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Video game genres are used to categorize video games based on their gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences.[1] A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges. They are classified independent of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, an action game is still an action game, regardless of whether it takes place in a fantasy world or outer space.[2] Within game studies there is a lack of consensus in reaching accepted formal definitions for game genres, some being more observed than others. Like any typical taxonomy, a video game genre requires certain constants. Most video games feature obstacles to overcome, so video game genres can be defined where obstacles are completed in substantially similar ways.[citation needed]

Following is a listing of commonly used video game genres with brief descriptions and examples of each. This list is by no means complete or comprehensive. Chris Crawford notes that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented here to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."[3] As with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, it is important to be able to "think of each individual game as belonging to several genres at once."[1]

Contents

Action

An action game requires players to use quick reflexes, accuracy, and timing to overcome obstacles. It is perhaps the most basic of gaming genres, and certainly one of the broadest. Action games tend to have gameplay with emphasis on combat. There are many subgenres of action games, such as fighting games and first-person shooters.

The predecessor of all console game genres, a ball-and-paddle game was the first game implemented on a home console (Pong). Later renditions have included Breakout, which was a driving influence behind the Apple II computer, and Arkanoid, an arcade staple for many years. A version of Breakout called Block Buster was also packaged with the first handheld console with swappable cartridges, the Microvision.

No More Heroes, a 3D hack and slash action game.

Beat 'em up and hack and slash games have an emphasis on one-on-many close quarters combat, beating large numbers of computer-controlled enemies.[4][5] Gameplay involves the player fighting through a series of increasingly difficult levels. The sole distinction between these two genres are that beat 'em ups feature hand-to-hand combat, and hack and slash games feature melee weaponry, particularly bladed weapons. Both genres feature little to no use of firearms or projectile combat. This genre became popular in 1987 with the release of Double Dragon, leading to a large number of similar games. The fighting style is usually simpler than for versus fighting games. In recent times, the genre has largely merged with that of action-adventure, with side-scrolling levels giving way to more open three-dimensional areas, and melee combat co-existing with shooting and puzzle elements.

Street Fighter, a one-on-one fighting game.

Fighting games emphasize one-on-one combat between two characters, one of which may be computer controlled.[6][7] These games are usually played by linking together long chains of button presses on the controller to use physical attacks to fight. Many of the movements employed by the characters are usually dramatic and occasionally physically impossible. Combat is almost always one-on-one,[6] though there are some exceptions such as the Super Smash Bros. series and Guilty Gear Isuka, pitting up to four combatants in the fight at one time. This genre first appeared in 1976 with the release of Sega's Heavyweight Boxing and later became a phenomenon, particularly in the arcades, with the release of Street Fighter II.

Maze games have a playing field which is entirely a maze, which players must navigate. Quick thinking and fast reaction times are encouraged by the use of a timer, monsters obstructing the player's way, or multiple players racing to the finish. The most famous game of this genre is Pac-Man.

Pinball games are designed to replicate the look and feel of a real-life pinball table in virtual reality. Most pinball games feature the same gameplay style, where the player controls a right and left flipper, and tries to make the ball hit various parts of the playfield to gather up points. The control scheme in pinball games is, for the most part, the same. On consoles, left and right "shoulder" buttons are often used to approximate the left and right flipper buttons of a real-world pinball game. In some cases, a pinball game may feature more than two flippers: two are generally located at the bottom of the playfield, and others (generally only one or two more) are found above the bottom two. Some games automatically fire the ball into the playfield, while others require the player to press a button to pull down the spring-loaded plug and fire the ball into the playfield. One significant way that video game pinball games can progress beyond pinball table emulation is the inclusion of features impossible to incorporate in a real pinball table, such as multiple table layouts or direct ball control. Pinball games have become more popular in recent years on handheld systems, as opposed to consoles.[citation needed]

Super Mario Bros, the second best selling video game of all time behind Wii Sports, is a platform game.[8]

Platform games (platformers) are a subgenre of action game. These games involve traveling between platforms by jumping (very occasionally other means are substituted for jumping, like swinging or bouncing, but these are considered variations on the same mechanic). Other traditional elements include running and climbing ladders and ledges. Platformers frequently borrow elements from other genres like fighting and shooting (such as the Castlevania series, which incorporates role-playing). They are most often associated with iconic cartoon mascots like Donkey Kong, Sonic the Hedgehog, Mario, Megaman and Rayman, though platform games may have any theme. The term itself first came into use to describe any game in which the player traveled between platforms, and Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release, has been cited as the first platform game under this definition,[9] but the lack of the ability to jump, swing, or bounce, or fall made the distinction contentious under modern definitions of the genre. While Frogs was the first game that allowed the player to jump, Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo, released in July, 1981, was the first game that featured obstacles and gaps to jump over, making it a platformer by the modern definition of the word.[10] Pitfall can also be classified as an early platformer. Traditionally, platform games were 2D, with players viewing the environment from a profile, "cutaway" perspective. This could be done easily with sprites and was simple for early computers to handle. 3D computer graphics have opened these games up for movement in all directions. However, 3D perspectives make it more difficult to judge distance, which is an important part of platformers. Because of this, many 3D platformers have a feature to make this easier,[citation needed] such as a player shadow that will always be cast straight down, tracking their location on the ground while the character is jumping. At their peak, platformers were the most popular games on the market.[11] The genre experienced a sharp decline, from 15% of total market share in 1998 to 2% in 2002.[11] Although there are many 3D platform games, few have proven to have the universal appeal of their older games.[11] However, this could merely be a result of a changing market and an increase in game variety.[11]

