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Wien
Vienna

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Location of Vienna in Austria
WienVienna is located in Austria
Wien
Vienna
Location of Vienna in Austria
Coordinates: 48°12′32″N 16°22′21″E / 48.20889°N 16.3725°E / 48.20889; 16.3725
State Austria
Government
 - Mayor and governor Michael Häupl (SPÖ)
Area
 - City 414.90 km2 (160.2 sq mi)
 - Land 395.51 km2 (152.7 sq mi)
 - Water 19.39 km2 (7.5 sq mi)
Elevation 190 m (623 ft)
Population (2009)
 - City 1,680,266
 Density 4,049.8/km2 (10,489/sq mi)
 Urban 1,983,836 UNIQ5de8ab489a6a479-ref-0,000,002C-QINU
 Metro 2,268,656 UNIQ5de8ab489a6a479-ref-00,000,029-QINU
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website www.wien.at
Historic Centre of Vienna*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party  Austria
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 1033
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2001  (25th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Vienna (pronounced /viːˈɛnə/; German: Wien [ˈviːn]; Austro-Bavarian: Wean) is the capital of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.7 million[3] (2.3 million within the metropolitan area,[citation needed] more than 25% of Austria's population), and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 10th largest city by population in the European Union. Vienna is host to many major international organizations such as the United Nations and OPEC. Vienna lies in the east of Austria and is close to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site[4] and in 2005 an Economist Intelligence Unit study of 127 world cities ranked it first equal with Vancouver for the quality of life.[5] This assessment was mirrored by the Mercer Survey in 2009.[6][7]

Contents

Name

The English name of Vienna, the official German name Wien, and the names of the city in most languages, are thought to be derived from the Celtic name of a settlement, but opinions vary on the precise origin. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently became Venia, Wienne and Wien. Others claim that the name comes from the name of the Roman settlement Vindobona, probably meaning "white base/bottom", which became Vindovina, Vídeň (Czech) and Wien.[8]

The name of the city in Hungarian (Bécs), Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Beč) and Ottoman Turkish (Beç) appears to have a different, Slavonic, origin.[9] In Slovene, the city is called Dunaj which in other Slavic languages means the Danube river.

History

Roman ruins at Michaelerplatz
Vienna in 1493 (from the Nuremberg Chronicle).

Founded around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement. In 15 BC, Vienna became a Roman frontier city (Vindobona) guarding the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes to the north.

In the 13th century, Vienna came under threat from the Mongolian Empire, which stretched over much of present-day Russia and China. However, due to the death of its leader, Ogedei Khan, the Mongolian armies receded from the European frontier and did not return.

During the Middle Ages, Vienna was home to the Babenberg Dynasty, and in 1440, it became the resident city of the Habsburg Dynasties. It eventually grew to become the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. It was occupied by Hungary between 1485-1490. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman armies were stopped twice outside Vienna (see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683). In 1679 the bubonic plague struck the city, killing nearly a third of its population.[10]

In 1804, Vienna became the capital of the Austrian Empire and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the 1814 Congress of Vienna. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city was a centre of classical music, for which the title of the First Viennese School is sometimes applied. During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a new boulevard surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project. Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna grew dramatically. In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic.

From the late 19th century to 1938, the city remained a centre of high culture and later modernism. A world capital of music, the city played host to composers such as Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler and Richard Strauss. The city's cultural contributions in the first half of the 20th century included, amongst many, the Vienna Secession movement, psychoanalysis, the Second Viennese School, the architecture of Adolf Loos and the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Within Austria, it was seen as a centre of socialist politics, for which it was sometimes referred to as "Red Vienna." The city was a stage to the Austrian Civil War of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia. In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Adolf Hitler famously spoke to the Austrian people from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. Between 1938 (see Anschluss) and the end of the Second World War, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlin.

Vienna map, 1773-81
View of Vienna in 1758, by Bernardo Bellotto

In 1945, the Soviets successfully launched the Vienna Offensive against the Germans who were holding Vienna. The city was besieged for about two weeks before it fell to the Soviets in mid-April. On 27 April 1945, with the Declaration of Independence, signed in Vienna, Austria was reerected as a state independent from Germany. Vienna again became the capital city of the republic. The city was divided into four sectors by the four powers (or the four prevailing nations), and was supervised by the Allied Commission for Austria.

Air raids by British and American planes since 1944 and artillery duels of the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in April 1945 left many thousands of public and private buildings and the infrastructure destroyed or damaged. Tram traffic broke down, energy and water supply faded. The State Opera building as well as the Burgtheater, both on Ringstraße, could be opened again in 1955 after years of reconstruction and restoration.

The four-power occupation of Vienna differed in some aspects from the four-power occupation of Berlin: the central area of Vienna, the first district, constituted an international zone in which the four powers alternated on a monthly basis. When the Berlin blockade occurred in 1948, Vienna was even more vulnerable because there was no airport in the western sectors, and contingency plans were drafted by the authorities. However, despite fears and some disruptions, the Soviets did not embark on a wholesale blockade of Vienna as like in the case of Berlin. Some have argued that this was because the Potsdam Agreement gave written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had been given regarding Berlin. The true reason will, however, always remain a matter of speculation. During the 10 years of foreign occupation, Vienna became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs. The atmosphere of four-power Vienna is captured in the Graham Greene novel The Third Man and by the movie which followed in 1949.

In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Centre, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna has regained a part of its former international relevance by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations (UNIDO, UNOV, CTBTO and UNODC), the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Historical population

Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005

Due to the industrialization and immigration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). In 1910, Vienna had more than 2 million inhabitants, and was one of the six largest cities in the world.[citation needed] At the turn of the century, Vienna was the city with the second largest Czech population in the world (after Prague).[11] However, after World War I, many Czechs and Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. At the height of the migration, about one-third of the Viennese population was of Slavic or Hungarian origin. In 1923 there were 201,513 Jews living in Vienna, which had become the third largest Jewish community in Europe.[12]

By 2001, 16% of people under the census living in Austria had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Yugoslavia, primarily Serbs;[13][14] the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna were Turkish (39,000 or 2.5%), Polish (13,600 or 0.9%) and German (12,700 or 0.8%).[15]

Year 1754 1800 1850 1900 1910 1923 1939
Total
population
175,460 271,800 551,300 1,769,137 2,083,630 1,918,720 1,770,938
Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2008
Total
population
1,616,125 1,627,566 1,619,885 1,531,346 1,539,848 1,550,123 1,678,435

Geography and climate

Vienna is located in north-eastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps in the Vienna Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from 151 to 524 m (495 to 1,719 ft).

Vienna has a humid continental climate according to the Köppen classification. The city has warm summers with average high temperatures of 22–26 °C (
Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAoffDxSoffT
  - Invalid output type
{4}="def", in {{Convert|22|to(-)|26|def|...}}. ), with maxima exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) and lows of around 15 °C (59 °F). Winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and snowfall occurring mainly from December through March. Spring and autumn are cool to mild. Precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging 620 mm (24.4 inches) annually.

Climate data for Vienna, Austria (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 2.9
(37)
5.1
(41)
10.3
(51)
15.2
(59)
20.5
(69)
23.4
(74)
25.6
(78)
25.4
(78)
20.3
(69)
14.2
(58)
7.5
(46)
4.0
(39)
Average low °C (°F) -2.0
(28)
-0.9
(30)
2.4
(36)
5.8
(42)
10.5
(51)
13.5
(56)
15.4
(60)
15.3
(60)
11.7
(53)
7.0
(45)
2.4
(36)
-0.5
(31)
Precipitation mm (inches) 37.2
(1.46)
39.4
(1.55)
46.1
(1.81)
51.7
(2.04)
61.8
(2.43)
70.2
(2.76)
68.2
(2.69)
57.8
(2.28)
53.5
(2.11)
40.0
(1.57)
50.0
(1.97)
44.4
(1.75)
Source: World Weather Information Service[16]

Districts and Enlargement

Additional information: Districts of Vienna

Map of the districts of Vienna with numbers
Satellite view of Vienna

Vienna is composed of 23 districts (Bezirke). Administrative district offices in Vienna (called Magistratisches Bezirksamt) serve similar to those in the other states (called Bezirkshauptmannschaft), the officers being subject to the Landeshauptmann (which in Vienna is the mayor); with the exception of the police, which in Vienna is governed by the President of the Police (at the same time one of the nine Directors of Security of Austria), a federal office, directly responsible to the Minister of the Interior.

As had been planned in 1919 for all of Austria but not introduced, the district residents in Vienna (Austrians as well as EU citizens with permanent residence here) are electing a District Assembly (Bezirksvertretung) which chooses the District Head (Bezirksvorsteher) as political representative of the district on city level. The district assemblies have been given some political power by city hall in fields such as planning, building and traffic. City hall has delegated maintenance budgets, e.g. for schools, parks and secondary streets, to the district assemblies, so that they are able to set priorities autonomously. Any decision of a district can be overridden by the city assembly (Gemeinderat) or the responsible city councillor (amtsführender Stadrat).

The heart and historical city of Vienna, a large part of today's Innere Stadt, was once surrounded by walls and open fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. In 1850, Vienna with the consent of the emperor included 34 surrounding villages[17], called Vorstädte, into the city limits (districts no. 2 to 8, since 1861 with the separation of Margareten from Wieden no. 2 to 9). Consequently the walls were razed after 1857[18], making it possible for the city centre to expand.

In their place, a broad boulevard called the Ringstraße was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks were created until the turn of the century. These buildings include the Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater, the University, the Parliament, the twin museums of natural history and fine art, and the Staatsoper. It is also the location of New Wing of the Hofburg, the former imperial palace, and the Imperial and Royal War Ministry finished in 1913. The mainly Gothic Stephansdom is located at the centre of the city, on Stephansplatz. The Imperial-Royal Government set up the Vienna City Renovation Fund (Wiener Stadterneuerungsfonds) and sold many building lots to private investors, thereby partly financing public construction works.

From 1850 to 1890, city limits in the West and the South have mainly followed another wall called Linienwall. Outside this wall from 1873 onwards a ring road called Gürtel was built. In 1890 it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs (called Vororte) beyond that wall into Vienna by 1 January 1892[19] and transform them into districts no. 11 to 19 (district no. 10 had been constituted in 1874); hence the Linienwall was torn down from 1894 onwards[20]. In 1900, district no. 20, Brigittenau, was created by separating the area from the 2nd district.

From 1850 to 1904, Vienna had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of 1868−1875, i.e. the Old Danube of today. In 1904, the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube into Vienna, in 1910 Strebersdorf followed. On 15 October 1938 the Nazis created Great Vienna with 26 districts by merging 97 cities and villages into Vienna, 80 of which have returned to surrounding Lower Austria in 1954[21]. Since then Vienna has 23 districts.

Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the Danube, but is bounded by the Donaukanal ("Danube canal"). Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube River. Across the Danube, where the Vienna International Centre is located, and in the southernmost area are the newest parts of the city (districts 21−23).

Politics

The Rathaus serves as the seat of the mayor and city council of the city of Vienna

Until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party, in particular long-term mayor Karl Lueger. Vienna is today considered the centre of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. During the period of the First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many overdue social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien). In February 1934 troups of the Conservative Austrian federal government and paramilitary socialist organisations were engaged in the Austrian civil war, which lead to the ban of the Social Democrat party.

For most of the time since the First World War, the city has been governed by the Social Democratic Party with absolute majorities in the city parliament. Only between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The current mayor of Vienna is Michael Häupl. The Social Democrats currently hold 55% of the seats with a 49% share of the vote.[22] Many Austrian political experts believe that if not for the Social Democrats' nearly unbreakable hold on Vienna, the rival Austrian People's Party would dominate Austrian politics.

An example of the city’s many social democratic policies is its low-cost residential estates called Gemeindebauten.

Ever since Vienna obtained federal state (Bundesland) status of its own in 1921, the mayor has also had the role of the state governor (Landeshauptmann). The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor and the state government (Landesregierung). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (Magistratsabteilungen).

In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. 1996 also saw the FPÖ, which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. From 1996-2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna in a coalition with the ÖVP. In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005 this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%).

Religions

Vienna is the seat of the Viennese Roman Catholic archdiocese, and its current Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. The religions of the Viennese resident population is divided according to the 2001 census as follows [15]:

Roman Catholic 49.2%
No religion 25.7%
Muslim 7.8%
Orthodox 6.0%
Protestant (mostly Lutheran) 4.7%
Jewish 0.5%
Other or none indicated 6.3%

Many Roman Catholic churches in central Vienna also feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung with classical music and organ. Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Roman Catholic churches, including the Stephansdom (St. Stephen's Cathedral), the Karlskirche (St. Charles' Church) and the Votivkirche.

Culture

Music, theatre and opera

State Opera (Staatsoper), venue of the annual ball
Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresa-Square

Art and culture have a long tradition in Vienna, including theater, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theaters in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theaters, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret.

Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien, the Staatsoper and the Volksoper, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Classical concerts are performed at well known venues such as the Wiener Musikverein, home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Wiener Konzerthaus. Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music (particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Strauss).

In recent years, the Theater an der Wien has become widely known for hosting premieres of musicals, although it has recently devoted itself to the opera again. The most successful musical by far was "Elisabeth", which was later translated into several other languages and performed all over the world. The Haus der Musik ("house of music") opened in 2000.

Museums

The Hofburg is the location of the Schatzkammer (treasury), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie of Austria) allows visitors to view the Imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Naturhistorisches Museum, which houses many paintings by old masters, ancient and classical artifacts.

A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. It houses the Museum of Modern Art,commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (focusing on works of - Egon Schiele (the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele) - the Viennese Secession, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), the AzW(museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions and the Tanzquartier. The Liechtenstein Palace contains one of the world's largest private art collections of the baroque. The Castle Belvedere, built under Prinz Eugen, contains paintings of Gustav Klimt (The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures of Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, and has changing exhibitions too.

There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Military History Museum, the Technical Museum, the Vienna Clock Museum and the Burial Museum. The museums dedicated to Vienna's districts provide a retrospective of the respective districts.

Architecture

Hundertwasserhaus

A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque Karlskirche. Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveau left many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secession, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, and the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau in the world.

The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). The 202 m-high Millennium Tower located at Handelskai is the highest building in Vienna.[23][24] In recent years, Vienna has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodelling and revitalisation of the old Gasometer in 2001.

Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 m. The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage. Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.

Vienna balls

Vienna is the last great capital of the nineteenth century ball. There are over 200 significant balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Balls are held in the many beautiful palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace at Heldenplatz. While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Rudolfina Redoute are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime. For many, the ball season lasts three months and can include up to ten or fifteen separate appearances.

Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna Staatsoper often perform at the openings of the larger balls.[citation needed]

A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Viennese balls generally begin at 9pm and last until 5am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day.

Education

Vienna is also Austria's main centre of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums.

University of Vienna
Academy of Fine Arts

Universities

The Diplomatic Academy is housed in the Neue Favorita Palace

International schools

Transportation

Vienna has an extensive transportation network. Public transport is provided by buses, trams, and 5 subway lines (U-Bahn). Trains are operated by the ÖBB. Vienna has multiple road connections, including motorways.

Leisure activities

Viennese parks and gardens

The "Alte Donau", one of the top bathing and recreation spots

Vienna possesses many park facilities, including the Stadtpark, the Burggarten, the Volksgarten (part of the Hofburg), the Schloßpark at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna Botanic Gardens), the Donaupark, the Schönbrunner Schlosspark, the Prater, the Augarten, the Rathauspark, the Lainzer Tiergarten, the Dehnepark, the Resselpark, the Votivpark, the Kurpark Oberlaa, the Auer-Welsbach-Park and the Türkenschanzpark. Green areas include Laaer-Berg (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the Wienerwald, which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks, are everywhere in the inner city areas. Many of Vienna's famous parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque palace, where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna's principal park is the Prater which is home to the Riesenrad, a Ferris wheel. The imperial Schönbrunn's grounds contain an 18th century park which includes the world's oldest zoo, founded in 1752. The Donauinsel, part of Vienna's flood defences, is a 21.1 km long artificial island between the Danube and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities.

Sport

Ernst-Happel-Stadion in the Prater

Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austria and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna's Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on June 29 it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1-0 victory over Germany.

Austria's capital is home to numerous teams. The best known are the local football clubs SK Rapid Wien (32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), FK Austria Wien (23 Austrian Bundesliga titles and 26-time cup winners) and the oldest team, First Vienna FC. Other important sport clubs include the Dodge Vikings Vienna (American Football), who won the Eurobowl title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna, one of Europe's premier Volleyball organisations, the Superfund Wanderers (baseball) who won the 2009 Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals (Ice Hockey). Vienna was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded.

Culinary specialities

Food

Vienna is well known for Wiener Schnitzel, a cutlet of veal that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz (very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and Schnittlauchsauce (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and old bread).

Vienna has a long tradition of producing the finest cakes and desserts. These include Apfelstrudel (hot apple strudel), Palatschinken (sweet pancakes), and Knödel (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (Marillenknödel). Sachertorte, a dry chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotel, is world famous.

In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters.

Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (Würstelstand) throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as Wiener (German for Viennese) in the USA and Germany is, however, called Frankfurter. Other popular sausages are Burenwurst (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), Käsekrainer (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and Bratwurst (a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy).

Kebab and pizza are, increasingly, the snack food most widely available from small stands.

The Naschmarkt is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc. from around the world. The city centre has many delicatessen stores, such as the Julius Meinl am Graben.

Drink

Vienna, along with Paris, Prague, Bratislava and London is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling (Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering) and Floridsdorf (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf). The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria.

Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna has a single large brewery, Ottakringer, and more than ten microbreweries. A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many.

Viennese cafés

Café Central

Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffee from bounty captured after the second Turkish siege in 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Emperor gave Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish - Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed the Austrians to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop. Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891.

Tourist attractions

Hofburg Imperial Palace seen from Heroes' Square

Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn) and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater, the Wiener Staatsoper, the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule and the Vienna Boys' Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling.

There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year.[25] The most popular ones are Albertina, Belvedere, Leopold Museum in the Museumsquartier, KunstHausWien, BA-CA Kunstforum, the twin Kunsthistorisches Museum and Naturhistorisches Museum, and the Technisches Museum Wien, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year.[26]

There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many famous people. Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, the most famous of which are St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Deutschordenskirche, the Jesuitenkirche, the Karlskirche, the Peterskirche, Maria am Gestade, the Minoritenkirche, the Ruprechtskirche, the Schottenkirche and the Votivkirche.

Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm.

International organizations in Vienna

UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria Center Vienna in front, taken from the Danube Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work

Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Currently Vienna is the world's 4th "UN city" (after New York, Geneva and The Hague). Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's secretariat (UNCITRAL). In conjunction, the University of Vienna annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot, an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world.

Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name Vienna Convention or Vienna Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE).

Charitable organizations in Vienna

Alongside the international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna; these organisations provide relief goods and assistance to tens of thousands of disadvantaged children and needy people in developing countries.

One such organisation is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Today, SOS Children's Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include HASCO and the Childrens Bridge of Hope.

