
.Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, which led to various reactions.^ Darwin, Charles, An historical sketch of the progress of opinion on the origin of species .
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^ Review of Darwin's The origin of species ' The North British Review , June 1867, 46, pp.
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^ These letters cover the years between Darwin's return from the Beagle voyage and the publication of Origin of Species and were published in volumes 2 to 7 of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge UP).
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[5] Victoria and Albert's first grandchild, Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, is born — he would later become William II, German Emperor
1861
Death of .Prince Albert[5]; Queen Victoria refused to go out in public for many years, and when she did she wore a widow's bonnet instead of the crown.^ The Young Victoria, starring Emily Blunt, chronicles Queen Victoria's ascension to the throne, focusing on the early turbulent years of her reign and her legendary romance and marriage to Prince Albert (Rupert Friend).

^ When her husband Albert died in 1861, she went into mourning – donning black frocks until her own death many years later – and expected her nation to do so too.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Just as I’m trying to get the image of Elena Milagro “Helen” de Hoyos’ corpse out of my head, I got an eyefull of Joseph Merrick and Queen Victoria!
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

1863
The Prince of Wales marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark at Windsor.
1866
An angry crowd in London, protesting against John Russell's resignation as Prime Minister, was barred from Hyde Park by the police; they tore down iron railings and trampled on flower beds. Disturbances like this convinced Derby and Disraeli of the need for further parliamentary reform.
1867
The .Constitution Act, 1867 passes and British North America becomes Dominion of Canada.^ Review of Darwin's The origin of species ' The North British Review , June 1867, 46, pp.
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1875
Britain purchased Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal[5] as the African nation was forced to raise money to pay off its debts.
1877
The Princess Alice becomes Grand Duchess of Hesse when her husband succeeds as Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
1878
Treaty of Berlin (1878). Cyprus becomes a Crown colony. The Princess Alice dies. Princess Louise's husband The Marchioness of Lorne is appointed Governor-General of Canada
1879
Victoria and Albert's first great-grandchild, Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, is born.
1882
British troops began the occupation of Egypt by taking the Suez Canal, in order to secure the vital trade route and passage to India, and the country became a protectorate.
1883
Princess Louise and Lord Lorne return from Canada
1884
The Fabian Society was founded in London by a group of middle class intellectuals, including Quaker Edward R. Pease, Havelock Ellis, and E. Nesbit, to promote socialism.[9] Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany dies.
1886
Prime Minister William Gladstone and the Liberal Party tries passing the First Irish Home Rule Bill, but the bill is rejected by the House of Commons.
1888
The serial killer known as .Jack the Ripper murdered and mutilated five (and possibly more) prostitutes on the streets of London.^ Using the pea-soupers as a cover, the Ripper ultimately slaughtered five or more prostitutes working in the East End.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In the late Victorian era, London was terrorized by the monster known as Jack the Ripper.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ They say that Jack the Ripper must have had some medical training, based on the way his victims were mutilated.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Victoria's eldest daughter, the Princess Royal becomes German Empress when her husband succeeds as Frederick III, German Emperor.^ A similar brooch can be seen in a photo of Her Royal Highness, The Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, Queen Victoria's 4th daughter.
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Within months, Frederick dies, and their son becomes William II, German Emperor. The widowed Vicky becomes the Dowager Empress as is known as "Empress Frederick".
1870 - 1891
Under the Elementary Education Act 1870, basic State Education became free for every child under the age of 10.[10]
1891
Victoria and Albert's last grandchild, Prince Maurice of Battenberg, is born.
1892
The Prince of Wales' eldest son Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence dies of influenza. His place in the succession is taken by his brother Prince George of Wales (later Duke of York and eventually George V).
1893
The Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh succeeds as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha when his uncle dies. The Duchy skips over The Prince of Wales due to his renunciation of his succession rights to that Duchy.
1900
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dies. His nephew Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany succeeds him, because his brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and nephew Prince Arthur of Connaught had renounced their rights.
1901
The death of Victoria saw the end of this era, and the ascension of her eldest son, Edward, began the .Edwardian era, another time of great change.^ Victorian era The Victorian era in was a time of wealthy opulence and dire poverty, modern social reform, bustling industrial revolution, and great scientific advancement.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Entertainment

.Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class.^ One of the popular forms of entertainment was for friends and family to dress up in outrageous costumes and pose for each other.
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.Victorian Britain, like the periods before it, was interested in theatre and the arts, and music, drama, and opera were widely attended.^ At this time, castration was also still widely practiced along with other revolting surgeries like lobotomies which were first used in the Victorian era.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ It was during this later period when the rail system’s effect on rural developments was more likely felt because by then train service was more widely available than before.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s more people dying today from pollution than ever died during the Victorian period–Still,a very interesting list-Well put together- .
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.There were, however, other forms of entertainment.^ One of the popular forms of entertainment was for friends and family to dress up in outrageous costumes and pose for each other.
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Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period: so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution.
.Brass bands and 'The Bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era.^ All studies agree that the Victorian and Edwardian eras saw the rail system reach its maximum extent and popularity as means of transporting people and freight.
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The band stand was a simple construction that not only created an ornamental focal point, but also served acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty.
Another form of entertainment involved 'spectacles' where paranormal events, such as hypnotism, communication with the dead (by way of mediumship or channelling), ghost conjuring and the like, were carried out to the delight of crowds and participants. .Such activities were more popular at this time than in other periods of recent Western history.^ It was during this later period when the rail system’s effect on rural developments was more likely felt because by then train service was more widely available than before.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some saloons were more generous than others.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s more people dying today from pollution than ever died during the Victorian period–Still,a very interesting list-Well put together- .
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Natural history becomes increasingly an "amateur" activity. .Particularly in Britain and the United States, this grew into specialist hobbies such as the study of birds, butterflies, seashells (malacology/conchology), beetles and wildflowers.^ The Popular Magazine in Britain and the United States, 1880 - 1960 .

.Amateur collectors and natural history entrepreneurs played an important role in building the large natural history collections of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.^ This site offers an excellent collection of both contemporary writings and historical essays, all taken from the Tower Hamlets' Local History Library and Archives, that provide a fascinating look at life in the East End in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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^ Today, periodicals research is a fully recognized and acknowledged literary specialty and constitutes an important part of the British nineteenth-century prose legacy.

^ Planet Century 19 is a meta-blog that collects contents of select nineteenth-century blogs.
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.Many people used the train services to visit the seaside, helped by the Bank Holiday Act of 1871 which created a number of fixed holidays which all sectors of society could enjoy.^ On either Easter Day or Bank Holiday, had I failed him, it had been his intention to make the best escape he could.

^ To neutralize the effect of unequal areas in our study, we can make comparisons using population density : the number of people per square kilometer.
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^ How could you have acted, as the polar star of all the stages could not have acted in your place?

.Large numbers travelling to quiet fishing villages such as Worthing, Brighton, Morecambe and Scarborough began turning them into major tourist centres, and people like Thomas Cook saw tourism and even overseas travel as viable businesses.^ After a long phase of growth, contraction set in, more or less gradually, as people began to move out of cities into their hinterlands or further a field.
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Technology and engineering