Shooter

A shooter game focuses primarily on combat involving projectile weapons, such as guns and missiles. They can be divided into first-person and third-person shooters, depending on the camera perspective. Some first-person shooters use light gun technology.

Doom, one of the earliest major first-person shooter games.

First-person shooter video games, commonly known as FPSs, emphasize shooting and combat from the perspective of the character controlled by the player. This perspective is meant to give the player the feeling of "being there", and allows the player to focus on aiming. Most FPSs are very fast-paced and require quick reflexes on high difficulty levels. The fast-paced and 3D elements required to create an effective looking FPS made the genre technologically unattainable for most consumer hardware systems until the early 1990s. Wolfenstein 3D was the first widely known FPS, and Doom was the first major breakthrough in graphics; it used a number of clever techniques to make the game run fast enough to play on consumer-grade machines. Since the release of Doom, most FPS games now have a multi-player feature to allow competition between multiple players. Team Fortress 2, Halo, Halo 2, Halo 3, Killzone 2, Metroid Prime 2: Echoes, Unreal Tournament 3, and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare are some of the notable games of the past few years in this genre.

Massively multiplayer online first person shooter games (MMOFPS) are a genre of massively multiplayer online games that combines first-person shooter gameplay with a virtual world in which a large number of players may interact over the Internet. Whereas standard FPS games limit the number of players able to compete in a multiplayer match (generally the maximum is 64), hundreds of players can battle each other on the same server in an MMOFPS.

Light gun shooters are a genre of shooter genre designed for use with a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and home consoles.[12][13][14] The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It wasn't long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936. These early light gun games used small (usually moving) targets onto which a light-sensing tube was mounted; the player used a gun (usually a rifle) that emitted a beam of light when the trigger was pulled. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. Modern screen-based light guns work on the opposite principle—the sensor is built into the gun itself, and the on-screen target(s) emit light rather than the gun. The first light gun of this type was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer. Some "light gun" games actually use guns mounted on joysticks, giving the illusion of using a light beam, but all control is transferred through the movement of the stick; notable examples of this include T2: The Arcade Game and Revolution X.[15]

Project Starfighter, a shoot 'em up.

A shoot 'em up (or shmup for short), or arcade shooter, is a genre of shooter game in which the player controls a character or vehicle (most often a spacecraft) and shoots large numbers of enemies, while dodging incoming projectiles. Games in this genre call for fast reactions and memorization of enemy patterns. The first game of this type was Spacewar!, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1961, for the amusement of the developers; it was later released as an arcade game. The genre became prolific with the release of Space Invaders in 1978 and this popularity continued as the genre evolved throughout the 1980s and 90s. Shoot 'em ups currently retain a niche appeal, particularly in Japan.[16]

Tactical shooters are variations on the first- and third-person shooter genre, which focus on realism and emphasize tactical play such as planning and teamwork (for example, co-ordination and specialised roles). In single player modes, the player commands a squad of AI controlled characters in addition to their own; in multi-player modes, players must work in teams to win the game. Winning is likely to be dependent on capturing an objective of some sort rather than gaining the most kills.

Third-person shooter video games, known as TPSs or 3PSs, emphasize shooting and combat from a camera perspective in which the player character is seen at a distance. This perspective gives the player a wider view of their surroundings as opposed to the limited viewpoint of first-person shooters. Furthermore, third-person shooters allow for more elaborate movement such as rolling or diving, as opposed to simple jumping and crouching common in FPS games. Greater interaction with the player's environment is often possible. The emphasis remains on shooting, however; these games lack the platforming and puzzle elements of action-adventure shooting games. Some 3PSs have a function that allows you to switch to first-person in-game, such as in the "Star Wars Battlefront" and classic "Ratchet And Clank" series.

Action-adventure

Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, an action-adventure game.

Action-adventure games combine elements of their two component genres, typically featuring long-term obstacles that must be overcome using a tool or item as leverage (which is collected earlier), as well as many smaller obstacles almost constantly in the way, that require elements of action games to overcome. Action-adventure games tend to focus on exploration and usually involve item gathering, simple puzzle solving, and combat.

