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Vietnam War
Part of the Cold War
.Bruce Crandall's UH-1D.jpg
A UH-1D helicopter climbs skyward after discharging a load of US infantrymen on a search and destroy mission.
^ ZIPPO MISSION: search and destroy mission.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UH-1D helicopters airlift members of the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment from the Filhol Rubber Plantation area to a new staging area, during Operation "Wahiawa," a search and destroy mission conducted by the 25th Infantry Division, northeast of Cu Chi, Vietnam.

^ Quite early on, the Americans gave up the idea of defending territory, and instead used their superior mobility to launch so-called search and destroy missions.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Date September 26, 1959[1] – April 30, 1975
Location South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
Result North Vietnamese victory
.Eventual American withdrawal and communist takeover of South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.^ Vietnamization and American Withdrawal, 1969-1974 .

^ All this is code for the eventual withdrawal of the U.S. from Vietnam.
  • Major Events of the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC vietnamwar.lib.umb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Americans strengthened their position in South Vietnam and Thailand, the Communists tightened their grip in Laos.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Territorial
changes
Unification of North and South Vietnam under North Vietnamese rule.
Belligerents
Anti-Communist forces: Communist forces:
Commanders
.South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm
United States Lyndon B. Johnson
United States Richard Nixon
United States William Westmoreland
United States Creighton Abrams
...
^ President Johnson announces that General Westmoreland will become U.S. Army chief of staff and General Creighton Abrams will become commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV).
  • Vietnam War Timeline - Bravo 3/44th 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC bravo344.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cần Lao: the powerful semisecret political party of the Diệm government headed by Ngô Đình Nhu, Diệm's brother.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the way, Lyndon Johnson was President, so if he had agents of his doing that, then I guess Nixon kept them on the payroll.
  • Who really Spat on Veterans During the Vietnam War? - Salem-News.Com 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

more
.North Vietnam Hồ Chí Minh
North Vietnam Lê Duẩn
North Vietnam Võ Nguyên Giáp
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Trần Văn Trà
...
^ The Chinese army arrived in the north a few days after Hồ Chí Minh's ceremony in September, 1945, and took over areas north of the 16th parallel.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hồ Chí Minh fights with a variety of other political factions for control of the major cities.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Vietnamese occupied large parts of eastern Laos and supplied the NLF with mostly Chinese-made weapons via the Hồ Chí Minh Trail .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

more
Strength
~1,200,000 (1968)
South Vietnam: ~650,000
United States: 553,000 (1968)[2]
South Korea: 312,853,[3] New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines: 10,450[4]
Australia: 49,968 (1962–1973)[5]
~520,000 (1968)
North Vietnam: ~340,000
PRC: 170,000 (1969)
Soviet Union: 3,000
North Korea: 300
Casualties and losses
South Vietnam South Vietnam
220,357 dead;[6] 1,170,000 wounded
United States US
58,159 dead;[6] 1,724 missing; 303,635 wounded[7]
South Korea South Korea
4,960 dead; 10,962 wounded
Laos Kingdom of Laos
30,000 killed, wounded unknown[8]
Australia Australia
520 dead;[6] 2,400* wounded
New Zealand New Zealand
37 dead; 187 wounded
Thailand Thailand
1,351 dead[6]
Total dead: 315,831
Total wounded: ~1,490,000+
North Vietnam FNL Flag.svg North Vietnam & NLF
1,176,000 dead/missing;[6]
600,000+ wounded[9]
People's Republic of China P.R. China
1,446 dead; 4,200 wounded
Soviet Union Soviet Union
16 dead[10]
Total dead: ~1,177,446
Total wounded: ~604,000+
South Vietnamese civilian dead: 1,581,000*[6]
Cambodian civilian dead: ~700,000*
North Vietnamese civilian dead: ~2,000,000[11]
Laotian civilian dead: ~50,000*

* = approximations, see Casualties below
For more information on casualties see Vietnam War casualties
.The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, the Vietnam Conflict or the American War [12], was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from September 26, 1959[1] to April 30, 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations.^ Communist governments were also set-up in Laos and Cambodia.

^ The Us got out of the Vietnam war in 1975.
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 12, 1966 - B-52s are used for the first time against North Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.The Viet Cong, a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist-controlled common front, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region.^ Regional Forces and Popular Forces of the VietNamese military.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VIETCONG: Communist forces fighting the South Vietnamese government.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ground war of US troops against the Viet Cong began.
  • Environmental effects of war 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The North Vietnamese Army engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle.^ It was conquered by the North Vietnamese army."
  • The Wrong War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Responding to popular pressures, the Selective Service, the agency that administered the draft, instituted a lottery system, which might have produced an army more representative of society at large.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The North Vietnamese refused to follow the Third Geneva Convention toward POWs, used them in propaganda broadcasts, and more and more evidence came out about their being treated harshly.
  • Vietnam, war, and the United States - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery and airstrikes.^ September 14-November 24 - Operation Attleboro begins involving 20,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese soldiers in a search-and-destroy mission 50 miles north of Saigon near the Cambodian border.  During the fighting, enormous weapons caches are found in a hidden base camp in the jungle.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quite early on, the Americans gave up the idea of defending territory, and instead used their superior mobility to launch so-called search and destroy missions.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Air force had succeeded in its objective of forcing the North Vietnamese to return to the peace table where there had been a stalemate since October.

.The United States entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment.^ The security of South Vietnam remains vital to United States security.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam Veterans Against the War was organized in the United States in 1967.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the United States obligated to do what it did in Vietnam?
  • The Wrong War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Military advisors arrived beginning in 1950. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with U.S. troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962.[14] U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Operations spanned borders, with Laos and Cambodia heavily bombed.^ After 1965 U.S. involvement in the war escalated rapidly.

^ This article focuses on the combat involvement of the United States, 1962-1972.
  • Vietnam War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1961 the US had military advisors...
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of the Tet Offensive.^ TET Offensive - 1968 .
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opposition against him peaked in 1968; see Tet Offensive .
  • Vietnam War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TET OFFENSIVE 1968 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this, U.S. ground forces were withdrawn as part of a policy called Vietnamization.^ His answer was a policy called "Vietnamization."
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the next nine months, there are a series of recommendations for Kennedy to send in the first ground combat forces to South Vietnam.
  • Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam 23 September 2009 4:52 UTC www.cceia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the same 60-day period, all American forces will be withdrawn from South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the Paris Peace Accords, signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued.^ Jan 1973; All four parties formally sign Paris Peace Agreements.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1973; Paris Peace Agreements officially signed by all four Parties.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paris Peace Accords (1973) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Case-Church Amendment, passed by the U.S. Congress in response to the anti-war movement, prohibited direct U.S. military involvement without congressional authorization after August 15, 1973. U.S. military and economic aid continued until 1975.[15] The capture of Saigon by North Vietnamese army in April 1975 marked the end of Vietnam War.^ In spite of this Case Church 1973 Congressional guarantee, the North Vietnamese were very leery of President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ April 25, 1975 - North Vietnamese soldiers close in on the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon.

^ The Us got out of the Vietnam war in 1975.
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ The Geneva Accords stipulated that free elections be held throughout Vietnam in 1956 under the supervision of an International Control Committee with the aim of reunifying North and South Vietnam under a single popularly elected government.

^ The United States began the aerial bombing and leafleting of Vietnam of North Vietnam in 1964, following the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
  • Vietnam War Flag Safe Conduct Passes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (See: Vietnam War casualties), including 3 to 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, 1.5 to 2 million Laotians and Cambodians, and 58,159 U.S. soldiers.^ Over a million communist soldiers and around 2 million Vietnamese civilians on both sides also died.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1968, the Vietnam War was costing 66 million dollars a day.

^ Vietnam War soldiers / Neil Super.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .By this war's end, the Vietnamese had been fighting foreign involvement or occupation in various wars for over a hundred years.^ Even though the war ended almost 30 years ago, this history is still being recorded.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Formally brought to an end in 2002, an estimated 500,000 people were killed and tens of thousands more were displaced during the 27-year civil war.

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology

Various names have been applied to the conflict. .Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English.^ Someday, the Vietnam War will be the most studied war!
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total defeat in Vietnam 30 years ago should have been a warning to the U.S.: wars are too complicated for any nation, even the most powerful, to undertake without grave risk.
  • Gabriel Kolko: the End of the Vietnam War, 30 Years Later 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1969, a friend of mine, a pacifist with whom I agreed on most issues, remarked that he could not see why the war in Vietnam was especially bad.
  • Vietnam: The War We Cannot Escape 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.givewings.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has also been called the Second Indochina War, and the Vietnam Conflict.^ Wars of Vietnam covers the context of conflict between 1868 and 1999; there are separate articles on earlier history.
  • Vietnam War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ang Cheng Guan, Vietnamese Communists' Relations with China and the Second Indochina Conflict, 1956-1962 .
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A brief skim indicates that the author very seriously misunderstands the process by which the Second Indochina War began; this does not bode well for the book as a whole.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As there have been so many conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the name of their chief opponent to distinguish it from the others.^ In many cases this meant that cream rose to the top, while in others it seemed to indicate that "there's no accounting for taste."
  • Popular Top 10 Music of the Vietnam War, 1st Battalion, 50th Infantry (Mechanized) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ichiban1.org [Source type: General]

^ And so there were Hamburger Hills and Khe Sanhs and Hill 881's and Fire Base 6's and so many others.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many other wounded men had crawled over there, including the medic Novak, who had run out of supplies after five minutes.

[17] .Thus, in Vietnamese, the war is known as Chiến tranh Việt Nam (The Vietnam War), or as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ (Resistance War Against America), loosely translated as the American War.^ "Vietnamese Films return to the American War."
  • The War in Vietnam and the Movies: A Short Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Libraries 23 September 2009 4:52 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vann and history of America in the Vietnam War.
  • Used, Rare and Out-of-Print Books - War: Vietnam 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bluejacket.com [Source type: General]

^ The Vietnam Conflict , popularly known as the Vietnam War (also known as the Second Indochina War and colloquially as Vietnam or Nam as well as the American War or Kháng chiến chống Mỹ , the Resistance War Against America by the Vietnamese Communists in Vietnam) 1 was a conflict in which the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam) and its allies fought against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam) and its allies.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.The main military organizations involved in the war were, on one side, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and the U.S. military, and, on the other side, the Vietnam People's Army (VPA), or North Vietnamese Army (NVA), and the Vietcong, or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), a South Vietnamese communist army.^ One reason involved the expense of the war.

^ Why was England involved in the Vietnam War?
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was conquered by the North Vietnamese army."
  • The Wrong War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

Background to 1949

.France began its conquest of Indochina in 1859. In spite of military resistance, by 1888 the area of the current-day nations of Cambodia and Vietnam was made into the colony of French Indochina (Laos was added later).^ By 1893, the neighbouring states of Laos and Cambodia had also been added to the French Empire.

^ TRI-BORDER: in SEA, the area where Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos meet.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of Indochina was granted independence, including Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Various Vietnamese opposition movements to the French rule existed during this period but none were ultimately as successful as the Viet Minh common front, controlled by the Communist Party of Vietnam, founded in 1941 and funded by United States and Chinese Nationalists in its fight against Japanese occupation.^ By 1946 a Vietnamese independence movement, led by communist Ho Chi Minh, was fighting French troops for control of northern Vietnam.

^ Tactics were developmental, based on Viet Minh and Chinese Communist experience.
  • Vietnam War Internet Project 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.vwip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period, the United States conducted a gradual troop withdrawal from Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][21]
.During World War II, the French were defeated by the Germans in 1940. For French Indochina, this meant that the colonial authorities became Vichy French, allies of the German-Italian Axis powers.^ After World War II, France was able to reinstall its colonial government in what was then known as Indochina.

^ The end of World War II opened the way for the return of French rule to Indochina.

^ During World War II, Japan invaded and occupied Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In turn this meant that the French collaborated with the Japanese forces after their invasion of French Indochina during 1940. The French continued to run affairs in the colony, but ultimate power resided in the hands of the Japanese.^ In 1940 Japanese troops invaded and occupied French Indochina.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1940 Japanese troops occupied Indochina, but allow the French to continue their colonial administration of the area.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A powerful movement--known as the Vietminh and led by Ho Chi Minh--defeated the Japanese occupation of Vietnam during the Second World War.
  • Joe Allen: The Real Story of Vietnam Veterans Against the War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.This situation continued until the German forces were expelled from France and the French Indochina colonial authorities started holding secret talks with the Free French.^ After being defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and forced to withdraw from Vietnam after nearly a century of colonial rule, France quickly evacuated 25,000 Vietnamese children of French parentage and gave them citizenship.
  • Children of the Vietnam War | People & Places | Smithsonian Magazine 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vietnam was under de facto Japanese administrative control, although the French continued to serve as official administrators until 1944.

^ Events in France as well as the growing support for WSA and PLP within SDS forced them to start imitating the rhetoric of PLP s working class line and Leninist analysis.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Fearing that they could no longer trust the French authorities the Japanese army interned them all on 9 March 1945 and assumed direct control themselves[22] through their puppet state of the Empire of Vietnam under Bảo Đại.^ They no longer trusted us.
  • The Experiences Of A Vietnam Veteran 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: General]

^ During the Vietnam war the number of young men drafted into military service rose rapidly through 1968, tapered off during the "Vietnamization" phase of the Nixon administration, and ended with the return to an all-volunteer Army In the 1970s.

^ After the diseaster at Dien Bien Phu, the French felt that they can no longer hold Vietnam and that French lives are not worth an...
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During 1944–1945, a famine struck northern Vietnam due to a combination of poor weather and Japanese exploitation.^ During much of the late 1970s and early 1980s, Vietnam underwent an economic depression and came close to famine.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other areas of northern South Vietnam during the Tet Offensive, the NVA attacked Hill 861A on 5 February 1968 and were repulsed.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Japanese occupation a famine broke out that could have easily been stopped by the Japanese and the French moving stored rice and grain to needed areas.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1 million people died of starvation (out of a population of 10 million in the affected area).^ Currently over 3 million people have died in the war, mostly from disease and starvation.
  • Environmental effects of war 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1961 and 1975 an estimated 10% of the people living in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos had died.

^ At least 10 million people became homeless refugees in the south.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Exploiting the administrative gap[24] that the internment of the French had created, the Viet Minh in March 1945 urged the population to ransack rice warehouses and refuse to pay their taxes.^ To pay for this the French taxed the Vietnamese peasants.

^ The Viet Minh had only 2000 troops at the time Vietnam's independence was declared, but recruiting increased after the arrival of French troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ December 1946 — Negotiations between the Viet Minh and the French break down.

[25] Between 75 and 100 warehouses were consequently raided.[26] .This rebellion against the effects of the famine and the authorities that were partially responsible for it, bolstered the Viet Minh's popularity and they recruited many members during this period.^ Most of covert communist agents (members of the National Liberation Front and the Viet Cong) in the South were exposed when they showed their hand during the Tet offensive and were destroyed.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many students from the anti-war movement were won to joining the party and helping to help recruit many of the workers who today help lead the party.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Viet Minh had only 2000 troops at the time Vietnam's independence was declared, but recruiting increased after the arrival of French troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.In August 1945, the Japanese had been defeated and surrendered unconditionally.^ August 1945 — Japan surrenders to the Allies.

^ August 15, 1945 - Japan surrenders to the Allies.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Japanese signed their formal surrender on September 2, 1945, Ho used the occasion to declare the independence of Vietnam, which he called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV).
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.In French Indochina this created a power vacuum as the French were still interned and the Japanese forces stood down.^ French businessmen, whose monopolies were interlocked with the powerful Bank of Indochina, became very wealthy.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Second World War, the government of Vichy France cooperated with Imperial Japanese forces sent to occupy Indochina.

^ This was unique of the colonies occupied by the Japanese, where the former Dutch, British and American colonialists were imprisoned by the Japanese.The French were collaborating with the Japanese in Indochina just as they collaborated with the Germans in occupied France.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Into this vacuum, the Viet Minh entered and grasped power across Vietnam in the "August Revolution"[26] (in large part supported by the Vietnamese population).^ The Viet Minh had a strong base of popular support in northern Vietnam.