The railways changed communications and society dramatically
.An important development during the Victorian era was the improvement of communication links.^ London during the Victorian era was famed for its pea-soupers — fogs so thick you could barely see through them.
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^ The final important salutation of the Victorian era was the passing salute or bow, used when the lady or gentleman was in motion, rather than stationary (as at the commencement of a dance).
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^ On another note, my grandmother tells the story of when her mother, who was brought up during the victorian era, was giving birth to her first child.
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.Stage coaches, canals, steam ships and most notably the railways all allowed goods, raw materials and people to be moved about, rapidly facilitating trade and industry.^ Towns are built for industry and trade; not for people.
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^ Its vast concentration of wealth and power drew vast quantities of goods and people from all parts of Britain.
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^ The supporting materials for the site are currently being assembled and the site will soon move to a permanent location but the map itself, allowing visitors to zoom in on specific sections, is a marvel.
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.Trains became another important factor ordering society, with "railway time" being the standard by which clocks were set throughout Britain.^ In some situations it is important to remove the effect that one attribute has on another in order to make standardized comparisons.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Steam ships such as the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western made international travel more common but also advanced trade, so that in Britain it was not just the luxury goods of earlier times that were imported into the country but essentials such as corn from the America and meat from Australia.^ Pat Hudson looks at the forces that made Britain the workshop of the world and explains why this industrial dominance lasted such a short time.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Time Traveler's Guide to Victorian Britain offers helpful background on such issues as class and customs, the vote, industry, the arts and sciences, and important terms such as Utilitarianism , imperialism , Malthusianism , and Darwinism .
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^ In accordance with a stipulation in the Treaty of Paris, an international commission had been appointed to improve the navigation of the Danube; and Gordon, who had acted on a similar body fifteen years earlier, was sent out to represent Great Britain.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.One more important innovation in communications was the Penny Black, the first postage stamp, which standardised postage to a flat price regardless of distance sent.^ The Harvard Law School Library's collection of more than 500 broadsides is one of the largest recorded and the first to be digitized in its entirety.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first important one was named Le Poulet d'Or...For the moment, the spectacular potentiality of California as a grwoer of food was neglected.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Even later communication methods such as cinema, telegraph, telephones, cars and aircraft, would have an impact. Photography was realized in 1839 by Louis Daguerre in France and William Fox Talbot in the UK. By 1900, hand-held cameras were available.
Similar sanitation reforms, prompted by the Public Health Acts 1848 and 1869, were made in the crowded, dirty streets of the existing cities, and soap was the main product shown in the relatively new phenomenon of advertising. .A great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London.^ All studies agree that the Victorian and Edwardian eras saw the rail system reach its maximum extent and popularity as means of transporting people and freight.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late Victorian era, London was terrorized by the monster known as Jack the Ripper.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ London during the Victorian era was famed for its pea-soupers — fogs so thick you could barely see through them.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in 1858. He proposed to build 82 mi (132 km) of sewer system linked with over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of street sewers. Many problems were encountered but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. .During the same period London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and a gas network for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s.^ As a commercial and financial center London had no equal in the world during the period.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Victorians were impressed by science and progress, and felt that they could improve society in the same way as they were improving technology.^ To reduce the clutter, we could remove the rail lines, for they seem redundant and get in the way.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have no doubt that the Victorians would have been all over life gems if they’d had the technology.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ So you could infer that Victorians fostered the notion of cross-dressing as much as they did sexual repression.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.The model town of Saltaire was founded, along with others, as a planned environment with good sanitation and many civic, educational and recreational facilities, although it lacked a pub, which was regarded as a focus of dissent.^ Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the people who lived in the poorhouses were required to work to contribute to the cost of their board and it was not uncommon for whole families to live together with other families in the communal environment.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today.^ When it came to formal occasions, the "more is better" theme of the Victorian era carried over into how jewelry was worn by royalty and the aristocracy.
  • MORNING GLORY COLLECTS   Victorian Edwardian Cameo 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.morninggloryantiques.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Victorian Era Tortoise shell bracelet is so rare and gorgeous, I'm beginning to wonder if the designer was privy to a glimpse into the future of modern high fashion.
  • Victorian Jewelry|Antique Mid Victorian Jewelry|Victorian Antique Bracelets|Victorian Brooches 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.sassyclassics.com [Source type: General]