The first action-adventure game was the Atari 2600 game Adventure (1979). It was directly inspired by the original text adventure, Colossal Cave Adventure. In the process of adapting a text game to a console with only a joystick for control, designer Warren Robinett created a new genre. Because of their prevalence on video game consoles and the absence of typical adventure games, action-adventure games are often confusingly called "adventure games" by gamers.

Stealth games are a somewhat recent sub-genre, sometimes referred to as "sneakers" or "creepers" to contrast with the action-oriented "shooter" sub-genre. These games tend to emphasize subterfuge and precision strikes over the more overt mayhem of shooters. Most have first- or third-person shooter elements.

Survival horror games focus on fear and attempt to scare the player via traditional horror fiction elements such as atmospherics, death, the undead, blood and gore. One crucial gameplay element in many of these games is the low quantity of ammunition, or number of breakable mêlée weapons.

Adventure

Adventure games were some of the earliest games created, beginning with the text adventure Colossal Cave Adventure in the 1970s. That game was originally titled simply "Adventure," and is the namesake of the genre. Over time, graphics have been introduced to the genre and the interface has evolved.

Unlike adventure films, adventure games are not defined by story or content. Rather, adventure describes a manner of gameplay without reflex challenges or action. They normally require the player to solve various puzzles by interacting with people or the environment, most often in a non-confrontational way. It is considered a "purist" genre and tends to exclude anything which includes action elements beyond a mini game.

Because they put little pressure on the player in the form of action-based challenges or time constraints, adventure games have had the unique ability to appeal to people who do not normally play video games. The genre peaked in popularity with the 1993 release of Myst, the best-selling PC game of all time up to that point.[17] The simple point and click interface, detailed worlds and casual pace made it accessible, and its sense of artistic surrealism caused news outlets such as Wired Magazine, The New York Times and the San Francisco Chronicle to declare that the gaming industry had matured.[18][19] It had four proper sequels, but none managed to experience the same level of success. The success of Myst also inspired many others to create similar games with first person perspectives, surreal environments and minimal or no dialogue, but these neither recaptured the success of Myst nor of earlier personality-driven adventures.[citation needed]

In the late 1990s the genre suffered a large drop in popularity, mass-market releases became rare, and many proclaimed the adventure game to be dead. More accurately, it has become a niche genre. Adventure games are not entirely uncommon, but they tend to be very low budget in anticipation of modest sales. The genre was somewhat rejuvenated with the release of The Longest Journey in 1999, which emphasized stronger story elements and more interaction with different characters. A recent resurgence of adventure games on Nintendo consoles might signify a new interest in the genre.[20]

The earliest adventure games were text adventures, also known as interactive fiction. Games such as the popular Zork series of the late 1970s and early 1980s allowed the player to use a keyboard to enter commands such as "get rope" or "go west" while the computer describes what is happening. A great deal of programming went into parsing the player's text input.

Graphic adventure games emerged as graphics became more common. Adventure games began to supplement and later on replace textual descriptions with visuals (for example, a picture of the current location). Early graphic adventure games used text-parsers to input commands. The growing use of mice led to the "point-and-click" genre of adventure games, where the player would no longer have to type commands. The player could, for example, click on a hand icon and then on a rope to pick up the rope.

Visual novels are commonly characterized with dialog boxes and sprites determining the speaker.

A visual novel (ビジュアルノベル bijuaru noberu?) is an adventure game featuring mostly static graphics, usually with anime-style art. As the name might suggest, they resemble mixed-media novels or tableau vivant stage plays. Many visual novels track statistics that the player must build in order to advance the plot, and permit a variety of endings, allowing more dynamic reactions to the player's actions than a typical linear adventure plot. Many visual novels are dating sims, including bishōjo games. Visual novels are especially prevalent in Japan, where they make up nearly 70% of PC games released.[21] They are rarely produced for video game consoles, but the more popular games are sometimes ported to systems such as the Dreamcast or the PlayStation 2. The market for visual novels outside of Japan, however, was nearly non-existent prior to the success of the Nintendo DS, for which several Japanese visual novels were released in the West, such as the Ace Attorney series.

The interactive movie genre came about with the invention of laserdiscs. An interactive movie contains pre-filmed full-motion cartoons or live-action sequences, where the player controls some of the moves of the main character. For example, when in danger, the player decides which move, action, or combination to choose. In these games, the only activity the player has is to choose or guess the move the designers intend him to make. Interactive movies usually differ from games that simply use full motion video, FMV, extensively between scenes in that they try to integrate it into the gameplay itself. This has been used in everything from racing games to fighting games. A few adventure game have tried to use the term to liken the storytelling of their games to those in movies, most notably the later Tex Murphy games and the more recent Fahrenheit (Indigo Prophecy),[22] although they are more aptly classified as genre hybrids. Elements of interactive movies have been adapted for game cut scenes, in the form of Quick Time Events, to keep the player alert. Games like Resident Evil 4 present obvious in-game prompts for the player to react to. Not doing so usually results in the player character either getting hurt or outright killed.