^ A powerful movement--known as the Vietminh and led by Ho Chi Minh--defeated the Japanese occupation of Vietnam during the Second World War.
  • Joe Allen: The Real Story of Vietnam Veterans Against the War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Known as the McNamara Line, after Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, who vigorously promoted the concept, the barrier was to extend across South Vietnam and eventually into Laos.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
.On 2 September 1945, Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the Viet Minh, declared the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam before a crowd of 500,000 in Hanoi.^ Ho Chi Minh 79, died on 2 September 1969; leader of North Vietnam.
  • Medal of Honor Citations: Vietnam War and Iraqi Conflict 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mishalov.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ho Chi Minh went there to petition for the rights of Vietnam.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .In an overture to the Americans, he began his speech by paraphrasing the United States Declaration of Independence: All men are created equal.^ Then, campuses exploded all over the United States.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The opening line of his speech paraphrased the American Declaration of Independence –"All men are created equal.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It borrowed from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, in the French Revolution, and from the American Declaration of Independence, and began: "All men are created equal.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

The Creator has given us certain inviolable Rights: the right to Life, the right to be Free, and the right to achieve Happiness.
[26]
.However, the major allied victors of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union, all agreed that the area belonged to the French.^ Then, campuses exploded all over the United States.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The power that succeeded the French was the United States.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .As the French did not have the ships, weapons or soldiers to immediately retake Vietnam, the major powers came to an agreement that British troops would occupy the south while Nationalist Chinese forces would move in from the north.^ South Vietnam forces surrender unconditionally.

^ Reports of skirmishes between North and South Vietnam forces.

^ The South would have eventually been absorbed by the North.
  • Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam 23 September 2009 4:52 UTC www.cceia.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] .When the British landed they rearmed the interned French forces as well as parts of the surrendered Japanese forces to aid them in retaking south Vietnam as they did not have enough troops to do this themselves.^ South Vietnam forces surrender unconditionally.

^ Then they brought in the American press and the international press and said, “Here’s the evidence that the North Vietnamese are invading South Vietnam.” Based on this evidence two Marine battalion landing teams went into Danang and a week after that the American air force began regular bombing of North Vietnam.
  • Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British colonial officer, Major-General Douglas Gracey, took surrender of the Japanese in September 1945, in Saigon, but “immediately rearmed them and ordered them to put down the Vietminh, who had already formed an administration in the South.
  • Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Following the party line from Moscow, Ho Chi Minh initially attempted to negotiate with the French who were slowly re-establishing their control across the country.^ The French succeeded in regaining control of the country.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh and his followers set up the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ho Chi Minh attempted to negotiate the end of colonial rule with the French, but without success.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] .In January 1946, the Viet Minh won elections across central and northern Vietnam.^ The Viet Minh had a strong base of popular support in northern Vietnam.

^ The Viet Minh fight a limited insurgency in remote rural areas of northern Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Viet Minh had only 2000 troops at the time Vietnam's independence was declared, but recruiting increased after the arrival of French troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .The French landed in Hanoi by March 1946 and in November of that year they ousted the Viet Minh from the city.^ In March 1946 they agreed to French terms.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 6, two battalions of Marines landed on the beaches near Da Nang to relieve that beleaguered city.

^ January 31-March 2 - In the Battle for Hue during Tet, 12,000 NVA and Viet Cong troops storm the lightly defended historical city.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Soon thereafter the Viet Minh began a guerrilla war against the French Union forces, beginning the First Indochina War.^ First, people's forces can win a war against the army.

^ Viet Minh defeat a French force at Dien Bien Phu .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ground war of US troops against the Viet Cong began.
  • Environmental effects of war 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The war spread to Laos and Cambodia where Communists organized the Pathet Lao and the Khmer Serai after the model of the Viet Minh.^ The U.S. government moved to establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), a regional alliance that extended protection to South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos in case of Communist "subversion."
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communist governments were also set-up in Laos and Cambodia.

^ Immediately after the war, the communists tried to take over both Laos and Cambodia, thus giving a big lie to the idea that they were just trying to get the foreigners out.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Globally, the Cold War began in earnest which meant that the rapprochement that had existed between the Western powers and the Soviet Union during World War II disintegrated.^ During World War II, Japan invaded and occupied Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II were drafted.
  • Vietnam War Timeline : Vietnam War Statistics 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.landscaper.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Viet Minh fight was hampered by a lack of weapons; this situation changed by 1949 when the Chinese Communists had largely won the Chinese Civil War and were free to provide arms to their Vietnamese allies.^ After the defeat of the Nationalists by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Premier Mao Zedong was able to provide direct military assistance to the Viet Minh.

^ Tactics were developmental, based on Viet Minh and Chinese Communist experience.
  • Vietnam War Internet Project 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.vwip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, Mao, having won the civil war in 1949, began to supply weapons to the Viet Minh.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Exit of the French, 1950–1954

Main articles: First Indochina War and Operation Passage to Freedom
.In January 1950, the communist nations, led by the People's Republic of China (PRC), recognized the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam as the government of Vietnam.^ However, Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, above which the Viet Minh established a socialist state, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and below which a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bảo Đại.

^ The Diem government asked for and received more American military advisers and equipment to build up the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and the police force, but it could not halt the growing presence of the South Vietnamese communist forces, or Viet Cong.

^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

.Non-Communist nations recognized the French-backed State of Vietnam in Saigon led by former Emperor Bao Dai the following month.^ The following year the French installed Bao Dai as Head of State.

^ The following day the French government announced that it intended to withdraw from Vietnam.

^ The United States began the aerial bombing and leafleting of Vietnam of North Vietnam in 1964, following the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
  • Vietnam War Flag Safe Conduct Passes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Kremlin.^ The conflict did not start from 1961 when US military advisers went to South VN. It started from 1950 when President Harry Truman began authorizing direct financial assistance to the French in the first Indochina war.
  • Think Progress » Bush’s New Strategy: Copy The ‘Success’ of Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Washington's strategy was for a "total war"--so soldiers were ordered to burn down villages, destroy large areas of the countryside and kill as many NLF fighters as possible.
  • Joe Allen: The Real Story of Vietnam Veterans Against the War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end of the Korean War made it possible for the communists to start shipping enormous amounts of weapons and other war materials to the communist forces in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.PRC military advisors began assisting the Viet Minh in July 1950.[34] PRC weapons, expertise, and laborers transformed the Viet Minh from a guerrilla force into a regular army.^ By this method, Viet Minh obtained more modern weapons, supplies, and the expertise necessary to transform themselves into a more conventional military force.

^ Viet Minh forces moved into the north.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The weapons transform the Viet Minh from an irregular small-scale insurgency into a conventional army.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .In September, the U.S. created a Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) to screen French requests for aid, advise on strategy, and train Vietnamese soldiers.^ In 1950, the U.S. Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) arrived to screen French requests for aid, advise on strategy, and train Vietnamese soldiers.

^ November 1955 — Eisenhower deploys the Military Assistance Advisory Group to train the South Vietnamese Army.

^ September 1974 - The U.S. Congress appropriates only $700 million for aid to South Vietnam.   This leaves the South Vietnamese under-funded and results in a decline of military readiness and morale.  The ARVN can no longer fight as it has been trained using the American model due to lack of support.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .By 1954, the U.S. had supplied 300,000 small arms and spent US$1 billion in support of the French military effort and was shouldering 80 percent of the cost of the war.^ By 1954, the U.S. was supplying 80% of the cost of the French effort in Vietnam.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of the war in 1954, the U.S. was financing 80 percent of the French war effort ($2 billion).
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1954, the U.S. had given 300,000 small arms and machine guns, and one billion dollars to support the French military effort and was shouldering at least 80 percent of its cost.

[37]
.There were also talks between the French and Americans in which the possible use of three tactical nuclear weapons was considered, though how seriously this was considered and by whom are even now vague and contradictory.^ Even the tactical objection that said, "The war cannot be won," was still a marginal view, though now steadily gaining adherents.
  • Martin Luther King's Speech Against the Vietnam War - by David Bromwich 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most men with a mailing address of "Pittsburgh" and a ZIP-code with the first three digits of 152 _ _ were considered to be from Pittsburgh, even though their actual home could have been 10 miles outside the Pittsburgh city limits.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What we now know in hindsight, because of some of the groundbreaking research that has been done on this period, is that at that time there were 164 operational nuclear warheads on the island of Cuba and that those Russian and Cuban officers there—the Russians supervising the Cubans—had authority to use them, and that if there had been an air strike there would have almost necessarily been a response with tactical nuclear weapons.
  • Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam 23 September 2009 4:52 UTC www.cceia.org [Source type: Original source]

[38][39] .One version of plan for the proposed Operation Vulture envisioned sending 60 B-29s from US bases in the region, supported by as many as 150 fighters launched from US Seventh Fleet carriers, to bomb Viet Minh commander Vo Nguyen Giap’s positions.^ On March 13, 1954, Vo Nguyen Giap launched his offensive.

^ The Viet Minh had a strong base of popular support in northern Vietnam.

^ Another good example is General Vo Nguyen Giap, who would later become the senior commander of the North Vietnamese Army and one of the few people besides Ho Chi Minh who's name might be recognized by the average foreigner.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The plan included an option to use up to three atomic weapons on the Viet Minh positions.^ By this method, Viet Minh obtained more modern weapons, supplies, and the expertise necessary to transform themselves into a more conventional military force.

^ COOK-OFF: a situation where an automatic weapon has fired so many rounds that the heat has built up enough in the weapon to set off the remaining rounds without using the trigger mech.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By agreeing to give up Shanghai and its other concessions in China, the French persuaded the Chinese to allow them to return to northern Vietnam and negotiate with the Viet Minh.

.Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, gave this nuclear option his backing.^ Telegram From the Commander in Chief, Pacific (Sharp) to the Joint Chiefs of Staff , Honolulu, January 12, 1966 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Report of General Earle G. Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on the Tet Offensive.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Richard Nixon's Meeting with Secretary of Defense Elliot Richardson and the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Recognition for Returning Prisoners of War, February 15, 1973 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.US B-29s, B-36s, and B-47s could have executed a nuclear strike, as could carrier aircraft from the Seventh Fleet.^ How could a heavy strategic bomber designed to carry nuclear bombs be used in Vietnam?
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anybody who, in fact, believes that free elections could have been carried out simultaneously with mass executions, is simply not playing with a full deck.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dec 71 - The US carries out the heaviest air strikes on North Vietnam since 1968 in Operation Proud Deep, consisting of 1,025 sorties .
  • Vietnam War Timeline : Vietnam War Statistics 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.landscaper.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.U.S. carriers sailed to the Tonkin gulf, and reconnaissance flights over Dien Bien Phu were conducted during the negotiations.^ But the analogy with Dien Bien Phu was misleading.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dien Bien Phu, 1954 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What astonishes King about America's conduct after the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, is that, under cover of a client state with a sham democracy, we chose to make ourselves the successors of the departing French colonists: .
  • Martin Luther King's Speech Against the Vietnam War - by David Bromwich 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Richard Nixon the plan involved the Joint Chiefs of Staff drawing up plans to use 3 small tactical nuclear weapons in support of the French.^ This was discussed with the five Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Plan for a Coup in Cuba" (as it was titled in a memo for the joint Chiefs of Staff) would include a "palace coup" to eliminate Castro, allowing a new Cuban "Provisional Government" to step into the power vacuum.

^ Richard Nixon was elected in 1968 largely because he claimed to have a "secret plan" to end the war.
  • Vietnam: The War We Cannot Escape 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.givewings.com [Source type: Original source]

[38] .Vice president Richard Nixon, a so-called "hawk" on Vietnam, suggested that the U.S. might have to "put American boys in".[41] President Eisenhower made American participation contingent on British support, but London was opposed.^ President Nixon introduced his policy of "vietnamization".

^ Richard Nixon and Vietnam (1969-1974) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vietnam War ended for most Americans in January 1973, when Richard Nixon announced a peace settlement--though, in fact, the fall of Saigon, which marked Washington's final defeat, was still two years away.
  • Joe Allen: The Real Story of Vietnam Veterans Against the War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] In the end, convinced that the political risks outweighed the possible benefits, Eisenhower decided against the intervention.[42]
.The Viet Minh received crucial support from the Soviet Union and PRC. PRC support in the Border Campaign of 1950 allowed supplies to come from PRC into Vietnam.^ The Viet Minh had a strong base of popular support in northern Vietnam.

^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ These planes come swiftly, strongly speaking as the voice of the Government of Vietnam proclaiming its determination to eliminate the Viet Cong threat to peace.
  • Vietnam War Flag Safe Conduct Passes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Throughout the conflict, U.S. intelligence estimates remained skeptical of French chances of success.[43]
.The Battle of Dien Bien Phu marked the end of French involvement in Indochina.^ The fall of Dien Bien Phu shocked France and brought an end to French Indochina.

^ Ho eventually defeated the French in the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was basing himself on an analogy with the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Viet Minh and their mercurial commander Vo Nguyen Giap handed the French a stunning military defeat, and on 7 May 1954, the French Union garrison surrendered.^ In military terms it was a massive defeat for Giap.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 13, 1954, Vo Nguyen Giap launched his offensive.

^ Viet Minh defeat a French force at Dien Bien Phu .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the Geneva Conference the French negotiated a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh.^ At the Geneva Conference the French government negotiated a peace agreement with the Viet Minh which allowed the French to leave Indochina and granted all three of its colonies, Cambodia , Laos , and Vietnam their independence.

^ After the Viet Minh's victory over the French at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ , France decided to negotiate a withdrawal from Indochina.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already tired of the war, the French public forced their government to reach a peace agreement at the Geneva Conference.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Independence was granted to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.^ All of Indochina was granted independence, including Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia would follow.

^ Between 1961 and 1975 an estimated 10% of the people living in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos had died.

.Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, and under the terms of the Geneva Convention, civilians were to be given the opportunity to freely move between the two provisional states.^ Vietnam would be partitioned along the 17th parallel.
  • 83.04.03: The News Media�s Coverage of the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why was Vietnam divided at the 17th parallel?
  • WikiAnswers - Vietnam War Questions including "How did the Vietnam War start" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, above which the Viet Minh established a socialist state, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and below which a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bảo Đại.

.Elections throughout the country were to be held, according to the Geneva accords, but were blocked by the South Vietnamese president, who feared a communist victory.^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Geneva Accords stipulated that free elections be held throughout Vietnam in 1956 under the supervision of an International Control Committee with the aim of reunifying North and South Vietnam under a single popularly elected government.

^ The new nation of $g(South Vietnam) was born, and its first (dubiously) elected leader was $g(Ngo Dinh Diem), a staunchly anti-Communist who almost immediately declared his country under Communist attack.
  • Interoperability Happens - The Vietnam of Computer Science 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.tedneward.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Around one million northerners, mainly Catholics, fled south, fearing persecution by the communists,[45] following an American propaganda campaign using slogans such as, "The Virgin Mary is heading south",[46] and aided by a U.S. funded $93 million relocation program, which included ferrying refugees with the Seventh Fleet.^ He helped create the flight of nearly one million Catholic refugees to South Vietnam.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 1974 - The U.S. Congress appropriates only $700 million for aid to South Vietnam.   This leaves the South Vietnamese under-funded and results in a decline of military readiness and morale.  The ARVN can no longer fight as it has been trained using the American model due to lack of support.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

[47] .It is estimated that as many as two million more would have left had they not been stopped by the Viet Minh.^ This is a bad picture because the Viet Cong is drawn smaller and less attractive than the government soldiers and the Viet Cong would exploit this by saying that they distort the view of the Viet Cong.
  • Vietnam War Flag Safe Conduct Passes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two charred corpses were hung from a bridge over the Euphrates River and left on display for the news cameras that would broadcast the gruesome image around the world.
  • Post Vietnam Syndrome: National Identity, War, and thePolitics of Humiliation 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.radicalpsychology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jim Ruotsala, "Perspectives: In 1954 and 1955, Americans participated in the evacuation of more than 300,000 refugees fleeing the Viet Minh.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

[48]
.In the north, the Viet Minh established a socialist state—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam—and engaged in a drastic land reform program in which an estimated eight thousand perceived "class enemies" were executed.^ Vietnamese flee the Viet Minh administration in North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was established in July 1976.

^ Eventually the Viet Minh in North Vietnam over took South Vietnam, establishing a communist government.
  • Poras Collection of Vietnam War Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

[49] .In 1956 the Communist Party leaders of Hanoi admitted to "excesses" in implementing this program and restored a large amount of the land to the original owners.^ In late 1956 one of the leading communists in the south, Lê Duẩn, returned to Hanoi to urge that the Vietnam Workers' Party take a firmer stand on national reunification, but Hanoi hesitated in launching a full-scale military struggle.