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Vienna is twinned with the following cities:

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes:

In addition, individual Viennese districts are twinned with Japan Japanese cities/districts:

Further, the Viennese district Leopoldstadt and the New York City borough Brooklyn entered into a partnership in 2007.[32]

See also

References

  • Material translated from de:Wien on The German language Wikipedia

Notes

  1. ^ "Statistik Austria: NUTS Populations". statistik.at. 2006. http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/bevoelkerung/volkszaehlungen_registerzaehlungen/bevoelkerungsstand/034336.html. Retrieved 2010-03-05.  (NUTS AT126 + AT127 + AT130)
  2. ^ "Agglomerations in Austria". www.citypopulation.de. 2009-08-03. http://www.citypopulation.de/Oesterreich-Agglo_d.html. Retrieved 2010-03-05.  (based on data by Statistik Austria)
  3. ^ "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung zu Jahres-/Quartalsanfang". Statistik.at. 2009-02-13. http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/bevoelkerung/bevoelkerungsstand_und_veraenderung/bevoelkerung_zu_jahres-_quartalsanfang/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  4. ^ "Historic Centre of Vienna". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=1033. 
  5. ^ "Vancouver is 'best place to live'". BBC. October 4, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4306936.stm. 
  6. ^ Forbes Magazine 2009
  7. ^ "Mercer's Survey 2009". Mercer. April 28, 2009. http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idContent=1173105#Top_50_cities:_Quality_of_living. 
  8. ^ Wien International website: History
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 edition
  10. ^ Spielman, John Philip (1993). The city & the crown: Vienna and the imperial court, 1600-1740. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. p. 141. ISBN 1557530211. 
  11. ^ Czech and Slovak roots in Vienna, wieninternational.at
  12. ^ "Vienna". Jewish Virtual Library.
  13. ^ Statistik Austria, Bevölkerung 2001 nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland
  14. ^ "Beč: Božić na gastarbajterski način | Evropa | Deutsche Welle | 07.01.2010". Dw-world.de. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5096611,00.html?maca=ser-TB_ser_politka1-3157-html-cb. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  15. ^ a b (in German) (PDF) Volkszählung. Hauptergebnisse I - Wien. Statistik Austria. 2003. ftp://www.statistik.at/pub/neuerscheinungen/vz01wien_web.pdf. 
  16. ^ Climatological Information for Vienna, Austria, World Meteorological Association, Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  17. ^ Felix Czeike: Historisches Lexikon Wien, volume 5, Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-218-00547-7, p. 289
  18. ^ Decision of Emperor Franz Joseph I, published in the official newspaper ‘‘Wiener Zeitung’’ on 25 December 1857, p. 1
  19. ^ Czeike, ibid., p. 290
  20. ^ Czeike, volume 4, Vienna 1995, ISBN 3-218-00546-9, p. 69
  21. ^ Czeike, ibid., volume 5, p. 290
  22. ^ "Gemeinderatswahl 2005". wien.at. http://www.wien.gv.at/wahl/NET/GR051/GR051-109.htm.  (German)
  23. ^ Vienna's 10 tallest skyscrapers
  24. ^ Millennium Tower - Emporis
  25. ^ (page 10) "Vienna in figures: Special Issue for the EU Presidency 2006" (PDF). City of Vienna. http://www.wien.gv.at/statistik/pdf/viennainfigures.pdf (page 10). 
  26. ^ "Top 30 Sights, Museums, Exhibition Halls 2005" (xls). Vienna Tourist Board. http://www.wien-tourismus.at/data/Besucherstatistik-2005.xls. 
  27. ^ "Bratislava City - Twin Towns". © 2003-2008 Bratislava-City.sk. http://www.bratislava-city.sk/bratislava-twin-towns. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  28. ^ "Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006-2009 City of Brno. http://www.brno.cz/index.php?nav02=1985&nav01=34&nav03=1010&nav04=1016&nav05=1249&nav06=1272. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  29. ^ Agreement between Vienna and Tabriz Municipality in Farsi
  30. ^ (Polish) "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  31. ^ "Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb". © 2006-2009 City of Zagreb. http://www1.zagreb.hr/mms/en/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  32. ^ "Brooklyn und Leopoldstadt sind nun Partner «". Diepresse.com. http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/289167/index.do?from=suche.intern.portal. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 

External links

Official websites

Pictures and videos of Vienna

History of Vienna

Further Information on Vienna

Coordinates: 48°12′30″N 16°22′23″E / 48.20833°N 16.37306°E / 48.20833; 16.37306


Quotes

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From Wikiquote

Vienna is the capital of Austria.

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Vienna [1] (German: Wien) is the capital of the Republic of Austria. It is by far the largest city in Austria (pop.~ 1.7m), as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre. As the former home of the Habsburg court and its various empires, the city still has the trappings of the imperial capital it once was, and the historic city centre is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Statue in front of the Parliament
Statue in front of the Parliament

The low-lying Danube plain in and around what is now Vienna has had a human population since at least the late Paleolithic: one of the city's most famous artifacts, the 24,000-year-old Venus of Willendorf, now in Vienna's Natural History Museum, was found nearby. Vienna's own recorded history began with the Romans, who founded it in the 1st Century CE as Vindobona, one of a line of Roman defensive outposts against Germanic tribes. Vindobona's central garrison was on the site of what is now the Hoher Markt (the "High Market" due to its relative height over the Danube), and you can still see the excavations of its foundations there today.

Vienna hosted the Habsburg court for several centuries, first as the Imperial seat of the Holy Roman Empire, then the capital of the Austrian Empire, and later of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which finally fell in 1918 with the abdication of the last Emperor Karl I. The court tremendously influenced the culture that exists here even today: Vienna's residents are often overly formal, with small doses of courtliness, polite forms of address, and formal dress attire. One of the many paradoxes of the quirky city is that its residents can be equally modern and progressive as they are extremely old-fashioned.

Traditional Vienna is but one of the many façades of this city, the downtown area of which is a UNESCO world heritage site and sometimes begrudgingly compared to an open air museum. But Vienna is also a dynamic young city, famous for its (electronic) music scene with independent labels, cult-status underground record stores, a vibrant club scene, multitudes of street performers, and a government that seems overly obsessed with complicated paperwork. However, people are willing to go out of their way or bend the rules a little if they feel they can do someone a favor.

The Viennese have a singular fascination with death, hence the popularity of the Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) as a strolling location and of Schrammelmusik - highly sentimental music with lyrics pertaining to death. Old-fashioned Sterbevereine (funeral insurance societies) provide members with the opportunity to save up for a nice funeral throughout the course of their lives. This service does not exist solely to save their children the hassle and expense - it is considered absolutely mandatory to provide for an adequate burial. Vienna even has the "Bestattungsmuseum", a museum devoted to coffins and mortuary science. The country’s morbid obsession may be correlated with its higher suicide rate when compared with the rest of Europe.

Vienna is also famous for its coffee culture. "Let's have a coffee" is a very commonly heard phrase, because despite incursions by Starbucks and Italian-style espresso bars, the Kaffeehauskultur is still the traditional way to drink a cup of coffee, read the newspaper, meet friends, or fall in love.

Michaelerplatz, outside grand entry to Hofburg Palace
Michaelerplatz, outside grand entry to Hofburg Palace

To the traveler, the city has a very convenient layout: The 'old town', or city center, is the first district, with the Stephansdom and Stephansplatz at the centre of a bullseye. It is encircled by the Ringstraße (Ring Road), a grand boulevard constructed along the old city walls, which were torn down at the end of the 19th century. Along the Ringstraße are many famous and grand buildings, including the Rathaus [City Hall], the Austrian Parliament, the Hofburg Palace, the Natural History Museum, the Museum of Art History (Kunsthistorisches Museum), and the State Opera House.

Districts 2-9 are mostly gathered within the Gürtel ('belt') Road, which runs parallel to and encircles the Ringstraße like an outer belt. In these districts you can find the Prater (amusement) park and the other, hip quarters of the Second District (close to Schwedenplatz) as well as the Jewish quarter, Südbahnhof (southern Rail Station) and Westbahnhof (Western Railstation) - a major national and international railway terminus, currently undergoing massive renovation (see travel) - from which the major shopping street Mariahilfer Straße leads eastwards toward the inner city, the Hundertwasserhaus and Hundertwasser Kunsthaus in the 3rd, and the Belvedere Palace.

Outside the "belt" road, among other sites are the Danube Tower (Donauturm) and notably Schönbrunn Palace, which is one of the most visited tourist attractions and deservedly so. It was placed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List in 1996.

The Vienna Tourist Board [2] operates information and booking booths at the airport Arrival Hall, 7AM-11PM and in town at Vienna 1, Albertinaplatz/Maysedergasse.

Climate

Summer in Vienna is usually warm. Weather in June and July is moderate and sunny with a light summer windy breeze. In August, there are some hot and humid days where it reaches 34°C (93.2°F), but overall, summer in Vienna is pleasant.

Autumn starts around September and it gets colder as it approaches November. A main disadvantage of the Viennese climate is that it is rather windy and usually overcast during these months.

Get in

By plane

Vienna International Airport/Wien Schwechat

Vienna International Airport (ICAO: LOWW, IATA: VIE) [3] is located ca. 18 km (11 miles) south-east of the Austrian capital near to the town of Schwechat, after which the airport is named. The airport is the home base of the flag-carrier Austrian [4] and the budget airline Fly Niki [5]. Most European airlines and a significant number of international airlines have direct connections to Vienna from their respective hubs. A quick summary of transport options:

  • City Airport Train (CAT), (underneath terminal), [6]. takes you directly from the Vienna International Airport to Wien-Mitte Station (Landstraße) in 16 minutes. The return ticket costs €18 or €10 one way. The train leaves every half hour (at :05 and :35 past the hour). The CAT is used mainly by business travellers (or those lured by advertising) and can useful if you are in a great hurry, and a CAT is the next train departing. The CAT is not owned by the Austrian Federal Railways and relys on heavy advertizing to attract customers. One way €10, return trip €18.  edit

Passengers departing on Star Alliance Flights, Air Berlin, or Fly Niki, can be check-in (including baggage) at the City Air Terminal at the Wien-Mitte Railway Station (Landstraße), which leaves one baggage-free with a bit more time in Vienna; the price is still high for saving a few minutes. [Note: If you are flying to the United States, due to extra security measures, you cannot check-in your luggage at the City Air Terminal.]. The train from he City Air Terminal to the airport leaves every half hour (at :08 and :38 past the hour).

  • S-Bahn, (underneath terminal), [7]. 5:00-24:00. Although not advertized, the normal S-Bahn (suburban railway) S7 (and the less-frequent S2 and RSB7) travel directly to Wien-Mitte, as well as stopping at other useful hub stations including transfer to every subway line in the city as well as numerous trams and trains. Taking between 18 and 27 minutes to reach Wien-Mitte, these are nearly as fast as the CAT service and cost much less. The required ticket to and from the airport is a Vienna Zone 100 ticket (a single ticket is €1.80 and includes all connecting transit in Vienna, day/week/etc. passes are also valid) + one extra zone ("Aussenzone" €1.80) since the airport is technically in Lower Austria and not in the Capitol. Alternatively the ÖBB (Austrian Federal Railways) sells point-to-point tickets at normal rates to/from the airport. Technically tickets have to be purchased and validated before boarding but the conductors are known to sell tickets penalty-free. To reach the S-Bahn station at the Vienna Internatonal Airport, fallow signs with an S-style logo and a train. These leave from seperate platforms next to the CAT. One way €3.60, return trip €7.20.  edit
  • Taxi to and from the Airport

As a point of reference, a taxi ride between the airport and the western part of the city centre (District 7) costs around €40 (including extras and tip). A taxi from the Rennweg S-Bahn station (where the S-Bahn to the airport departs) to the airport costs around €25. Taxi prices are negotiable before you climb in! If your destination is north or west of the city centre a pre-booked taxi might be much cheaper. For example, Airport Service Wien [8] offers a flat rate of €27 (max. 3 persons in car) to/from any destination address within Vienna, Rosenov Airport Transfers [9] offers flat rates for both Vienna and Bratislava airport transfers. You can find a few mor airportshuttle services here [10]

  • Hotel shuttle

Some Vienna hotels offer guests shuttle service to and from the airport, usually for a fee that's cheaper than a taxi, though sometimes you will share the shuttle with guests from your own or nearby hotels.

  • Bus (Vienna Airport Lines) to and from the city center

There are two direct Vienna Airport bus lines [11] going every 30 minutes between the Vienna International Airport and Vienna's city center.

1. One bus line goes to "Morzinplatz" next to "Schwedenplatz" very close to the center of the city. At Schwedenplatz, you have two subway lines (U4 and U1), as well as buses and trams. In about a five minute walk, you are at St. Stephan´s Cathedral, the very center of Vienna. The trip costs €6 and takes about 20 minutes.

2. The other bus line goes to the two main railway stations near the city center. The bus trip to Südbahnhof (Southern Rail Station) or Westbahnhof (Western Rail Station) costs €6 and takes about half an hour. Usually a bus leaves the airport or the stations every 30 minutes (every 20 minutes in the summer). Costs: Single ride - €6; Round trip - €11. You buy the ticket from the bus driver.

Bratislava Milan Rastislav Štefánik Airport

Bratislava Airport (ICAO: LZIB, IATA: BTS) [12] is located ca. 54 km (34 miles) from Vienna International Airport across the Slovak border. The airport is the largest in the Slovak Republic and the home base of Danube Wings [13], though the budget airline Ryanair [14] has the most flights. The trips to Vienna can be made using a variety of buses including Blaguss Austria, Blaguss Slovakia, Slovak Lines/Postbus and Terravision for around €10 taking 90 minutes or by taking the Bratislava public bus 61 to Hlavná stanica €1 and catching a train to Vienna from there €9 also 90 minutes+ total.

Alternatives

There are a number of other smaller airports within two hours of Vienna which are served by budget airlines; it is therefore often cheaper to fly to a nearby city and connect by train or bus. Ryanair [15] flies to Linz (1 1/2 - 2 hours by train), Graz (2 1/2 hours by train), and Brno (IATA: BRQ). Budapest and Munich Airports are 4-5 hour journeys but can mean substatial savings on intercontinental trips.

By train

Vienna is a railroad hub, easily accessible from other major European cities. Overnight trains arrive from places like Amsterdam, Strasbourg, Bucharest, Sofia, Belgrade, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Moscow, Minsk, Kiev, Milan, Warsaw, Cracow, Prague, Rijeka, Koper, Split, Zurich, Bregenz, Rome, and Venice. The day trains from Prague take less than four and a half hours, the night train takes a little under nine hours. From Budapest, the train ride is roughly 3 hours.

Vienna's three main stations, Wien Südbahnhof (Southern Railstation), Wien Westbahnhof (Western Railstation), and Wien Landstrasse/Mitte are all undergoing serious expansion and renovation works, with Südbahnhof close to and Landstrasse currently being torn down, and the main thoroughfare of Westbahnhof presently closed until 2011. It is advised to take extra time when departing from these stations as the temporary provisions are not always easy to navigate.

Trains from multiple countries can all be arranged via the Austrian ÖBB train system [16].

There are several cheap train offers to and from Vienna, mainly to destinations in Germany and Italy, but also Strasbourg and some other destinations. These all cost €29 for a one-way seater, €39 for a couchette, or €59 for a sleeper. You have to book quite a bit in advance (to Berlin and Hamburg about two months in advance, especially in summer), but it is definitely worth the effort as it takes you right to the center of the city early in the morning (unlike taking the plane). If you have an ÖBB Vorteilscard which costs less than €20 for people under 26 years and €100 for older people there are plenty of cheap train offers whithout limitation. So you can go to Strasbourg or Venice for €19 in coach and €39 in couchette, but you need not book weeks in advance.

There is a special discounted round-trip ticket you can buy if traveling from Budapest called a "kirandulójegy" or excursion ticket in English. For €29 you can buy a round trip ticket between Budapest and Vienna good for four days that will also cover all your local transportation within Vienna's Zone 100 on the first two days. Since a 3-day transport pass usually costs €12 you're basically getting a round trip ticket for €17! This is an excellent deal, especially if you're planning on going back to Budapest. One way tickets to Budapest can be bought in advance for €19 but these places are limited. The modern high speed RailJet train leaves/terminates from the Eastern Station in Budapest (Budapest Keleti pu) and the Wien Westbahnhof in Vienna. It runs approximately every two hours seven times a day. Tickets may be bought at any MAV office or station in Budapest.

When you make a return trip to/from Czech Republic, ask for "Wien Spezial" discount ticket. It is valid for the Czech border regions, including Brno. However, even if you go directly to/from Prague, you can take advantage of this discount, too, when you buy a return ticket Prague <-> Breclav and "Wien Spezial" for Breclav <-> Vienna). Ask at a train station, they should give an you advise.

NOTE: As stated above, Südbahnhof, Westbahnhof, and Landstrasse/Mitte are all currently undergoing enormous expansion and renovation programmes, so be sure to plan in extra time when departing from these station or transferring there. At the moment, Südbahnhof does not connect directly to the metro system (the new station will). The nearest metro station is outside of the station about 400m away, keeping the large road (the Gürtel) on your right, the Belvedere Palace behind you. Look for Südtiroler Platz. Many trains from Germany arrive at Westbahnhof, the main hall of which is closed until Fall 2011. Trains to Bratislava (only an hour away) usually depart from Südbahnhof, but occasionally also from Westbahnhof.

See a scan with the 2008 overview for connections from Vienna to and from Western Europe [17], and a scan from Vienna to South and Eastern Europe [18].

By car

Most Austrian highways ("Autobahn") terminate/originate in Vienna.

Unlike Germany, there is a strictly enforced speed limit of 130 km/h (about 80 mph) on highways. On some highway sections in Vienna, the speed decreases to 80 km/h (about 50 mph). Within towns it is 50 km/h (about 31 mph) and on major roads ("Schnellstraße") it is 100 km/h (about 62 mph).

A Highway Toll Sticker (Vignette) or a GO-Box, depending on vehicle class, is mandatory, and heavy fines are levied for not having either. Usually they can be purchased at petrol (gas) stations.

Drivers in Austria are also required by law to carry certain safety equipment. This includes a reflective vest, first aid kit, and traffic warning triangle.

Parking anywhere within the "Gürtel" (centre-districts 1 - 9) and in specially marked areas is restricted to 120 minutes (between nine and 22 hours, M-F) and subject to a fee of €1.20 per hour unless you have a resident permit. Payment is made by marking the time of arrival on a ticket ("Parkschein"), which can be bought at tobacco shops. Therefore, if you wish to leave your car in the central districts for the period of your stay, you cannot simply park it on the street. You must either book a hotel that offers parking or leave it at a commercial car park (Parkhaus, Parkgarage). These can be very expensive (for instance, €32 per day in the Parkgarage Freyung).

A cheaper alternative is park and ride, normally available at U Bahn stations in the city periphery, for example at U3 Erdberg station (€2.70 per day).

Avoid the A23 Südosttangente at rush hour. Traffic jams are almost guaranteed there.

It should be noted, though, that Vienna is one of the world's cities where it's least necessary for the visitor to have a car.

By bus

Eurolines [19] is a relatively cheap way to reach Vienna from many European cities. Buses usually start and stop close to the subway station Erdberg (line U3).

When you travel to/from neighbouring countries, local bus companies may save you a few Euro coins comparing to Eurolines. In Czech Republic, try Student Agency [20] (they are for everyone, not only for students.).

By boat

Riverboats on the Danube include connections with Linz, Bratislava and Budapest, but it's of little value, unless you just love going on (slow and relatively expensive) riverboats. There is a fast catamaran service to Bratislava [21] for €28 and for €30 on weekends (one way). There is also a fast hydrofoil service to Bratislava [22] for €33 return and €21 one way (€28 and €16 if you go from Bratislava to Vienna and back) and a fast hydrofoil service to Budapest [23] for €109 round trip and €89 one way. The Hungarian hydrofoil also carries passengers between Vienna and Bratislava for €39 round trip and €29 one way.

Get around

Vienna has a good public transport system [24], which includes commuter rail, underground, trams (trolleys), and buses. The subway system is very efficient and will take you to within a few minutes walk of anywhere you are likely to want to visit.

Within Vienna itself, you can get a single trip ticket for any of these for €1.80 (€0.9 for children and dogs), a 24-hour ticket for €5.70, or a three-day pass for €13.60. A 48-hour version is available for €10. A one-person Wochenkarte (a week ticket covering all means of transport) stands at €14 for lines within zone 100 (all of Vienna), but is fixed for the Monday to Sunday period. A one month pass is €49.50 and is valid from the first day of the month through the second day of the following month.

Note that children up to 14 years need not buy a ticket on Sundays, holidays and during Austrian school vacations. Children between 15 and 19 years of age need not buy a ticket on Sundays, holidays and during Austrian school breaks as long as they attend an Austrian school.

You can buy all kinds of tickets at machines or from counters in or near S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations and in the small shops selling tobacco and newspapers (Tabak). Ticket machines accept Visa/Mastercard credit and debit cards, as well as cash. In trams and buses, you can only buy single tickets, which are more expensive (€2.20 full fare, €1.10 for children). Stamp your ticket at the start of its first use (there are stamping machines on the buses and trams and near the entrances to the stations). You can use one ticket to go in one direction on as many lines as you like, for as long as it takes you to get there. You have to buy another ticket if you stop and get out or if you want to go back in the direction from which you came. Payment is by the honour system. Normally, you don't have to show the ticket or stamp it again when you board, but occasionally inspectors check for valid tickets. If you don't have one, its an instant €70 fine (plus the fare you were supposed to have paid).

If you're staying for a few days and hope to do lots of sightseeing or shopping, the Vienna Card (Wien Karte) [25] is a good deal. It costs €18.50 and is good for 72 hours of unlimited public transit within Vienna. The card also gets you discounts (typically €1 or €2 at the major museums and art galleries) to many attractions and shops. You can buy it at the airport, hotels, and underground stops. Other options for longer stays or multiple parties include weekly and monthly passes, and the eight person day card (i.e. good for one person for eight days, two people for four days, or four people for two days).

The eight person day card (8-Tage-Karte) for €28.80 gives eight non-consecutive days of unlimited travel on U-Bahn and trams until 1AM (just after midnight). There are eight blank lines on the Karte (ticket). Fold the ticket to the desired blank line starting with blank line numbered one. The ticket can be shared by people traveling together. Punch one line per person per day. Trams and buses have a punch machine inside. The S-Bahn and U-Bahn have a punch machine at the entrance. You can travel to the Flughafen (airport) on the S-Bahn using this ticket with an additional €1.80 Außenzonen (outer zone) ticket.