Construction and management simulation

Construction and management simulation games (or CMSs) are a type of simulation game which task players to build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources.

A sample city from Lincity NG

In city-building games the player acts as overall planner or leader to meet the needs and wants of game characters by initiating structures for food, shelter, health, spiritual care, economic growth, etc. Success is achieved when the city budget makes a growing profit and citizens experience an upgraded lifestyle in housing, health, and goods. While military development is often included, the emphasis is on economic strength. Perhaps the most known game of this type is SimCity, which is still popular and has had great influence on later city-building games. SimCity, however, also belongs to the God Games genre since it gives the player god-like abilities in manipulating the world.

Business simulation games generally attempt to simulate an economy or business, with the player controlling the economy of the game.

Unlike other genres of games, god games often do not have a set goal that allows a player to win the game. The focus of a god game tends to be control over the lives of people, anywhere from micromanaging a family to overseeing the rise of a civilization.

A government simulation game (or "political game") involves the simulation of the policies, government or politics of a country, but typically excludes warfare. Recently, these types of games have gained the moniker "serious game".

Life simulation

Life simulation games (or Artificial Life Games) involve living or controlling one or more artificial lives. A life simulation game can revolve around individuals and relationships, or it could be a simulation of an ecosystem.

Biological simulations may allow the player to experiment with genetics, survival or ecosystems, often in the form of an educational package. An early example is SimLife, while a relatively recent one is Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis. In other educational simulations such as Wolf, the player "lives the life" of an individual animal in a relatively realistic way.

Pet-raising simulations (or digital pets) focus more on the relationship between the player and one or few life forms. They are often more limited in scope than other biological simulations. This includes popular examples of virtual pets such as Tamagotchi, the Petz series, and Nintendogs.

Social simulation games base their gameplay on the social interaction between multiple artificial lives. The most famous example from this genre is Will Wright's The Sims.

Role-playing

A battle scene from Final Fantasy VII, the highest-selling Final Fantasy title[23] and a console role-playing game.

Role-playing video games draw their gameplay from traditional role-playing games like Dungeons & Dragons. Most cast the player in the role of one or more "adventurers" who specialize in specific skill sets (such as combat or casting magic spells) while progressing through a predetermined storyline. Many involve maneuvering these character(s) through an overworld, usually populated with monsters, that allows access to more important game locations, such as towns, dungeons, and castles. Since the emergence of affordable home computers coincided with the popularity of paper and pencil role-playing games, this genre was one of the first in video games and continues to be popular today. Gameplay elements strongly associated with RPGs, such as statistical character development through the acquisition of experience points, have been widely adapted to other genres such as action-adventure games. Though nearly all of the early entries in the genre were turn-based games, many modern CRPGs are in real-time. Thus, the CRPG genre has followed the strategy game's trend of moving from turn-based to real-time combat. The move to real-time combat began with the release of Square's (now Square Enix's) Final Fantasy IV, the first game to use the Active Time Battle system; this was quickly followed by truly real-time role-playing games such as the Mana series, Soul Blazer and Ultima VII.

Cultural differences in role-playing video games have caused RPGs to tend towards two sets of characteristics sometimes referred to as Western and Eastern RPGs. The first often involves the player creating a character and a non-linear storyline along which the player makes his own decisions. In the second type, the player controls a party of predefined characters through a dramatically scripted linear storyline.

The action role-playing game or action RPG is a type of role-playing game which incorporates elements from action games or action-adventure games. The first action role-playing games were produced by Nihon Falcom in the 1980s, such as the Dragon Slayer series and Ys series. Later so-called "Diablo clones" are also part of this genre. Although the precise definition of the genre varies, the typical action RPG features a heavy emphasis on combat, often simplifying or removing non-combat attributes and statistics and the effect they have on the character's development.[24] Additionally, combat always takes place using a real-time system (hence the "action") that relies on the player's ability to perform particular actions with speed and accuracy to determine success, rather than mainly using the player character's attributes to determine this. Typically action RPGs focus more on the collection of randomized treasure than story progression that is found in other types of RPGs.