^ Using these troops, Diem took land away from peasants and returned it to former landlords, reversing the land redistribution program implemented by the Viet Minh.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1956 Ho and his communist government were in the midst of their land reforms and in the process were murdering tens of thousands of their own people.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.In the south a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bao Dai, a former puppet of the French and the Japanese.^ The country was under the nominal control of an emperor, Bao Dai.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year the French installed Bao Dai as Head of State.

^ In 1932 the puppet Bao Dai returned from France to reign as emperor of Vietnam under the French.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ngô Đình Diệm became his prime minister.^ Cần Lao: the powerful semisecret political party of the Diệm government headed by Ngô Đình Nhu, Diệm's brother.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headed by Diệm's brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, this was the forerunner of the Cần Lao.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by Prime Minister Lon Nol in Cambodia, who became the chief of state.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to the Catholics flowing south, up to 130,000 ‘Revolutionary Regroupees’, went north for "regroupment" expecting to return to the South within 2 years.^ Elections were to be held in 1956 throughout the north and south and to be supervised by an International Control Commission that had been appointed at Geneva and was made up of representatives from Canada, Poland, and India.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 20, 1970 - President Nixon announces the withdrawal of 150,000 Americans from Vietnam within a year.
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] The Viet Minh left roughly 5,000 to 10,000 cadres in South Vietnam as a "politico-military substructure within the object of its irredentism."[52] The last French soldiers left Vietnam in April 1956.[35] The PRC completed their withdrawal from North Vietnam at around the same time.[34]

Diem era, 1955–1963

President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngo Dinh Diem in Washington.
.The Geneva Accords, concluded between France and the Viet Minh in 1954, partitioned Vietnam pending national elections (under international supervision) to be held by 20 July 1956.[53] Much as in Korea, the agreement stipulated that the two military zones were to be separated by a temporary demarcation line (known as the Demilitarized Zone or DMZ).^ As dictated in the Geneva Accords of 1954, the division was meant to be temporary, pending free elections for a national leadership.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agreement stipulated that the two military zones, which were separated by a temporary demarcation line (which eventually became the Demilitarized Zone, or DMZ), "should not in any way be interpreted as constituting a political or territorial boundary," and specifically stated that elections would be held in July 1956.

^ September 3, 1967 - National elections are held in South Vietnam.
  • The History Place - Vietnam War 1965-1968 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June 1955, Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem of the State of Vietnam (South Vietnam) announced that elections would not be held.^ September 3, 1967 - National elections are held in South Vietnam.
  • The History Place - Vietnam War 1965-1968 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Vietnam War 1965 - 1973 plus Operation Frequent Wind 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vfwpost7591.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ngo Dinh Diem's defeat of the Binh Xuyen in 1955.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ngo Dinh Diem became South Vietnam's prime minister during the armistice negotiations.

.South Vietnam had rejected the agreement from the beginning and was therefore not bound by it, he said.^ The Republic of South Vietnam, under the unpopular leadership of NGO DINH DIEM, was therefore in a very vulnerable position.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States is, of course, prepared to resume mine clearance operations as soon as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam begins to act in compliance with its obligations under the Agreement.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall continue to aid South Vietnam within the terms of the agreement and we shall support efforts by the people of South Vietnam to settle their problems peacefully among themselves.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

."How can we expect 'free elections' to be held in the Communist North?"^ The Geneva Accords stipulated that free elections be held throughout Vietnam in 1956 under the supervision of an International Control Committee with the aim of reunifying North and South Vietnam under a single popularly elected government.

^ Elections were to be held in 1956 throughout the north and south and to be supervised by an International Control Commission that had been appointed at Geneva and was made up of representatives from Canada, Poland, and India.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 5 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other was a sense that even if free elections were held, they probably would be dominated by the Communists and the Communists would gain control."
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Diem asked. .President Dwight D. Eisenhower echoed senior U.S. experts[54] when he wrote that, in 1954, "80 per cent of the population would have voted for the Communist Ho Chi Minh" over Emperor Bao Dai.^ This view was shared by President Dwight Eisenhower .

^ President Dwight D. Eisenhower on the likelihood that Ho Chi Minh would win a national election in Vietnam in 1955 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55][56]
.The Domino Theory, which argued that if one country fell to communist forces, then all of the surrounding countries would follow, was first proposed as policy by the Eisenhower administration.^ If South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia would follow.

^ A revisionist history that challenges the notion that U.S. involvement in Vietnam was misguided; defends the validity of the domino theory and disputes the notion that Ho Chi Minh was, at heart, a nationalist who would eventually turn against his Communist Chinese allies.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography by Richard Jensen July 2008 20 September 2009 6:35 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the secret memoranda of the National Security Council (which advised the President on foreign policy) there was talk in 1950 of what came to be known as the "domino theory"—that, like a row of dominoes, if one country fell to Communism, the next one would do the same and so on.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] It was, and is still, commonly hypothesized that it applied to Vietnam. John F. Kennedy, then a U.S. senator, said in a speech to the American Friends of Vietnam: "Burma, Thailand, India, Japan, the Philippines and obviously Laos and Cambodia are among those whose security would be threatened if the Red Tide of Communism overflowed into Vietnam."[58]

Rule

.Ngo Dinh Diem was named premier of South Vietnam in 1954 by former emperor and Head of State Bao Dai.^ The following year the French installed Bao Dai as Head of State.

^ In October, 1955, the South Vietnamese people were asked to choose between Bao Dai , the former Emperor of Vietnam , and Ngo Dinh Diem for the leadership of the country.

^ When the Geneva conference took place in 1954, the United States delegation proposed the name of Ngo Dinh Diem as the new ruler of South Vietnam.

.A devout Roman Catholic, he was fervently anti-communist and was "untainted" by any connection to the French.^ He was fervently anti-communist and was untainted by any connection to the French.

^ French forces withdrew to the South, and hundreds of thousands of civilians, most of whom were Roman Catholics, accompanied them.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 50s and 60s, the public bought the anti-communist rhetoric hook, line and sinker and being a fervent anti-communist was the one sure way to win an election.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was one of the few prominent Vietnamese nationalists who could claim both attributes.^ He was the only prominent Vietnamese nationalist who could claim both attributes.

^ After the Japanese surrender, both Vietnamese and nationalist groups hoped to finally take control of the country.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consequences for the partner may be that she feels as though she has little support and there is no-one with whom she can speak who understands what both she and her family are dealing with.

Historian Luu Doan Huynh notes, however, that "Diem represented narrow and extremist nationalism coupled with autocracy and nepotism."[59]
.Robert McNamara wrote that the new American patrons were almost completely ignorant of Vietnamese culture.^ "The new diaspora" is a study of South Vietnamese refugees, now Vietnamese Americans, and their attempts to maintain links with their heritage.
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Vietnamese New Years, NLF forces strike the six major cities in the South, including Saigon, where they take the American Embassy.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The word about John Kerry must be spread on the internet, because the American News Media is completely behind his lies of 2004; just like the American News Media was completely behind his lies in 1971.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They knew little of the language or long history of the country.^ All countries have had this same problem and so long as they have a representative system this has to be met.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's really quite extraordinary and disheartening when you' read the documents and see the way in which they thought about this country, about which they knew less and less as time went on.
  • The Legacy of the Vietnam War - Council on Foreign Relations 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: Original source]

[32] .There was a tendency to assign American motives to Vietnamese actions, and Diem warned that it was an illusion to believe that blindly copying Western methods would solve Vietnamese problems.^ I think there would not be any problems.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't think there would be that problem.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So I would say there are problems with it.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[32]
.In April and June 1955, Diem (against U.S. advice) cleared the decks of any political opposition by launching military operations against the Cao Dai religious sect, the Hoa Hao sect, and the Binh Xuyen organized crime group (which was allied with members of the secret police and some military elements).^ His authority was challenged, first by the independent Hoa Hao and Cao Dai religious sects and then by the Binh Xuyen, an organization of gangsters that controlled Saigon's gambling dens and brothels and had strong influence with the police.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ngo Dinh Diem's defeat of the Binh Xuyen in 1955.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In April and June of 1955, Diem (against U.S. advice) cleared the decks of any political opposition by launching military operations against the Cao Dai Sect, the Hoa Hao, and the Binh Xuyen organized crime group (which was allied with the secret police and some army elements).

.As broad-based opposition to his harsh tactics mounted, Diem increasingly sought to blame the communists.^ By 1957 Diem's harsh measures had so weakened the Viet Minh that Communist leaders in the South feared for the movement's survival there.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.Beginning in the summer of 1955, he launched the "Denounce the Communists" campaign, during which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprisoned, tortured, or executed.^ Beginning in the summer of 1955, Diem launched a 'Denounce the Communists' campaign, during which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested and imprisoned.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in the summer of 1955, he launched a 'Denounce the Communists' campaign, during which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprisoned or executed.

^ On the ground, Ken was unaware that his old friend was a part of that campaign which would result in gaining his and the other POWs freedom after enduring long years of torture and deprivation.
  • Vietnam War Prints 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.Diem instituted a policy of death penalty against any activity deemed communist in August 1956.[61] Opponents were labeled Viet Cong ("Vietnamese communist") by the regime to degrade their nationalist credentials.^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ Advance Guard Youth: Vietnamese student social and sports organization that evolved into a non-Communist nationalist movement by 1945.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The communists liked to portray themselves as a truly nationalist movement, but in reality anyone that was simply for Vietnamese independence but wasn't a communist was either marginalized or purged.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this period refugees moved across the demarcation line in both directions.^ During this period refugees and regroupees moved across the demarcation line in both directions.

^ In 1965, the troops came from a working class that had moved in a conservative direction during the Cold War, due to the long postwar boom and McCarthyite repression.
  • Joel Geier: Vietnam - The Soldier's Rebellion (1999) 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxists.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during this period that Marine CI enhanced its Human Intelligence (HUMINT) collection capability and provided a direct combat support role to the Fleet Marine Force.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 52,000 Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north.^ It was estimated that around 52,000 Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north, while 450,000 were air- or boat-lifted from north to south.

^ Almost 1,400,000 North and South Vietnamese were killed in action.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 1974 - Though they are still too weak to launch a full-scale offensive, the North Vietnamese have rebuilt their divisions in the South, and have captured key areas.

However, 800,000 people fled north Vietnam to the south, mostly in aircraft and ships provided by France and the U.S.[62] CIA propaganda efforts increased the outflow with slogans such as "the Virgin Mary is going South." The northern, mainly Catholic refugees were meant to give Diem a strong anti-communist constituency.[63] Diem later went on to staff his administration's key posts mostly with northern and central Catholics. .As a measure of the level of political repression, about 12,000 suspected opponents of Diem were killed in the years 1955–1957 and by the end of 1958 an estimated 40,000 political prisoners had been jailed.^ He lost 40,000 killed."
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formally brought to an end in 2002, an estimated 500,000 people were killed and tens of thousands more were displaced during the 27-year civil war.

^ Compelling article calling for an end to the Vietnam War.Author states that a non-violent attack on the political machine on the U.S. is needed to bring about peace.

[64]
.In a referendum on the future of the monarchy, Diem rigged the poll supervised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu and was accredited with 98.2 percent of the vote, including 133% in Saigon.^ He held a rigged referendum on his rule in 1955 after which he announced that he had won 98.2 percent of the vote.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diem and his brother Nhu were assassinated.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His American advisers had recommended a more modest winning margin of "60 to 70 percent."^ The American-controlled government of South Vietnam was the political representative of the landlord class, which took 40 to 60 percent of the peasants’ crop as rent.
  • Joel Geier: Vietnam - The Soldier's Rebellion (1999) 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxists.de [Source type: Original source]

^ And more than a thousand Soviet advisers worked on air defences against the Americans.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the fighting ended that night, 60 percent of the Americans were casualties, and almost one of every three soldiers in the battalion had been killed.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diem, however, viewed the election as a test of authority.^ Diem refused and as the Americans predicted, the election undermined his authority.

[65] .On 26 October 1955, Diem declared the new Republic of Vietnam, with himself as president.^ (Republic of Vietnam, late 1955 or 1956?
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic of South Vietnam, under the unpopular leadership of NGO DINH DIEM, was therefore in a very vulnerable position.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .The Republic of Vietnam was created largely because of the Eisenhower administration's desire for an anti-communist state in the region.^ However, Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, above which the Viet Minh established a socialist state, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and below which a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bảo Đại.

^ Vietnamization had the added dimension of fostering political, social, and economic reforms to create a vibrant South Vietnamese state based on popular participation in national political life.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[60]
.As a wealthy Catholic, Diem was viewed by many ordinary Vietnamese as part of the old elite who had helped the French rule Vietnam.^ South Vietnam was over 80% Buddhist; Diem was a Catholic who persecuted many Buddhists.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After being defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and forced to withdraw from Vietnam after nearly a century of colonial rule, France quickly evacuated 25,000 Vietnamese children of French parentage and gave them citizenship.
  • Children of the Vietnam War | People & Places | Smithsonian Magazine 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many students from the anti-war movement were won to joining the party and helping to help recruit many of the workers who today help lead the party.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The majority of Vietnamese people were Buddhist, so his attack on the Buddhist community served only to deepen mistrust.^ In accounts from Vietnamese between 300-400 people were killed while U. S. military leaders claim only 100 people were killed at My Lai.
  • 83.04.03: The News Media�s Coverage of the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The very large Vietnamese community in France–numbering 100,000 people–was alive with political debate.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A34 (1 page) UC users only "Majority of UC Students Would Serve if Drafted."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.In May, Diem undertook a ten-day state visit to the United States.^ Trueheart, in the absence of Ambassador Noltin protested her remarks to Diem and threatened to disassociate the United States from any repressive measures against the Buddhists in the future.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seth Jacobs, "'Sink or swim with Ngo Dinh Diem': Religion, Orientalism, and United States intervention in Vietnam, 1950--1957."
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The United States increased pressure on Diem to mend his ways.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President Eisenhower pledged his continued support.^ Fred Greenstein has characterized Eisenhower as a "hidden hand president" who preferred to utilize behind-the-scenes methods to avoid expending mass political support.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first speech he made to the American public as their President, Kennedy made it clear that he intended to continue Eisenhower's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem .

^ He was automatically succeeded by Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson , who declared on 24 November that the U.S. would continue its support of the South Vietnamese.

.A parade in New York City was held in his honor.^ On April 15, 1967 there were anti-war demonstrations held in the cities of San Francisco and New York.
  • 83.04.03: The News Media�s Coverage of the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer of 1963, the first serious protest against U.S. involvement in Vietnam took place in New York City.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I know the VA hospital in New York City has 20 beds allocated for drug addicts; 168 men are on the waiting list, and I really don't know what a drug addict does on the waiting list.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although Diem was openly praised, in private Secretary of State John Foster Dulles conceded that he had been selected because there were no better alternatives.^ U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, fearing the spread of communism in Asia, persuaded the U.S. government to provide economic and military assistance to the Diem regime, which became increasingly unpopular with the people of South Vietnam.

^ Telegram from the US Delegation in Saigon to Secretary of State Dulles, 10 June 1954 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was troubled by the war, but through 1967 and into 1968 he saw no better alternative for the United States than staying the course.

[67]

Insurgency in the South, 1956–1960

.The Sino-Soviet split led to a reduction in the influence of the PRC, which had insisted in 1954 that the Viet Minh accept a division of the country.^ Jim Ruotsala, "Perspectives: In 1954 and 1955, Americans participated in the evacuation of more than 300,000 refugees fleeing the Viet Minh.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Viet Minh drive the French from the border region and begin to receive large amounts of weapons from the Soviet Union and China.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Viet Minh eventually handed the French a major military defeat at Ðiện Biên Phủ on 7 May 1954 and the French public and government had had enough.

.Trường Chinh, North Vietnam's pro-PRC party first secretary, was demoted and Hanoi authorized communists in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in December 1956.[68] This insurgency in the south had begun in response to Diem's Denunciation of Communists campaign, in which thousands of local Viet Minh cadres and supporters had been executed or sent to concentration camps, and was in violation of the Northern Communist party line which had enjoined them not to start an insurrection, but rather engage in a political campaign, agitating for a free all-Vietnam election in accordance with the Geneva accords.^ The Viet Minh fight a limited insurgency in remote rural areas of northern Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President to ensure victory over the externally directed and supported communist insurgency in South Vietnam.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamese civilians flee the Viet Minh administration in North Vietnam and relocate in South Vietnam.