^ London during the Victorian era was famed for its pea-soupers — fogs so thick you could barely see through them.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history.^ I think the Victorian Era was such a strange time: universally enforced sexual repression and frustration, horrible sanitation and medical conditions, and so many views of white Christian (male) superiority that today we would view as hypocrisy and bigotry.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Penguin Classics Website -- contains short articles, biographies, synopses, and feature essays on many Victorian authors Victorian Social History : An Overview (from The Victorian Web ).
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Creepy-Crawlies" exhibit highlighted the many illustrations of insects in children's books and natural history.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This study of natural history was most powerfully advanced by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution first published in his book On the Origin of Species in 1859.
Glasgow slum in 1871
.Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets.^ Changes During the Victorian Age : If you were born in the early nineteenth century, you were in for a big surprise: by 1900 the world you had grown up in was gone for good.
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^ From the temporal perspective, the very same models illustrate also successive phases of population change during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This post is for Antonia, a superb 19th-century reenactor and dancer who has just completed her freshman year at that Ivy League school up in Boston.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

The invention of the incandescent gas mantle in the 1890s greatly improved light output and ensured its survival as late as the 1960s. Hundreds of gasworks were constructed in cities and towns across the country. In 1882, incandescent electric lights were introduced to London streets, although it took many years before they were installed everywhere.

Health and medicine

.Medicine progressed during Queen Victoria's reign.^ It was invented in the 1840s and Queen Victoria used it in childbirth twice during the 1850s.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Men of the Reign: A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Persons of British and Colonial Birth Who Have Died During the Reign of Queen Victoria .

[citation needed]
Although nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, had been proposed as an anaesthetic as far back as 1799 by Humphry Davy, it wasn't until 1846 when an American Dentist named William Morton started using ether on his patients that anaesthetics became common in the medical profession.[11] In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson[12]. Chloroform was favored by doctors and hospital staff because it's much less flammable than ether, but critics complained that it could cause the patient to have a heart attack.[12] Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after Dr. John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her eighth child (Prince Leopold).[13] By 1920, chloroform was used in 80 to 95% of all narcoses performed in UK and German-speaking countries.[12]
Anaesthetics made painless dentistry possible. At the same time the European diet grew a great deal sweeter as the use of sugar became more widespread.[14] As a result, more and more people were having teeth pulled and needed replacements. .This gave rise to "Waterloo Teeth", which were real human teeth set into hand-carved chunks of ivory from hippopotamus or walrus jaws.^ VICTORIAN ivory bird pendant beautifully carved with 9 ct yellow gold fittings, tiny heart with a gypsy set pearl in its mouth, 2-1/8" by 1-3/4".
  • MORNING GLORY COLLECTS   Victorian Edwardian Cameo 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.morninggloryantiques.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lady dressed in plum is delicately hand painted on a porcelain disk set into a twisted gold filled setting.
  • MORNING GLORY COLLECTS   Victorian Edwardian Cameo 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.morninggloryantiques.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] The teeth were obtained from executed criminals, victims of battlefields, from grave-robbers, and were even bought directly from the desperately impoverished.[14]
Medicine also benefited from the introduction of antiseptics by Joseph Lister in 1867 in the form of Carbolic acid (phenol).[16] He instructed the hospital staff to wear gloves and wash their hands, instruments, and dressings with a phenol solution and, in 1869, he invented a machine that would spray carbolic acid in the operating theatre during surgery.[16]

Poverty

.19th century Britain saw a huge population increase accompanied by rapid urbanization stimulated by the Industrial Revolution.^ Attracted by huge earnings and increased circulation, as well as publication in both England and America, novelists, even well known ones, adopted this method from mid-century on.

^ The Workshop of the World : The Industrial revolution promoted the world's first industrial and consumer-oriented society in Britain.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrialization and Invention : The prosperity of the Victorian age was built on a period of rapid economic growth that had its roots in the Industrial Revolution.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The large numbers of skilled and unskilled people looking for work kept wages down to barely subsistence level. Available housing was scarce and expensive, resulting in overcrowding. These problems were magnified in London, where the population grew at record rates. Large houses were turned into flats and tenements, and as landlords failed to maintain these dwellings slum housing developed. .Kellow Chesney described the situation as follows: "Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the metropolis...^ Some saloons were more generous than others.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was during this later period when the rail system’s effect on rural developments was more likely felt because by then train service was more widely available than before.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following some preliminary feints and advances, the actions began to heat up.