Rail trips to the outskirts of Vienna may require additional fare. For example, a trip to or from the airport on the S7 line is a two-zone ride, requiring either a €3.60 advance purchase or a single zone (€1.80) ticket supplement to one of the timed-use Vienna tickets.

Because Vienna is one of those cities that never sleeps, a dense network of night buses is available for those who have a rather nocturnal approach to tourism. Since 2002, regular tickets may be used on these buses. Most terminate at "Kärntner Ring, Oper", which allows for easy interchange. Intervals are usually 30 minutes, with some busier lines (especially on Friday and Saturday night) going every 15 minutes. On summer nights, you can also use the S-Bahn between Flughafen Wien and Floridsdorf, which has a 60 minute interval.

Vienna's U-Bahn network

There are five U-Bahn (subway) lines – U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6. The tickets are bought from vending machines on the stations. Unlike Paris for example, Vienna's U-bahn has no turnstiles, so it is technically possible to enter the system without a ticket. However, you may want to think twice about that as the trains are often patrolled by ticket inspectors not wearing any kind of uniforms. A one-way ticket costs €1.80 and a ticket valid for 24 hours €5.70 but there are many other kinds of tickets [26] as well.

U1 (south – north direction)

Reumannplatz - Keplerplatz - Südtirolerplatz - Taubstummengasse - Karlsplatz - Stephansplatz - Schwedenplatz - Nestroyplatz - Praterstern - Vorgartenstraße - Donauinsel - Kaisermühlen (Vienna International Centre) - Alte Donau - Kagran - Kagraner Platz - Rennbahnweg - Aderklaaer Straße - Großfeldsiedlung - Leopoldau

U2 (south – north direction)

Karlsplatz - Museumsquartier - Volkstheater - Rathaus - Schottentor - Schottenring - Taborstraße - Praterstern - Messe Prater - Krieau - Stadion

U3 (west – east direction)

Ottakring - Kendlerstraße - Hütteldorfer Straße - Johnstraße - Schweglerstraße - Westbahnhof - Zieglergasse - Neubaugasse - Volkstheater - Herrengasse - Stephansplatz - Stubentor - Landstraße (Wien Mitte) - Rochusgasse - Kardinal-Nagl-Platz - Schlachthausgasse - Erdberg - Gasometer - Zippererstraße - Enkplatz - Simmering

U4 (southwest – north direction)

Hütteldorf - Ober Sankt Veit - Unter Sankt Veit - Braunschweiggasse - Hietzing (Tierpark) - Schönbrunn - Meidling Hauptstraße - Längenfeldgasse - Margaretengürtel - Pilgramgasse - Kettenbrückengasse - Karlsplatz - Stadtpark - Landstraße (Wien Mitte) - Schwedenplatz - Schottenring - Roßauer Lände - Friedensbrücke - Spittelau - Heiligenstadt

U6 (south – north direction)

Siebenhirten - Perfektastraße - Erlaaer Straße - Alterlaa - Am Schöpfwerk - Tscherttegasse - Philadelphiabrücke (Bhf. Meidling) - Niederhofstraße - Längenfeldgasse - Gumpendorfer Straße - Westbahnhof - Burgasse–Stadthalle - Thaliastraße - Josefstädter Straße - Alser Straße - Michelbeuern–Allg. Krankenhaus - Währinger Straße–Volksoper - Nußdorfer Straße - Spittelau - Jägerstraße - Dresdner Straße - Handelskai - Neue Donau - Floridsdorf

Fiaker coachmen waiting for customers
Fiaker coachmen waiting for customers

Avoid driving a car within the central ring if possible. While cars are allowed on many of the streets there, the streets are narrow and mostly one-way. They can be confusing for a visitor and parking is extremely limited (and restricted during the day). Due to the comprehensiveness of the transit system, you most likely will not need a car within Vienna, except for excursions elsewhere.

Furthermore, it might be a good idea to leave your car at home during rush hours. Vienna's streets can become a little clogged in the mornings and early evenings and the drivers are not really known for being especially polite and friendly.

Pedestrians have the right of way in crossing all roads at a crosswalk where there is no pedestrian signal present. If there is such a pedestrian crossing on an otherwise straight section of the road, there will be a warning sign – you are required to yield to any pedestrian on this crossing! Austrians accustomed to experienced local drivers will step out with little thought and force you to stop, so slow down here and be careful! When driving in a neighborhood this "right of way to pedestrians" is an understood rule at every intersection, although pedestrians will be more careful before they step out. Again, be on the lookout for this – if you see a pedestrian waiting to cross, you should stop at the intersection for him or her.

Graben
Graben

Cycling is another option for travelling within Vienna. Vienna's compact size makes cycling attractive. On a bicycle you can reach most places of interest within half an hour. There are many bicycle paths and lanes along major streets, in parks, and by the rivers. However, it can be complicated to cross town because the lanes follow illogical routes.

If your destination is in the outer suburbs, you may consider taking your bike on the U-Bahn (except in rush hour when it's forbidden!) or suburban trains (S-Bahn, regional trains), for your bike you need to buy a children's ticket. A company called PedalPower offers guided bicycle tours, or bicycle rental deliveries to your hotel (or you can pick them up at the Prater for a discount).

Bicycle stand pump at Siebenstern
Bicycle stand pump at Siebenstern
  • CityBike [27]: The city also offers free or low-cost short-term "CityBike" rentals at various fixed locations near the central city. You need a credit card to rent a bike or get a Touristcard for €2 a day. You can sign up to the CityBike service at any CityBike station or more conveniently online. The first hour is free, the second one costs €1. Registration costs €1, but counts as credit for the first payment you have to make. If you interrupt your trip for longer than 15 minutes, the following rental will be counted as a new first hour.

On foot

Walking can also be very pleasant. The inner ring is quite compact with lots of pleasant cobblestoned and paved streets. It can be crossed in about 20 minutes.

Bring a comfortable pair of walking shoes as this is the most common way of getting around.

Talk

Viennese speak Austrian German, though there is a special Viennese accent all its own. Standard (Northern) German however, the version usually studied by English speakers, will everywhere be readily understood. People in jobs dealing with foreign visitors usually are fluent in English, though English is not as universally spoken as in northern European countries, and signs (including descriptive signs in museums) don't as often include English translations as in some other European countries, so those who don't speak German may find a traveler's phrase book or bilingual dictionary useful.

See

Museums

Museumsquartier (The Museum District) [28] is the new cultural district of Vienna since 2001. Though a lot of museums and cultural institutions are situated there, it is not only a place for art. It is also an urban living space and people go there to spend some time, sitting in one of the cafés or perhaps playing boccia. The Leopold Museum [29] and the MUMOK [30] are situated there. If you are interested in visiting a couple of these museums, combination tickets available at the MQ entrance will be cheaper than buying them individually at museum entrances. Note that MUMOK and Leopold has a strict policy of not allowing big bags inside the museum. Even your cameras (unless they can be tucked inside a small carry bag) will have to be deposited outside. MUMOK has a self service locker, which you might want to use when visiting Leopold, since Leopold charges €1 per person for the "cloak room" service. Within MQ you can use the free wireless LAN provided by Quintessenz [31].

  • Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Fine Arts) [32], €10 (students €7.50 / map €0.50) – Picture Gallery daily except Monday 10AM–6PM, Thursday 10AM–9PM, U2, U3: Volkstheater; tram D, 1, 2, 46, 49 bus 2A, 57A: Burgring Maria-Theresien-Platz (entrance), phone 525 24 0. One of the world's greatest art museums and in a palace that's a work of art itself. Like the Louvre, serious art fans may wish to devote more than a day to its treasures. The mother of all Austrian museums – there is no other word to describe the "Kunst" other than mind boggling. It contains a world-class exhibit of the Habsburgs' art collection, including Raphael, Titian, Caravaggio, Bosch, and Brueghel. Its, at the very least, a full day’s worth of sightseeing, if you intend to go through it thoroughly and attempt to ponder the importance of each major work. The better approach here is to break up sections of the museum and visit them over a series of days, or if that’s not an option, pick one section and concentrate on it alone. Beginning with another section of the museum, it’s possible to have a lunch or light dinner in the café and then continue through the Picture Gallery until closing time (especially on Thursdays, because the Picture Gallery is open until 9PM). The Museum has an excellent collection of ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman art. The coin & medals collection is also exhaustive in its scope. The Museum cafe is a bit pricey, but good, and in a beautiful setting. Like the Louvre, hand-held photography is permitted to help store and recall the numerous mind-boggling beautiful works of art at the Kunst.
  • Schatzkammer (Imperial Treasury) [33] €7 (as a combined ticket with the Museum of Fine Arts) – Located in the Neue Hofburg, the Schatzkammer (also known as the Secular and Ecclesiastical Treasures) is the best part of the Hofburg and an absolute must on any tour of Vienna. It contains the Habsburgs' collection of jewels, crowns, and other valuables — perhaps the best on the Continent. Second only to a tour of the Kunsthistorisches Museum itself, of which the Schatzkammer is officially a part, there are 20 rooms of priceless treasures that give a fairly accurate feel for Habsburg court life over the centuries.
Hofburg Palace
Hofburg Palace
  • The New Palace (Neue Hofburg) – The New Palace is the newest and largest section of the Imperial Palace. It contains the Ethnological Museum and three branches of the Museum of Fine Arts. The Ephesus Museum contains classical art from Asia Minor. The Collection of Historical Musical Instruments is self-explanatory, but the jewel of the New Palace is the Collection of Arms. This collection, second largest in the world, houses an immense and exhaustive representation of weaponry from past centuries.
  • Albertina (State Apartments) [34] €9.50 – Once a palace, it is now the most popular exhibition space in Vienna, mainly for traditional modern art. The building itself is an experience as well. It is home to a valuable drawing collection, including many works of the German Renaissance painter, Dürer.
Belvedere, Wien
Belvedere, Wien
  • The Belvedere, Prinz Eugen-Straße 27 (Take tram D, stop Belvedere), +43/ (0)1/ 79 557 0 (), [35]. Open daily 10AM–6PM. €13.50 (Upper and Lower) - Intended as a summer residence for Prince Eugene of Savoy, the Belvedere was located outside the city walls. Its two palace segments, the Upper and Lower Belvedere, later became the permanent home of the Austrian Gallery. The Oberes Belvedere (Upper) contains recent Austrian and international art from the past two centuries. Viennese art from the early twentieth century is well-represented in the permanent collection "Vienna around 1900 and the Art of the Classical Modern." The Orangerie houses temporary exhibits and a collection of medieval tapestries is in the former stables. The tapestry collection in on view from 10:00AM until 12:00 noon, so plan your visit accordingly.  edit
  • The Imperial Furniture Collection – Vienna Furniture Museum, Andreasgasse 7, 1070 Wien, phone: +43-1-524 33 57-0. Opening Hours: Tu–Su 10AM–6PM. Wheelchair-accessible. The museum houses the largest furniture collection in the world. It's located just off bustling Mariahilfer Strasse. Take the orange underground line U3 (alight at Zieglergasse, take the Andreasgasse exit). The exhibit displays furniture for all the Austrian emperors since Charles VI (the father of Maria Theresa), furniture by the Thonet Brothers, Jugendstil, and the Viennese Modernist movement. In addition, they show other contemporary Austrian architects and designers, such as E.A. Plischke, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Luigi Blau, and Franz West. Besides the permanent furniture collection, the museum also hosts two to three temporary special exhibitions on furniture design and photography each year. You can purchase a single ticket or a "Sisi Ticket," which allows you entrance to the Schönbrunn Palace, the Imperial Apartments, Sisi Museum, and the Imperial Silver Collection in the Hofburg.
  • MAK - Austrian Museum of Applied Arts / Contemporary Art [36], Stubenring 5, 1st District, phone: +43-1-711 36-0, open: Tu 10AM-midnight (MAK - NITE(c)), W-SU 10AM-6PM. Closed on Monday. Free admission on Saturday. The museum has the MAK Design Shop and a study collection. The museum exhibits contemporary art, design, and architecture. To get there take the Subway U3, Tram 1, 2, bus 1A, 74A to Stubentor, and U4 to Landstrasser Hauptstrasse, City Airport Train from the airport to Bahnhof Wien Mitte. Also part of the MAK is the Depot of Contemporary Art [37] (Gefechtsturm Arenbergpark) in the 3rd district Dannebergplatz/Barmherzigengasse. To get there take bus 74A to Hintzerstrasse or U3 to Rochusgasse. Open every Sunday from May 4 – November 30, 2PM-6PM. Exhibited works include spatial interventions and objects by international artists specifically developed for the MAK. A lovely addition to a visit to MAK is popping over the road for a coffee at the 100-year old Cafe Pruekel.
KunstHaus Wien
KunstHaus Wien
  • KunstHausWien (Vienna House of the Arts) [38], Untere Weißgerberstrasse 13, open daily 10AM–7PM (Every Monday regular admission is half off), Tel: +43-1-712 04 91. To get there, take the street Tram O/N and get off at Radetzkyplatz. €6 - Even an avowed hater of modern art can appreciate the KunstHausWien, Hundertwasser's (born Friedrich Stowasser in 1928) major contribution to the Viennese art world. In a time when artists often try to shock the public or merely impress other members of the rarefied gallery subculture, Hundertwasser's manifesto rings out as an utterly reasonable plea: The architecture of KunstHausWien would be a bastion against the dictatorship of the straight line, the ruler and T-square, a bridgehead against the grid system and the chaos of the absurd. Starting with the façade of the building, adapted from its prior life as a furniture factory, there is a Gaudi-in-Barcelona feel to the place. Windows peek out like eyes from curvy, rounded plaster and colorful paint. It's a Disneyland for grownups! Do not miss the Hundertwasserhaus and the shopping village situated about 300m from KunstHausWien. Very similar to Gaudi.
  • Pathologisch-anatomisches Bundesmuseum Wien (Pathological and Anatomical State Museum) [39] Open Wednesday 3PM–6PM and Thursday 8AM-11AM. On top of restricted hours, the Narrenturm can be hard to find. Housed in a squat tower, which once was an insane asylum (the "Narrenturm" ("Fool's Tower"), this museum contains some of the dustier corners of the annals of medicine. You'll find preserved hydrocephalic infants, wax castings of tertiary syphilis, antique medical devices, and even a laryngeal tuberculous ulcer. The gift shop sells postcards depicting the best of these. Of similar character is the Josephinum [40], take trams 37-38, 40-42.
  • Technical Museum [41] – This newly renovated museum near the Schoenbrunn Palace exhibits machines, transportations, electronic equipment, and the like from their first design up to their current form. It also depicts the development of Vienna as a city, on all its technical aspects (recycling, power, sewage, etc). The museum is huge (22,000 square meters) and requires at least two hours to go through. Take trams 10, 52, 58, stop Penzinger Strasse.
  • Natural History Museum [42] – This museum was erected as a mirror to its twin museum, Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Fine Arts). It exhibits various minerals (e.g. a collection of meteorites), fossils, stuffed animals, and skeleton reconstructions (among others, dinosaurs' skeletons). It also includes an anthropological section, where you can see the beautiful Venus of Willendorf which is 25,000 years old!
  • Haus der Musik (The Music House) [43] This relatively new museum is a special museum, in that it attributes great value to interactive learning experience. It covers the history of the Vienne Philharmonic Orchestra, the history of Vienna as a centre of music making (Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Mahler, Schubert and others are documented). In addition there are the more experimental sections of futuristic composition (The Brain Opera) and sound experiences. Highly recommended! Look for the happy hour. Take U1, U2, U4, trams 1,2, 62,65, J and D, stop Karlsplatz/Opernring.
  • Museum am Schottenstift (Museum at the Scottish Monastery) [44]; only in German). A nice, small picture gallery mainly of Baroque Austrian painting. Take U2, trams 1,2,37-38,40-44, D, stop Schottentor.
  • Liechtenstein Museum [45]– A private collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein, it is exhibited in his once Viennese Residence. The richly decorated picture gallery mainly exhibits Baroque paintings, with a nice portion of Rubens. You can get there either with tram line D, stop at Seegasse or about 10 minutes by foot from U2 subway stop Schottentor.
  • Gemäldegalerie (Gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts) [46]; only in German) – A gallery owned by the Academy of Fine Arts, to which Hitler applied to before he decided to change to politics. It offers some paintings of Rubens and Bosch. Most interesting are the Renaissance and medieval exponents.
  • Freud Museum, Berggasse 19 (Near the Schottentor subway stop (U2) – 10 minute walk, or take tram D, stop Schlickgasse), +43 1 319 15 96 (, fax: +43 1 317 02 79), [47]. Daily from 9AM–5PM. This small museum is situated in Freud's historic flat where he practiced psychoanalysis for almost his whole life. However, the collection is limited mostly to documents of various kinds relating to Freud's life. Almost all of the flat's contents, including the famous original couch, went along with Freud to London when he fled the Nazis in 1939 and are now in the Freud Museum there.  edit
  • Vienna Museum [48] – A museum documenting Vienna's history. It is split into several branches with its main branch at Karlsplatz.
  • Otto Wagner is the most prominent Viennese architect at the turn of the 20th Century. Two museums are dedicated to his work. At the Wagner Villa, [49]; only in German) you can see his private lodging in a very eccentric design. The villa is also beautifully located in the woods. In the rooms some paintings of Fuchs are exhibited, a painter who bought the house from the Wagner family. His painting were surprisingly influenced by the style of the villa... You can get there with tram number 49 (last stop). Another museum is the Otto Wagner Museum [50] is located at the post office of his original design. At this museum you can see the more serious aspect of his artistic enterprise, that of public life. At the museum you can see some of the original furniture as well as his plans. Near the Schwedenplatz U1 stop (trams 1,2, 21, N).
  • Museum of Military History [51] – A huge museum near the southern railway station featuring weapons and military maps from different periods. You can also see the open-top car in which Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the last Austrian prince, was shot in Sarajevo. His death triggered World War I and the eventual downfall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the same room as this is the visibly blood-stained jacket he was wearing at the time of his assassination. Near the Southern Railway (Südbahnhof), trams 18, D, O.
  • Jewish Museum [52] – A museum documenting Vienna's rich Jewish residents including Zweig, Freud, Herzl, Mahler, and Schoenberg. Three sites are available for one combined ticket: two museum sites and the main synagogue. Attached to the museum at Judenplatz are the archaeological remains of a medieval synagogue. The Stadttempel, the only historical synagogue in Vienna to have survived World War II, is accessible on through the guided tour. Call ahead for times.
  • If you are looking for exhibitions of modern art apart from the MUMOK and MAK there are several other places you could visit: MOYA[53]The Artists' House [54]The House of the Arts (see Hundertwasser above) – Atelier Augarten (a branch of the Belvedere) – Kunsthalle (Exhibition Hall) - there are two of them, both branches of the Museum District (MQ) and the Generali Foundation [55]Essl Collectionin Klosterneuburg (see below).
  • Film Museum [56] A cinema for showing specially curated films and retrospective.
  • Dritte Mann Museum [57] - This is a private museum dedicated to the cult film "The Third Man" which was shot in Vienna and released in 1949. This film is often played at the Burgkino [58].
  • Mozart House (Mozarthaus Vienna), Domgasse 5 (Take the U1 or U3 to Stephansplatz. The Mozarthaus is located east of the cathedral), +43/ (0)1/ 512 17 91 (, fax: +43/ (0)1/ 512 17 91-91), [59]. Open daily from 10AM–7PM. This is the Viennese residence of Austria's most famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and a branch of the Vienna Museum.  edit
  • Small Museums – There are plenty of small museums that follow special interests and are operated privately by the districts or societies. They range from a museum on abortion to the world's only museum on heating systems.
Gloriette at Schönbrunn, Wien
Gloriette at Schönbrunn, Wien
  • Schloss Schönbrunn[60] Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1996, it is not far from the city centre and easy to get to by public transportation: You can take the underground U4 (green line) and get off at Schönbrunn; If you plan on catching a tram, take 10, 58, and detrain at Schönbrunn. Otherwise, take the 10A bus and alight at Schönbrunn. Schönbrunn is the ultimate palace experience in Vienna, because the Habsburg summer palace can be found here. It is comparable in grandeur to Versailles and is definitely a must-see in Vienna. Its gardens and zoo (the oldest in the world, built for Maria Theresa’s husband in 1752) alone are worth a lengthy visit. The palace has also seen its fair share of excitement over the years, including a meeting between John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khruschchev at the height of the Cold War. The Palace Park offers a lot of attractions, such as the Privy Garden, a Maze and Labyrinth, and the top-of-the-hill Gloriette with its Panorama Terrace. There are two possible tours available without a guide (though guides are available): the Imperial Tour showing 22 rooms and the Grand Tour showing 40 rooms. The price of admission includes an audio or written guide. The shorter tour of Schönbrunn Palace takes you into the west wing of the palace including the apartments of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth (Sisi), as well as the imposing state rooms in the central wing. With the Grand Tour you can visit, in addition to those rooms included on the Imperial Tour, the 18th-century rooms from the time of Maria Theresa. No photos, video taping, or backpacks allowed inside. The palace is wheelchair-accessible and is open all year round:
- Apr 1—Jun 30: 8:30AM–5PM
- Jul 1—Aug 31: 8:30AM–6PM
- Sep 31—Oct 31: 8:30AM–5PM
- Nov 1—Mar 31: 8:30AM–4:30PM
Hofburg Palace
Hofburg Palace
  • Hofburg Palace, (To get there, take the underground: the nearest underground station is U3 Herrengasse; tram: Lines 1, 2, D, J, alight at Burgring; bus: Lines 2A or 3A, alight at Hofburg), [61]. This immense palace complex grew into a large, unwieldy series of buildings over the years and was the imperial residence of the Habsburg emperors until 1918. What began as a medieval castle (whose chapel is the only original element of that building to survive) was expanded and redecorated as the Habsburgs’ power increased correspondingly. The Palace Stables and Amalia’s Wing were added in the sixteenth century. The Imperial Chancery Wing, Court Library, and Spanish Riding School was added in the eighteenth. In the last century, St Michael’s Wing was tacked on and around 1900 the New Palace was completed. The contents of each separate building contain so many treasures that the time spent moving from one to another is like opening box after box of fabulous jewels – it's difficult to know when to stop. The Imperial Palace itself now houses the offices of the Austrian President, a convention center, and the Spanish Riding School with its Lipizzaner stallions. The Palace also houses several museums which are open to the public, including the "Imperial Apartments, Sisi Museum and Imperial Silver Collection" (Kaiserappartements, Sisi Museum, Silberkammer) where you can visit 22 state rooms (open daily from 9AM-5PM; July-Aug: 9AM-5:30PM. The museums are wheelchair-accessible). These are the residential and state apartments of Emperor Franz Joseph I. and Empress Elisabeth (popularly known as Sisi) and show 19th-century imperial life. The Imperial Silver Collection displays unique items of the glittering world of imperial dining. You can purchase a single ticket for all three museums or purchase the "Sisi Ticket", which entitles you to visit the Schönbrunn Palace, Hofburg with Audio Guide (Imp. Apartments, Sisi Museum, Imp. Silver Collection), and Imperial Furniture Museum.  edit
Karlskirche (St.Charles Cathedral)
Karlskirche (St.Charles Cathedral)
  • Karlskirche, Kreuzherrengasse 2, (), [62]. M-F from 09.00-12.30 and 13.00-18.00. Sunday and holidays: 12.00-17.45. Largest Baroque cathedral north of the Alps, designed by the famous architect Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. Frescos done by Michael Rottmayr and paintings from the Italian Baroque painters Sebastiano Ricci and Giuseppe Antonio Pellegrini, and the Austrian painter Daniel Gran.  edit
  • Kapuzinerkirche, 1010 Wien, Tegetthoffstraße 2, 512. daily 10.00 to 18.00, 1 and 2 November closed. Notable mainly as the site of the Kaisergruft, a mausoleum housing the tombs of generations of Habsburg royalty. Adults €4; Families €9; Seniors, Students, Groups €3; Students under 14 €1.50.  edit
  • Jesuitenkirche, 1010 Wien Dr-Ignaz-Seipel-Platz 1, 5125232. 7.00-18.30 daily. Has one of the most elaborate Baroque interiors in Europe.  edit
  • Augustinian Friars' Church (Augustinerkirche), Josefsplatz 1. Facing the sculpture in the center of the square, the entrance is small and easy to miss – it's on the left hand wall of the square. Yet another example of the gruesome divide-and-conquer burial strategy of the Habsburg dynasty. It's said that other dynasties waged countless wars to acquire new lands, but "you, happy Austria, marry." Even in death the Habsburgs placated three different churches with the honor of caring for their remains. The best known, the Kapuzinergruft, contain their actual bodies. St Stephens holds their innards (intestines and other parts taken out during the preservation process). But the Augustinerkirche holds, in the Herzgruft (Heart Crypt), all the Habsburgs' hearts. Tours of the Herzgruft are available Monday through Friday at 11AM and 3PM. The tradition began in 1627 with Emperor Ferdinand IV, who wanted to "lay his heart at the feet of the Mother of God" - literally. His heart, and those of his descendants, are preserved in silver jars which are carefully cared for by the Augustinian friars who run the church. When the renovation was underway it was found that the preservative in some of the caskets had evaporated over the years, leaving nothing but a dried-out, mummified heart.  edit
Stephansdom
Stephansdom
  • Stephansdom (St. Stephen's Cathedral), Stephansplatz (U1, U3: Stephansplatz), +43/ (0)1/ 515 52-3526, [63]. High Mass: Sun and public holidays 10:15AM, in Jul and Aug 9:30AM, Guided tours of the Cathedral in English: Mon-Sat 3:45PM, Catacombs (only with guided tours): Mon-Sat 10AM-11:30AM and 1:30PM-16:30PM; Sun and public holidays 1:30PM - 6:30PM; North Tower (great bell): Nov-Mar 8:30AM-5PM, Apr-Jun and Sep—Oct 9AM-6PM, Jul and Aug 9AM-18:30 p.m. South Tower: daily 9AM-5:30PM. Yet another patchwork of architectural styles, but predominantly Gothic. None of the original construction remains—the oldest extant sections are the thirteenth century Giant Gate (Riesentor) and Towers of the Heathens (Heidentürme), both of which are Romanesque. The 448 ft South Tower (Südturm), often known by its Viennese diminutive Steffl (also a nickname for the entire cathedral), was finished in 1433. This is where the Pummerin, a huge bell cast from melted-down Turkish cannons, hangs. Steffl's intended twin, the North Tower (Nordturm), was never finished. In 1511, building in Gothic style ceased due to being out of fashion. Over fifty years later, in 1579, a Renaissance spire was added to the Nordturm to make it look less like the builders had stormed off the job. The main altar has a Baroque panel showing St. Stephen, Christianity’s first martyr. The organized tour is worth it, since some of the finest works of art in the cathedral can only be seen with a guide, such as Emperor Frederick III's red marble sepulchre and the immense Gothic carved Altar of Wiener Neustadt. The aborted North Tower has an observation deck with an amazing view of downtown Vienna. Nearby is the entrance to the catacombs, where legions of bishops and Habsburg body parts are buried (the intestines, specifically).  edit
  • Votivkirche, 1090 Wien, Rooseveltplatz 8 (U2 Schottentor), +4314061192, [64]. One of the most important Neo-Gothic religious architectural sites in the world (constructed between 1856 and 1879), the Votivkirche stands on a large square just outside the Ringstrasse boulevard, close to the University of Vienna. This church was erected on the location where an unsuccessful attempt to assessinate Emperor Franz Joseph took place in 1853. The plans were established by Heinrich von Ferstel (1828-1883), who chose to build the cathedral in the neo-Gothic style, borrowing heavily from the architecture of Gothic French cathedrals. The Votivkirche is made out of white sandstone, similar to the Stephansdom, which is very vulnerable to air-pollution and acid rain an therefore makes frequent renovations necessary. (48°12′55″N,16°21′31″E) edit
  • The Wotruba Church — A beautiful cubist church on the top of a hill overlooking the woods. There is also an open air planetarium next to the church. To reach the church, take tram 60 to the Maurer Lange Gasse stop and then follow Maurer Lange Gasse up the hill until you see the green signs which point the way to the church. The walk is about ten minutes.
Otto Wagner Kirche
Otto Wagner Kirche
  • Kirche am Steinhof (Otto Wagner Kirche), 1140 Wien, Baumgartner Höhe 1, (+43 1) 910 60/11007, [65]. Saturday 3PM, all year round. A special church constructed by the Viennese master architect, Otto Wagner. It is situated in a psychiatric hospital on the hills near the wood overlooking Vienna. Very beautiful! There are more ways to get there: from U4 station „Unter St.Veit“ take Bus 47A up to „Psychiatrisches Zentrum“ or at „Dr. Karl Renner Ring“ take Bus 48A to „Psych. Zentrum“ (that takes 35 minutes) or from U3 finalstation „Ottakring“ take Bus 48A to „Psychiatrisches Zentrum“. You have to enter the area of "Psychiatrisches Zentrum". Walk up the garden, it takes some minutes. If you cannot spot it immediately, just ask people around there.  edit
  • The Old Synagogue — Underneath the Judenplatz (The Jewish Square), you'll find this underground medieval synagogue excavation. Amazingly, the synagogue was destroyed centuries ago, but its existence was remembered by the area's inhabitants up to the 20th Century. If you are interested in Vienna's Jewish side you can buy a combined ticket with the Jewish Museum and the Stadttempel, a well preserved 19th Century synagogue, which is being used as the main city's synagogue by the current growing Viennese Jewish community.
  • English places of worship