[69]
.Ho Chi Minh stated, "Do not engage in military operations; that will lead to defeat.^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh convened the meeting.
  • International Socialist Review 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh (NY, 1968).
  • MBEAW: Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mbeaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Do not take land from a peasant.^ The most popular aspect of the NLF programme was the promise to take the land from the rich and to distribute it amongst the peasants.

.Emphasize nationalism rather than communism.^ He portrayed it in geographic and visual terms, rather than merely a division of man-made nation states.

^ But communism was no more than a tool of Vietnamese nationalism and the rejection of one communist ally in favour of overtures to the West was entirely consistent with Vietnam’s past.
  • Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than flee their ancestral homes, the villagers dug tunnels and moved their communities underground.
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Do not antagonize anyone if you can avoid it. Be selective in your violence. If an assassination is necessary, use a knife, not a rifle or grenade. It is too easy to kill innocent bystanders with guns and bombs, and accidental killing of the innocent bystanders will alienate peasants from the revolution. .Once an assassination has taken place, make sure peasants know why the killing occurred."^ We said, first of all, that we wanted to make sure that the control machinery would be in place at the time of the cease-fire.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

This strategy was referred to as "armed propaganda."[70]
.Soon afterward, Lê Duẩn, a communist leader who had been working in the South, returned to Hanoi to accept the position of acting first secretary, effectively replacing Trường.^ Some who moved South worked .
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ The U.S. strategy of mass bombing intensified, including bombing the city of Hanoi in North Vietnam in an attempt to help the South Vietnamese puppets work out a better compromise with the north.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Duẩn urged a military line and advocated increased assistance to the insurgency.^ Upon returning to Washington, he recommended a substantial increase in American military assistance, including several combat divisions.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They came back with the recommendation that the military assistance group be increased from 800 to 25,000.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four hundred government officials were assassinated in 1957 alone, and the violence gradually increased.^ In October of 1967 there were organized draft-card "turn-ins" all over the country; in San Francisco alone, three hundred draft cards were returned to the government.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

.While the terror was originally aimed at local government officials, it soon broadened to include other symbols of the status quo, such as schoolteachers,[71][72] health workers,[73] and agricultural officials.^ Write or CALL your Local and State Government Officials to make sure it is NOT happening near you or your children.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vietnamese government refuses to accept any responsibility for these explosives and by official policy considers any explosive device to be U.S. in origin.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These wars usually grew from localized conflicts that expanded to include the U.S. and its Western allies on one side and the Soviet Union and/or the People's Republic of China on the other.

[74]
.According to one estimate, 20 percent of South Vietnam's village chiefs had been assassinated by the insurgents by 1958.[75] (The village chiefs were Diem appointees from outside the villages and were hated by the peasantry for their corruption and abuse.^ The U.S. sprayed 75 million Liters (20 million Gallons) of toxic defoliants over crops, farms, forests and villages in South Vietnam (remember, these were the guys we were "protecting").
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Diem arrived in Saigon in mid-1954 and was greeted by Colonel Edward Lansdale, the CIA’s man in South Vietnam and the head of the Agency’s Saigon Military Mission (SMM).
  • Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually several valleys and mountains, the A Shau Valley was one of the principal entry points to South Vietnam of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[76] .The insurgency sought to completely destroy government control in South Vietnam's rural villages and replace it with a shadow government.^ The U.S. sprayed 75 million Liters (20 million Gallons) of toxic defoliants over crops, farms, forests and villages in South Vietnam (remember, these were the guys we were "protecting").
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the spring the Viet Cong sought to disrupt pacification and oust the government from many rural areas.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]
.In January 1959, the North's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing an "armed struggle". This authorized the southern communists to begin large-scale operations against the South Vietnamese military.^ The southerners urged their colleagues in the North to sanction a new armed struggle in South Vietnam.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1959, the Central Committee of the VWP issued a secret resolution authorizing the use of armed struggle in the South.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being successfully targeted by Diem's secret police, the Central Committee of the Party issued a secret resolution authorizing the use of armed struggle in the South.

.North Vietnam supplied troops and supplies in earnest, and the infiltration of men and weapons from the north began along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.^ Ho Chi Minh 79, died on 2 September 1969; leader of North Vietnam.
  • Medal of Honor Citations: Vietnam War and Iraqi Conflict 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mishalov.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ho Chi Minh agreed to supply the guerrilla units with aid.

^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May, South Vietnam enacted Law 10/59, which made political violence punishable by death and property confiscation.^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vietnamization had the added dimension of fostering political, social, and economic reforms to create a vibrant South Vietnamese state based on popular participation in national political life.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.Observing the increasing unpopularity of the Diem regime, on 12 December 1960, Hanoi authorized the creation of the National Liberation Front as a common front controlled by the communist party in the South.^ On 12 December 1960, under instruction from Hanoi, southern communists established the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in order to overthrow the government of the south.

^ In 1960, the National Liberation Front was formed in the South.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These so-called Southern communist organization fronts were created by Hanoi.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Successive American administrations, as Robert McNamara and others have noted, overestimated the control that Hanoi had over the NLF.[32] Diem's paranoia, repression, and incompetence progressively angered large segments of the population of South Vietnam.^ Bombing was also directed against territory controlled by the NLF in South Vietnam.

^ Johnson sends Robert McNamara to South Vietnam in June of 1965.
  • Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam 23 September 2009 4:52 UTC www.cceia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .According to a November 1960 report by the head of the US military advisory team, Lieutenant General Lionel C. McGarr, a "significant part" of the population in the south supported the communists.^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ We headed mostly south rather than risk heading back into the SAM that was west of us.

^ President to ensure victory over the externally directed and supported communist insurgency in South Vietnam.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .The communists thus had a degree of popular support for their campaign to bring down Diem and reunify the country.^ A quick word about the South Vietnamese government lacking support from the people, and of the so called Popular support for the Communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They didn't like it partly because it was obviously going to be communist because the communists were the only ones that had any real political organization or popular support, and partly because they wanted their colony back.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I urged him to try to bring all the pressure we could on Diem to change his ways, to encourage more support throughout the country.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During John F. Kennedy's administration, 1961–1963

When John F. Kennedy won the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one major issue Kennedy raised was whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. As Kennedy took over, despite warnings from Eisenhower about Laos and Vietnam, Europe and Latin America "loomed larger than Asia on his sights."[81] In his inaugural address, Kennedy made the ambitious pledge to "pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty."[82]
.In June 1961, John F. Kennedy bitterly disagreed with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev when they met in Vienna over key U.S.-Soviet issues.^ In the book Abel comments on John Kennedy's meeting with Khrushchev in Vienna.

^ June 1961 — Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna.

^ June 1961 - Kennedy and Khrushchev meet at Vienna.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Legacy of the Korean War created the idea of a limited war.
.Although Kennedy stressed long-range missile parity with the Soviets, he was also interested in using special forces for counterinsurgency warfare in Third World countries threatened by communist insurgencies.^ Kennedy was intrigued by the idea of utilizing U.S. Army Special Forces for counterinsurgency conflicts in Third World countries threatened by the new "wars of national liberation".

^ Although Kennedy's election campaign had stressed long-range missile parity with the Soviets, Kennedy was particularly interested in Special Forces .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Kennedy held the trump cards, he granted the Communist Empire a privileged sanctuary in the Caribbean by means of the "no invasion" pledge.

.Although they were originally intended for use behind front lines after a conventional invasion of Europe, Kennedy believed that the guerrilla tactics employed by special forces such as the Green Berets would be effective in a "brush fire" war in Vietnam.^ The Green Berets [PN1997 .G7436 1990] The story of the Green Berets, the elite Special Forces, during the war in Vietnam.
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argues that Kennedy would not have escalated the Vietnam War, if he had lived.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vietnam Behind the Lines: Images from the War 1965 – 1975.
  • Poras Collection of Vietnam War Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Kennedy administration remained essentially committed to the Cold War foreign policy inherited from the Truman and Eisenhower administrations.^ Back in Washington, the new administration of President John F. Kennedy remained essentially committed to the bi-partisan, anti-Communist foreign policies inherited from the administrations of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower.

^ The Kennedy administration remained essentially committed to the Cold War foreign policy inherited from the Truman administration .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael Lind argues that “in the aftermath of the humiliations in Cuba and Germany, the Kennedy administration felt compelled to demonstrate U.S. resolve in the Indochina theater of the Cold War” ( Lind, 2002 , p.
  • Post Vietnam Syndrome: National Identity, War, and thePolitics of Humiliation 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.radicalpsychology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1961, the USA had 50,000 troops based in Korea, and Kennedy faced a three-part crisis—the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, the construction of the Berlin Wall, and a negotiated settlement between the pro-Western government of Laos and the Pathet Lao communist movement[83] These made Kennedy believe that another failure on the part of the United States to gain control and stop communist expansion would fatally damage U.S. credibility with its allies and his own reputation.^ The Government of the United States believes that evidence should be presented to its own citizens and to the world.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pathet Lao eventually reached a settlement with the Laotian government.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his first year in office Kennedy found himself faced with a three-part crisis: The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba ; the construction of the Berlin Wall by the Soviets; and a negotiated settlement between the pro-Western government of Laos and the Pathet Lao communist movement.

.Kennedy determined to "draw a line in the sand" and prevent a communist victory in Vietnam, saying, "Now we have a problem making our power credible and Vietnam looks like the place," to James Reston of The New York Times immediately after meeting Khrushchev in Vienna.^ In the book Abel comments on John Kennedy's meeting with Khrushchev in Vienna.

^ June 1961 — Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna.

^ James Reston, New York Times (28th November, 1963) 3.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84][85]
In May 1961, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visited Saigon and enthusiastically declared Diem the "Winston Churchill of Asia."[86] Asked why he had made the comment, Johnson replied, "Diem's the only boy we got out there."[67] .Johnson assured Diem of more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the communists.^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The major non-Communist Cambodian political and resistance organization fighting against the Vietnamese occupation force.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disregarding his safety he advanced to a position from which he could more effectively deliver covering fire while first aid was administered to the wounded men.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

.Kennedy's policy toward South Vietnam rested on the assumption that Diem and his forces must ultimately defeat the guerrillas on their own.^ The assassination of Diem was therefore not part of Kennedys policy to withdraw from Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diem arrived in Saigon in mid-1954 and was greeted by Colonel Edward Lansdale, the CIA’s man in South Vietnam and the head of the Agency’s Saigon Military Mission (SMM).
  • Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues 20 November 2009 22:35 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speaks of extending the war outside South Vietnam as if this were a policy already decided upon, exaggerates RVN forces available to do it, gives numbers of particular aircraft types in South Vietnam, optimistic about winning the war soon.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He was against the deployment of American combat troops and observed that "to introduce U.S. forces in large numbers there today, while it might have an initially favorable military impact, would almost certainly lead to adverse political and, in the long run, adverse military consequences."^ We certainly would not favor assassination of Diem.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were a large number of REMFs in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This would present the Americans with a military dilemma.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[87]
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
.The quality of the South Vietnamese military, however, remained poor.^ However, it illustrated that the NLF appeared to have inexhaustible supplies of men and women willing to fight for the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government.

^ The main problem with this formula was that whereas the US troops would leave the country, the North Vietnamese troops could remain in their positions in the south.

^ However, concern over the critical situation at Khe Sanh and preparations for the Tet holiday festivities preoccupied most Americans and South Vietnamese.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bad leadership, corruption, and political interference all played a part in emasculating the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).^ It calls on the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and all other parties to the Final Act of the International Conference on Vietnam to lend their support to this endeavor.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the decline in rural security was not always apparent to Americans, the lack of enlightened political leadership on the part of Diem was all too obvious.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their antitank role, Army attack helicopters were crucial to ARVN's success at An Loc, suggesting a larger role for helicopters in the future as part of a combined arms team in conventional combat.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The frequency of guerrilla attacks rose as the insurgency gathered steam. .While Hanoi's support for the NLF played a role, South Vietnamese governmental incompetence was at the core of the crisis.^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ By the mid-1960s the Ðại Việt had evolved into two major parties that both played key roles in opposing or supporting the various South Vietnamese governments.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it illustrated that the NLF appeared to have inexhaustible supplies of men and women willing to fight for the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government.

[88]
.Kennedy advisers Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow recommended that U.S. troops be sent to South Vietnam disguised as flood relief workers.^ May 11, 1961: Kennedy authorizes American advisers sending 44 Special Forces Troops and other military advisers to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The new government promptly sent people connected to the South Vietnam regime to concentration camps for "reeducation", often for years at a time.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Kennedy rejected the idea but increased military assistance yet again.^ Kaiser admits that he the Kennedy administration did increase the number of American military personnel in South Vietnam from 600 in 1960 to 17,500 in 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encumbered by military and political problems, the idea was revived periodically but always rejected.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon returning to Washington, he recommended a substantial increase in American military assistance, including several combat divisions.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In April 1962, John Kenneth Galbraith warned Kennedy of the "danger we shall replace the French as a colonial force in the area and bleed as the French did."[89] By 1963, there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from Eisenhower's 900 advisors.[90]
.The Strategic Hamlet Program had been initiated in 1961. This joint U.S.-South Vietnamese program attempted to resettle the rural population into fortified camps.^ Rambo Failure of the Strategic Hamlet Program During the Vietnam War If Viet Cong guerrillas were using South Vietnamese farmers for support, why not pull those villagers from the countryside, have them live much closer together, and keep them under close governmental supervision?

^ Expecting Hollywood, she instead lands in rural Mississippi, a crazy quilt of self-proclaimed rednecks, cliquish teenagers, South Vietnamese exiles and transvestite soulmates.
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aim was to isolate the population from the insurgents, provide education and health care, and strengthen the government's hold over the countryside.^ For the Saigon government, the task of isolating the Viet Cong from the population was difficult under any circumstances and impossible to achieve by force alone.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insurgents hoped not to destroy government forcesalthough they did so when weaker elements could be isolated and defeatedbut by limited actions to extend their influence over the population.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Strategic Hamlets, however, were quickly infiltrated by the guerrillas.^ By early 1963, however, the Viet Cong had learned to cope with the army's new weapons and more aggressive tactics and had begun a campaign to eliminate the strategic hamlets.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The peasants resented being uprooted from their ancestral villages. .The government refused to undertake land reform, which left farmers paying high rents to a few wealthy landlords.^ The land reform of 1953–56 in North Vietnam, which distributed the land of rich landlords to the poor peasants as private property, was botched in an astonishingly stupid and brutal fashion.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The American-controlled government of South Vietnam was the political representative of the landlord class, which took 40 to 60 percent of the peasants’ crop as rent.
  • Joel Geier: Vietnam - The Soldier's Rebellion (1999) 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxists.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1956 Ho and his communist government were in the midst of their land reforms and in the process were murdering tens of thousands of their own people.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

Corruption dogged the program and intensified opposition. Government officials were targeted for assassination.
.On 23 July 1962, fourteen nations, including the People's Republic of China, South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, North Vietnam and the United States, signed an agreement promising the neutrality of Laos.^ The United States will continue to recognize the Government of the Republic of Vietnam as the sole legitimate government of South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The security of South Vietnam remains vital to United States security.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union gave considerable aid to North Vietnam.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[91]

Coup and assassinations

See also: Kennedy's role, Kennedy and Vietnam, Hue Vesak shootings and Xa Loi Pagoda raids
.The inept performance of the South Vietnamese army was exemplified by failed actions such as the Battle of Ap Bac on 2 January 1963, in which a small band of Viet Cong beat off a much larger and better equipped South Vietnamese force, many of whose officers seemed reluctant even to engage in combat.^ Even better (much better!
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 3 , 1963 - Viet Cong victory in the Battle of Ap Bac .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, in 1963, a communist offensive that began with with the Battle of Ap Bac inflicted major losses on South Vietnamese army units.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .The ARVN were led in that battle by Diem's most trusted General Huynh Van Cao, commander of the IV Corps a Catholic who had been promoted due to religion and fidelity rather than skill, and whose main job was to preserve his forces to stave off coups; Cao had earlier vomited during a communist attack.^ Conein was at the Joint General Staff headquarters during most of the coup.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A6155: Since Diemunder a plan prepared by his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhubegan sending guerrillas into North Vietnam in June, powerful forces within the administration have clamored for the President to curb the strong anti-Communist leader.General Paul D. Harkins, head of the U.S. Military Assistance Command in Saigon, who favors the initiative by Diems forces, violently disagreed but President Kennedy accepted the diplomatic rather than the military view.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Westmoreland and others believed that U.S. ground forces were needed to stave off an irrevocable shift of the military and political balance in favor of the enemy.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some policymakers in Washington began to conclude that Diem was incapable of defeating the communists and might even make a deal with Ho Chi Minh.^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some policy-makers in Washington began to believe that Diem was incapable of defeating the communists, and some even feared that he might make a deal with Ho Chi Minh.