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games, or MMORPGs, emerged in the mid to late 1990s as a commercial, graphical variant of text-based MUDs, which had existed since 1978. By and large, MMORPGs feature the usual RPG objectives of completing quests and strengthening one's player character, but involve up to hundreds of players interacting with each other on the same persistent world in real-time. The massively multiplayer concept was quickly combined with other genres. Fantasy MMORPGs like The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar, remain the most popular type of MMOG, with the most popular "pay-to-play" game being World of Warcraft which holds over 60% of the MMORPG market, and the most popular free game, Runescape, by JaGex Studios, yet other types of MMORPG are appearing. Sci-fi MMORPGs, which began with Phantasy Star Online, hold a smaller part of the MMOG market, with the popular space sci-fi game EVE Online being the most notable.

The roguelike video game sub-genre borrows its name and gameplay elements from the 1980 computer game Rogue. Superficially, a roguelike is a two-dimensional dungeon crawl with a high degree of randomness and an emphasis on statistical character development. Though traditionally featuring a text user interface, many such games utilize graphic tiles to overcome character set limitations.

The tactical role-playing game sub-genre principally refers to games which incorporate gameplay from strategy games as an alternative to traditional RPG systems.[25] Like standard RPGs, the player controls a finite party and battles a similar number of enemies, but this genre incorporates strategic gameplay such as tactical movement on an isometric grid.[25] The genre has its origins in tabletop role-playing games, where each player has time to decide his or her character's action. Although the first tactical role-playing game was Nintendo's Fire Emblem, the term "tactics" was not widely used to describe such titles until Square's Final Fantasy Tactics popularized the genre in North America.

Strategy

Strategy video games focus on gameplay requiring careful and skillful thinking and planning in order to achieve victory. In most strategy video games, says Andrew Rollings, "the player is given a godlike view of the game world, indirectly controlling the units under his command."[26] Rollings also notes that "The origin of strategy games is rooted in their close cousins, board games."[26] Strategy video games generally take one of four archetypal forms, depending on whether the game is turn-based or real-time and whether the game's focus is upon strategy or military tactics.

4X refers to a genre of strategy video game with four primary goals: eXplore, eXpand, eXploit and eXterminate. A 4X game can be turn-based or real-time. Perhaps the best known example of this genre is Sid Meier's Civilization series.

Scorched 3D is an artillery game.

Artillery is the generic name for either early two or three-player (usually turn-based) computer games involving tanks fighting each other in combat or similar derivative games. Artillery games were among the earliest computer games developed; they can be considered an extension of the original uses of computers themselves, which were once used for military-based calculations such as plotting the trajectories of rockets. Artillery games are a type of strategy game, though they have also been described as a "shooting game."

The moniker "real-time strategy" (RTS), usually applied only to certain computer strategy games, indicates that the action in the game is continuous, and players will have to make their decisions and actions within the backdrop of a constantly changing game state. Real-time strategy gameplay is characterised by obtaining resources, building bases, researching technologies and producing units. Very few non-computer strategy games are real-time; A few examples are Icehouse and Halo Wars.

A real-time tactics game shares feature of the simulation and wargame genres, for example Empire Total War. These titles focus on operational aspects and control of warfare. Unlike in real-time strategy games, resource and economical management and building plays no part of the gameplay.

Tower defense games have a very simple layout. Usually, computer-controlled monsters called creeps move along a set path, and the player must place, or "build" towers along this path to kill the creeps. In most tower defense games different towers have different abilities such as poisoning enemies or slowing them down. The player is awarded money for killing creeps, and this money can be used to buy more towers, or buy upgrades for a tower such as increased power or range.

The Battle for Wesnoth is a turn-based strategy game.[27]

The term "Turn-based strategy game" (TBS) is usually reserved for certain computer strategy games, to distinguish them from real-time strategy games. A player of a turn-based game is allowed a period of analysis before committing to a game action, and some games allow a certain number of moves or actions to take place in a turn.

The gameplay of turn-based tactics games is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using the combat forces provided to them, and usually by the provision of a realistic (or at least believable) representation of military tactics and operations.

Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map. Wargames generally take one of four archetypal forms, depending on whether the game is turn-based or real-time and whether the game's focus is upon military strategy or tactics.

Vehicle simulation

Vehicle simulation games are a genre of video games which attempt to provide the player with a realistic interpretation of operating various kinds of vehicles.[26]

FlightGear is a flight simulation game.

A flight simulation tasks the player with flying an aircraft, usually an airplane, as realistically as possible. Combat flight simulators are the most popular sub-genre of simulation. The player controls the plane, not only simulating the act of flying, but also combat situations. There are also civilian flight simulators that do not have the combat aspect.