If you are looking for more than just a religious building and, while on holiday, would like to worship in English, you will find many English-spaking churches in and around Vienna. You might like to try [66], [67], [68], [69]

  • Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek), Josefsplatz 1, 01/53410-348, [70]. Card catalogs may be an anachronism in today’s digitized world, but the Austrian National Library had the first one in existence, invented by the Habsburg court librarian. Unlike the printed library catalogs of the past, bound into book form, the card catalog could be rapidly updated and the library kept up-to-date. This well-ordered reader’s paradise has a collection that outshines many museums, thanks to its long association with the Habsburg imperial family. It gained an impressive collection when Emperor Josef II dissolved all the empire's monasteries – 300 manuscripts, 3,000 printed books, and 5000 diplomata. The library’s collection is approximately six million items strong and is the largest in Austria. It is a pioneer in digitalizing and placing its collection online. The oldest book in the collection is a fifteenth century Holy Gospels manuscript with scenes representing the four Evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) containing the coats of arms of the House of Austria, Styria, Tirol, and Carinthia, then ruled by Albrecht III, the book’s owner.  edit
  • Chapel of the Imperial Palace (Burgkapelle) — The original chapel of the Palace, built in Gothic style 1447-1449, was made over in Baroque style. On Sundays and Catholic holidays (of which the Austrians celebrate many), the Court Musicians perform here. This group is made up of members from the Vienna Boys Choir, as well as performers from the orchestra and choir of the Vienna State Opera.
  • Parliament — The guided tours in German or English language cost €4 (2€ for students) [71]. Open only when not in use by Parliament.
Parliament
Parliament
Hundertwasserhaus
Hundertwasserhaus
  • Hundertwasserhaus [72] This interesting apartment/office complex is located 5–10 minutes east of the Wien Mitte U-Bahn stop. You can also take tram N, stop Hetzgasse.
Haus des Meeres
Haus des Meeres
  • Haus des Meeres Aquarium Zoo [73] is a marvelous zoo, with a rain forest glasshouse, tiny apes, aquariums with sharks, and terrariums with reptiles and venomous snakes. It is situated in one of the leftover second world war air raid shelter, a so-called "Flakturm" [74] (check out these links: [75], [76] and [77]). The building carried formerly one of the first radar equipments and is designed to stand a direct bomb hit, an earthquake, and wind speeds up to an overpressure of ten bar. Now there is also a platform on top to allow nice views over the roofs of Vienna. Take U3, stop Neubaugasse.
Otto Wagner stop
Otto Wagner stop
  • Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Pavilion — This city tram stop, designed by Otto Wagner, is located near the Secession Building and Naschmarkt. It is a good example of functional turn of the century architecture – ornate, yet useful. Wagner was one of the most influential architects in Vienna and his style was widely copied.
Opera House
Opera House
  • Opera House (Wiener Staatsoper) [78] — The Opera House is probably the most-beloved symbol of Viennese arts, and one of the first buildings to be rebuilt in the postwar era. It was built from 1861-1869 under the direction of architects Eduard van der Nüll and August von Siccardsburg for then-emperor Franz Josef I. The first performance was Don Giovanni, an opera by Austrian native Mozart, on 25 May 1869. Though now as well-loved as any member of the family, the architecture of the Opera was barely tolerated by the picky Viennese when it opened. Van der Nüll did not take these criticisms of his work lightly and committed suicide. A few weeks later, von Siccardsburg died of a heart attack. Doubly cursed, the Opera building succumbed to bombs less than 100 years later, during WWII. After ten years of Allied control after the end of the war, many cultural institutions reopened to celebrate the birth of the new Austrian state. This time the Opera opened with an adopted son of Vienna's work: Beethoven's Fidelio. The lush curtains and overall elegance contribute to the atmosphere of the Opera (even the nosebleed seats, so steeply pitched and close to the ceiling a nosebleed becomes a distinct possibility). Inexpensive standing room tickets are made available for every performance and sold the day of the performance. The line forms about 2 hours prior to the performance. Post-performance, have some torte at the nearby Sacher Hotel (see entry). Guided tours in a number of languages are offered throughout the desk. The line at the front side door forms about 1/2 hour before the tour.
  • * Prater (Park) including the Giant Ferris Wheel,, (U1, tram O, 5, 21: Praterstern, S1-S3, S7, S15: Wien Nord), 729 54 30, [79]. May-Sep 9AM-midnight. The Prater Park began its life, as so many European parks did, as a carriage-riding area for the nobility. It is still a popular place to spend a weekend afternoon with family. An English engineering firm (Walter Basset) built the Giant Ferris Wheel (Riesenrad) from 1896-97. Others of the same era, built for world exhibitions and other parks in Chicago, London, Paris, etc. have long since been torn down. The Riesenrad has become a well-known symbol of Vienna, featured in many movies (most famously The Third Man; also Before Sunrise and Ethan Hawke) and picture postcards. It has 15 gondolas, some of which are incredibly ornate and large enough to host an extended family inside, offering a spectacular panorama of the city. The weirdest attraction in the Prater, though, is the Kugelmugel [80], a spherical house (diameter 7.68m) that, after failing to get a planning permit, declared independence from Austria. Originally built elsewhere, it was forcibly carted off to the Prater by Austrian authorities and now sits uninhabited and fenced off with barbed wire.   edit
  • * Alex Tamayo Wolf's historic novel, Revolution [81], features the Riesenrad in an historic context, drawing on its rich history to develop it into a compelling character in the story of Imperial Vienna.
Sezession
Sezession
  • Secession Building [82], Friedrichstraße 12 (U-Bahn U1, U2, U4 (Karlsplatz)), Tel. 587 53 07-0, Tu-Fr 10-18, Tue-Sun 10AM-6PM, Thurs 10AM-8PM, Guided Tours Sat 3PM and Sun 11AM and by appointment. Architect Josef Maria Olbrich built this Jugendstil (German-style Art Nouveau) building 1897-98 as a display space for artists working in the new Secession artistic movement. It is topped by a giant, frothy golden ball, lovingly called "Krauthappel" by the Viennese, but the building was definitely not loved when it first opened. Notice a reactionary Viennese pattern here? The Opera building too was hated at first, but at least it wasn't called a "temple for bullfrogs" or "a bastard begot of temple and warehouse" as the Viennese Secession building was. The entryway features the motto of the Secessionist movement: Der Zeit ihre Kunst, der Kunst ihre Freiheit (To the time, its art, to the art, its freedom). Olbrich's mentor Otto Wagner, and also Gustav Klimt, whose astounding Beethoven Frieze is partially preserved in the basement, inspired the building’s design. The ceremonial front entrance is separate from the functional glass and steel exhibit hall in back. Entrance fee included with entrance to Belvedere Palace.
  • The Schmetterlinghaus Hofburg Wien 1010 tel 01/5338570 or 01 5332018 fax 01 5322872 email info@schmetterlinghaus.at April - October : Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 10 - 16.45 Saturday Sunday & all public holidays 10 - 18.15 November - March: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 10 - 15.45 Saturday Sunday & all public holidays 10 - 15:45 Adults €5:50 Seniors €5 Students with ID €4:50 Children 3 - 16 years €3 [83], a tropical greenhouse with an amazing collection of live butterflies, will delight both children and adults.
  • Spanish Riding School - Spanische Hofreitschule [84] was first mentioned in a document dated 1572 and is the only equestrian institute in the world which follows a Renaissance model of classical schooling. Eleves, or students, begin their training immediately after completion of Austrian primary education (age 15 or 16), and are expected to be both sporty and clever. The school takes its name from a Spanish breed of horse first mentioned in Roman writings. In 1562, Emperor Maximilian II brought some of these Spanish horses to Austria to found a royal stud farm in Kladrub (Bohemia), housing them for a time in the "Stallburg" (oldest section of the Imperial Palace). The present school location was built in 1572. In 1580, Maximilian's brother, Archduke Karl, founded the stud farm in Lipizza near Trieste (now Slovenia). Interest in elegant riding had been growing for about fifty years at that point. During Renaissance times, powerful gentlemen who had already conquered the worlds of finance and politics looked to the writings of antiquity for new learning and an educated lifestyle to which they could aspire. Horsemanship which followed the ancient models described by Socrates and others became the fashion. Xenophon (430 – 354 BC) wrote "Men who understand the art of horsemanship, in truth, look magnificent." Who wouldn't want that? In the new Winter Riding School (built 1729-35), tournaments, masked balls, and other entertainment was held, but this would soon draw to a close – the royal stud farms at Lipizza were threatened by Napoleon several times and twice the precious stud horses were evacuated to Hungary. No photos or video taping allowed.
  • The Ring. The Ringstrasse, or Ring Street, circles the very heart of Vienna. Built on the location of the original city walls, its size is a good indication of how much the city has expanded since medieval times, but more importantly it is the most posh area of downtown. Elegant individuals stroll down the street (there really is no other way to move when walking along the Ring) and play the fashion-do/fashion don’t game under their breath before pausing at one of the innumerable cafes lining the way. A traditional Jause (morning coffee break, around 10AM) and then back to the business at hand, seeing and being seen: Vienna’s favorite pastime.
Gasometer
Gasometer
  • Gasometer [85], (Directly at subway station U3 Gasometer, 8 minutes away from town-center and St. Stephens Cathedral). If you are interested in the combination of new modern with old historic architecture, take a trip to the gasometers that has been revitalized from gas-tanks to new multi-functional buildings. The gasometers are four former gas tanks, built as part of the Vienna municipal gas works Gaswerk Simmering in 1896-1899. They are located in the 11th district called Simmering. They were used from 1899 to 1984 as gas storage tanks. After the changeover from town gas to natural gas they were no longer used and were shut down. In the time between 1984 and 1997 the gasometers were used as a film location (James Bond: The Living Daylights) and as the location for raves known as Gazometer-Raves. They were revitalized from 1999 to 2001 by the architects Jean Nouvel, Coop Himmelblau, Manfred Wehdorn, and Wilhelm Holzbauer. Each gasometer was divided into several zones for living, shopping and entertainment. The historic outside wall was conserved. Several other facilities including a music hall, cinema, student accommodation, municipal archive, etc. are located inside the Gasometers. There are special guided tours with experts available for visitors.
  • Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Simmeringer Hauptstrasse 234, phone 760 41. Graves of honor of Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, Brahms, Strauss, Schönberg and others. Nov-Feb 8AM-5PM, March, April, Sept, Oct 7AM-6PM, May-Aug 7AM-7PM. Take the U3 to Simmering and then take tram 71 (there's even a Viennese expression "taking the #71 tram" as a euphemism for death) or 6 to get there. The tram stops are named after the cemetery gate next to it, "Zentralfriedhof 1. Tor" is where the old Jewish section is, "Zentralfriedhof 2. Tor" is the main gate. Mozart, Beethoven and other luminaries of the musical world (Schubert, Brahms, Strauss) are buried, or at least memorialized, here. Mozart's body is in a mass grave (as required by the law at that time) in another cemetery – but his memorial is located here with the others. The graves of the composers and other "Ehregräber" (graves of honor) are located in section 32C, near the main road leading from the church. The cemetery has served as a giant park for weekend ramblings since its creation. There are immense monuments shaped like 10ft tall iron canopy beds (within eye shot of the musicians memorial) and other unique shapes. Though it takes some time to get out to the Zentralfriedhof (25 to 30 Minutes total from Stephansplatz), it is worth the trip.
Rathaus
Rathaus
  • Lainzer Tiergarten — It's a beautiful natural reserve at Vienna's border with the woods. This reserve used to be the Emperor's private hunting wood with the fancy "Hermesvilla" - the favorite mansion of Empress Sisi in Vienna. Nowadays, the major part of the park is closed in the winter time, but in summer you can see wild pigs, deer, and many Viennese families. For the easiest park entrance take tram 49 to its last stop. Then you need to walk for about 5 minutes until you reach the Nikolaitor. However in Winter or when you want to visit the mansion you have to take tram 60 or 62 to Hermesstrasse station and then change to bus 60B (Note: this bus goes only every half hour during the week). Take the bus to the final stop - just a 5 minute ride - to reach the "Lainzertor" (actually the main gate of Lainzer Tiergarten, which also features a small visitors center). The park is usually open from 8 until dusk (precise opening timetables are posted at each entrance) but all gates - except Lainzertor - are closed for a winter break from mid-November until mid-February.
  • Hietzing — A residential area which used to be a village once, but gained importance as the Schönbrunn Palace, was erected nearby. A very beautiful area for a stroll among old villas. Stop - Hietzing (U4, trams 10, 58 and 60), then walk.
  • Türkenschanzpark — A very beautiful park commemorating the Austrian victory on the Turks near the city boundary. Nowadays, a tranquil resort in the heart of a nice cluster of villas. Take tram 41 or bus 10A, get off at Türkenschanzpark.
  • The Danube Island [86], only in German] — Home to Europe's biggest Rock festival. In Summer, this is a very nice park with a lot of Viennese bathers. There are also floating pubs on the Danube. A nice experience! Take U1, stop Donauinsel.
  • Karl Marx' Court is a socialist building complex from the beginning of the 20th Century and is fascinating for people interested in architecture. Take tram D or U4 to Heilgenstadt.
  • Soviet Victory Monument — An imposing Soviet style monument near Karlsplatz commemorates the Soviet victory in Vienna over the Nazi army. Take trams 1, 2, 71, D, J stop at Schwarzenbergplatz.
Sidewalk cafe in front of the Pestsäule
Sidewalk cafe in front of the Pestsäule
  • Wiener Metropol [87] is a beautiful little theatre in the heart of "Hernals", mostly frequented by Viennese themselves.
  • Ball Season: One thing you should not miss when you visit Vienna during the carneval season is to attend one of the many glamourous balls in the city, some of them in wonderful elegant locations like the Vienna Hofburg or the City Hall (Rathaus). The most widely known and elegant balls are the Opera Ball in the State Opera [88] or the ball of the Wiener Philharmoniker. Many professional guilds have their own ball like e.g. the Kaffeesiederball by the Vienna Coffee house owners. The ball calendar can be found on the pages of the Vienna City Council
  • The Naschmarkt, right at the U4 subway station "Kettenbrueckengasse", is the biggest of Vienna's 22 market places and provides a unique blend of typical Vienna costumely and oriental flair. Stroll through the market and be part of the amazing ambiance. If you like to cook, you will find all the spices you could possibly want at the Naschmarkt. The side of the Secession tends to be more touristy (and thus more expensive) than the side of the "Kettenbrueckengasse". Remember that it is illegal to export antiquities outside of Austria, even if you legally buy them at a market. A nice part of the Naschmarkt are the small restaurants with fresh Italian, Japanese, Greek, and Turkish food. In the summer, they have nice open-air gardens.
Kraut on Naschmarkt
Kraut on Naschmarkt
  • Vienna Boys Choir (Wiener Sängerknaben), [89]. . The Vienna Boys Choir was founded at the pleasure of the Habsburgs. On 20 July 1498, Emperor Maximilian decided to hire six singing boys, the first permanent boys choir attached to the court. He also made arrangements for their education – fringe benefits that are difficult to get from a modern employer. The choir served the monarchy until its demise at the beginning of the first World War. The last Imperial Chaplain, Monsignor Josef Schnitt reestablished the Boys Choir as the "Vienna Boys Choir" in 1924 as a private institution. To earn money, the Choir began to perform outside the Imperial Chapel. Even though they are a not-for-profit organization, the rising costs of educating the choristers from a very young age as well as providing music and all the other variables required made establishing the Verein Wiener Sängerknaben necessary.  edit
  • River and Canal tours — The Canal tours are horrible. All you see are trees and industrial buildings. It's a waste of money and time.