^ It is the reason for the apparent friendliness of Washington to Ho Chi Minh at that time.
  • The Tet Offensive: the turning point in the Vietnam War – Part One 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

He seemed concerned only with fending off coups. .As Robert F. Kennedy noted, "Diem wouldn't make even the slightest concessions.^ The Boatswain also carried a "pipe" or whistle used to make shipboard announcements, often just a series of notes (a melody) not even accompanied by words of instruction.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John F. Kennedy Library, JFK dictates some notes concerning the anti-Diem coup in South Vietnam, November 4, 1963.
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some policy-makers in Washington began to believe that Diem was incapable of defeating the communists, and some even feared that he might make a deal with Ho Chi Minh.

He was difficult to reason with..."[93]
.Discontent with Diem's policies exploded following the Hue Vesak shootings of majority Buddhists who were protesting against the ban on the Buddhist flag on Vesak, the Buddha's birthday.^ On May 8, 1963, Buddhists assembled in Hue to celebrate the 2527th birthday of the Buddha.

^ Trueheart, in the absence of Ambassador Noltin protested her remarks to Diem and threatened to disassociate the United States from any repressive measures against the Buddhists in the future.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This incident triggered a nationwide Buddhist protest and a sharp loss of popular confidence in the Diem regime.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This resulted in mass protests against policies that gave privileges to the Catholic Church and its adherents.^ The Vietnam War was also significant in encouraging the belief that mass mobilization and protest can influence government policy.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Student protests against the ROTC (Reserve Officers Training Program) resulted in the canceling of those programs in over forty colleges and universities.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1963 a crackdown by Diệm's forces against Buddhist monks protesting government policies prompted self-immolation by monks, leading to embarrassing press coverage.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diem's elder brother Ngo Dinh Thuc was the Archbishop of Hue and aggressively blurred the separation between church and state.^ The Republic of South Vietnam, under the unpopular leadership of NGO DINH DIEM, was therefore in a very vulnerable position.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first president of the GRVN was Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seth Jacobs, "'Sink or swim with Ngo Dinh Diem': Religion, Orientalism, and United States intervention in Vietnam, 1950--1957."
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Diem refused to make concessions to the Buddhist majority or take responsibility for the deaths.^ In his final meeting on August 14 with Ambassador Nolting, Diem agreed to make a public statement offering concessions to the Buddhists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Kennedy never disguised the fact that he held some responsibility for the death of Diem.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 21 August 1963, the ARVN Special Forces of Colonel Le Quang Tung, loyal to Diem's younger brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, raided pagodas across Vietnam, causing widespread damage and destruction.^ November, 1963 — Diem is discovered and killed by rebel leaders, along with his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.

^ Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Shortly after midnight on August 21,1963, Nhu ordered forces loyal to him to attack pagodas throughout Vietnam, arresting monks and sacking the sacred buildings.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the summer of 1963 U.S. officials began discussing the possibility of a regime change.^ During the summer of 1963 administration officials began discussing the possibility of a regime change in Saigon.

^ OPLAN 34-63, which apparentlywas not forwarded to the White House [115] was discussed during the Vietnam policy conference at Honolulu, 20 November 1963.
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^ Approved by the JCS on 9 September as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63, the plan was discussed during the Vietnam policy conference at Honolulu, 20 November 1963.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States Department of State was generally in favor of encouraging a coup, while the Defense Department favoured Diem.^ The State Department was generally in favour of encouraging a coup while the Pentagon and CIA were more alert to the destabilizing consequences of such a coup and wanted to continue applying pressure to Diem to make political changes.

^ Cable from US Department of State to Ambassador Lodge on Discussions with Diem, 29 August 1963 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cable from Ambassador Lodge to the State Department on Issues Surrounding a Possible Coup, 30 October 1963 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chief among the proposed changes was the removal of Diem's younger brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.^ Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chief among the proposed changes was the removal of his younger brother Ngo Dinh Nhu from all of his positions of power.

^ Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, an ardent sponsor of the program, hoped to create thousands of new, fortified villages, often by moving peasants from their existing homes.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nhu controlled the secret police and was seen as the man behind the Buddhist repression.^ Nhu was in charge of South Vietnam's secret police and was seen as the man behind the Buddhist repression.

.As Diem's most powerful adviser, Nhu had become a hated figure in South Vietnam.^ As Diem's most powerful advisor, Nhu (along with his wife) had become a hated figure in South Vietnam, and one whose continued influence was unacceptable to all members of the Kennedy administration.

^ The Republic of South Vietnam, under the unpopular leadership of NGO DINH DIEM, was therefore in a very vulnerable position.
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^ The balance of power shifted decisively in North Vietnam's favour, and the north subsequently launched a major military offensive against the south.

.This was conveyed to the US embassy in Saigon in Cable 243.^ Cable from US Embassy in Laos to the State Department on Proposal to Initiate Bombing in Laos, 17 August 1964 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Astounded viewers back in America were being told that the Communist had captured the US Embassy in Saigon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The NLF even attacked the US Embassy in Saigon.

Diem after being shot and killed in the 1963 coup.
.The CIA was in contact with generals planning to remove Diem.^ In November, the U.S. embassy in Saigon communicated through the CIA to the military officers that made up the conspiracy that the U.S. would not oppose the removal of Diem.

.They were told that the United States would not oppose such a move nor punish the generals by cutting off aid.^ They return to the United States in 1976.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The United States moved quickly to prevent the unification and to establish South Vietnam as an American sphere.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.President Diem was overthrown and executed, along with his brother, on 2 November 1963. When he was informed, Maxwell Taylor remembered that Kennedy "rushed from the room with a look of shock and dismay on his face."^ November, 1963 — Kennedy is assassinated.

^ At the beginning of November, 1963, President Diem was overthrown by a military coup.

^ Memorandum of Conference with the President, November 2, 1963 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] He had not approved Diem's murder. The U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam, Henry Cabot Lodge, invited the coup leaders to the embassy and congratulated them. Ambassador Lodge informed Kennedy that "the prospects now are for a shorter war".[95]
Following the coup, chaos ensued. .Hanoi took advantage of the situation and increased its support for the guerrillas.^ The subsequent military coup that overthrew Diem (with tacit U.S. approval) and resulted in his assassination (without U.S. approval) caused chaos in the security and defense systems of South Vietnam; Hanoi took advantage of the situation to increase its support for the insurgents in South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chaos ensued in the security and defense systems of South Vietnam and, once again, Hanoi took advantage of the situation to increase its support for the insurgents in the south.

^ The communists took full advantage of the situation and fueled anti-Diem sentiment to create further instability.

.South Vietnam entered a period of extreme political instability, as one military government toppled another in quick succession.^ South Vietnam now entered a period of extreme political instability, as one military junta replaced another in quick succession.

^ This would be the first of many opportunities to do so, as South Vietnam entered a period of extreme political instability with a succession of different military rulers.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communist headquarters for military and political action in South Vietnam.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increasingly, each new regime was viewed as a puppet of the Americans; whatever the failings of Diem, his credentials as a nationalist (as Robert McNamara later reflected) had been impeccable.^ The Diem regime became increasingly unpopular.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vietnam was temporarily divided between nationalistic Communists led by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in the north and an unpopular American-supported regime in Saigon in the south.

^ On the other hand, the Diem regime in South Vietnam was becoming increasingly unpopular because he was a power-hungry wacko.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]
.U.S military advisers were embedded at every level of the South Vietnamese armed forces.^ Regional Forces and Popular Forces of the VietNamese military.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamese Popular Forces: South Vietnamese local military forces.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 11, 1961: Kennedy authorizes American advisers sending 44 Special Forces Troops and other military advisers to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.They were, however, almost completely ignorant of the political nature of the insurgency.^ Almost totally lacking was an appreciation of the political and social dimensions of insurgency and its role in the larger framework of revolutionary war.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The insurgency was a political power struggle, in which military engagements were not the main goal.^ They placed a premium on highly responsive command and control, to allow a close meshing of military actions with political goals.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But as always, military action was subordinate to a larger political goal.
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^ Insurgency meant above all a contest for political legitimacy and powera struggle between contending political cultures over the organization of society.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97] .The Kennedy administration sought to refocus U.S. efforts on pacification and "winning over the hearts and minds" of the population.^ Created by civilian administration, MACV, and the CIA to coordinate American pacification efforts.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 10, 1972: Peter Davis' scathing documentary film indictment of the war, Hearts and Minds , wins the 75th Academy Award for Best Documentary.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Focusing on population security and pacification, some planners saw U.S. combat forces concentrating their efforts in coastal enclaves and around key urban centers and bases.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The military leadership in Washington, however, was hostile to any role for U.S. advisers other than conventional troop training.^ May 11, 1961: Kennedy authorizes American advisers sending 44 Special Forces Troops and other military advisers to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In their efforts to train and strengthen Diem's army, U.S. advisers had concentrated on meeting the threat of a conventional North Vietnamese invasion.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The residual influence of the army's earlier French training, however, lingered in both leadership and tactics.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98] General Paul Harkins, the commander of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, confidently predicted victory by Christmas 1963.[99] The CIA was less optimistic, however, warning that "the Viet Cong by and large retain de facto control of much of the countryside and have steadily increased the overall intensity of the effort".[100]
.Paramilitary officers from the CIA's Special Activities Division trained and led Hmoung tribesmen in Laos and into Vietnam.^ He mentioned South Vietnam only as one of the nations that would fall into the hands of the Communists if the United States failed to maintain the anti-Communist regime in Laos.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a flat prohibition against the use of Laos and Cambodia for infiltration into Vietnam or, for that matter, into any other country.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Vietnam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi.

.The indigenous forces numbered in the tens of thousands and they conducted direct action missions, led by paramilitary officers, against the Communist Pathet Lao forces and their North Vietnamese supporters.^ In Laos, the North Vietnamese-supported Pathet Lao carried on a see-saw struggle with the Royal Lao armed forces.

^ North Vietnamese officers interrogated him.

^ It was going to involve thousands of Communist Forces.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] .The CIA also ran the Phoenix Program and participation MAC-V SOG (Studies and Observations Group), which was originally named the Special Operations Group, but was changed for cover purposes.^ SOG (Studies and Observation Group) conducted special operations primarily in countries surrounding South Vietnam.
  • Used, Rare and Out-of-Print Books - War: Vietnam 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bluejacket.com [Source type: General]

^ The CIA in Vietnam, in a program called "Operation Phoenix," secretly, without trial, executed at least twenty thousand civilians in South Vietnam who were suspected of being members of the Communist underground.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, the group changes their name to the Weather Underground Organization (WUO).
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[102]

Lyndon B. Johnson expands the war, 1963–1969

A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam
For more details on this topic, see Americanization
.Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ), as he took over the presidency after the death of Kennedy, did not consider Vietnam a priority [disputed, see: NSAM 273 below] and was more concerned with his "Great Society" and progressive social programs.^ This decision by Robert Kennedy to take on Lyndon Johnson caused Jackie Kennedy great concern.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His Great Society was one of the most sweeping and ambitious program ever put forth by any president in our time, comparable in scope and long term effect to Roosevelt's New Deal.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Presidential aide Jack Valenti recalls, "Vietnam at the time was no bigger than a man's fist on the horizon.^ NEWBIE: any person with less time in Vietnam than the speaker.
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^ At the same time, aid to North Vietnam from the USSR began to increase, and with the U.S. out, the two countries no longer saw the war as significant to their U.S. relations.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kennedy brothers were aware that the man who took control in South Vietnam would probably be no better than Diem at establishing a coalition government.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We hardly discussed it because it was not worth discussing."[103][104]
.On November 24, 1963, Johnson said, "the battle against communism...^ It has been argued that Johnson followed the policies of Kennedy when he became president in November, 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 1963 — Military officers launch a coup d'état against Diem, with the tacit approval of the Kennedy administration.

^ Gravel ed., II:191; NYT, November 24, 1963, p.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

must be joined... with strength and determination."[105] .The pledge came at a time when Vietnam was deteriorating, especially in places like the Mekong Delta, because of the recent coup against Diem.^ Memoir of the Communist movement up to the end of 1960, especially in Ben Tre (in the Mekong Delta), by a woman who joined the movement in the 1930's.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For the first time (as we shall see) they were told to go ahead with a graduated or escalating program of clandestine military operations against North Vietnam.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Civil Rights leaders pointed out that because of the draft deferment enjoyed by college students, it was the poor who were more likely to be sent to Vietnam.

[106]
.Johnson had reversed Kennedy's disengagement policy from Vietnam in withdrawing 1,000 troops by the end of 1963 (NSAM 263 on Oct.^ Kennedy also gave the order for the withdrawal of 1,000 American personnel by the end of 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of 1965, 184,000 US troops were in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The assassination of Diem was therefore not part of Kennedys policy to withdraw from Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.11),[107] with his own NSAM 273 (Nov.^ The author gives no footnote for these crucial sentences; and in contrast to his own Chronology he does not even mention NSAM 273.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

26)[108] to expand the war.
The military revolutionary council, meeting in lieu of a strong South Vietnamese leader, was made up of 12 members headed by General Minh—whom Stanley Karnow, a journalist on the ground, later recalled as "a model of lethargy."[109] His regime was overthrown in January 1964 by General Nguyen Khanh. .Lodge, frustrated by the end of the year, cabled home about Minh: "Will he be strong enough to get on top of things?"^ They resisted to the end in 1975, with twelve and thirteen year old boys sending younger kids home, staying in their barricaded school and fighting on.
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^ I do not think we can know enough detail about the terrible sacrifices of the men and women who were involved in Viet Nam during and especially after coming home.
  • Vietnam War 68-69 Photo Gallery by Richard Calmes at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ I thought we had been mistaken in our failure to support DiemI told Lodge that I had not been happy with what I read about our Missions operations in Vietnam earlier in the year.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110]
An alleged NLF activist, captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border, is interrogated.
.On 2 August 1964, the USS Maddox, on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, allegedly fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin.^ On August 2, 1964, the US destroyer, "Maddox" was fired upon by three North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin .

^ USS Maddox engaging North Vietnamese torpedo boats with 5-in gunfire, August 2nd, 1964, in the Gulf of Tonkin.
  • Vietnam War Prints 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ NYT , 7/28/64 ] August 2, 1964: Three North Vietnamese PT boats allegedly fire torpedoes at the U.S.S. Maddox, a destroyer located in the international waters of the Tonkin Gulf, some thirty miles off the coast of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[111] .A second attack was reported two days later on the USS Turner Joy and Maddox in the same area.^ Two days later.

^ On 7 February 1965, Communist forces attacked an American compound in Pleiku in the Central Highlands and a few days later bombed American quarters in Qui Nhon.
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^ Two days later, McNamara issued a statement rejecting withdrawal, neutralization, or American ground troops.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The circumstances of the attack were murky. .Lyndon Johnson commented to Undersecretary of State George Ball that "those sailors out there may have been shooting at flying fish."^ President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball , was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Anthony Summers, Hoover suggested to Lyndon Johnson that the best way of dealing with King and Malcolm X would be to get those two guys fighting.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that day the incident was discussed by Lyndon Johnson, Dean Rusk, George Ball, General Earle Wheeler and Robert McNamaras new deputy, Cyrus Vance.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112]
.The second attack led to retaliatory air strikes, prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and gave the president power to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war.^ Our constitution explicitly says that Congress has the power to declare war.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which LBJ regarded as the Functional equivalent of a formal Declaration of War.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ November 7, 1973, Joint Resolution, Concerning the war powers of Congress and the President.
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the same month, Johnson pledged that he was not "... committing American boys to fighting a war that I think ought to be fought by the boys of Asia to help protect their own land."^ David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson and the Origins of the Vietnam War, 2000 (page 2) 6.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaigning in 1964, Johnson pledged over and over again that he would Not send American boys to do what Asian boys should do for themselves.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson and the Origins of the Vietnam War, 2000 (page 2) 5.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113]
.An undated NSA publication declassified in 2005, however, revealed that there was no attack on 4 August.^ However, because of Guerrilla Warfare , there were no 'front-lines' and most Americans in Vietnam came under attack from the NLF at some time during their stay in the country.