Racing games typically place the player in the driver's seat of a high-performance vehicle and require the player to race against other drivers or sometimes just time. This genre of games is one of the staples of the computer gaming world and many of the earliest computer games created were part of this genre. Emerging in the late 1970s, this genre is still very popular today and continues to push the envelope in terms of graphics and performance. These games "tend to fall into organized racing and imaginary racing categories". Organized racing simulators attempt to "reproduce the experience of driving a racing car or motorcycle in an existing racing class: Indycar, NASCAR, Formula 1, and so on." On the other hand, imaginary racing games involve "imaginary situations, driving madly through cities or the countryside or even fantasy environments". These "imaginary" racing games are sometimes called arcade racing games, in contrast to their more realistic "racing simulation" counterparts. Rollings and Adams note that "racing games are often sold in the sports category," but "from a design standpoint, they really belong in ... vehicle simulations".[26]

Space flight simulator games are a sub-genre that involve piloting a spacecraft. Space simulators are different from other sub-genres, and are not generally considered to be simulators, as their simulated objects do not always exist and often disregard the laws of physics. However, simulators of real spacecraft do exist: Orbiter is one example.

Train simulators simulate the vehicles, environments and often economics associated with railway transport. These are frequently historical in nature, reminiscing on the evolution and emergence of the railroad in various countries and the economic booms that often accompanied them.

Vehicular combat or car combat games focus on fast-paced action, as the player operates a car or other vehicle and attempts to disable or destroy CPU or human opponents. Vehicular combat games often allow a player to choose from a variety of potential vehicles, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Vehicular combat was born out of racing/shooter combinations like Spy Hunter, RoadBlasters and Rock 'N' Roll Racing, but differs in that the players can, if desired, take their vehicles off predefined routes and do battle wherever they please. A sub-genre of vehicular combat is Mecha combat, where vehicles generally include giant robot-like tanks.

Other notable genres

Frets on Fire is a music game.

Music games most commonly challenge the player to follow sequences of movement or develop specific rhythms. Some games require the player to input rhythms by stepping with their feet on a dance pad, or using a device similar to a specific musical instrument, like a replica drum set. These games have changed the way players' interact with their consoles by making the gaming experience more active and sociable, and paving the way for exergaming.[28] Music video games have also influenced the music industry by significantly raising the number of legal downloads of songs.[29] Other games avoid rhythm-based gameplay and instead focus on pitch-based, memory-based, or sandbox-style gameplay.

Party games are video games developed specifically for multiplayer games between many players. Normally, party games have a variety of different types of mini-games that range between collecting more of a certain item than other players or having the fastest time at something. Such games include the Mario Party series, Crash Boom Bang!, and the Rayman Raving Rabbids series. Versus multiplayer games are not generally considered to be party games.

A programming game is a computer game where the player has no direct influence on the course of the game. Instead, a computer program or script is written in some domain-specific programming language in order to control the actions of the characters (usually robots, tanks or bacteria, which seek to destroy each other). Final Fantasy XII also includes some elements of a programming game, as the player creates the AI of his characters, although the player can also choose to directly control the action.

Puzzle games require the player to solve logic puzzles or navigate complex locations such as mazes. This genre frequently crosses over with adventure and educational games. Some arcade games, in particular Tetris-variants, are often labeled puzzle games, despite the fact that gameplay depends on hand/eye coordination and quick reflexes, rather than thought and logic. Puzzle is a very inclusive genre, and is often used as a general default for games not otherwise easily categorized, especially those with abstract concepts. Before they became commonplace, music games were sometimes called puzzle games[citation needed], for example.

Sports games emulate the playing of traditional physical sports. Some emphasize actually playing the sport, while others emphasize the strategy behind the sport (such as Championship Manager). Others satirize the sport for comic effect (such as Arch Rivals). One of the best selling series in this genre is the Madden NFL series. This genre emerged early in the history of video games (e.g., Pong) and remains popular today.

Most popular board games, card games, and the like have been computerized to some degree or another. Computer game programs can be worthy opponents and can help improve one's skill at traditional games. Chess, Checkers, Othello (also known as Reversi), and Backgammon have world class computer programs. Mah-jongg and related games are immensely popular in China and Japan. Go is popular in East Asia. It is infamously difficult to program a computer to play Go well. Magic: The Gathering has had computer versions for some time.

Video game genres by purpose

While most video games are designed as entertainment, many video games are designed with additional purposes. These purposes are as varied as the nature of information itself—to inform, persuade, or stimulate. These games can have any kind of gameplay, from puzzles to action to adventure.

Adult video games, like adult movies or other media, are intended for an adult audience. In general, the purpose of adult games is to provide erotic entertainment, rather than just gameplay. There exists a wide variety of adult games, though many lack mainstream appeal and represent a niche category. The object of an adult game may differ from a mainstream video game, in that the reward can be a visual representation of nudity, partial nudity, or sexual activity rather than points, etc. Some games may focus on humor or drama rather than arousal, or simply have normal gameplay accompanied by nudity.