In the summer, it's just wonderful to hang out in Museumsquartier in the evenings. The big yard is filled with large fiberglass sofas you can use for free. Optionally, you can buy drinks at the open air bars there. Just ask for a glass you can take away so you can use the sofas. During the day, a visit to Burggarten is highly recommended if you are looking for a more alternative, young crowd. Buy something to eat and drink at a supermarket and join the others on the grass.

  • In July and August, there's an opera film festival on the Rathausplatz. Each day, weather permitting, you can watch an opera on a huge open-air screen. On another part of the Square, there are plenty of food stalls (maybe a little overpriced) who offer Viennese, as well as international food. On pleasant summer evenings, the atmosphere can be quite relaxing.
  • There are also a lot of other open-air-film festivals in summer, e.g. at the Augarten, the Vienna Turf Krieau, the Prater, and Schloss Neugebäude.
  • In the summer, there is also the ImPulsTanz Festival [90] for contemporary dance & performance. They are also good if you are interested in dance workshops.
  • The Lainzer Tiergarten (not Tiergarten at Schönbrunn) has several 2-10 km hiking trails, as well as a variety of wildlife. You can see the animals get fed at 2PM every day. Ask any park attendant where the location is.
  • Football has a long and vivid history in Vienna. Until about 40 years ago, Austrian football was dominated by a large number of Viennese clubs. Since then, their strength has faded, reflecting the overall decline of Austrian football compared to other European football. Today, only two Viennese clubs are left in the Austrian top football division: Rapid Vienna and Austria Magna. Rapid have won the Austrian league 31 times, more than any other club. They are known as the people's club, having working class roots and regularly attracting fairly big crowds of around 15,000. Home fixtures are played at the Gerhard-Hanappi-Stadion in the 14th district, right next to the subway station "Hütteldorf" (U4). Season usually starts in late July and ends in May, with a break in winter from early December until late February (due to cold weather). Tickets are available at the stadium, at various tobacco shops (Trafik) around town and also on the internet at Skrapid [91] (no English section available!). Ticket prices for league matches range from €18 to €26. Ladies, students, and children will receive considerable discounts. For a schedule of fixtures in English go to Soccerassociation [92], click "Austria" and "Bundesliga".</nowiki>
  • ActiLingua Academy, (), [93]. . One of the leading schools for German as a foreign language located in the heart of Vienna. ActiLingua Academy offers year-round German courses for adults(16+) and summer school for teens aged 12-17 years. Further information online including free online German lessons for beginners and advanced learners, price calculator, brochure download, etc.  edit
  • Naschmarkt with Flea Market, Linke Wienzeile (U4 stop Kettenbrückengasse). Flea market each Saturday 6AM-4PM, all over the year. Need used lederhosen? How about a doner kebab at the Naschmarkt or an Austrian war bond from the first World War? This is the place to go. It is primarily a flea market, though some stalls sell new items such as handwoven wicker baskets or food. Pick through the detritus of an imperial society - you never know what you'll find hidden under that stack of terrible fuzzy sweaters. Couture gowns, Communist medals from all the former Eastern Bloc countries, tobacco pipes, broken pocket watches: the flea market at the Naschmarkt is worth at least a full afternoon of your time. Flea markets are the best possible blend of high and low culture, and a way to truly get to know a city. Walk all the way from the flea market end of the Naschmarkt through the food stall end to arrive at the Secession building, located on the left close to the Karlsplatz metro stop.
  • Mariahilfer Straße — The biggest shopping avenue in Vienna, featuring all kinds of stores, many flagship stores from international brands, etc. Stretches from the Museumsquartier to Westbahnhof and can be reached conveniently by subway through stations (east to west) Museumsquartier (U2), Neubaugasse (U3), Zieglergasse (U3), or Westbahnhof (U3/U6).
  • Kärntner Straße and Am Graben — Those major shopping avenues in the Inner City bith start at St. Stephan's Cathedral and go south and west, respectively. The stores and brands are usually more luxurious than on Mariahilfer Straße. Go to Stephansplatz (U1) or Karlsplatz/Oper (U1/U2/U4).
  • Kohlmarkt — A small street connecting Graben and Michaelerplatz with almost exclusively high-end luxury stores.
  • Dorotheum [94] — The main auction site in Austria. Exhibits all sorts of furniture, art, jewelry, and much more. Highly recommended. There are several locations throughout the city, the main one being at Dorotheergasse 17 in the city center. The surrounding streets in this area offer a great many antique shops, where quality and prices tend both to be very high.
  • Schleifmühlgasse — This little cobbled lane on the edge of the Fourth District is home to many excellent contemporary art galleries, as well as some fine restaurants, an English video rental shop, etc. Take any of the U-Bahnen to Karlsplatz and walk.
  • Millennium City [95], only in German) — A medium-sized shopping mall near the bank of the Danube. Take the U6 or S-Bahn to Handelskai.
  • Shopping City Süd [96], only in German) — One of the biggest shopping malls in Europe (the biggest by number of visitors) just outside of Vienna, housing a very wide range of stores and brands (it's not a factory outlet center though, prices are the same as in Vienna). Take either the Wiener Lokalbahn (also known as Badnerbahn) to Vösendorf-SCS or local bus lines (you need an additional ticket for going beyond city limits). A cheap alternative is the IKEA bus going nonstop from Oper/Karlsplatz to the IKEA store at the SCS every 90 minutes.
  • Fresh Food Markets: [97]]] There are several farm markets in Vienna, where local farmers are allowed to sell their crops.

Special Event in November

The 41st International Charity Bazaar takes place in the Austria Center Vienna on Saturday 28.November.2009. This exciting event gives you the opportunity to travel around the whole world in one day! Enjoy an insight into different cultures, taste exotic cuisine, enjoy truly international entertainment and buy typical souvenirs and gifts from all over the world to take home with you. You can also win some fantastic prizes in the tombola. The ladies of the United Nations Women’s Guild of Vienna organize this Bazaar every year. They are all volunteers, from a 100 different countries, who have some kind of connection to the United Nations. They work together all year in preparing for the Bazaar. All proceeds from the Bazaar go to children’s charities in Austria and around the world. For more information please see our website: [98].

Christmas Markets

Most Viennese Christmas Markets ("Christkindlmarkt", "Adventmarkt" or simply "Weihnachtsmarkt") are not so much for shopping as for eating and drinking. From midday until the late hours of the night, people gather at Christmas markets to drink mulled wine, punch, and chat to one another and the occasional stranger. Entry to all of these markets is free.

  • Rathaus [99]: More of a fairground than a Christmas market, this is Vienna's largest and busiest incarnation. Located on the large town square between Rathaus and Burgtheater, the Wiener Christkindlmarkt is by far the largest and probably best known christmas market in Vienna. Large christmas tree in front of the townhall, skating possibility, adorned trees in the park, often crowded!
  • Spittelberg [100]: Probably the most delightful, though often quite packed Christmas market in Vienna, the Spittelberg market is scattered over a series of lanes lined with picturesque early 19th century Biedermeier houses (many of them former brothels, which is the reason the area was spared early 20th century urban renewal). Some of the stalls are extensions of the shops and bars of this normally rather sleepy area.
  • Maria-Theresien-Platz [101]: A relatively new market between the two museums and en route to/from the MuseumsQuartier (MQ). It is easy to maneuver than some and the quality of the goods is better than most.
  • Schönbrunn [102]: One of the better markets with higher quality goods and a more festive atmosphere in front of Schönbrunn palace. It is easier to spread out here and the specialties are food, handmade soaps, and candles.
  • Belvedere [103]: Another recent addition to the city's Christmas markets, the market in front of the Belvedere palace is spacious and emphasizes the homespun.
  • Resselpark/Karlsplatz - A small, alternative and more rambunctious Christmas market in front of Karlskirche.
  • Freyung [104]: A fine market in the First District frequented by locals and professionals on their lunch break and downtown shoppers. Focus on handicrafts and original gifts such as hand-made Christmas decorations, mangers or objects made of natural materials. Christmas cakes and biscuits as well as hot punch and Glühwein. There are usually fewer tourists.

Refer to [105] for a comprehensive listing of all relevant Christmas Markets in Vienna, including short descriptions, pictures, opening hours, directions and weblinks.

Further afield a famous and overly bustling Christmas market may be found at Grafenegg castle [www.grafenegg.at]. Entry is €7, children under the age of 12 are free.

Eat

Viennese restaurant menus offer a bewildering variety of terms for dishes, most of which the visitor will never have heard of and many of which aren't in the brief lists of menu terms included in phrase books. However restaurants that have any foreign patrons at all usually have an English menu, though you may have to ask for it: the phrase "English menu" usually will be understood even by wait staff who don't speak English. A small bilingual dictionary will be useful for trying to decipher menu listings: at least it will enable you usually to determine what sort of food (chicken, beef, potato, etc.) is concerned, even if you can't tell how it's prepared. Note that not only savoury but also sweet main dishes are common in Austria.

Viennese restaurant portions tend to be large. Recently many restaurants are including more vegetarian options. Most restaurants have daily specials listed on a chalk board or sometimes on a printed insert in the regular menu. These are usually the best bet, though they may not be on the English menu, so you may have to ask to have them explained or try to translate them yourself.

Bread in Viennese restaurants is usually charged as an extra; if there is a basket of it on the table, you'll usually be charged by the piece only if you take some.

Tipping customs are similar to those in Europe and America though tips are slightly smaller; ten percent is usually sufficient in restaurants. Traditionally the way to tip a waiter is to mention the amount of the bill plus tip when you pay; for instance, if the bill is Eur. 15.50 you could give the waiter a Eur. 20 note and say "siebzehn (seventeen)," meaning he is to take out Eur 15.50 for the bill, Eur 1.50 for the tip, and so give you only Eur. 3.00 change. In this situation English numbers will usually be understood. Sometimes in less formal restaurants you can alternatively drop the tip into the money pouch the waiter usually carries.

Credit cards aren't quite as commonly used in restaurants in Vienna as in Northern European countries, so ask if it's important to know before hand.

Smoking is ubiquitous in Vienna, and Austria hasn't yet implemented the sort of regulations limiting smoking that are increasingly common in many other countries, so the non-smoker may find it unpleasant to spend much, or any, time in many of Vienna's restaurants, bars, and cafés. Even the light restrictions that are in place are not always followed by the café or bar owner. Most establishments have outdoor seating in warm weather, but the tables are so close together and smokers so common that even there non-smokers may find themselves getting fumigated. The listings below will attempt to indicate some of the smokiest and most smoke-free establishments.

Budget

The traditional Viennese fast food is sausage in all shapes and sizes. You can buy hot sausages and hot dogs at snack bars called "Würstlstand" all over the town. The famous Wiener Würstel is known as "Frankfurter" in Vienna, but many inhabitants prefer Bosna (with onions and curry), Burenwurst, and Käsekrainer or "Eitrige" (with melted cheese inside).

In addition to this, the local snack culture also includes more Yugoslavian and Turkish varieties of fast food, such as the Döner Kebap, sandwiches of Greek and Turkish origin with roasted meat, lettuce, tomatoes, onions, and yogurt and/or hot sauce. Places that sell kebap often sell take-away slices of pizza too.

Good kebaps can be bought at the Naschmarkt. The lower end of the Naschmarkt (further away from Karlsplatz or city centre) is cheaper than the upper end (closer to Karlsplatz), and the right lane (facing away from the city centre) is reserved for mostly sit-down eateries. Another good place to find snacks (especially while going out) is Schwedenplatz, also on the U4 and U1 line.

By far the cheapest way to get a fast food meal in Austria (and probably the only meal available for just over €1) is buying an Austrian sandwich (sliced brown bread + ham/cheese + gherkin) from a supermarket. Supermarkets with a deli counter (Feinkostabteilung) will prepare sandwiches to take away at no extra charge. You only pay for the ingredients. There is usually a large selection of meat products, cheese, and bread rolls available here, too. You point at the combination you want, can also mention the max total you can pay, and then pay at the cash register. Freshness and quality are normally better than at a sandwich stand on the street.

You can buy excellent ice cream (Eis) at a number of places. Maybe the most popular is the Eissalon am Schwedenplatz [106] where you can choose from a lot of different flavors, but it's always crowded and you often have to stand in a queue for a few minutes. In the same district is the Zanoni & Zanoni Gelateria [107] located Am Lugeck, just down Rotenturmstrasse from Schwedenplatz towards the Stephansdom, popular with Viennese and tourists for its huge €2 cones to go.

A less crowded, but nevertheless excellent Eis address is Perizzolo in Tuchlauben (ask for the Special Nougat ice cream). Another famous place for ice cream is Tichy [108] on the Reumannplatz (10th District), which is famous for its Eismarillenknödel (small dumplings of vanilla ice cream with an apricot core) and Himbeereisknödel (raspberry core, vanilla ice cream, coating of ground poppy seeds). You should also try Bortolotti [109] at Mariahilfer Straße 22 and 94. (The latter not open during winter!) - ask particularly for the Campari-Orange Icecream or look for other exotic stuff.

  • Esterházykeller, Haarhof 1, 01/533-3482, [110]. Atmospheric old (since 1683) cellar restaurant serving good, cheap, wine, beer, and simple traditional food. Prices budget to moderate. A good place to go if you just want a drink and some grub, but still want to enjoy some local color.  edit
  • Vegetasia, Ungargasse 57 and Kaiserstrasse 45, 01/ 713 8 33 2 and 523 1 091, [111]. Open daily 11:30AM-3PM and 5:30PM-11PM. Chain of vegetarian restaurants. Serves a huge variety of Taiwanese Buddhist vegetarian food (most of it vegan, many meat imitations).  edit
  • Vego, Neubaugasse 81, 01/522 59 07. Open daily 11:30AM - 3PM & 6:00PM - 11PM. Indian Vegetarian Restaurant that serves set meals from as low as €5,90. The food is absolutely delicious and you can also have mango lassi.  edit
  • Cafe Restaurant Kent (Eat like the locals - eat Turkish!), Brunnengasse 67, A-1160 Wien. At first approach, this looks like a greasy kebab joint strictly for Turks... but struggle past the first room and you will find a large garden and huge restaurant serving moderately priced food with an infinite supply of free Turkish bread! Good for veggies and meat eaters alike. Also try the Turkish breakfast. Expect to pay under €10.  edit
  • Kolar, Laudongasse 8, 1080 Wien., [112]. Nice Pubs/Beisls. They have a tasty "Fladenbrot" and they offer their own beer.  edit
  • Maschu Maschu 1, Rabensteig 8, 1010 Wien (close to the Schwedenplatz underground station), 01/533 29 04, [113]. So-Mi 11:30AM-midnight, Do, Fri, and Sat until 4PM.. Good for veggies and meat eaters alike. Maschu Maschu is an Israeli fast food joint that serves some of the best falafel in the world. A healthy and gut busting falafel and beer should cost around €7 and leave you set up for the day (they also serve a wide range of other Middle Eastern meals).  edit
  • Maschu Maschu 2, Neubaugasse 20/Ecke Lindengasse 41, 1070 Wien (close to Neubaugasse undergroundstation), 01/990 47 13, [114]. 9:30AM-midnight. Much the same as the other Maschu Maschu, Maschu Maschu 2 is a trendy hang out place in the art student area of the city, and so it has a unique vibe of its own.  edit
  • Mensa at the NIG, Universitätsstrasse 7, 7ht floor, 1st district, near the University of Vienna (Dr. Karl Lueger Ring 1), [115]. (NIG is the Neues Institutsgebäude - a house of the University of Vienna.) During the summer you can sit outside and enjoy the sun. You have a nice view over the roofs of Vienna. € 4,50.  edit
  • Pizzeria Mafioso, 1150 Wien, Reindorfgasse 15.. The cheapest (but really good) pizza in town.  edit
  • Tunnel, Florianigasse 39, A-1080 Wien, [116]. Really cheap, student's place (€ 5 vegetarian and normal lunch). Nice breakfast, live music every day at around 9PM.  edit
  • Cheap Sushi — In these really cheap but still decent enough places you can have sushi sets starting at around € 3.- and you can get stuffed for around € 6: Natsu in the 6th district, Gumpendorfer Straße 45, A-1060 Wien, +43 1 5812700.  edit and another Natsu in the 7th district, Burggasse 71, A-1070 Wien, +43 1 5221903.  edit
  • Cheap Supermarkets — If you have a very limited budget, the cheapest supermarkets are: Hofer [117] (recommended), Penny [118], and Lidl [119].
  • Chattanooga, Graben 29A, close to Stephansplatz, 9251185. Fast food versions of local food. Not bad if you are on a budget and do not have much time to spare. Mains at €9.  edit
  • Wiener Deewan, 1090 Wien, Liechtensteinstraße 10 (Close to Schottentor subway station), 533500. Young, urban Pakistani restaurant: "all you can eat, pay as you wish." You can mix your own menu from a variety of curries, meat, rice, salads, and sauces.  edit
  • The Highlander, Sobieskiplatz 4, 1090 Wien, [120]. Offers own beer and a nice variety of dishes (including vegetarian dishes) at a small square inside the 9th district. Might not be one of the cheapest in the cheap section, but definitely worth the price.  edit
  • Schnitzelwirt Schmidt,, 7th district, Neubaugasse 52, [121]. Listed in nearly every Vienna guidebook and for good reason. The traditional Viennese food is excellent and served in truly prodigious portions, yet fairly cheap by Vienna standards (€5-€15 for a full meal). The Bauernschmaus ("Farmer's Feast"), a nearly incapacitatingly large schnitzel plate, which in combination with any of the wonderful on-tap beers, may necessitate an afternoon nap.  edit
  • Cafe Aida, [122]. Various shops across Vienna, one at Stephansplatz. Recommended for a cheap Sachertorte.  edit