^ Johnson and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara told the American public there was an attack by North Vietnamese torpedo boats on American destroyers.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The next few nights, although there were no reports, I still feared the attack would come at any second.
  • The Experiences Of A Vietnam Veteran 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: General]

[111] .It had already been called into question long before this.^ War is serious business, and the U.S. is supposed to think long and hard before engaging in it, and this is one of the mechanisms built into the constitution to help insure this.
  • Wade's Vision Quest Journal - Vietnam - The American War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wademan.com [Source type: Original source]

"The Gulf of Tonkin incident", writes Louise Gerdes, "is an oft-cited example of the way in which Johnson misled the American people to gain support for his foreign policy in Vietnam."[114] George C. Herring argues, however, that McNamara and the Pentagon "did not knowingly lie about the alleged attacks, but they were obviously in a mood to retaliate and they seem to have selected from the evidence available to them those parts that confirmed what they wanted to believe."[115]
."From a strength of approximately 5,000 at the start of 1959 the Viet Cong's ranks grew to about 100,000 at the end of 1964...Between 1961 and 1964 the Army's strength rose from about 850,000 to nearly a million men."^ From a strength of approximately 5,000 at the start of 1959, the Viet Cong's ranks grew to about 100,000 at the end of 1964.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1961 and 1964 the Army's strength rose from about 850,000 to nearly a million men, and the number of combat divisions grew from eleven to sixteen.
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^ During the Vietnam war the number of young men drafted into military service rose rapidly through 1968, tapered off during the "Vietnamization" phase of the Nixon administration, and ended with the return to an all-volunteer Army In the 1970s.

[97] The numbers for US troops deployed to Vietnam during the same period were quite different; 2,000 in 1961, rising rapidly to 16,500 in 1964.[116]
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves an alleged NLF activist to the rear during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 miles (24 km) west of Da Nang Air Base.
.The National Security Council recommended a three-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam.^ National Security Council members, including Robert McNamara , Dean Rusk , and Maxwell Taylor , agreed on November 28 , 1964, to recommend that Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Security Council members, including Secretary of Defense McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, and General Maxwell Taylor, agreed on 28 November to recommend that Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam.

^ For the first time (as we shall see) they were told to go ahead with a graduated or escalating program of clandestine military operations against North Vietnam.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 2 March 1965, following an attack on a U.S. Marine barracks at Pleiku,[117] Operation Flaming Dart, Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Arc Light commenced.^ Marines 1965: Operations Piranha .
  • Vietnam War Movie Page 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vnwarbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Rolling Thunder, 1965-1968 .

^ Operation Rolling Thunder (1965-1968) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118] .The bombing campaign, which ultimately lasted three years, was intended to force North Vietnam to cease its support for the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) by threatening to destroy North Vietnam's air defenses and industrial infrastructure.^ In 1960, the National Liberation Front was formed in the South.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This they agreed to do and in December, 1960, the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) was formed.

^ FINI FLIGHT: an Air Force pilot's last mission in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well, it was aimed at bolstering the morale of the South Vietnamese.^ North Vietnam's leaders decided to intensify the armed struggle, aiming to demoralize the South Vietnamese Army and further undermine political authority in the South.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1975, the South Vietnamese Army stood alone against the well-organized, highly determined, and foreign-funded North Vietnamese.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By focusing attacks on South Vietnamese units and facilities, Hanoi sought to undermine the morale and will of Saigon's forces.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .Between March 1965 and November 1968, "Rolling Thunder" deluged the north with a million tons of missiles, rockets and bombs.^ Operation Rolling Thunder, 1965-1968 .

^ Operation Rolling Thunder (1965-1968) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversation between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 17 November 1968 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120]
.Bombing was not restricted to North Vietnam.^ The U.S. strategy of mass bombing intensified, including bombing the city of Hanoi in North Vietnam in an attempt to help the South Vietnamese puppets work out a better compromise with the north.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been claimed that the major objective of the US bombing raids on North Vietnam was not to kill its 17 million population but to maim them.

^ However, the bombing had proved to be popular with many of the American public as they had the impression that North Vietnam had been "bombed into submission."

.Other aerial campaigns, such as Operation Commando Hunt, targeted different parts of the NLF and Vietnam People's Army (VPA) infrastructure.^ On the ground, Ken was unaware that his old friend was a part of that campaign which would result in gaining his and the other POWs freedom after enduring long years of torture and deprivation.
  • Vietnam War Prints 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Other aerial campaigns ( Operation Commando Hunt) were directed to counter the flow of men and supplies down the Hồ Chí Minh Trail.

^ A wide variety of weapons were used by the different armies operating in the Vietnam War.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These included the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran through Laos and Cambodia.^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ho Chi Minh trail ran from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia (a violation of the neutrality of those countries by North Vietnam) into South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually several valleys and mountains, the A Shau Valley was one of the principal entry points to South Vietnam of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The objective of forcing North Vietnam to stop its support for the NLF, however, was never reached.^ The Air force had succeeded in its objective of forcing the North Vietnamese to return to the peace table where there had been a stalemate since October.

^ The pro-U.S. forces in Vietnam had virtually no support anymore from the Vietnamese people.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ December 1972; Paris Peace Agreements negotiated by North Vietnam, South Vietnam, the Southern Communists, (i.e., composed of the VC, NLF / PRG, etc.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.As one officer noted "this is a political war and it calls for discriminate killing.^ Compelling article calling for an end to the Vietnam War.Author states that a non-violent attack on the political machine on the U.S. is needed to bring about peace.

^ Then one of their own is killed and their feelings about the war suddenly change.
  • VIETNAM WAR FILMS 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.wellesley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two officers were wounded, one suspect was killed (by a veteran cop), the other wounded (by a rookie).
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best weapon... would be a knife... The worst is an airplane."[121] The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Curtis LeMay, however, had long advocated saturation bombing in Vietnam and wrote of the Communists that "we're going to bomb them back into the Stone Age".[122]

Escalation and ground war

Peasants suspected of being communists under detention of U.S. army, 1966
.Escalation of the war officially started on the morning of 31 January 1965, when orders were cut and issued to mobilize the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing from Okinawa to Da Nang Air Force Base (AFB).^ Da Nang Air Base (Near 1stMarDiv) .
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 5 June 1965, during the morning hours before dawn, the Marble Mountain Air Facility was hit by a Viet Cong ground attack by over 200 sappers.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue was an urgent one, since the Fiscal 1965 budget would have to be presented to Congress in January.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A red alert alarm to scramble was sounded at Kadena AFB at 3:00 a.m. .F-105s, pilots, and support were deployed from Okinawa and landed in Vietnam that afternoon to join up with other smaller units who had already arrived weeks earlier.^ Memoir of the Communist movement up to the end of 1960, especially in Ben Tre (in the Mekong Delta), by a woman who joined the movement in the 1930's.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The day after that, July 29 , the first 4,000 101st Airborne Division paratroopers arrived in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As stated in the N.V.V.R. article, "General Westmoreland, who has already made one call to the Steering Committee, stated publicly this week, "Professor Magruder's project is an extremely important issue and I support his efforts l00%."
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preparations were under way for the first step of Operation Flaming Dart.^ The United States is, of course, prepared to resume mine clearance operations as soon as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam begins to act in compliance with its obligations under the Agreement.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This provoked the reprisal air strikes of Operation Flaming Dart in North Vietnam -- the first time a U.S. air strike was launched because its forces had been attacked in South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet preparations had been under way for some time.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mission of Operation Flaming Dart, to cross the Seventeenth Parallel into North Vietnam, had already been planned and was in place before the NLF attack on Pleiku airbase on 6 February.^ This was a new operations plan for sabotage operations against North Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Vietnam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi.

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] On 7 February, 49 F-105 Thunderchiefs flew out of Danang AFB to targets located in North Vietnam.^ The U.S. strategy of mass bombing intensified, including bombing the city of Hanoi in North Vietnam in an attempt to help the South Vietnamese puppets work out a better compromise with the north.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lyndon B. Johnson and his key cabinet members were micro-managing the strategic war in North Vietnam and Johnson would not allow significant targets to be attacked.

^ Colonel Lansdale also recruited mercenaries from the Philippines to carry out acts of sabotage in North Vietnam.

.From this day forward the war was no longer confined to South Vietnam.^ The U.S. must no longer interfere in the internal affairs of South Vietnam.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Curtis LeMay aptly defined Johnsons war policy in Vietnam by saying that We are swatting flies in the South when we should be going after the manure pile in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

It took almost an hour to get all of the F-105's in the air. On that morning, the continuous loud roar of the F-105 engines going down the runway, one following another, was described by the ground crew as a "rolling thunder".[citation needed]
.After several attacks upon them, it was decided that U.S. Air Force bases needed more protection.^ Morgan's platoon was temporarily pinned down and sustained several casualties while attacking a North Vietnamese Army force occupying a heavily fortified bunker complex.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The logistics for supporting the Royal Thai Air Force Bases had not been fully developed in 1966.

^ By early 1968, there were more than 500,000 American troops there, and the U.S. Air Force was dropping bombs at a rate unequaled in history .
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

.The South Vietnamese military seemed incapable of providing security.^ As U.S. Army units withdrew, the South Vietnamese Army found itself in a race against Communist forces to secure the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through a collapse of military resistance, the North Vietnamese hoped to subvert public confidence in the government's ability to provide security, triggering a crescendo of popular protest to halt the fighting and force a political accommodation.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Congress cut off all AID to the South Vietnamese and would not provide them with as much as a single dollar or a single bullet.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 8 March 1965, 3,500 United States Marines were dispatched to South Vietnam.^ The security of South Vietnam remains vital to United States security.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Marine Corps unit in Vietnam .
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In South Vietnam, as in the United States, its forces were stretched thin.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This marked the beginning of the American ground war.^ The NLF Cong learned from their defeat and subsequently tried to avoid fighting an American-style ground war by reverting to small-unit guerrilla operations.

^ This marks the official beginning of American involvement in the war as recognized by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho and the Việt Minh fled into the mountainous north to begin an insurgency, marking the beginning of the First Indochina War.

.U.S. public opinion overwhelmingly supported the deployment.^ A public opinion poll carried out that year indicated that nearly 80% of the American public supported the bombing raids and the sending of combat troops to Vietnam.

^ Public opinion polls showed that the American people were overwhelmingly against sending combat troops to South Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Rusk stated that public opinion on our SEA policy was badly divided and that, therefore, the President needed an affirmation of support."
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

[123] .Public opinion, however, was based on the premise that Vietnam was part of a global struggle against communism.^ However, the bombing had proved to be popular with many of the American public as they had the impression that North Vietnam had been "bombed into submission."

^ I knew, however, that after all the protests and the Moratorium, American public opinion would be seriously divided by any military escalation of the war."
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A public opinion poll carried out that year indicated that nearly 80% of the American public supported the bombing raids and the sending of combat troops to Vietnam.

[citation needed]
.In a statement similar to that made to the French almost two decades earlier, Ho Chi Minh warned that if the Americans "want to make war for twenty years then we shall make war for twenty years.^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though the war ended almost 30 years ago, this history is still being recorded.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Were we trying to reimpose French colonialism, to block democracy because we feared Ho Chi Minh would win a free election, or confusing Vietnamese nationalism with international Communism?
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If they want to make peace, we shall make peace and invite them to afternoon tea."^ For in Vietnam a totally new brand of aggression has been loosed against an independent people who want to make their way in peace and freedom.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the next seven days they hold a "Bed-in For Peace" during which they invite the media, celebrities, and sundry hangers-on to listen to their ideas and concerns for world peace.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Shows Theiu and the United States entangled in the strings of a puppet government.They are so tangled that there is no way they can make any progress towards the Peace Talks.

[124] .As former First Deputy Foreign Minister Tran Quang Co has noted, the primary goal of the war was to reunify Vietnam and secure its independence.^ Regards, Mike Benge, Former VN POW '68-73 http://www.viet-myths.net/OSession01.htm Examining the Myths of the Vietnam War .
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Editorial claiming real reason for Vietnam war is to stop the spread of Communism.Uses words of Lenin to describe the ultimate goal of Communism, and says why it should be stopped.

^ Note: NVA casualty data was provided by North Vietnam in a press release to Agence France Presse (AFP) on April 3, 1995, on t he 20th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The policy of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) was not to topple other non-communist governments in South East Asia.^ However, Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, above which the Viet Minh established a socialist state, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and below which a non-communist state was established under the Emperor Bảo Đại.

^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
The Marines' assignment was defensive. .The initial deployment of 3,500 in March was increased to nearly 200,000 by December.^ He also 639 authorized the Army to begin deploying nearly 20,000 logistical troops, the main body of the 1st Logistical Command, to Southeast Asia.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 31, 1967: US military personnel in Vietnam totals over 500,000.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ During his first year in office, he increased the strength of the Special Forces from about 1,500 to 9,000 and authorized them to wear a distinctive green beret.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126] .The U.S. military had long been schooled in offensive warfare.^ When their forces overran Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon, without any American military reaction, they decided to proceed with a major offensive in the Central Highlands.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regardless of political policies, U.S. commanders were institutionally and psychologically unsuited to a defensive mission.^ Missions were assigned and approved by a political officer who, in most cases, was superior to the unit's military commander.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126] .In December, Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Binh Gia,[127] in a battle that both sides viewed as a watershed.^ By December 31st, US forces in Vietnam number 900 [ Bowman , p.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It's ironic that in spite of all the hype and hullabaloo about the Viet Cong and the American Soldiers both were absent from the final battles for South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As forces began to deploy to South Vietnam, the Army again sought to elevate the U.S. Army, Vietnam (USARV), to a full-fledged Army component command with responsibility for combat operations.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Previously communist forces had utilized hit-and-run guerrilla tactics, however at Binh Gia they had successfully defeated a strong ARVN force in conventional warfare.^ When the communists did hit the village they started to probe by firing aimlessly into the village.
  • The Experiences Of A Vietnam Veteran 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the Communists' military objectives had been defeated, they were at least winning on the propaganda front.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is only when all the rural areas are under their control and they are convinced that they outnumber the opposition, that the guerrillas come out into the open and take part in conventional warfare.

[128] .Tellingly, South Vietnamese forces were again defeated in June, at the Battle of Dong Xoai.^ Hence they threw North Vietnamese regulars into the battle, indicating that the stakes at Hue were higher than elsewhere in the South.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once at Chu Lai, the Army forces supported an extensive South Vietnamese pacification effort in Quang Tin Province.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129]
U.S. soldiers searching a village for NLF
.Desertion rates were increasing, and morale plummeted.^ However, morale was poor in the ARVN due to corruption and the incompetence of generals, and hence little was accomplished in the form of pacification other than high desertion rates.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General William Westmoreland informed Admiral Grant Sharp, commander of U.S. Pacific forces, that the situation was critical.^ General William Westmoreland , the commander of US troops in Vietnam , was delighted.

^ Admiral Grant Sharp was another critic of the mass media .

^ In 1965, General William Westmoreland developed the aggressive strategy of 'search and destroy'.

[126] .He said, "I am convinced that U.S. troops with their energy, mobility, and firepower can successfully take the fight to the NLF [National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam]."^ In 1960, the National Liberation Front was formed in the South.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This they agreed to do and in December, 1960, the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) was formed.