.In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room."^ Once more adventure claimed him; he plunged into the whirl of high affairs; his fate was mingled with the frenzies of Empire and the doom of peoples.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But if this was the Golden Age of the railroads, how they affected the movements of people from village to town and from town to city is more often a matter of conjecture than demonstration.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The Victorian Underworld)[17]

Child labour

Girl pulling a coal tub in mine. .From official report of the parliamentary commission in the mid 19th century.^ Focusing from the mid-19th century to the 1920s.

^ The dance is reminiscent of the galopade country dances of the 1830s and was perhaps seen as too old-fashioned in style by the mid-19th century.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

^ Among these reconstruction challenges is the quadrille described in the notable mid-19th century source, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Charles Dodgson, a.k.a.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

[18]
The Victorian era became notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps.[19] .Child labour, often brought about by economic hardship, played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset: Charles Dickens, for example, worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in a debtors' prison.^ The Dickens Project - sponsored by the University of California at Santa Cruz offers a detailed Dickens chronology , bibliography, and background information about Dickens's life and works.
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^ This site also offers " An Introduction to Charles Dickens's Hard Times for These Times (1854): Background to the Novel ," which includes a page devoted to background on Hard Times as an Industrial Novel , and a " Bibliography of Suggested Readings " on Hard Times .
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrialization and Invention : The prosperity of the Victorian age was built on a period of rapid economic growth that had its roots in the Industrial Revolution.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1840 only about 20 percent of the children in London had any schooling. By 1860 about half of the children between 5 and 15 were in school (including Sunday school).[20]
.The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low wages.^ With details of Wages, Hours of Work, and other Information.

^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] Agile boys were employed by the chimney sweeps; small children were employed to scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; and children were also employed to work in coal mines, crawling through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, or shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers, and other cheap goods.[17] .Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building, or as domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid 18th century).^ To cite one example, there were some 3,000 people living in the parishes of Blean near Canterbury (County of Kent), compared to the nearly 3 million inhabitants of London around 1850.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the London area, female in migration was more pronounced and more extensive because the vast market for domestic servants (an employment in which women predominated) drew them there in greater numbers than it did males.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of locating these pages illustrates some of the frustrations of working with 19th century sources and the care needed in studying them.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

.Working hours were long: builders might work 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants worked 80 hour weeks.^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many young people worked as prostitutes (the majority of prostitutes in London were between 15 and 22 years of age).^ Boys didn’t wear long pants until they were between 10-15 years old in certain Western societies.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Clearly, the majority of districts have populations of between 10,000 to 20,000 people.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, they were put on chamber pots as young as three months old, whereas now many people don’t potty train until 2 years old or older.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

[20]
"Mother bides at home, she is troubled with bad breath, and is sair weak in her body from early labour. .I am wrought with sister and brother, it is very sore work; cannot say how many rakes or journeys I make from pit's bottom to wall face and back, thinks about 30 or 25 on the average; the distance varies from 100 to 250 fathom.^ How many x are within 30 kilometers of y ?
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'Shall I tell him to mind his work, and say he's sent to school to make himself a good scholar?'
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

I carry about 1 cwt. and a quarter on my back; have to stoop much and creep through water, which is frequently up to the calves of my legs." (Isabella Read, 12 years old, coal-bearer, testimony gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission 1842[18]
."My father has been dead about a year; my mother is living and has ten children, five lads and five lasses; the oldest is about thirty, the youngest is four; three lasses go to mill; all the lads are colliers, two getters and three hurriers; one lives at home and does nothing; mother does nought but look after home.^ My grandfather once told me that when he was a boy and his father died, the had his open coffin in their living room for a week .
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Each judge would, without discussion with his peers, award from one to three points for each touch made, according to the following values: fair touch was one point; a good touch was two; and excellent touch was three points.

^ 'I have been in one continued state of excitement for at least the last three years,' he wrote when he was not yet seventeen, 'and now comes the time of exhaustion.'
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.All my sisters have been hurriers, but three went to the mill.^ I went all the way to Crewe to post you those few lines, my dear Bunny!