Cheap speciality stores:

  • Manner Factory Shops [123] (famous Viennese sweets, especially "Schnitten") 1170 Wien, Wilhelminenstrasse 6.
  • Reinthaler 1 Gluckgasse 5, 1010 in the Innerstadt just south of the Kapuzinerkirche. One of the better traditional Beisl restaurants, with old fashioned food priced below comparable places. Daily specials usually include a couple of vegetarian options. Good non-smoking section.
  • Pat's Brainfood Plankengasse 4, 1010 Wien, 0664/2038303 Mo-Thurs 11.30AM to 3.30PM, Fr 11.30AM to 3PM, closed weekends and holidays. [124] Tucked away on a little side street of Neuer Markt is this wonderfully creative and fresh soup and salad joint with a weekly rotating menu (see website) and take-away. Standing room only.
  • Levante 1010 Wien, Wallnerstrasse 2, Tel. 533 23 26. Part of a world-wide (but small) chain which has several branches in Vienna. The one on Wallnerstrasse is full service and the most conveniently located for most visitors. Authentic Middle-Eastern restaurant serving mostly Turkish and Greek dishes with some Viennese daily specials. Good place for both meat-eaters, for the kebabs, and vegetarians, for the many Middle Eastern salads.
  • WOK, Operngasse 20, 1040 Vienna, (just beside the Naschmarkt, directly opposite the Technical University Vienna) +43/1/585 21 02, daily 11AM-2:30PM, 5:30-11PM wok-vienna@aon.at, [125]. A nice and cozy restaurant offering a variety of South-East Asian cuisine. You can get Chinese, Thai, Malay, and Indonesian dishes. Also, you can ask the friendly owner if she would offer you some home-made dishes not available on the standard menu.
  • Akakiko Singerstrasse 4, 1010 Wien [126]. Part of a local chain; the branch on Singerstrasse, just off the Graben, is conveniently located for visitors and is non-smoking. Informal and popular place serving authentic, reasonably priced Japanese and Korean dishes. The menu has a vegetarian section. Quick service by efficient waiters.
  • Brezl-Gwölb, Ledererhof 9, 1010 Wien, (close to Am Hof and Judenplatz, between Färbergasse and Drahtgasse, a bit hidden) +43/1/533 88 11, info@brezl.at [127]. Daily 11:30AM-1AM. A very nice restaurant with a cellar dating back to the 17th century and the furniture consists of parts from three centuries. A place that deserves the label "gemütlich". They play classical music and serve some really unique dishes.
  • Figlmüller, Wollzeile 5, 512 61 77, [128]. Daily 11AM-10:30PM. Famous for Wienerschnitzel. They claim to have the biggest schnitzel in the world. If you are not really hungry, one may easily be enough for two people (just ask for a second plate). Traditionally, you would want a potato salad with that.
  • Le Bol, Neuer Markt 14, 0699 / 1030 1899 [129]. Fine French Provencal-style fare with a communal table at the center and a smoking section only at the back, goat cheese salad is highly recommended (€6,90).
  • Kuishimbo, im Majolkahaus, U4 Kettenbrückengasse, Linke Wienzeile 40, A-1060 Wien, Mobile: 0699/1194.06.73. The smallest Japanese restaurant in town. All the dishes are home made. Owners claim that they pay attention to a proper balance of ingredients. Being full can also be healthy! The place is so small that there is no bathroom inside. You have to use the one on the Nashmarkt. The Japanese soups "Udon" are excellent. Drink included you will pay around €11.
  • Mythos, Mariahilferstr. 111/Webgasse 45, +43 1 96 90 2111. Open daily 11AM-midnight. A nice family-run Greek restaurant open on Sundays and holidays, with a good variety of items to choose from. €5-20 per dish.  edit
  • Supermarkets — Compared to America, for instance, most supermarkets are just medium-sized. But especially in Vienna you can find one at almost every corner (except for the first district where there are only a few, most prominently the large Julius Meinl on the Graben, see next section). These markets have regular prices: Billa, Zielpunkt, Spar. If you are looking for a more American-sized store try Merkur, especially the one at Mariahilferstraße/Kirchengasse. Most of these regular priced stores will prepare you sandwiches of your choice solely for the cost of their ingredients.
The original Sachertorte at Cafe Sacher (see Hotel Sacher)
The original Sachertorte at Cafe Sacher (see Hotel Sacher)
  • Hollmann Salon [130] Grashofgasse 3 / Heiligenkreuzerhof, 1st District. Phone +43 1 961196040 - essen@hollmann-salon.at Modern Austrian Cuisine in one of Vienna's most beautiful courtyards from the baroque period.
  • Dukai in the Grand Hotel [131] Kärntnerring 9. On Saturday and Sunday they have a buffet of impressive standards where you will leave satisfied..
  • Daihachi in the Hotel de France [132] Schottenring 3, 31 368. Sushi bar popular with business travellers. Serves fresh and tasty fish that comes at a high price.
  • Procacci [133] - Göttweihergasse 2, 1010 Wien, 512 22 11, Bar: Mon-Sat 11.30 - 01 h; Restaurant: Mon-Sat 11.30 - midnight, closed Sunday Excellent northern Italian fare with a range of fine specialties. Slightly small portions but an extensive wine list to drown this particular sorrow in. Reservations recommended.
  • Artner [134] - There are two incarnations of this famous winery's restaurants, one in the 4th district, Wieden, in Florgasse 6 (503 50 33, Mo - Fr: noon to midnight, Sa, Sun and holidays: 6PM to midnight) and a newer, slightly chicer one on Franziskanerplatz downtown (Franziskanerplatz 5, 503 50 34, Mo - Sun: 10AM-2AM), just opposite the Kleines Cafe. Both offer creative, fresh fare that tends to be on the lighter side than most Austrian cuisine. Excellent wine cellar, reservations recommended.
  • Fabios [135] — Tuchlauben 6, 1010 Wien, Tel: +43 1 532 2222, fabios@fabios.at. Italian fish restaurant combined with bar/lounge for Vienna's glitterati. Quality is excellent, but prices are steep, with main courses around €30-35. Bar open Mon-Sat 10.00-01.00, restaurant 12.00-23.30. Closed Sun.
  • Plachutta [136] — Wollzeile 38 is a very nice restaurant that specializes in beef. Try the Tafelspitz, it comes in a copper pan and still is in the soup it was cooked (the soup alone is worth a trip to Vienna). The chef claims that they prepare more than 100 kg of beef each day. Probably 3 to 5 waiters will be at your disposal. Reservation is recommended.
  • Tenmaya [137] Krugerstrasse 3, 512 73 97, Open daily 11:30AM-2:30PM and 5PM-11PM. Traditional Japanese restaurant and setting that serves everything from kaiseki to teppanyaki. Reservations are recommended for this popular restaurant.
  • Expensive Markets — If you feel the urgent need to buy delicacies, you can visit Meinl am Graben [138], a legendary store in the first district (1010 Wien, Graben 19). It is still worth a visit even if you don't intend to buy anything, because you will find things you probably never heard of! The store holds just about every kind of wine you can think of, has a great selection of pastas, chocolate, and cheese. Also Meinl am Graben has some of the best coffee around. The store has two stories of unexpected surprises.
  • Why not go to the Danube Tower Restaurant on a sunny day and have a look over Vienna from the rotating restaurant. Take the U1 subway and get off at VIC / Kaisermühlen. Change to the bus line 20B and get off at the Danube Tower (you have to pay for the elevator first: €5.90 for adults).
Beer garden
Beer garden

Wine

New wine is usually enjoyed at a Heurigen (wine bar licensed to sell the new vintage). Austria in general, but especially the area around Vienna, produces quite a large amount of wine each year. It's not often exported and white is more common than red. Grüner Veltliner is a common white wine served almost everywhere. Officially the new wine season begins on November 11 (St Martin's Day), but as early as September, some partially-fermented new wine (called Sturm which is cloudy, because it has not been strained) is available around town in 2L green bottles (try the Naschmarkt – sometimes the vendors will have samples, it is less strong than wine, about 4 percent alcohol ). Taverns can call themselves Heurigens whether the wine they serve is their own or not – for genuine in-house product look for a Buschenschank. This is a particularly Viennese Heuriger which can only be open 300 days per year or until their supply of house-made wine runs out. Heurigen can be found e.g. in Grinzing, Sievering (19th district) and Mauer & Rodaun (23rd district) areas, but also in almost every suburban area in Vienna. Even in the center, there are some Stadtheurigen. While the Heurigen of Grinzing are bigger and more famous with tourists, they are often a rip-off. If any of the year’s vintage lasts until next year, it officially becomes Alte (old) wine on the next Saint Martin's Day. The Heurigen in the South of Vienna or in Perchtoldsdorf are much cheaper and serve the same quality as the Heurigen in Grinzing. Also in the Northern suburbs, you can find cheap and somewhat authentic Heurigen. Try the towns of Stammersdorf or Hagenbrunn, for example Karl Matzka [139], hard to reach by public transport.

After a long day, the perfect place to relax among Viennese are the Heurigen in the suburbs. Somewhat akin to a beer garden, except with wine, these tiny treasures are the only places authorized to serve new wine. New wine is made from the first pressing of the grape and can appear a little cloudy. Be careful, it's stronger than you might think! This is why it's served in very small glasses, .25L and up. Some Heurigen serve food, either elaborate Viennese specialties or very simple bread and cheese platters. No matter which one you choose, you're guaranteed to enjoy yourself. Just hop on a convenient outbound tram line, take it to the very last stop, and look for buildings with large, evergreen foliage hung over the doors. Each one is unique, but all are a good bargain. Locals invariably have a favorite: ask around.

Cafés

If you come to Vienna and don't try some coffee, you've missed one of the great reasons to come here. Vienna has a reputation for having an excellent coffee culture. You should at least visit one of the countless traditional 19th century coffee houses where you can sit down, relax, and have some coffee. But please, never just order "coffee", for you could deeply offend the Herr Ober, the "senior waiter" of the coffee house. Vienna prides itself of its dozens of varieties of different coffees: Order a "Kleiner Schwarzer" if you want black espresso, a "Kleiner Brauner" if you want espresso with a little milk, a "Melange" if you prefer a cappuccino-style mix of coffee and milk and a "Kaffee Verkehrt" (or in the more modern places a "Kaffee Latte") if you like latte macchiato-style coffee with lots of milk. Most cafés in addition to coffee serve beer and wine and sometimes liqueurs. Many serve meals, especially at lunch, and these are often cheaper than in restaurants.

Important: Unless you are at a takeaway coffe shop like Starbucks, never order coffee to go. All you'll probably get is a bewildered reaction by the staff. In Vienna, coffee definitely is slow food, to be enjoyed with friends or accompanied by a newspaper in a relaxed atmosphere [140].

In the Innenstadt:

  • Café Hawelka, 1010 Wien, Dorotheergasse 6, tel: +43 (1) 512 82 30 Fax +43 (1) 32 815 31, open 8AM to 2AM Sun and hol 10AM-2AM, closed Thu [141]. Just 100 m from the Stephansdom, hidden in a side street, is one of the most famous "intellectual" cafes in Vienna. Established in 1939, it's surprisingly cheap for its location and its fame and can get quite cozy. Josephine Hawelka (former owner, deceased 2005) was proud of the marriages she caused by placing random people together at tables. Try the "Buchteln". Usually quite smoky.
  • Café Landtmann, 1010 Wien, Dr. Karl Lueger-Ring 4 (near the Rathaus, right beside Burgtheater), +43/1/24 100 - 0, [142]. Open daily 7:30AM-12PM. Old café, used to be frequented by Sigmund Freud. Delicious food and desserts. Menu of the day for around €11.
  • Café Griensteidl, 1010 Wien, Michaelerplatz 2, +43-1-535 26 92-0, near the Hofburg and the Michaelerkirche [143], is a elegant Café-Restaurant where you also get warm food for lunch. Recommended for non-smokers and families as smoking is banned from this traditional coffee house.
  • Tirolerhof, (established in 1900) 1010 Wien, Führichgasse 8, just behind the opera and near the Albertina you will find this quaint, traditional café with art deco accents. Mon-Sat 7AM-10PM, Sun 9.30AM-9PM.
  • Café Prückel, [144] (established in 1903) 1010 Wien, Stubenring 24 (Luegerplatz). Quite the hang-out in the evening, during the day this cafe is a bit more laissez-faire. Live piano music every Mon, Wed, and Fri from 7PM-10PM.
  • Demel, 1010 Wien, Kohlmarkt 14, Tel: +43/1/535 17 17-0 Fax: +43/1/535 17 17-26, [145]. Good pastries are ubiquitous in Vienna, but Demel is considered by many to have the best of all and indeed was once the pastry caterer to the Imperial household. As a result of this it is usually jammed with tourists, though their amusing marzipan display window can be admired even from the street. Outdoor seating in warm weather, but the inside is more atmospheric. Partly smoke-free. Open daily from 10AM–7PM.
  • Kleines Café, ("small cafe") 1010 Wien, Franziskanerplatz 3. As the name suggests, this café is rather small. It was created by architect Hermann Czech during the 1970s for notable Austrian actor Hanno Pöschl, who still owns it. It's a popular meeting place for artists and actors (or would-be variants) and enjoys an excellent location in a quiet square inside the city. The few seats are often occupied but hang around and they are vacated regularly. Seating on the square in fine weather, a bit smoky at peak times.
  • Cafe-Museum, 1010 Wien, Operngasse 7, tel/fax: +43 1 586 52 02 [146]. This cafe was designed by famous architect Adolf Loos, however the interior has been entirely refitted (now even from its rather cooler 80s atmosphere). Serves food as well as coffee, teas, and other drinks. Casual, quiet atmosphere; good non-smoking section.
  • Cafe Central 1010 Wien, Corner Herrengasse/Strauchgasse [147]. One of most famous Vienna coffee houses, recently authentically restored. Beautiful premises inside the Palais Ferstel, it is a bit more expensive but worth it. There is an occasional pianist that is delightful to hear, and a good non-smoking section.

See also Alt Wien under Bars and Beerhouses.

Outside the Innere Stadt:

  • Das Möbel [148] 1070 Wien, Burggasse 10. Hip café in Vienna's trendy 7th district. Take a close look at the tables, chairs, and lamps: Every piece of furniture is unique and for sale.
  • Espresso [149] 1070 Wien, Burggasse 57, Mon-Sat 8AM-1AM. Further up the road from "Das Möbel" is a very cool little 50s style cafe with good tunes and an eclectic crowd. Owned by the nearby bar "Wirr".
  • Cafe Europa, [150] 1070 Wien, Zollergasse 8, tel: 5263383. The scenester meeting place in recent years, the cafe is often bursting at the seams. But good tunes, decent service prevail. Good people watching and decor.
  • Alt Wien, Bäckerstrasse 9, tel 01/512-5222. This cafe/restaurant/bar is on a very medieval-looking lane in the central district and is a time warp of another kind: its folky-bohemian atmosphere could convince you you're in North Beach or Greenwich Village, circa 1967. Liveliest late.
  • The American Bar (sometimes called the Loos American Bar or Loos Bar), Kärntner Durchgang 10 1010 Wien tel: 01/5123283 e-mail: office@loosbar.at, open Thu - Sat 12PM-5AM, Sun - Wed 12PM-4PM [151]. This bar will delight fans of Art Deco. Famous for its architecture and interior decoration by architect Adolf Loos, it's a time warp of Vienna from 1908 when it opened. Drinks are expensive, but very good and the price is worth the experience. This is a quiet, sophisticated bar, where boisterous behavior or very casual dress will not be appropriate. Usually smoky due to small size. There's outdoor seating in warm weather but there's not much point in using it since the what justifies the prices is the interior. Note that groups and sight-seers are not admitted.
  • Chelsea, [152] Lerchenfelderguertel, U-Bahnboegen 29-31 (between the U6 underground stations Thaliastrasse and Josefstaedterstrasse), 407 93 09 chelsea@sil.at. Daily 6PM-4AM, Su 4PM-3AM. A wide range of international beers, often full house and dense. Prices okay, 1/2L of beer is €3.1.
  • Flex [153] Donaukanal, (U2 or U4 Schottenring, Abgang Augartenbrücke), 533 75 25 office@flex.at. You haven't been to Vienna if you haven't been to the Flex - particularly if you are younger than thirty. Situated next to the "Donaukanal", a part of the Danube, it's the meeting point of the off-mainstream, bohemian, artsy people. During the summer nights when it's warm, there are always a lot of people sitting on benches outside the club. It's easy to socialise and make new friends. Inside the club you can enjoy bands and DJs. At the bar you can ask for free soda water.
  • Siebensternbräu (7-Stars-Brewery) [154], Siebensterngasse 19. An excellent Biergarten a few blocks East of Mariahilferstr. They serve their own brews, which are all excellent. There is the usual assortment of bar food, friendly staff, and outdoor seating underneath an old Linden tree in the middle of a hidden courtyard. Move indoors well before 11PM, because a local noise ordinance requires the bar to shut down the patio and the interior tables fill up quickly (even more so than usual).
  • Schweizerhaus [155], Prater 116, 7280152 13, Mar 15-Oct 31 11AM-11PM. Large beer garden in the Prater, some say they have the best beer in Vienna andthey also offer traditional Austrian dishes at moderate prices. The Schweizerhaus is also well-known for its excellent "Stelze" (knuckle of pork).
  • Shiraz [156], Stadtbahnbogen 168, 1090 Vienna. Phone: +43.664.3355555, info@shiraz.at. This is a small and pretty comfortable, rustic-style bar in the "city railway bows". You can smoke water pipes and listen to "chill out" music. The owner, a Persian, socialises with all his customers. Everything is worth its price and you really feel that this bar is something special. Its a good place to relax.
  • Stiegl´s Ambulanz [157], Altes AKH Hof 1 Alserstraße 4, 1090 (subway station U6, Alserstraße) +43.1.40211500, ambulanz@stiegl.at. The Stieglambulanz is a good bar run by the Stiegl brewery where you can enjoy Stiegl's beers. Stiegl is one of Austria's best common beers. The Ambulanz is popular for students with its modern furnishings and relaxed atmosphere. Try the "Paracelsus", which you only get in Stiegl breweries.
  • Europa, Zollergasse 8 (near U3 Neubaugasse). One of Vienna's most popular meeting points, Europa is an ideal place to relax with a fine drink after a tiring day. €3.5 for a big beer.  edit

Nightlife

Vienna doesn't have the reputation of being a huge European party city, the denizens of the fair city of music rather preferring so-called "Sitz-clubbings" (seated clubbings where you pay entry and drink sitting down with very little dancing) to actual clubbings. Still, when night falls, the Viennese let go of some of their inhibitions. If you're walking around the center of town, you're bound to run into touts passing out vouchers for free drinks or waiving door fees. During the summer, restaurants stay open late into the night, so even if you're not looking for a club scene there is likely to be something for you. If you are looking for something a little less gemütlich, see below.

  • Flex [158] - This probably main club venue of Vienna is down on the Donaukanal, a feed of the Danube. Take the U2/U4 to Schottenring, taking the Schottenring exit, then walk, keeping the river on your right, until you get to a bridge. There take the stairs down: the club is on the canal itself). There are loads of tables in front of and on top of the club in summer and an enclosed bar in the colder months with the club next door.
  • Fluc [159] - Fluc and its downstairs sister Fluc Wanne (meaning "tub"), where the real dancing happens, are a bit cheaper and good alternative to Flex. Take the U1/U2 to Praterstern, head upstairs and from there head towards the ferris wheel ("Riesenrad"). It's on the roundabout but a little difficult to find because most of the club is underground.