^ A subordinate part of this Central Office is the liberation Front for South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[130] .With this recommendation, Westmoreland was advocating an aggressive departure from America's defensive posture and the sidelining of the South Vietnamese.^ Columns of South Vietnamese troops came out of defensive positions and surrendered.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Vietnamese forces in many areas of the country were on the defensive, confined to protecting key towns and installations.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout both phases, the South Vietnamese, relieved of major combat tasks, were to refurbish their forces and conduct an aggressive pacification program behind the American shield.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By ignoring ARVN units, the U.S. commitment became open-ended.^ A few days proir to the Tet Offensive, the VC battalion size unit had been caught in the open along the Da Nang River by ARVN forces.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then other U.S. units entered the horseshoe-shaped area of operations through its open end.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[131] Westmoreland outlined a three-point plan to win the war:
.
  • Phase 1. Commitment of U.S. (and other free world) forces necessary to halt the losing trend by the end of 1965.
  • Phase 2. U.S. and allied forces mount major offensive actions to seize the initiative to destroy guerrilla and organized enemy forces.^ General Westmoreland and others believed that U.S. ground forces were needed to stave off an irrevocable shift of the military and political balance in favor of the enemy.
    • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Regional Forces: militia units organized within each district in South Vietnam to engage in offensive operations against local Việt Cộng forces.
    • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Inspired by his heroic actions, the marines launched an assault that destroyed the enemy.
    • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This phase would be concluded when the enemy had been worn down, thrown on the defensive, and driven back from major populated areas.
  • Phase 3. If the enemy persisted, a period of twelve to eighteen months following Phase 2 would be required for the final destruction of enemy forces remaining in remote base areas.^ Contacts with enemy forces in this final phase were meager.
    • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By the fall of 1967, enemy activity had increased again in the base areas, and sizable forces began appearing along South Vietnam's border from the demilitarized zone to III Corps.
    • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As the division began the second stage of its campaign, enemy forces began to move out of the Chu Pong base.
    • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [132]
.The plan was approved by Johnson and marked a profound departure from the previous administration's insistence that the government of South Vietnam was responsible for defeating the guerrillas.^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Curtis LeMay aptly defined Johnsons war policy in Vietnam by saying that We are swatting flies in the South when we should be going after the manure pile in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Westmoreland predicted victory by the end of 1967.[133] Johnson did not, however, communicate this change in strategy to the media.^ At the end of 1967, Westmoreland was able to report that the NLF had lost 90,000 men.

^ Again, as in 1967, Johnson refused to sanction a major troop levy, but he did give Westmoreland some modest reinforcements to bolster the northern provinces.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, during the month of April things changed, the North Vietnamese began an extensive artillery and rocket attack that lasted through December of 1967.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Instead he emphasized continuity.[134] .The change in U.S. policy depended on matching the North Vietnamese and the NLF in a contest of attrition and morale.^ Unexploded NLF and North Vietnamese devices .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Vietnamese occupied large parts of eastern Laos and supplied the NLF with mostly Chinese-made weapons via the Hồ Chí Minh Trail .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States furnished its allies the heavier M48 tank to match the NVA's T54 tank and heavier artillery to counter North Vietnamese 130mm.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The opponents were locked in a cycle of escalation.[135] .The idea that the government of South Vietnam could manage its own affairs was shelved.^ President Lyndon Johnson declared that it was an outrageous violation of international law for the North Vietnamese to have attacked a U.S. ship in international waters when the U.S. had been supplying the South Vietnamese government but had done nothing to North Vietnam.
  • Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC chss.montclair.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The new government promptly sent people connected to the South Vietnam regime to concentration camps for "reeducation", often for years at a time.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its Note, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, on its own behalf and occasionally also in the name of the "Provisional Revolutionary Government", purports to describe the situation of South Vietnam and lodges charges against the Government of the United States and the Government of the Republic of Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[135]
Members of U.S. Navy SEAL Team One move down the Bassac River in a Seal team Assault Boat (STAB) during operations along the river south of Saigon, November 1967.
It is widely held that the average U.S. serviceman was nineteen years old, as evidenced by the casual reference in a pop song ("19" by Paul Hardcastle); the figure is cited by Lt. Col. Dave Grossman ret. of the .Killology Research Group in his 1995 book On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society (p. 265).^ A girl tries to learn about her father and the war in which he was killed.
  • Vietnam War Movie Page 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vnwarbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He commented on the divisions, the violence, the disenchantment with our society; the divisions, whether its between blacks and whites, between the poor and the more affluent, or between age groups or on the war in Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Return to Top of Page Return to Top of Documentaries Section Return to the Vietnam War Books Main Page Copyright © 2007 The Pines Group All Rights Reserved .
  • Vietnam War Movie Page 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vnwarbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it is disputed by the[136] Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network Website, which claims the average age of MOS 11B personnel was 22. This compares with 26 years of age for those who participated in World War II. Soldiers served a one-year tour of duty.^ The average age of the military men who died in Vietnam was 22.8 years old.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 229th served for 8 years in VietNam.
  • Vietnam Public Links theBattleZone.com - 17 September 2009 2:22 UTC thebattlezone.com [Source type: General]

^ R & R: rest-and-recreation vacation taken during a one-year duty tour in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average age of the US military men who died in Vietnam was 22.8 years old.^ The average age of the US Military men who died in Vietnam was 22.8 years old.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note: This web page includes only those military personnel who: 1) died in the war zone during the Vietnam War and 2) listed a location in Allegheny County as their 'Home of Record' at that time.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The average education level of the enlisted man in Vietnam was 13 years, equivalent to one year of college.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[137]
.The one-year tour of duty deprived units of experienced leadership.^ Moreover, the one-year tour deprived units in South Vietnam of experienced leadership.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The personnel turbulence caused by competing demands for the Army's limited manpower was intensified by a one-year tour of duty in South Vietnam.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R & R: rest-and-recreation vacation taken during a one-year duty tour in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As one observer noted "we were not in Vietnam for 10 years, but for one year 10 times."^ The new government promptly sent people connected to the South Vietnam regime to concentration camps for "reeducation", often for years at a time.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The average education level of the enlisted man in Vietnam was 13 years, equivalent to one year of college.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "New Vietnam Combat: Coke vs. Pepsi; New Vietnam Combat: Coke vs. Pepsi Commencing a battle in Southeast Asia, one 15-cent bottle at a time."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[121] .As a result, training programs were shortened.^ Student protests against the ROTC (Reserve Officers Training Program) resulted in the canceling of those programs in over forty colleges and universities.
  • 18. The Impossible Victory: Vietnam | libcom.org 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some NCOs were referred to as "Shake 'N' Bake" to highlight their accelerated training.^ The heightened demand for leaders led to accelerated training programs and the lowering of standards for NCO's and junior officers.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike soldiers in World War II and Korea, there were no secure rear areas in which to get rest and relaxation.^ A veteran of both World War II and Korea, she was 52.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the issue of psychological health: Mental problems attributed to service in Vietnam are referred to as PTSD. Civil War veterans suffered Soldiers heart in WW I the term was Shell shock during WW II and in Korea it was Battle fatigue.
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] One unidentified soldier said to United Press International that there was nothing to do in Vietnam and therefore many of the men smoked marijuana.^ So what I am saying is that yes, there will be some recrimination but far, far less than the 200,000 a year who are murdered by the United States of America, and we can't go around- President Kennedy said this, many times.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American plans to return in the summer of 1970 came to nothing when enemy pressure forced the abandonment of two fire support bases needed for operations there.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many units reserved red smoke grenades for marking targets for gunships.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He said, "One of the reasons I guess -- one of the biggest reasons that a lot of GIs do get high over here is there is nothing to do; this place is really a drag, its a bore over here.^ There are some great journalistic shots and my two favourites here are the "Chopper and GI" and "Me".
  • Vietnam War 68-69 Photo Gallery by Richard Calmes at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ The Left will tell us that there were many reasons why we were attacked on September 11, but there is one primary reason that the attack was so successful.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was, said one happy ex-GI, "one helluva party."

.Like right now sitting around here, we are getting loaded.^ I would like to say for the record, and also for the men behind me who are also wearing the uniforms and their medals, that my sitting here is really symbolic.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whereas, it doesn’t really get you messed up, that's I guess the main reason why we smoke it."^ I called the media afterward and asked them why and the answer was, from one of the networks, it doesn't have to be identified, "because, is, new business is really partly entertainment business visually, you see, and a press conference like that is not visual."
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have explained to you repeatedly why we believe the problem of North Vietnamese troops is manageable under the agreement, and I see no reason to repeat all the arguments.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You said if our country was really threatened, you would have no hesitancy in taking up a gun.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[138]
.South Vietnam was inundated with manufactured goods.^ Vietnam also provided a good market for French manufactured goods.

^ They created an image of South Vietnam that was as distant from the truth as not even to be a good caricature.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As Stanley Karnow writes, "the main PX, located in the Saigon suburb of Cholon, was only slightly smaller than the New York Bloomingdale's..."[139] The American buildup transformed the economy and had a profound impact on South Vietnamese society. A huge surge in corruption was witnessed.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail running through Laos, 1967
.Washington encouraged its SEATO allies to contribute troops.^ With the United States' decision to escalate its involvement in the conflict, its ANZUS Pact allies Australia and New Zealand volunteered to contribute troops and material to the war effort.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines[140] all agreed to send troops.^ All four veterans agree that they witnessed a lot of events that occurred during the war that should have been covered by television news but were not.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia would follow.

^ New Zealand forces with Viet Cong prisoners during the Vietnam War Along with US forces, Australia and New Zealand sent ground troops to Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major allies, however, notably NATO nations Canada and the United Kingdom, declined Washington's troop requests.^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this does not give the North the right to rule the South, any more than the English language gives Canada the right to rule the United States.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States President, Dwight Eisenhower , however, refused to intervene unless he could persuade Britain and his other western allies to participate.

[141] .The U.S. and its allies mounted complex operations, such as operations Masher, Attleboro, Cedar Falls, and Junction City.^ Like ATTLEBORO before it, CEDAR FALLS tapped the manpower and resources of nearly every major Army unit in the corps area.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the communist insurgents remained elusive and demonstrated great tactical flexibility.
.Meanwhile, the political situation in South Vietnam began to stabilize somewhat with the coming to power of Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky and President Nguyen Van Thieu in 1967. Thieu, mistrustful and indecisive, remained president until 1975.[142] This ended a long series of military juntas that had begun with Diem's assassination.^ Considerable detail on how Diem had consolidated his power in South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ President Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam appealed to President Nixon for more financial aid.

^ Nguyen Van Thieu became president with Nguyen Cao Ky as his vice president.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The relative calm allowed the ARVN to collaborate more effectively with its allies and become a better fighting force.^ Article in series from South Vietnamese author.This article takes an overly critical of the ARVN army.Delves into the many flaws associated with this fighting force.

^ Despite the relative calm that followed the Ia Drang fighting, the North Vietnamese left no doubt of their intent to continue infiltration and to challenge American forces along the highland border.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even as Westmoreland shifted allied forces from II Corps to I Corps, fighting intensified in the highlands.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The Johnson administration employed a "policy of minimum candor"[143] in its dealings with the media.^ In his acceptance speech, Goldberg delivers a defense of the Johnson administration's Vietnam policies.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ While I wouldn't presume to compare my own experience, I have taken a great deal of criticism since I myself in 1965 took issue with the then President Johnson over his policies.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Military information officers sought to manage media coverage by emphasizing stories which portrayed progress in the war.^ U.S. lost 926) But the media portrayed this as a U.S. defeat and CBS said that the United States couldn't hope to win the war."
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General von Clausewitz (German military officer, 1780 1831) is the author of On War which is considered a, if not the, classical textbook on all aspects of War.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of deliberate negativity, he suggests that coverage was fragmented, inaccurate, and incapable of providing a coherent story line because the media was often reduced to reiterating military press releases.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

Over time, this policy damaged the public trust in official pronouncements. .As the media's coverage of the war and that of the Pentagon diverged, a so-called credibility gap developed.^ Thus, three out of the four veterans I interviewed blame and resent the media for its coverage of their images and the war itself.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[143] .In October 1967 a large anti-war demonstration was held on the steps of the Pentagon.^ However, when one goes back and scrutinizes those anti-war demonstrations, one promptly finds they were not really against the war.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anti-war demonstrators and Yippies protest throughout the convention, clashing with police all around the convention center, in the streets and at Grant Park.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This was the largest anti-war protest to ever have been held in Washington DC at that time, with the number of marchers approximately equal ling the number of US soldiers in Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Of the thousands of protesters, over 680 were arrested. .Some protesters chanted phrases like, "Ho, Ho, Ho Chi Minh!^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gave sanctuary to the North Vietnamese Army forces; which ultimately prompted the interdiction bombings on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
  • Matthew Yglesias (August 23, 2007) - The Vietnam Debate (Foreign Policy) 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After declaring that Vietnam was now a united country, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

.The NLF is going to win!"^ The NLF was told not to go into combat unless it outnumbered the enemy and was certain of winning.

[144] and ."Hey, hey, LBJ! How many boys did you kill today?"^ How did so many smart guys make such a mess?
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[145]

Tet Offensive

.Having lured General Westmoreland's forces into the hinterland at Khe Sanh in Quang Tri Province,[146] in January 1968, the NVA and NLF broke the truce that had traditionally accompanied the Tết (Lunar New Year) holiday.^ It occurred during the lunar New Year at the end of January, 1968.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TET: Vietnamese Lunar New Year holiday period.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tết: Buddhist lunar New Year.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They launched the surprise Tet Offensive in the hope of sparking a national uprising.^ Most of covert communist agents (members of the National Liberation Front and the Viet Cong) in the South were exposed when they showed their hand during the Tet offensive and were destroyed.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He argued: "The reality of the 1968 Tet offensive was that Hanoi had taken a big gamble and had lost on the battlefield, but they won a solid psychological victory in the United States."

^ The film detailed how CBS had misled the nation about the Tet Offensive.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 100 cities were attacked, with assaults on General Westmoreland's headquarters and the US Embassy, Saigon.^ The NLF even attacked the US Embassy in Saigon.

^ SSgt Glasgow brought the information to the attention of Lt. Flanigan, who - along with other intelligence collection - pass it immediately to General Westmoreland's Headquarters.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was now clear that the purpose of the attacks on the US garrisons in September had been to draw out troops from the cities.

.Although the U.S. and South Vietnamese were initially taken aback by the scale of the urban offensive, they responded quickly and effectively, decimating the ranks of the NLF. In the former capital city of Huế, the combined NLF and NVA troops captured the Imperial Citadel and much of the city, which led to the Battle of Hue.^ A turning point in the war occurred on January 31, 1968, as 84,000 Viet Cong guerrillas aided by NVA troops launched the Tet Offensive, attacking a hundred cities and towns throughout South Vietnam.
  • Poras Collection of Vietnam War Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being the former imperial capital of a united Vietnam, the center of Vietnamese cultural and religious life, and the capital of Thua Thien Province, Hue became an important symbol in the struggle for dominance of Indochina.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout the offensive, the American forces employed massive firepower; in Hue where the battle was the fiercest, that firepower left 80% of the city in ruins.^ Vietnamization received a severe test in the spring of 1972 when the North Vietnamese launched a massive offensive across the DMZ using conventional forces.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the battle for Hue City, the city remained in enemy hands for 5 days before the invading forces were dislodged by Marines.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Vietnamese New Years, NLF forces strike the six major cities in the South, including Saigon, where they take the American Embassy.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[147] .During the interim between the capture of the Citadel and end of the "Battle of Hue", the communist insurgent occupying forces massacred several thousand unarmed Hue civilians (estimates vary up to a high of 6,000).^ It was going to involve thousands of Communist Forces.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memoir of the Communist movement up to the end of 1960, especially in Ben Tre (in the Mekong Delta), by a woman who joined the movement in the 1930's.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the end of October, as the Communists retreated north and west, the running fight had accounted for over 2,000 enemy killed.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, North Vietnamese officials acknowledged that the Tet Offensive had, indeed, caused grave damage to NLF forces.^ Unexploded NLF and North Vietnamese devices .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Morgan's platoon was temporarily pinned down and sustained several casualties while attacking a North Vietnamese Army force occupying a heavily fortified bunker complex.
  • Pittsburgh's Vietnam War Memorials 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.donnan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After the launch of Operation Rolling Thunder , China sent engineering battallions and supporting anti-aircraft units to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, which freed North Vietnamese army units to go to the South.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the offensive had another, unintended consequence.
.General Westmoreland had become the public face of the war.^ When General Westmoreland called for still more troops to be sent to Vietnam, Clark Clifford -- a member of Johnson's own cabinet -- came out against the war.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official publications now increasingly refer to it generically as "Chiến tranh Việt Nam" (Vietnam War).
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-War/Political Activism The War January 7, 1966: Time Magazine names General William Westmoreland "Man of the Year."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.He was featured on the cover of Time magazine three times and was named 1965's Man of the Year.^ In the fall of 1966, for the first time in a year, all three of the division's brigades were reunited and operating in Binh Dinh Province.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time Magazine , "The Debate," (an article on a debate between Bundy and war critics at Georgetown University), 2 July 1965 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Berrigan is sentenced to three years in prison, but he refuses to serve his time.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[148] .Time described him as "the sinewy personification of the American fighting man...^ His recognition and popularity as a U. S. Military Man led other Black Americans to model after him and seek this type of national embrace and acceptance.
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^ Although Kennedy denied it at the time, American soldiers were becoming increasingly involved in the fighting in Vietnam.