Alice went because her legs swelled from hurrying in cold water when she was hot. .I never went to day-school; I go to Sunday-school, but I cannot read or write; I go to pit at five o'clock in the morning and come out at five in the evening; I get my breakfast of porridge and milk first; I take my dinner with me, a cake, and eat it as I go; I do not stop or rest any time for the purpose; I get nothing else until I get home, and then have potatoes and meat, not every day meat.^ Although the coming of the Great Eastern could not stop out-migration, it probably helped slow its pace.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never mind when it occurred to me, Bunny; as a matter of fact, it was only the other day, when I had decided to go away for the reasons I have already given you.

^ I was always anxious to do my part by Raffles; he had done more than his by me, not once or twice, to-day or yesterday, but again and again from the very first.

I hurry in the clothes I have now got on, trousers and ragged jacket; the bald place upon my head is made by thrusting the corves; my legs have never swelled, but sisters' did when they went to mill; I hurry the corves a mile and more under ground and back; they weigh 300 cwt.; I hurry 11 a-day; I wear a belt and chain at the workings, to get the corves out;" (Patience Kershaw, 17 years old, coal-bearer, testimony gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission 1842)[18]
Children as young as three were put to work. .In coal mines children began work at the age of 5 and generally died before the age of 25. Many children (and adults) worked 16 hour days.^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I met this woman many times before she died 15 years ago and she was possibly one of the loveliest, happiest woman I’ve ever met, especially around children (I was 10 when she died so she was especially fond of me and my sister).
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ I work from well before dawn until midnight every day, scrubbing the house from top to bottom.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.As early as 1802 and 1819, Factory Acts were passed to limit the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day.^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Hempstead today has been the scene of one of our latter day tournaments and at an early hour was crowded with ladies and gentlemen from the country around.

^ The forts, which were extremely expensive and quite useless, occupied his working hours; his leisure he devoted to acts of charity and to religious contemplation.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11–18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9–11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine should no longer be permitted to work.^ The text of Dickens's 1853 essay on fairy tales, " Frauds on the Fairies ," which argues that "[i]n an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that Fairy tales should be respected."
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^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The forts, which were extremely expensive and quite useless, occupied his working hours; his leisure he devoted to acts of charity and to religious contemplation.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.This act, however, only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to 10 hour working days.^ Cotton production in the area led to the growth of cotton-processing and textile manufacturing industries.

^ This [children's] book has an entire chapter on "The Cook and His Chuck Wagon" "Cookie worked long hours.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The forts, which were extremely expensive and quite useless, occupied his working hours; his leisure he devoted to acts of charity and to religious contemplation.
  • Eminent Victorians by Lytton Strachey - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/6) 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Prostitution

.Beginning in the late 1840s, major news organizations, clergymen, and single women became increasingly concerned about prostitution, which came to be known as "The Great Social Evil". Although estimates of the number of prostitutes in London by the 1850s vary widely (in his landmark study, Prostitution, William Acton reported that the police estimated there were 8,600 in London alone in 1857), it is enough to say that the number of women working the streets became increasingly difficult to ignore.^ In order to assist him, the New Orleans Fencing Club was organized and based at 7 Carondelet Street.

^ But there were many human skunks--sad to say, great numbers of them--who were not honorable."
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the London area, female in migration was more pronounced and more extensive because the vast market for domestic servants (an employment in which women predominated) drew them there in greater numbers than it did males.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the United Kingdom Census 1851 publicly revealed a 4% demographic imbalance in favour of women (i.e., 4% more women than men), the problem of prostitution began to shift from a moral/religious cause to a socio-economic one.^ Moreover, men and women married and had children very young, so you were more likely to end up being a grandmother in your thirties and forties.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The Harvard Law School Library's collection of more than 500 broadsides is one of the largest recorded and the first to be digitized in its entirety.
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^ In the example before us, the great majority of districts contained populations in the lower range, while only one had more than 100,000 inhabitants.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 1851 census showed that the population of Great Britain was roughly 18 million; this meant that roughly 750,000 women would remain unmarried simply because there were not enough men.^ In the example before us, the great majority of districts contained populations in the lower range, while only one had more than 100,000 inhabitants.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the decade since 1851, its population grew by 15 percent, an addition of 15,000 people to the 100,000 there at the previous census.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was decidedly Amazon enough to defeat a great many men at mounted broadsword fencing during her 15-year professional career.