Also check out Roxy at Operngasse 24 on the corner of Faulmangasse in the 4th District (take U-bahn to Karlsplatz and walk). This is also a bit hidden and has more mainstream nights designated to hip-hop and so on. It's very small so show up on the early side. Camera Club is a good alternative for a night out as well (take U3 to Neubaugasse and it's just up the corner from Mariahilfer Straße and Neubaugasse). For extra posh go to Passage, in an old and refitted underground passageway at Burgring 1 just outside the Burggarten gates. For a more Latin-flavored night, try Club Habana at Mahlerstraße 11 in the First District.

A major gay bar in town is Why Not in the First District at Tiefer Graben 22. Friday night is 70s night, Saturday is more main stream music, but they don't do house music which can, at times, be a godsend. It's for a younger crowd and only for "oldies" (meaning over 26) who really are in the mood to dance. Camera Club is more of a meat market, Saturday night is gay night (see above).

Sleep

Vienna offers a complete range of hotels, concentrated in the central district (Vienna 1010) where most people want to stay, since from there you can walk to most of Vienna's attractions, and you have easy public transit access to the rest. If you're considering a hotel outside the central area, check a map to see how far it is to the attractions of the center and whether the hotel is conveniently located to public transit. The quality of Vienna's hotels is generally good, and prices, while not cheap, tend to be lower than farther north in Europe.

As is the case with restaurants, Vienna's hotels have not yet responded to the same extent as have hotels in many other countries to the increased number of guests nowadays who want non-smoking accommodations. Non-smoking rooms are in limited supply, and hotels with non-smoking floors are rare, so even if you have a non-smoking room you may find that the public areas of the hotel, including sometimes the corridor outside your room, are heavy with tobacco smoke.

  • Apartment 15, Mariahilferstr. 185 (close to Westbahnhof), '+43 676 531 90 71 (), [160]. Holiday apartment for 2-3. Fully furnished, comfortable, centrally located. 60 Eur/night.  edit
  • Holiday Flat, Vacation rental, Schönbrunner Strasse 79, 1050 Wien, very central located at the Underground U4 Pilgramgasse, only two stations to the Opera house or four stations to the Schloss Schönbrunn. http://www.ferien-wohnung-apartment-wien.at
  • Pilgram Apartments, Bräuhausgasse 20, 1050 Vienna (close to U4 Pilgramgasse), [161], Low budget stays in typical Vienna ambience.
  • Pension Esterhazy, Nelkengasse 3 (close to U3 Neubaugasse), 587 51 49 [162]. Clean basic rooms, prices are from €26 (single room, shower, and toilet outside) to €69 (2 bedroom with shower and toilet).
  • Vienna Center Apartment, Bauernmarkt, +43 699 108 108 00 (, fax: +43 1 9251599), [163]. checkin: 2PM; checkout: 10AM. Exclusive, fully equipped three room apartments for vacation or business in a prime location; located within a few minutes walking distance from the first district. Some three room apartments have roof garden or terraces and air-conditioning. depending on number of people, season and duration of stay.  edit
  • wombats CITY HOSTEL Vienna The Base, Grangasse 6, 1150 Wien (a few blocks away from Westbahnhof on the U3 line), +43/1/8972336 (), [164]. checkin: 2 p.m.; checkout: 10 a.m.. It's clean, cheap, and friendly and great for the budget conscious backpacker. 16,00-39,00 Euro.  edit
  • wombats CITY HOSTEL Vienna The Lounge, Mariahilfer Str. 137, 1150 Wien (directly at the Westbahnhof and the U3 line), +43/1/8972336 (), [165]. checkin: 2 p.m.; checkout: 10 a.m.. Opend in 2006 - trendy Hostel in an imperial facade dating from 1880. 17,00-39,00 Euro.  edit
  • Actilingua Apartment-Hotel***, Schneidergasse (On the central U3 subway line, the Zippererstrasse subway station is within a five minutes walk), [166]. Friendly budget apartment-hotel with free W-LAN. Spacious rooms and fully equipped kitchens offers an excellent form of independent accommodation.  edit
  • Youth Hostel Vienna-Myrthengasse, Myrthengasse 7, 523 63 16 (), [167]. About €18 per night including breakfast and sheets..  edit
  • Vienna City Hostel, Dampfgasse 8, (+43 1) 505 88 43 (), [168]. central location and best access to the Südbahnhof (trainstation South) which is within three minute walk. The public transfer facilities, such as underground, buses, and trams are easy to reach.  edit
  • Hütteldorf Hacking, Schlossberggasse 8 (Take the U4 to Hütteldorf [over 30 min=15 km] and exit the station on the south side, then follow the signs to the hostel [another 15 min]). Hütteldorf Hacking is one of two HI hostels in Vienna, located in a peaceful neighborhood to the west of the city.  edit
  • Happy Hostel, Kurzgasse 2 (Only a three minute walk from the Westbahnhof. Same distance from metro station 'Gumpendorfer Strasse.' Crossing the Wallgasse and near the Wiener Gürtel-Bundesstrasse.), +43 676 6757 457 (), [169]. A backpackers favorite. Fantastic location, great rooms, very clean. Starting from €17 for dorm bed.  edit
  • Hostel Ruthensteiner, Robert Hamerlinggasse 24, +43-1-8934202, [170]. checkout: 10:00. Free WiFi, Bar open 19:00-23:00, nice rooms, kitchen. Somehow paying is only possible with cash, even there is a visa-terminal, so bring cash. dorm from 17 EUR, double room 26 EUR.  edit
  • ViennApart [171], Nussdorfer Strasse 27, A-1090 Vienna, +43-1-3177540, fax: +43-1-3177540 bookings@viennapart.at. Six spacious apartments for 1-6 persons in a charming 19th century house near the city center. Free internet access (WLAN), rates from € 75
  • Arenberg Hotel & Pension [172], Stubenring 2, A-1010 Vienna, +43-1-5125291, fax: +43-1-5139356 reservations@arenberg.at. Located in the city center in walking ditance to most of the major attractions. A charming family owned hotel. Rates from € 88,-
  • K&T Boardinghouse [173], Mariahilfer Straße 72, A-1070 Vienna, +43-1-5232989, fax: +43-1-5220345 k.t@chello.at. Three rooms with bath in private home near the city center. Prices from €79-119. Located near U3 Neubaugasse.
  • Hotel Pension Residenz [174], Ebendorferstraße 10, A-1010 Vienna, +43-1-40647860, fax: +43 1 406478650 info@residenz.cc. Three star hotel in the city center of Vienna, next to Rathaus and the Wiener Ringstraße.
  • Hotel am Schubertring [175], Schubertring 11, A-1010 WIEN. +43-1-71702-0, fax: 7139966 hotel.amschubertring@chello.at. A charming private hotel in the heart of the city. Located directly on the famous Ringstrasse and only a stroll away from the Opera and the pedestrian zone - Kärntnerstrasse and Graben - the most important sights of Vienna can easily be reached by foot. Special guest rate garage parking available. Double room from €128
  • Hahns Vienna Apartment, Hoher Markt 8. Mobile Phone: +43-676-9166-227, info@hahnsvienna.com [176]. Three bedrooms, 1-7 people. Hahns Vienna Apartment is on the main street of Vienna (convenient location that is centrally located in the first district). Rates starting from €100 per night.
  • Hotel Goldener Baer Türkenstraße 27 [177]. This is a modest hotel within walking distance from the city center. Metro stations and tram stops near by. Rooms from €56.
  • Austria Classic Hotel Wein [178]. Formerly the Hotel Nordbahn, this is a good, friendly atmosphered hotel. It's also close to center.
  • Hotel Tourotel Wien [179]. A nice hotel, between downtown and Schoenbrunn Palace. There are often specials.
  • Design Apartment Penzing, Mobile Phone: +43-699-1031-6941, fuxmitx@yahoo.de [180]. Modern apartments near the heart of Vienna's city center and close to Schloss Schönbrunn. Apartments are from €90.
  • Sofitel Vienna, Am Heumarkt 35-37. Tel: +43 1/716160, [181]. Located near the city centre. The rooms are nice (smallish), but still stylish. Rooms start at €120/night.
  • Hotel Sacher, Philharmonikerstraße 4, +43/ (0)1/ 514 56 0 (, fax: +43/ (0)1/ 514 56 810), [183]. Hotel Sacher is located next to the Opera and at the end of the pedestrianized Kärtner Strasse shopping area. This hotel is best known as the place where Sachertorte (cake) was invented. The elegant drawing room is a popular place to gather after a performance at the Opera. The food is pricey, but definitely worth the money. The rooms offer old style luxury with heavy carpets. €286+ per night.  edit
  • Hotel Imperial, Kärntner Ring 16, +43 (0)1/ 501100, [184]. Hotel Imperial was build in 1863 as a viennese residence for the German Prince of Württemberg in Neo Renaissance style. Excellent location at the ring in total imperial style and impeccable service. €300+ per night.  edit
  • Hotel Palais Coburg, Coburgbastei 4, +43 (0)1/518 18-0, [185]. The Palais Coburg is a converted historic building that now has an outstanding restaurant (perfect wine list) and spa direct in the city center. Beside some rooms mostly suites and impeccable service. €600+ per night.  edit
  • Das Tyrol, Mariahilfer Strasse 15, +43/ (0)1/ 587 5415 (, fax: +43/ (0)1/ 5875 4159), [186]. Das Tyrol is a small and comfortable hotel located near the Museum quartier. €109-€259 per night.  edit
  • Hilton Vienna, Am Stadtpark 1 1030 Vienna, Austria, (), [187]. Home to Vienna’s premier conference centre, the Hilton Vienna hotel features meeting space for 2-1800 and provides a Business-Service Centre.  edit
  • Hollmann Beletage, Köllnerhofgasse 6, A-1010 Vienna - Centre of Vienna's Old Town, +43-1-9611960 (, fax: +43 1 9611960-33), [188]. Boutique hotel in the city center of Vienna. Only 25 rooms, contemporay design, gourmet breakfast. From €150/room and night  edit
  • Vienna Marriott Hotel, Parkring 12a, 1010 Wien (close to Stubentor metro), [189]. The Vienna Marriott Hotel is situated in the heart of Vienna, along the avenue "Ringstrasse", opposite Stadtpark, This elegant hotel offers 313 deluxe rooms and suites, an indoor pool and health club (sauna, solarium, jacuzzi, fitness club), business center and shops. The restaurants and bars of the Vienna Marriott Hotel are popular gathering places in the city.  edit
  • Le Méridien Vienna, Opernring 13, +43/ (0)1/ 588 90 0 (, fax: +43/ (0)1/ 588 90 9090), [190]. The hotel was opened in late 2003 and is done in a very modern, artsy "Art + Tech" design. All rooms have flat screen TVs and massage showers. Features a breakfast buffet and bar. €163+ per night.  edit
  • The Ring, Vienna's Casual Luxury Hotel, [191] Kärntner Ring 8, Phone: +43 1 22 1 22. Located in the heart of Vienna, opposite The Vienna State Opera, the five-star boutique hotel has an unexpected interior, which mixes the traditional with the modern. Many of the building’s historic details have been preserved to ensure the hotel remains all of its historic charm.

Contact

Vienna has a large number of mostly free wireless hotspots in bars, restaurants, and cafés (see drink section). Those that are on the Freewave Wi-Fi network can be found here: [192]. MuseumsQuartier has free wireless internet.

If you're a European student you can make use of the eduroam service[193]. The University of Vienna[194], the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration[195], the University of Technology[196], the Medical University of Vienna [197], the University of Applied Arts Vienna[198], the University of Music and Performing Arts[199] as well as the Austrian Academy of Sciences[200] are part of this programme in Vienna.

Stay safe

Vienna is potentially one of the safest cities in the world for its size. There are no slums or districts you should avoid. In general, you can visit any part of the city at any time of the day without taking many risks — just use your common sense. At night, though, it is wise to avoid parks, as well as the area within and around Karlsplatz station and Schwedenplatz station. The drug scene at Karlsplatz hangs out there during the day, but they do not care at all about tourists. Just ignore them and they will ignore you. The Prater (fair grounds/amusement park area) is said by some locals to be less safe at night, though more in reference to pickpockets than anything else. As in any major city, watch out for pickpockets who grab and run when boarding the U-Bahn (subway). There are few racist assaults in Vienna, but its streets and public-transport facilities are littered with racist (anti-black) graffiti. Some areas around the Prater and around the Westbahnhof are spots for prostitutes to ply their trade. Female travellers walking around there alone at night might feel uncomfortable.

Recently there have been some reports of fraud around Karlsplatz and Ressel Park area, also near the ring. The usual scenario is that someone will stop you and ask for directions. A couple of other guys show up claiming to be police, showing a badge (must be fake). They ask if you were getting drugs from the other guy and then will ask for your passport and wallet for verification. When you are busy trying to convince them that your passport is valid, one of them sneaks out some money from your wallet. Best to tell them that you want to go to the police station — there is one at Karlsplatz U-Bahnstation. It's a minor annoyance, but it's better to be careful. In a different case of fraud they try to convince you that your money is counterfeit money and that they have to inspect it. As always use common sense: policemen are ought to approach you in a very distinctive way (you will notice if they do so), the badge must have Polizei (police) and the Austrian coat of arms and/or the Austrian flag located somewhere on it.

Do not walk on the bike lanes and cross them like you would cross any other road. Some bike lanes are hard to recognize (e.g. on the "Ring" in Vienna) and some cyclists drive rather fast. Walking on bike lines is not only considered to be impolite, but it may also happen that you are hit by a cyclist.

If you see people gambling on the streets (usually in popular tourists' destinations like stephenplatz or Mariahilferstrasse) stay away! The modus operandi usually involves a guy playing the classic game of "hiding the ball". This involves covering the ball (or small trinket) with either a bottle cap or a match box and swirling it around with two other bottle caps asking people to guess the position of the ball. The game is set in a way that you can easily see the ball's position. This is done to lure the unsuspecting person into placing a wager. There are usually two main players and, between them, they will lose and win money back and forth to give the appearance that it is a fair game - do not be tricked! They are from the same gang. Once you get greedy and get lured in, you will surely lose your money! The person in control of the bottle caps will remove the ball from their position through sleight of hand and you will never see your money back. Besides the two or three other players involved, there are usually at least two lookouts - one on each side of 'stage'.

Cope

Embassies

Canada, [201].  edit

China, 梅特涅大街4号, (+43-1) 710 36 48 (fax: (+43-1) 713 68 16), [202].  edit

United States, Boltzmanngasse 16 A-1090 Vienna, (+43-1) 31339-0 (fax: (+43-1) 310 06 82), [203].  edit

  • Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, is only 60 km (50 minutes by train or car) from Vienna. In the past, prices were one-fifth of what they are in Vienna, but now you pay pretty much the same. From the Donaukanal, you can catch the brand new (but rather expensive) ferry. [204] Trains to and from Bratislava leave about every 30 minutes and also every two hours at night. A round trip ticket including public transport in Bratislava (ask for a "EURegion Ticket Bratislava") costs only €14. Most trains depart from Wien Ostbahnhof (Südbahnhof).
  • Sopron is a historic town, in the part of Hungary closest to Vienna.
  • Gumpoldskirchen is a picturesque wine growing village half an hour's train ride south of Vienna. Its a good destination for wine tasting and hill walking, especially in autumn. To get there take the S-Bahn train at Wien Südtiroler Platz (take U1 to get there) or Wien Meidling (take the U6 to get there), trains are going about every 30 Minutes.
  • The Carnuntum archaeological park [205] is located 40 km from Vienna, in the direction of Bratislava. The site offers excavations of an ancient Roman city. It is worth a one-day visit. You can get there by train (S-Bahn Line 7, departing at Wien-Mitte, within walking distance to the city centre or take U3 or U4 to get there), trains leave every 60 minutes, travelling time is 56 minutes.
  • Seegrotte [206] — 17 km south of Vienna is the largest underground lake in Europe.
  • If you need a regional supplement (Aussenzonen) on your Vienna train card, this map [207] will tell you.
  • Klosterneuburg - Town and monastery on the Danube
  • Sammlung Essl - Contemporary Art [208] — Sammlung Essl, Kunst der Gegenwart. With its 5,000 artworks, the Essl collection provides an excellent overview of Austrian painting since 1945. This overview is presented in the context of international art. It is a private art collection featured in a newly built museum. How to get there? Take the U4 Subway to 'Heiligenstadt' (the end-station) then an additional 10 minutes by bus or S-Bahn to Klosterneuburg-Kierling.
  • Laxenburg castles
  • Wachau valley - A beautiful, windy valley of high cliffs, vineyards and romantic, crumbling medieval castles, one of which played prison to Richard I of England (Richard the Lionheart) during the Crusades.
  • Stift Melk [209] [210] - Baroque monastery which is a UNESCO World heritage site in the Wachau valley.
  • Schloss Hof - The former country seat of Prince Eugene of Savoy.
  • Bratislava - Capital of Slovakia. There are more than 90 daily trains daily from Vienna to Bratislava, the train ride is approximately 1 hour and costs €14.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

VIENNA (Ger. Wien; Lat. Vindobona), the capital of the Austrian empire, the largest city in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, and the fourth city in Europe as regards population. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, at the base of the Wienerwald, and at the beginning of the great plain which separates the Alps from the Carpathians. This plain is continued on the opposite bank of the Danube by the valley of the Morava (Marchfeld), which constitutes the easiest access to the north. Thus Vienna forms a junction of natural ways from south to north, and from west to east. It also lies on the frontier which separates from one another three races, the German, the Slavonic and the Hungarian.

Curiously enough, Vienna has for a long time turned its back, so to speak, on the magnificent waterway of the Danube, the city being built about '1 m. away from the main stream. Only an arm of the river, the Danube Canal, so called because it was - regulated and widened in 1598, passes through the city, dividing it into two unequal parts. It is true that the river forms at this point several arms, and the adjoining districts were subjected to periodical inundations, while navigation was by no means easy here. But in 1870 works for the regulation of the river were started with the object of making it quite safe for navigation, and of avoiding the dangers of inundation. By these magnificent works of regulation the new bed was brought nearer to the town, and the new river channel has an average width of 915 ft. and a depth of 10 ft. On its left bank stretches the so-called inundation region, 1525 ft. wide, while on the right bank quays have been constructed with numerous wharfs and warehouses. By these works of regulation over 2400 acres of ground were gained for building purposes. This new bed of the Danube was completed in 1876. In conjunction with this work the entire Danube Canal has been transformed into a harbour by the construction of a lock at its entrance, while increased accommodation for shipping has also been provided at the other end of the canal known as the winter harbour. Into the Danube Canal flows the small stream, called Wien, now arched over almost in its entirety. Vienna extends along the right bank of the Danube from the historic and legendary Kahlenberg to the point where the Danube Canal rejoins the main stream, being surrounded on the other side by a considerable stretch of land which is rather rural than suburban in character.

Vienna is officially divided into twenty-one districts or Bezirke. Until 1892 it contained only ten of the present districts; in that year nine outlying districts were incorporated with the town; in 1900 Brigittenau was created out of part of the old district of Leopoldstadt, and in 1905 the Floridsdorf district was made up by the incorporation of the following former suburbs: Aspern-an-der-Donau, Donaufeld, Floridsdorf, Gross-Jedlersdorf, Hirschstetten, Jedlesee, Kagran, Leopoldau, Lobau-Insel and Stadlau. By the incorporation of the suburbs in 189, 2, the area of Vienna was more than trebled, namely, from 213 sq. m. to 69 sq. m.; while a new increase of about one-fifth of its total area was added by the incorporation of 1902. A feature of the new city is the unusually large proportion of woods and arable land within its bounds. These form nearly 60% of its total area, private gardens, parks and open spaces occupying a further 13%. While from the standpoint of population it takes the fourth place among European capitals, Vienna covers about three times as much ground as Berlin, which occupies the third place. But the bulk of its inhabitants being packed into a comparatively small portion of this area, the working classes suffer greatly from overcrowding, and all sections of the community from high rents.

The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis. These, however, were removed in 1858-60, and the place of the glacis has been taken by a magnificent boulevard, the Ring-Strasse, 2 m. in length, and about 150 ft. in average width. Another series of works, consisting of a rampart and fosse, were constructed in 1704 to surround the whole city at that time, i.e. the first ten districts of modern Vienna. This second girdle of fortifications was known as the Lines (Linien), and a second wide boulevard (Gürtel-Strasse) follows their course round the city. This second or outer girdle of fortifications formed the boundary between the city and the outlying suburbs, but was removed in 1892, when the incorporation of the suburbs took place. The inner town, which lies almost exactly in the centre of the others, is still, unlike the older parts of most European towns, the most aristocratic quarter, containing the palaces of the emperor and of many of the nobility, the government offices, many of the embassies and legations, the opera house and the principal hotels. Leopoldstadt which together with Brigittenau are the only districts on the left bank of the Danube Canal, is the chief commercial quarter, and is inhabited to a great extent by Jews. Mariahilf, Neubau and Margarethen are the chief seats of manufacturing industry. Landstrasse may be described as the district of officialism; here too are the British and German embassies. Alsergrund, with the enormous general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter.