Advergames, in the context of video game genres, refers to promotional software specifically made to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. The first advergames were distributed on floppy disk by the Chef Boyardee, Coca-Cola, and Samsung brands,[30] while the first cereal box advergame was Chex Quest in 1996.[31] The majority of advergames are found online and mostly include simple and cheaply made Flash games. It is expected that advergamimg will become a very popular and far more highly invested in the coming years as TV ad revenue lessens and video games are shown to have a greater and greater impact on public opinion.[citation needed]

Art games are designed so as to emphasize art or whose structures are intended to produce some kind of non-ludological reaction in its audience. Art games typically go out of their way to have a unique, unconventional look, often standing out for aesthetic beauty or complexity in design. This concept extends to the realm of modified ("modded") gaming when modifications have been made to existing non-art-games to produce graphic results intended to be viewed as an artistic display, as opposed to modifications intended to change game play scenarios or for storytelling. Modified games created for artistic purposes are sometimes referred to as "videogame art."

Casual games have very simple rules or play techniques and a very low degree of strategy.[32] They also require no long-term time commitment or special skills to play, making them easy to learn and play as a pasttime. There are comparatively low production and distribution costs for the producer.[33] Casual games typically are played on a personal computer online in web browsers, although they now are starting to become popular on game consoles. The purpose of the casual game is to entertain, but with a much lower commitment than other video games.

Christian games attempt to provide the dual purposes of spreading the Christian religion to non-believers through the medium of video games, and providing gamers who identify as Christian with a common pool of games that neither challenge their beliefs nor offend them. Christian video games were first developed by Wisdom Tree for the NES without license. While largely regarded as derivative titles by the mainstream gaming culture,[citation needed] Christian games have nevertheless expanded in distribution since their inception.

Educational games, as the name implies, attempt to teach the user using the game as a vehicle. Most of these types of games target young users from the ages of about three years to mid-teens;[citation needed] past the mid-teens, subjects become so complex (e.g. Calculus) that teaching via a game is impractical.[citation needed] Numerous sub-genres exist, in fields such as math or typing.

Electronic Sports games are multiplayer games that are usually played competitively at the professional level. These games are often targeted at the "hardcore" gaming audience, and are usually first-person shooter games, requiring twitch-based reaction speed and coordination, or real-time strategy games, requiring high levels of strategic macro- and micromanagement.

An exergame (portmanteau of "exercise" and "game") is a video game that provides exercise. "Exergames" sub-divide into two main implementations, those with a game specifically designed to use an exercise input device (for example, the game Wii Fit using the Wii Balance Board) and those implementations using a genre of a game. Games fit into the category of entertainment, and similarly "exergames" are a category of "exertainment" (formed from "exercise" and "entertainment"). "Exertainment" refers to one aspect of adding entertainment to an exercise workout.

Serious games are intended to educate or train the player. These games tend to promote "education, science, social change, health care or even the military."[34] Some of these games have no specific ending or goal in the game. Rather, the player learns a real life lesson from the game. For example, games from websites such as Newsgaming.com and gamesforchange.org raise political issues using the distinct properties of games.