These women came to be referred to as "superfluous women" or "redundant women", and many essays were published discussing what, precisely, ought to be done with them.
.While the Magdalene Asylums had been "reforming" prostitutes since the mid-18th century, the years between 1848 and 1870 saw a veritable explosion in the number of institutions working to "reclaim" these "fallen women" from the streets and retrain them for entry into respectable society — usually for work as domestic servants.^ These were not cotillions in the 18th-century sense of a chorus/verse-structured dance for couples in a square.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

^ These letters cover the years between Darwin's return from the Beagle voyage and the publication of Origin of Species and were published in volumes 2 to 7 of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge UP).
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the London area, female in migration was more pronounced and more extensive because the vast market for domestic servants (an employment in which women predominated) drew them there in greater numbers than it did males.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The theme of prostitution and the "fallen woman" (an umbrella term used to describe any women who had sexual intercourse out of wedlock) became a staple feature of mid-Victorian literature and politics.^ The textbase is a collection of primarily pre-Victorian (1450-1850) literature written by women.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As far as I can tell they have neither anything in particular to do with the earlier dances known as the Gavotte (or the mid-19th century promiscuous quadrille figure of the same name, described here) , nor any distinctive choreographic feature that might supply some reason for the use of the term in their names.
  • Capering & Kickery: Victorian 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kickery.com [Source type: General]

^ Consequently, the city and region of Manchester gradually became less appealing to young men and women who set out from their rural parishes to find a better living.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the writings of Henry Mayhew, Charles Booth, and others, prostitution began to be seen as a social problem.
When Parliament passed the first of the Contagious Diseases Acts in 1864 (which allowed the local constabulary to force any woman suspected of venereal disease to submit to its inspection), Josephine Butler's crusade to repeal the CD Acts yoked the anti-prostitution cause with the emergent feminist movement. Butler attacked the long-established double standard of sexual morality.
Prostitutes were often presented as victims in sentimental literature such as Thomas Hood's poem The Bridge of Sighs, Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton, and Dickens' novel Oliver Twist. .The emphasis on the purity of women found in such works as Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House led to the portrayal of the prostitute and fallen woman as soiled, corrupted, and in need of cleansing.^ In a society in which domestic cooking remaied woman's work, the first flood of population in every mining region was overwhelmingly male...'There was no such thing as a home to be found.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This emphasis on female purity was allied to the stress on the homemaking role of women,[citation needed] who helped to create a space free from the pollution and corruption of the city. In this respect, the prostitute came to have symbolic significance as the embodiment of the violation of that divide. The double standard remained in force. Divorce legislation introduced in 1857 allowed for a man to divorce his wife for adultery, but a woman could only divorce if adultery were accompanied by cruelty. The anonymity of the city led to a large increase in prostitution and unsanctioned sexual relationships. .Dickens and other writers associated prostitution with the mechanisation and industrialisation of modern life, portraying prostitutes as human commodities consumed and thrown away like refuse when they were used up.^ At this time, castration was also still widely practiced along with other revolting surgeries like lobotomies which were first used in the Victorian era.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ There are other geographic properties associated with this map that we can consider next, noting how they differ from non-spatial attributes of geographic entities.
  • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Victorian Poor Law: An Overview (from The Victorian Web ) Victorian Occupations : Life and Labor in the Victorian Period as Seen by Artists, Writers, and Modern Historians (from The Victorian Web ).
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moral reform movements attempted to close down brothels, something that has sometimes been argued to have been a factor in the concentration of street-prostitution in Whitechapel, in the East End of London, by the 1880s.^ Using the pea-soupers as a cover, the Ripper ultimately slaughtered five or more prostitutes working in the East End.
  • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Tower Hamlets History Online : The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is considered by some to be the heart of the East End, the sometimes infamous section of London that fascinated journalists, novelists, and social scientists through the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth.
  • Victorian Literature 16 October 2009 11:35 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Further reading