Near the centre of the inner city, most of the streets in which are narrow and irregular, is the cathedral of St Stephen, the most important medieval building in Vienna, dating in its present form mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries, but incorporating a few fragments of the original 12th-century edifice. Among its most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450(450 ft.), rebuilt in 1860-64; the extensive catacombs, in which the emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirtyeight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling. A little to the south-west of the cathedral is the Hofburg, or imperial palace, a huge complex of buildings of various epochs and in various styles, enclosing several courtyards. The oldest part of the present edifice dates from the 13th century, and extensive additions have been made since 1887. In addition to private rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., including the celebrated "Papyrus Rainer"; the imperial treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections.

In the old town are the two largest of the Höfe, extensive blocks of buildings belonging to the great abbeys of Austria, which are common throughout Vienna. These are the Schottenhof (once belonging to the "Scoti," or Irish Benedictines) and the Mölkerhof, adjoining the open space called the Freiung, each forming a little town of itself. As in most continental towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house. Of late the so-called "Zinspalaste" ("tenement palaces") have been built on a magnificent scale, often profusely adorned without and within with painting and sculpture. Other notable buildings within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monument of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of the Habsburgs; the church of Maria-Stiegen, an interesting Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1820; the handsome Greek church, by T. Hansen (1813-1891), finished in 1858; the Minorite church, a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, containing an admirable mosaic of Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper" by Raffaeli, executed in 1806-14 by order of Napoleon and placed here in 1846. Other churches worth mentioning are the Schottenkirche, built in the 13th century, reconstructed in the 17th and restored by H. von Ferstel (1828-1883), containing the tombs of the count of Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna against the Turks in 1683, and of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott (d. 1177); the church of St Peter, reconstructed by Fischer von Erlach in 1702-13, and the University church, erected by the Jesuits in 1625-31, both in the baroque style with rich frescoes; lastly, the small church of St Ruprecht, the oldest church in Vienna, first built in 740, and several times reconstructed; and the old Rathaus. At the corner of the Graben, one of the busiest thoroughfares, containing the most fashionable shops in Vienna, is the Stock im Eisen, the stump of a tree, said to be the last survivor of a holy grove round which the original settlement of Vindomina sprang up. It is full of nails driven into it by travelling journeymen.

The Ring-Strasse ranks as one of the most imposing achievements of modern street architecture. Opposite the Hof burg, the main body of which is separated from the Ring-Strasse by the Hofgarten and Volksgarten, rise the handsome monument of the empress Maria Theresa (erected 1888) and the imperial museums of art and natural history, two extensive Renaissance edifices with domes (erected 1870-89), matching each other in every particular and grouping finely with the new part of the palace. Hans Makart's painted dome in the natural history museum is the largest pictorial canvas in the world. Adjoining the museums to the west is the palace of justice (1881), and this is closely followed by the houses of parliament (1883), in which the Grecian style has been successfully adapted to modern requirements. Beyond the houses of parliament stands the new Rathaus, an immense and lavishly decorated Gothic building, erected in 1873-83. It was designed by Friedrich Schmidt (1825-1891), who may be described as the chief exponent of the modern Gothic tendency as T. Hansen and G. Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture. Opposite the Rathaus, on the inner side of the Ring, is the new court theatre, another specimen of Semper's Renaissance work, finished in 1889. To the north stands the new building of the university, a Renaissance structure by H. von Ferstel, erected in 1873-84 and rivalling the Rathaus in extent. Near the university, and separated from the Ring by a garden, stands the votive church in Alsergrund, completed in 1879, and erected to commemorate the emperor's escape from assassination in 1853, one of the most elaborate and successful of modern Gothic churches (Ferstel). The other important buildings of the Ring-Strasse include the magnificent opera house, built 1861-69, by E. Van der Null (1812-1868) and A. von Siccardsburg (1813-1868), the sumptuous interior of which vies with that of Paris; the academy of art, built in 187276; the exchange, built in 1872-77, both by Hansen; and the Austrian museum of art and industry, an Italian Renaissance building erected by Ferstel in 1868-71. On the north side the Ring-Strasse gives place to the spacious Franz Josef's quay, flanking the Danube Canal. The municipal districts outside the Ring also contain numerous handsome modern buildings. Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying districts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments. One of the finest squares in the world for the beauty of the buildings which encircle it is the Rathausplatz, adjoining the Ring-Strasse.

Vienna is the intellectual as well as the material capital of Austria - emphatically so in regard to the German part of the empire. Its university, established in 1365, is now attended by nearly 6000 students, and the medical faculty enjoys a world-wide reputation. Its scientific institutions are headed by the academy of science. The academy of art was founded in 1707.

Table of contents

Museums

In the imperial art-history museum are stored the extensive art-collections of the Austrian imperial family, which were formerly in the Hofburg, in the Belvedere, and in other places. It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art. The last contains valuable specimens of the industrial art of the middle ages and of the Renaissance period in gold, silver, bronze, glass, enamel, ivory, iron and wood. The famous salt-cellar (saliera) of Benvenuto Cellini, executed in 1539-43 for Francis I. of France, is here. Then comes the collection of weapons and armour, including the famous Ambras collection, so called after the castle of Ambras near Innsbruck, where it was for a long time stored. The picture gallery, which contains the collection formerly preserved in the Belvedere palace, contains masterpieces of almost every school in the world, but it is unsurpassed for its specimens of Rubens, Dürer and the Venetian masters. Next come the imperial treasury at the Hofburg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 drawings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal.

Besides, there are in Vienna a number of private picture galleries of great importance. The largest is that belonging to Prince Liechtenstein, containing about 800 paintings, and specially rich in important works by Rubens and Van Dyck; the picture gallery of Count Harrach, with over 400 paintings, possessing numerous examples of the later Italian and French schools; that of Count Czernin, with over 340 paintings; and that of Count Schönborn, with 110 pictures. The imperial natural history museum contains a mineralogical, geological and zoological section, as well as a prehistoric and ethnographical collection. Its botanic collection contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is attached a fine botanical garden. Besides the Hofburg library, there are important libraries belonging to the university and other societies, the corporation and the various monastic orders.

Parks, &c. - The Prater, a vast expanse (2000 acres) of wood and park on the east side of the city, between the Danube and the Danube Canal, is greatly frequented by all classes. The exhibition of 1873 was held in this park, and several of its buildings, including the large rotunda, have been left standing. Other parks are the Hofgarten, the Volksgarten and the Town Park, all adjoining the Ring-Strasse; the Augarten in the Leopoldstadt, the Belvedere Park in the Landstrasse, the Esterhazy Park in Mariahilf, and the Türkenschanz Park in Dobling. Among the most popular resorts are the parks and gardens belonging to the imperial châteaux of Schönbrunn and Laxenburg.

Government and Administration

Vienna is the residence of the emperor of Austria, the seat of the Austrian ministers, of the Reichsrat and of the Diet of Lower Austria. It is also the seat of the common ministries for the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, of the foreign ambassadors and general consuls and the meeting-place, alternately with Budapest, of the AustroHungarian delegations. It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister. The municipal council is composed of 158 members elected for a period of six years. The long struggle between the municipality and the Austrian ministry arising out of the refusal to sanction the election (1895) of Dr Lueger, the anti-Semitic leader and champion, recalls in some respects the Wilkes incident in London. In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.

The cost of the transformation of Vienna, which has been in progress since 1858, cannot be said to have fallen heavily on the population. Great part of the burden has been borne throughout by the "City Extension Fund," realized from the utilization of the ground formerly occupied by the fortifications and glacis. The subsequent regulation of the former suburbs has to a large extent covered its own expenses through the acquisition by the town of the improved area. The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration. In spite of shortsighted parsimony in the matter of schools, &c., and increased resources through the allocation to the municipality of a certain percentage of new state and provincial taxation, their anti-Semitic successors have been unable to avoid a deficit, and have been obliged to increase the rates. But the direct damage done in this and other ways would seem to be less than that produced by the mistrust they inspired for a time among the propertied classes, and the consequent paralysing of enterprise. Their violent anti-Magyar attitude has driven away a certain amount of Hungarian custom, and helped to increase the political difficulties of the cis-Leithan government.

Vienna is situated at an altitude of 550 ft. above the level of the sea, and possesses a healthy climate. The mean annual temperature is 48.6° F., and the range between January and July is about 40 0 F. The climate is rather changeable, and rapid falls of temperature are not uncommon. Violent storms occur in spring and autumn, and the rainfall, including snow, amounts to 25 in. a year. Vienna has one of the best supplies of drinking water of any European capital. The water is brought by an aqueduct direct from the Alps, viz. from the Schneeberg, a distance of nearly 60 m. to the south-west. These magnificent waterworks were opened in 1873, and their sanitary influence was soon felt, in the almost complete disappearance of typhoid fever, which had numerous victims before.

Great enlargements, by tapping new sources of supply, were made in 1891-93, while since 1902 works have been in progress for bringing a new supply of pure water from the region of the Salza, a distance of nearly 150 m. Another sanitary work of great importance was the improvement carried out in the drainage system, and the regulation of the river Wien. This river, which, at ordinary times, was little more than an ill-smelling brook at one side of an immense bed, was occasionally converted into a formidable and destructive torrent. Now half the bed of the river has been walled over for the metropolitan railway, while the other half has been deepened, and the portion of it within the town has been arched over. A beginning was thus made for a new and magnificent avenue in the neighbourhood of the Ring-Strasse.

Population

In 1800 the population of the old districts was 231,050; in 1840, 356,870; in 1857, 476,222 (or with suburbs, 5 8 7, 2 35); in 1869, 607,514 (with suburbs, 842,951); in 1880, 7 0 4,75 6 (with suburbs, 1,090,119); in 1890, town and suburbs, 1 ,3 6 4,54 8; and in 1900, 1,662,269, including the garrison of 26,629 men. Owing to the peculiarities of its situation, the population of Vienna is of a very cosmopolitan and heterogeneous character. Its permanent population (some 45.5% are born in the city) is recruited from all parts of Austria, and indeed of the entire monarchy. The German element is, of course, the most numerous, but there are also a great number of Hungarians, Czechs and other Slays.

Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste. The Italian colony now numbers about 2500 (chiefly navvies and masons), in addition to some 1400 Austrian subjects of that nationality. At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria. This steady and increasing influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of Slav blood in what Bismarck (in 1864)1864) described as the German capital of a Slav empire. Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and domestic servants who came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence of their origin as speedily as possible. The revival of the nationality agitation has produced a marked change in this respect. The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort. The consequence is that they take a pride in accentuating their national characteristics, a circumstance which threatens to develop into a new source of discord. In 1900 the population included 1,386,115 persons of German nationality, 102,974 Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 Poles, 805 Ruthenians, 1329 Slovenes, 271 Serbo-Croatians, and 1368 Italians, all Austrian subjects. To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926. Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.

As a general rule, the Viennese are gay, pleasure-loving and genial. The Viennese women are justly celebrated for their beauty and elegance; and dressing as a fine art is cultivated here with almost as great success as in Paris. As a rule, the Viennese are passionately fond of dancing; and the city of Strauss, J. F. K. Lanner (1801-1843) and J. Gungl (1810-1889) gives name to a "school" of waltz and other dance music. Opera, especially in its lighter form, flourishes, and the actors of Vienna maintain with success a traditional reputation of no mean order. Its chief place. in the history of art Vienna owes to its musicians, among whom are counted Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. The Viennese school of painting is of modern origin; but some of its members, for instance, Hans Makart (1840-1884), have acquired a European reputation.

Trade

Vienna is the most important commercial and industrial centre of Austria. For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be. But during the last quarter of the 19th century active steps were taken to foster the economic interests of the city. The regulation of the Danube, mentioned above, the conversion of the entire Danube Canal into a harbour, the construction of the navigable canal Danube-March-Oder - all gave a new impetus to the trade of Vienna. The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect. Vienna carries on an extensive trade in corn, flour, cattle, wine, sugar and a large variety of manufactured articles. Besides the Danube it is served by an extensive net of railways, which radiate from here to every part of the empire.

The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals. In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally. Its articles of clothing, silk goods and millinery also enjoy a great reputation for the taste with which they are manufactured. Books, artistic publications, paper and beer are amongst the other principal products. The building trade and its allied trades are also active.

History

For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character. The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire. The fortress grew in importance, and was afterwards made a municipium; and here Marcus Aurelius died in 180. On the decline of the Roman empire Vindobona became the prey of successive barbarian invaders. Attila and his Huns were among the temporary occupants of the place (5th century), and in the following century it came into the possession of the Avars, after which its name disappears from history until towards the close of the 8th century, when Charlemagne expelled the Avars and made the district between the Enns and the Wiener Wald the boundary of his empire. In the time of Otho II. (976) this "East Mark" (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy. There is no certain record that the site of Vindobona was occupied at the time of the formation of the Ostmark, though many considerations make it probable. It is not likely that the Avars, living in their "ring" encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; and Becs, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is susceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times. The frequent mention of "Wiene" in the oldest extant version of the Nibelungenlied points in the same direction. Passing over a doubtful mention of "Vwienni" in the annals of 1030, we find the "civitas" of Vienna mentioned in a document of 1130, and in 1156 it became the capital and residence of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott. In 1237 Vienna received a charter of freedom from Frederick II., confirmed in 1247. In the time of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II. of Bohemia (1251-76), the successor of the Babenbergers, it had attained the dimensions of the present inner town. A new era of power and splendour begins in 1276, when it became the capital of the Habsburg dynasty, after the defeat of Ottacar by Rudolph of Habsburg. From this time on it has shared the fortunes of the house of Austria. In 1477 Vienna was besieged unsuccessfully by the Hungarians, and in 1485 it was taken by Matthew Corvinus. Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 168 3), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459-1530), and on the second by Rüdiger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland. The suburbs, however, were destroyed on both occasions. In 1805, and again in 1809, Vienna was for a short time occupied by the French. In 1814-15 it was the meeting-place of the congress which settled the political affairs of Europe after the overthrow of Napoleon. In 1848 the city was for a time in the hands of the revolutionary party; but it was bombarded by the imperial forces' and compelled to surrender on 30th October of the same year. Vienna was not occupied by the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to within sight of its towers. In 1873 a great international exhibition took place here.

While Berlin and Budapest have made the most rapid progress of all European cities, having multiplied their population by nine in the period 1800-90, Vienna - even including the extensive annexations of 1892 - only increased sevenfold. Many causes conspired to this end, but most of them date from the years 1859, 1866 and 1867. The combined effect of these successive blows, aggravated by the long period of decentralizing policy from Taaffe to Badeni, is still felt in the Kaiserstadt. The gaiety of Vienna had for centuries depended on the brilliancy of its court, recruited from all parts of Europe, including the nobility of the whole empire, and on its musical, light-hearted and contented population. Even before it fell from its high estate as the social centre of the German-speaking world, it had suffered severely by the crushing defeats of 1859 and the consequent exodus of the Austrian nobles. These were held responsible for the misfortunes of the army, and to escape the atmosphere of popular odium retired to their country seats and the provincial capitals. They have never since made Vienna their home to the same extent as before. The change thus begun was confirmed by the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the restoration of her Constitution'to Hungary, events which gave an immense impetus to the two rival capitals. Thus within eight years the range of territory from which Vienna drew its former throngs of wealthy pleasure-seeking visitors and more or less permanent inhabitants - Italian, German and Hungarian - was enormously restricted. Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications. But a decline of its importance, similar to that within the larger sphere which it influenced prior to 1859, has continued uninterruptedly within the Habsburg dominions up to the present day. Its commercial classes constantly complain of the increasing competition of the provinces, and of the progressive industrial emancipation of Hungary. The efforts of the Hungarians to complete their social and economic, no less than their political, emancipation from Austria and Vienna have been unremittingly pursued. The formal recognition of Budapest as a royal residence and capital in 1892, and the appointment of independent Hungarian court functionaries in November 1893, mark new stages in its progress. It would no longer be correct to speak of Vienna as the capital of the dual monarchy. It merely shares that distinction with Budapest.

Bibliography.-K. von Liitzow and L. Tischler, Wiener Neubauten (6 vols., Wien, 1889-97); M. Bermann, Altand Neuwien (2nd ed., Wien, 1903), edited by Schimmer; E. Guglia, Geschichte der Stadt Wien (Wien, 1892); H. Zimmermann, Geschichte der Stadt Wien (2 vols., Wien, 1897-1900); Hickmann, Wien im 19. Jahrhundert (Wien, 1903); Wien, 1848-88, published by the Vienna corporation; Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Wien, annually since 1883; Geschichte der Stadt Wien, published by the Vienna Alterthumsverein since 1897.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Vienna

  1. The capital of Austria.
  2. A town in Virginia in the United States.

Translations


Italian

Proper noun

Vienna f

  1. Vienna (in Austria)

Anagrams


Latin

Proper noun

Vienna (genitive Viennae); f, first declension

  1. Vienna
    • 1486Commissio propria domini regis; Decreta Regni Hungariae 1458-1490 (Budapest, 1989), page 267
      ...verum etiam illum in Austria, patria scilicet sua hereditaria agentem adorsi Viennam, civitatem celebrerrimam et eius provincie caput...

Inflection

nominative Vienna
genitive Viennae
dative Viennae
accusative Viennam
ablative Viennā
vocative Vienna
locative Viennae

Synonyms


Simple English

State Coat of Arms
File:Wien 3
General Information
Country: Austria
State Capital: Vienna
ISO 3166-2: AT-9
Vehicle Registration: W
Community Identification Number: 90101 - 92301
Postal codes: 1010 - 1239, 1400, 1450
Area code: 01
Homepage: www.wien.gv.at
State Flag of Vienna
File:Wien
Map: Vienna in Austria
File:Karte oesterreich
Name in Other Languages
German Wien
Afrikaans Wene
Albanian Vjena
Bulgarian Виена
Czech Vídeň
Dutch Wenen
French Vienne
Greek Βιέννη
Hebrew וינה
Hungarian Bécs
Italian Vienna
Lithuanian Viena
Polish Wiedeń
Portuguese Viena
Romani Bech or Vidnya
Romanian Viena
Russian Вена
Serbo-Croatian Beč
Slovak Viedeň
Slovenian Dunaj
Spanish Viena
Swahili Winna
Turkish Viyana
Politics
Mayor and governor Michael Häupl (SPÖ)
Governing Party SPÖ
Seats in the Municipal Council
(100 seats):
SPÖ 55
ÖVP 18
Greens 14
FPÖ 13
Last Election: 23 October 2005
Next Election: October 2010
Population
Population: 1,651,437 (31.12.2005)[1]
2,165,357 metro area
Population density: 3,931.3/km²
Geography
Area: 414.90 km²
- percent land: 395.51 km² (95,33%)
- percent water: 19.39 km² (4,67%)
Location: 48°13′N 16°22′E
Dimensions: North-South: 22.4 km
East-West: 29.2 km
Highest Point: 543 m
(Hermannskogel)
Lowest Point: 151 m
(Lobau)
Administrative Structure
Districts: 1 Statutarstadt
23 Bezirke
Map: Districts of Vienna
File:Wien districts with

Vienna (in German: Wien) is the capital city of Austria. It is in the east of the country on the river Danube. More than 1 million 6 hundred thousand people live there. It is the largest city of Austria. It is also an administrative district (Bundesland) of its own.

Contents

Districts

There are 23 districts in Vienna. They include:

  1. Innere Stadt (city centre)
  2. Leopoldstadt
  3. Landstraße
  4. Wieden
  5. Margareten
  6. Mariahilf
  7. Neubau
  8. Josefstadt
  9. Alsergrund
  10. Favoriten
  11. Simmering
  12. Meidling
  13. Hietzing
  14. Penzing
  15. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus
  16. Ottakring
  17. Hernals
  18. Währing
  19. Döbling
  20. Brigittenau
  21. Floridsdorf
  22. Donaustadt
  23. Liesing

Culture

[[File:|thumb|left|St. Stephan's Cathedral in Vienna is amongst the most famous buildings in Austria]] There are many old buildings, churches and museums in the city centre. Classical music and opera are popular in Vienna. The composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Brahms all worked in Vienna. Vivaldi also died in Vienna. The city has two world-famous orchestras: the Vienna Philharmonic and the Vienna Symphony.

Vienna is also the name of a song about the city, by the British group Ultravox.

Vienna is the Home of the national successful Soccer-Clubs SK Rapid Wien and FK Austria Magna.

References

Other websites

krc:Вена


frr:Wien

rue:Відень








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