Scientific studies

As video games are increasingly the subject of scientific studies, game genres are themselves becoming an subject of study. In a University of Queensland study, game enjoyment was correlated with attributes such as immersion, social interaction, and the nature of the goals.[35] These may be underlying factors in differentiating game genres. Statistical scaling techniques were used in a study presented at the 2007 Siggraph Video Game Symposium to convert subject ratings of game similarity into visual maps of game genres. The maps reproduced some of the commonly identified genres such as first-person shooters and god games.[36] A Michigan State University study found that men have a higher preference for genres that require competition and three-dimensional navigation and manipulation than women do.[37]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Apperley, Thomas H.. "Genre and game studies". University of Melbourne. http://www.culture-communication.unimelb.edu.au/research-students/tom-apperley.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  2. ^ Adams, Ernest; Andrew Rollings (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. http://wps.prenhall.com/bp_gamedev_1/54/14053/3597646.cw/index.html. 
  3. ^ Crawford, Chris. "A Taxonomy of Computer Games". Washington State University. http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/Chapter3.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  4. ^ Kasavin, Greg (2006-05-11). "E3 06: God Hand Hands-On". GameSpot. http://uk.gamespot.com/ps2/action/godhand/news.html?sid=6150650. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  5. ^ "E3 2001: Must-See State of the Emergency Video". IGN. 2001-05-17. http://uk.ps2.ign.com/articles/094/094852p1.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  6. ^ a b Wolf, Mark J. P. (February 2002). "The Medium of the Video Game". The Medium of the Video Game. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292791503. http://www.robinlionheart.com/gamedev/genres.xhtml. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  7. ^ Horwitz, Jer (1997). "The History of Sega Fighting Games". GameSpot. http://uk.gamespot.com/features/vgs/sat/segafight/. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  8. ^ "Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition–Nintendo Records". Guinness World Records. http://gamers.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/nintendo.aspx. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  9. ^ Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7. 
  10. ^ "Donkey Kong". Arcade History. 2006-11-21. http://www.arcade-history.com/index.php?page=detail&id=666. Retrieved 2006-11-21. 
  11. ^ a b c d Boutros, Daniel (2006-08-04). "Platform games". A Detailed Cross-Examination of Yesterday and Today's Best-Selling Platform Games. Gamasutra. http://gamasutra.com/features/20060804/boutros_02.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  12. ^ Haynes, Jeff (2007-11-19). "Time Crisis 4 Review". IGN. http://uk.ps3.ign.com/articles/836/836596p1.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  13. ^ Wyman, Walt (2006-07-08). "House of the Dead 4 Special reaches arcades". GameSpot. http://uk.gamespot.com/news/6153652.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  14. ^ Remo, Chris (2007-11-21). "Time Crisis 4 Review". Shacknews. http://www.shacknews.com/featuredarticle.x?id=685. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  15. ^ "How do I calibrate the guns in Terminator 2? Can I use a light gun?". MAME. http://mamedev.org/devwiki/index.php/FAQ:Games#How_do_I_calibrate_the_guns_in_Terminator_2.3F_Can_I_use_a_light_gun.3F. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  16. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (2008). Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers. Kodansha International. pp. 66–88. 
  17. ^ Walker, Trey (2002-03-22). "The Sims overtakes Myst". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/pc/strategy/simslivinlarge/news_2857556.html. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  18. ^ Rothstein, Edward (1994-12-04). "A New Art Form May Arise From the 'Myst'". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F07E7DD1030F937A35751C1A962958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  19. ^ Evenson, Laura (1994-12-22). "Interactive CD-ROMs come of age". San Francisco Chronicle. p. DAT36. 
  20. ^ Nixon, Scott (2007-02-05). "Bring Out Your Dead! Can Nintendo Breathe New Life into Adventure Games?". Gamasutra. http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20070205/nixon_01.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  21. ^ "AMN and Anime Advanced Announce Anime Game Demo Downloads". Anime News Network. 2006-02-08. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/pressrelease.php?id=1510. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  22. ^ Cage, David (2005-09-22). "Indigo Prophecy–Developer's Diary". 1UP. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?pager.offset=0&cId=3143998. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  23. ^ McCarthy, Dave (2008-04-28). "Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII UK Interview". IGN. http://psp.ign.com/articles/869/869858p1.html. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  24. ^ Turner, Brian (2004-07-01). "The Action RPG Revolution". http://www.rpgdot.com/index.php?hsaction=10053&ID=1007. Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  25. ^ a b "What is Tactics?". Electronic Arts. http://www.ea.com/official/lordoftherings/tactics/us/whatis.jsp. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  26. ^ a b c d Rollings 2003, pp. 321–345
  27. ^ "The Battle for Wesnoth". IGN. http://pc.ign.com/objects/142/14240090.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  28. ^ Frink, Danielle "Video game genres" "Examiner", 2009-8-18].
  29. ^ Graser, Marc "Videogames rock song sales", "Variety", 2009-8-21.
  30. ^ http://www.gamedaily.com/articles/features/dunkin-for-advergames/68443/?biz=1
  31. ^ Ross Miller (2008-04-18). "Ask Joystiq: Chex Quest, He-Man and broken 360 gamepads". Joystiq. http://www.joystiq.com/2008/04/18/ask-joystiq-chex-quest-he-man-and-broken-360-gamepads/. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  32. ^ Boyes, Emma (2008-02-18). "GDC '08: Are casual games the future?". GameSpot. http://uk.gamespot.com/news/6186207.html?tag=result;title;0. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  33. ^ Surette, Tim (2006-09-12). "Casual gamer gets serious prize". GameSpot. http://uk.gamespot.com/news/6157427.html?tag=result;title;4. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  34. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (2006-03-23). "What's wrong with serious games?". CNET. http://www.cnet.com.au/games/0,239029232,240061367,00.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  35. ^ Sweetser, Penelope; Wyeth,P. (2005). "GameFlow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment in games". ACM Computers in Entertainment 3 (3). http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1077253. 
  36. ^ Lewis, J; McGuire,M., Fox,P. (2007). "Mapping the mental space of game genres". ACM Sandbox. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1274962. 
  37. ^ Lucas, Kristen; Sherry, J. (2004). "Sex Differences in Video Game Play". Communication Research 31 (5). http://crx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/31/5/499. 

References

  • Rollings, Andrew; Adams, Ernest (2003-05-11). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design. New Riders Games. ISBN 978-1592730018. 
  • Gaming Platform

Simple English

There are many computer and video game genres. Here is a list of some of them.








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