  • Altick, Richard Daniel. Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the Modern Reader of Victorian Literature. W.W. Norton & Company: 1974. ISBN 0-393-09376-X.
  • Burton, Antoinette (editor). Politics and Empire in Victorian Britain: A Reader. .Palgrave Macmillan: 2001. ISBN 0-312-29335-6.
  • Gay, Peter, The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud, 5 volumes, Oxford University Press, 1984-1989
  • Janowski, Diane, Victorian Pride - Forgotten Songs of America, 6 volumes, New York History Review Press, 2007-2008.
  • Flanders, Judith.^ New York : Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    • Railways in Victorian England: An Introductin to Historical GIS 23 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A January 1893 article in the New York Times described the fencing scene in New York City and went on to review several other communities.

    ^ Americans and the California Dream 1850-1915 , Kevin Starr [Oxford University Press:New York] 1973 (p.
    • TheFood Timeline: history notes--pioneer, Civil War, cowboy & Victorian foods 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Inside the Victorian Home: A Portrait of Domestic Life in Victorian England.^ Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse Home Archives Submit a List Forums About Subscribe to Listverse Register .
    • Top 10 Creepy Aspects of Victorian Life - Listverse 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    W.W. Norton & Company: 2004. ISBN 0-393-05209-5.
  • Mitchell, Sally. Daily Life in Victorian England. Greenwood Press: 1996. ISBN 0-313-29467-4.
  • Wilson, A. N. The Victorians. Arrow Books: 2002. ISBN 0-09-945186-7

References

  1. ^ Swisher, Clarice, ed. Victorian England. San Diego, CA : Greenhaven Press, 2000.
  2. ^ The UK population: past, present and future, statistics.gov.uk
  3. ^ Ireland - Population Summary
  4. ^ Exiles and Emigrants. National Museum of Australia
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Swisher, Clarice, ed. Victorian England. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000. pgs 248-250
  6. ^ 1841: A window on Victorian Britain
  7. ^ Illustrated London News
  8. ^ California Gold Rush. Robert Whaples, Wake Forest University.
  9. ^ Is this what Labour's next Clause four should say?
  10. ^ "1870 Education Act". http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Leducation70.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  11. ^ Dr William Green Morton (1819 - 68)
  12. ^ a b c History of chloroform anaesthesia
  13. ^ Anesthesia and Queen Victoria
  14. ^ a b c BBC - h2g2 - Waterloo Teeth: A History of Dentures
  15. ^ Waterloo Teeth
  16. ^ a b Joseph Lister
  17. ^ a b c Barbara Daniels, Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era
  18. ^ a b c Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission Laura Del Col, West Virginia University
  19. ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
  20. ^ a b c Child Labor David Cody, Hartwick College

External links


Simple English

File:Queen Victoria
The Victorian era was named after Queen Victoria.

The Victorian era of the United Kingdom was a time of Queen Victoria's rule from 1837 to 1901.[1] This time was very prosperous for the British people. Trade was at its best. A very well educated middle class ruled the British World. The population of England had almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, due to the large immigration during the later part of the 20th century.

Contents

Technology

One nice creation in the Victorian era was the making of the sewage system in London. In 1829 photography was realized. Gas lighting was important too. These lights could be found on the streets, in homes and in public buildings. In 1882 the famous electric bulb was created, which would change people's lives forever.

Entertainment

When theaters opened up in London, orchestras and symphonies played and opera were widely attended. Gambling at cards and the creation of casinos were popular during the period. In the middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair, and showed the greatest creations of the century.

References

  1. Swisher, Clarice, ed. Victorian England. San Diego, CA : Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Victorian era, which are similar to those in the above article.








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