.(who) directed the historic buildup, drew up the battle plans, and infused the...^ Accelerated Plan (speed-up of force withdrawal by six months directed by McNamara in October) should be maintained.
  • The Kennedy Assassination and the Vietnam War 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history-matters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

men under him with his own idealistic view of U.S. aims and responsibilities."[148]
.In November 1967 Westmoreland spearheaded a public relations drive for the Johnson administration to bolster flagging public support.^ Again, as in 1967, Johnson refused to sanction a major troop levy, but he did give Westmoreland some modest reinforcements to bolster the northern provinces.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When this possibility was made public, popular criticism caused the Johnson Administration to abandon the idea.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The press would later use the public dismay over Tet (which they themselves created) as an excuse to try to discredit earlier optimistic statements by Johnson and Westmoreland.
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[149] In a speech before the National Press Club he said that a point in the war had been reached "where the end comes into view."[150] Thus, the public was shocked and confused when Westmoreland's predictions were trumped by Tet.[149] .The American media, which had been largely supportive of U.S. efforts, rounded on the Johnson administration for what had become an increasing credibility gap.^ Created by civilian administration, MACV, and the CIA to coordinate American pacification efforts.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kaiser admits that he the Kennedy administration did increase the number of American military personnel in South Vietnam from 600 in 1960 to 17,500 in 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 25-26, 1968: By March 1968, Johnson has decided that the size of the U.S. effort in Vietnam has grown as large as could be justified.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Despite its military failure, the Tet Offensive became a political victory and ended the career of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who declined to run for re-election.^ (Certain Victory - Dennis Warner) "Visitors to the Lyndon Johnson Library are told, "While the President was reading reports from the war that made it clear that the enemy had suffered a severe military loss (Tet), newspaper and TV gave the impression that the loss was ours and that defeat was imminent."
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^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
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^ In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson began to seek a second term.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Johnson's approval rating slumped from 48 to 36 percent.[149]
As James Witz noted, Tet "contradicted the claims of progress... made by the Johnson administration and the military."[149] .The Tet Offensive was the turning point in America's involvement in the Vietnam War.^ Hue in particular, and Tet in general, was indeed the turning point in the war.
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^ That point was the Tet Offensive 1968.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tet Offensive proved to be a turning point in the war.

It had a profound impact on domestic support for the conflict. The offensive constituted an intelligence failure on the scale of Pearl Harbor.[151][152] .Journalist Peter Arnett quoted an unnamed officer, saying of Ben Tre (laid to rubble by US firepower)[153] that "it became necessary to destroy the village in order to save it" (though the authenticity of this quote is disputed).^ Peter Arnett 7 also filed the infamous report supposedly quoting the US officer in the Mekong Delta as saying We had to destroy the town in order to save it.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ben Suc was surrounded, its entire population evacuated, and the village and its tunnel complex destroyed.
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^ The singular most important incident in shaping this turning event, was the news dispatch by Peter Arnett that the communists had captured the US Embassy in Saigon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[154] .According to one source, this quote was attributed to Major Booris of 9th Infantry Division.^ Paul's 9th Infantry Division .
  • Vietnam Public Links theBattleZone.com - 17 September 2009 2:22 UTC thebattlezone.com [Source type: General]

^ Video history of the Mobile Riverine Force in Vietnam (the 9th Infantry Division and the Great Green Fleet of Vietnam) .
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^ Three light infantry brigades were activated, and the 9th Infantry Division was reactivated.
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[155]
NLF/NVA killed by U.S. air force personnel during an attack on the perimeter of Tan Son Nhut Air Base during the Tet Offensive
.Westmoreland became Chief of Staff of the Army in March, just as all resistance was finally subdued.^ The Joint Chiefs of Staff asked General Westmoreland, the only military official then commanding U.S. troops in a conflict, to testify to the need to increase.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even as they landed, General Harold K. Johnson, Chief of Staff of the Army, was in South Vietnam to assess the situation.
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^ The task of carrying out the military aspects of Vietnamization fell to General Creighton W. Abrams, who succeeded General Westmoreland as MACV commander in mid-1968, when the latter returned to the United States to become Chief of Staff of the Army.
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The move was technically a promotion. .However, his position had become untenable because of the offensive and because his request for 200,000 additional troops had been leaked to the media.^ The psychological jolt to President Johnson's Vietnam policy was redoubled when the military requested an additional 206,00 troops.
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^ However in 1968 the Joint Chiefs of Staff considered increasing the total number of active reserve troops by 200,000, concerned about having roughly a third of U.S. forces committed to one theater of conflict.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Washington the administration turned down his request for an additional 200,000 men.
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.Westmoreland was succeeded by his deputy Creighton Abrams, a commander less inclined to public media pronouncements.^ The task of carrying out the military aspects of Vietnamization fell to General Creighton W. Abrams, who succeeded General Westmoreland as MACV commander in mid-1968, when the latter returned to the United States to become Chief of Staff of the Army.
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^ Although he had the aura of a blunt, hard-talking, World War II tank commander, Abrams had spent two years as Westmoreland's deputy, working closely with South Vietnamese commanders.
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[156]
.On 10 May 1968, despite low expectations, peace talks began between the U.S. and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.^ Moscow and the Vietnam Peace Talks, 1969 .
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^ It calls on the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and all other parties to the Final Act of the International Conference on Vietnam to lend their support to this endeavor.
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^ Deactivation and Removal of Mines Finally, there is a protocol concerning the removal and deactivation of mines which is self-explanatory and simply explains-discusses the relationship between our efforts and the efforts of the DRV [Democratic Republic of Vietnam] concerning the removal and deactivation of mines which is one of the obligations we have undertaken in the agreement.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Negotiations stagnated for five months, until Johnson gave orders to halt the bombing of North Vietnam.^ President Johnson orders the bombing of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Despite this, President Johnson immediately ordered a firm, swift retaliatory strike against North Vietnamese naval bases.
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^ It has been claimed that the major objective of the US bombing raids on North Vietnam was not to kill its 17 million population but to maim them.

.The Democratic candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, was running against Republican former vice president Richard Nixon.^ An antiwar candidate, George McGovern , ran against President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vietnam War was a central issue in the campaign, with both Hubert Humphrey , the Democratic Party candidate, and Richard Nixon , his Republican opponent, promising to end the war by obtaining an "honourable peace".

.Through an intermediary, Anna Chennault, Nixon advised Saigon to refuse to participate in the talks until after elections, claiming that he would give them a better deal once elected.^ It was generally conceded that had an election been held, Ho Chi Minh would have been elected Premier ...

^ Both consistently refused to participate meaningfully in any Four Party Joint Military Commission investigation which would not benefit their cause.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was also agreed that the governments in North and South Vietnam would remain in power until new elections could be arranged to unite the whole country.

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Thieu obliged, leaving almost no progress made by the time Johnson left office.^ Barbara Tuchman in her book The March of Folly writes of Johnson Long accustomed to normal political lying, he forgot that his office made a difference.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Conein testified that the raids might have been timed to occur when no American Ambassador was in Vietnam (Noltlng had left a few days before and his replacement.
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[citation needed]
.As historian Robert Dallek writes, "Lyndon Johnson's escalation of the war in Vietnam divided Americans into warring camps...^ Why then was Lyndon Johnson so keen to start a war with North Vietnam?
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^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball , was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

cost .30,000 American lives by the time he left office, (and) destroyed Johnson's presidency..."^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
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^ On 30th July, the American destroyer, the Maddox, left Taiwan for the North Vietnamese coast.
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^ Address by President Johnson Before the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists at the White House on May 13, 1965, "Viet-Nam: The Third Face of the War" .
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[157] .His refusal to send more U.S. troops to Vietnam was seen as Johnson's admission that the war was lost.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball , was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Curtis LeMay aptly defined Johnsons war policy in Vietnam by saying that We are swatting flies in the South when we should be going after the manure pile in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[158] .It can be seen that the refusal was a tacit admission that the war could not be won by escalation, at least not at a cost acceptable to the American people.^ American war casualities for the year total 1350 killed, 5300 wounded, and at least 150 missing.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ With "at least the knowledge and approval of the White House and the American ambassador in Saigon" (LeFeber, "America, Russia and the Cold War", p.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his book, A Rumour of War , Caputo attempts to explain how the Vietnam War turned some US soldiers into people who could commit atrocities.

[158] .As Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara noted, "the dangerous illusion of victory by the United States was therefore dead."^ Robert Pierce believed in the United States.
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^ "United States Policy in Vietnam," by Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, 26 March 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 13 April 1964 .
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^ Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, Memorandum for the President, "Vietnam Situation," 21 December 1963 .
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[159]

Vietnamization, 1969–1972

Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization

Propaganda leaflets urging the defection of NLF and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
For more details on this topic, see Vietnamization, 1969–1974
.Severe communist losses during the Tet Offensive allowed U.S. President Richard M. Nixon to begin troop withdrawals.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of covert communist agents (members of the National Liberation Front and the Viet Cong) in the South were exposed when they showed their hand during the Tet offensive and were destroyed.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidential candidate Richard Nixon called for a decrease in U.S. troop levels.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His plan, called the Nixon Doctrine, was to build up the ARVN, so that they could take over the defense of South Vietnam.^ As applied to Vietnam, the doctrine was called "Vietnamization".
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What do they think of our condoning the violence which led to their own taking up of arms?
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.The policy became known as "Vietnamization". Vietnamization had much in common with the policies of the Kennedy administration.^ It has been argued that Johnson followed the policies of Kennedy when he became president in November, 1963.
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^ Kaiser admits that he the Kennedy administration did increase the number of American military personnel in South Vietnam from 600 in 1960 to 17,500 in 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson feared this would encourage Thailand and South Vietnam to follow the neutral policy that had been with Kennedys encouragement, achieved by the government in Laos.
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One important difference, however, remained. .While Kennedy insisted that the South Vietnamese fight the war themselves, he attempted to limit the scope of the conflict.^ However, it illustrated that the NLF appeared to have inexhaustible supplies of men and women willing to fight for the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government.

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These events convinced President John F. Kennedy that Ngo Dinh Diem would never be able to unite the South Vietnamese against communism.

.Nixon said in an announcement, "I am tonight announcing plans for the withdrawal of an additional 150,000 American troops to be completed during the spring of next year.^ In June, 1969, Nixon announced the first of the US troop withdrawals.

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
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.This will bring a total reduction of 265,500 men in our armed forces in Vietnam below the level that existed when we took office 15 months ago."^ Draftees vs. U.S. armed forces members were drafted during WWII) Draftees accounted for 30.4% (17,725) of combat deaths in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Abrams' logistical offensive temporarily reduced the level of enemy activity in the South, bases outside South Vietnam had been inviolable to allied ground forces.
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^ December 31, 1967: US military personnel in Vietnam totals over 500,000.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[138]
Nixon also pursued negotiations. .Theater commander Creighton Abrams shifted to smaller operations, aimed at communist logistics, with better use of firepower and more cooperation with the ARVN. Nixon also began to pursue détente with the Soviet Union and rapprochement with the People's Republic of China.^ The Soviet Union, along with China, supplied North Vietnam with weaponry and other materiel throughout the war.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abrams pursued a very different approach, favoring more openness with the media, less indiscriminate use of air strikes and heavy artillery, elimination of body count as the key indicator of battlefield success, and more meaningful cooperation with South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) forces.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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This policy helped to decrease global tensions. Détente led to nuclear arms reduction on the part of both superpowers. .But Nixon was disappointed that the PRC and the Soviet Union continued to supply the North Vietnamese with aid.^ In spite of this Case Church 1973 Congressional guarantee, the North Vietnamese were very leery of President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In response to this bombing, the North Vietnamese and their Soviet advisors fired 1,242 Soviet made SAMs at the American war planes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union, along with China, supplied North Vietnam with weaponry and other materiel throughout the war.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1969, Ho Chi Minh died at age seventy-nine.^ LAT , 10/5/69 ] September 3, 1969: North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh dies.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
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^ After declaring that Vietnam was now a united country, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

[160]
.The anti-war movement was gaining strength in the United States.^ Now able to challenge ARVN units of equal strength in quasi-conventional battles, the Viet Cong were moving into a more intense stage of revolutionary war.
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^ He mentioned South Vietnam only as one of the nations that would fall into the hands of the Communists if the United States failed to maintain the anti-Communist regime in Laos.
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^ The 'Vietnam Babylift' [ link ] evacuated nearly 3,000 babies and children in harm's way in Vietnam at the end of the Vietnam War to the United States and several other countries.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nixon appealed to the "silent majority" of Americans to support the war.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 3, 1969: President Richard Nixon addresses the nation in defense of his decision to keep U.S. forces in Vietnam and to explain why peace negotiations had failed so far: "And so tonight -- to you, the great Silent Majority of my fellow Americans -- I ask for your support.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Listen to an excerpt from Nixon's "Silent Majority" speech Full text of Nixon's "Silent Majority" speech.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.But revelations of the My Lai Massacre, in which a U.S. Army platoon went on a rampage and raped and killed civilians, and the 1969 "Green Beret Affair" where eight Special Forces soldiers, including the 5th Special Forces Group Commander were arrested for the murder[161] of a suspected double agent[162] provoked national and international outrage.^ My Lai massacre .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SPECIAL FORCES OR SF: U.S. Army soldiers; also called "Green Berets," trained in techniques of guerrilla warfare.
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^ U.S. soldiers' massacre of Vietnamese villagers at My Lai .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The civilian cost of the war was again questioned when the U.S. concluded operation Speedy Express with a claimed bodycount of 10,889 Communist guerillas with only 40 U.S. losses; Kevin Buckley writing in Newsweek estimated that perhaps 5,000 of the Vietnamese dead were civilians.^ Nearly 6,000 civilians were dead or missing, and several thousand more were assassinated outright during the Vietcong occupation.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over a million communist soldiers and around 2 million Vietnamese civilians on both sides also died.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to losing nearly 2,000 men, the South Vietnamese lost large amounts of equipment during their disorderly withdrawal, and the U.S. Army lost IO7 helicopters, the highest number in any one operation of the war.
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[163]
.Beginning in 1970 American troops were being taken away from border areas where much more killing took place and instead put along the coast and interior which is one reason why casualties in 1970 were less than half of 1969's totals.^ Much more than photography.
  • Vietnam War 68-69 Photo Gallery by Richard Calmes at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Although this slaughter took place, it was not covered by the American News Media.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If indeed Lifes concern was for the sanctity of American lives, why not publish the 1,082 portraits of folks who were killed in one routine week on the nations highways.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[138]

Operation Menu: the secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos

.Prince Norodom Sihanouk had proclaimed Cambodia neutral since 1955,[164] but the communists used Cambodian soil as a base and Sihanouk tolerated their presence, because he wished to avoid being drawn into a wider regional conflict.^ In 1965, Sihanouk had made a secret deal with China and North Vietnam giving them bases and access to Cambodia's ports.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harboring enemy forces, command facilities, and logistical depots, the Cambodian and Laotian bases threatened the fragile progress made in the South since Tet 1968.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Army units made the deepest penetration of War Zone C since 1961, all signs pointed to the foe's hasty withdrawal into Cambodia.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under pressure from Washington, however, he changed this policy in 1969. The Vietnamese communists were no longer welcome.^ And I think we are reacting under cold-war precepts which are no longer applicable.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Kaiser convincingly argues that Kennedy subtly changed foreign policy after he gained office.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have explained to you repeatedly why we believe the problem of North Vietnamese troops is manageable under the agreement, and I see no reason to repeat all the arguments.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.President Nixon took the opportunity to launch a massive secret bombing campaign, called Operation Menu, against their sanctuaries along the Cambodia/Vietnam border.^ President Nixon introduced his policy of "vietnamization".

^ Le Duc Tho and Vo Nguyen Giap continued to direct the military operations against South Vietnam.

^ After the launch of Operation Rolling Thunder , China sent engineering battallions and supporting anti-aircraft units to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, which freed North Vietnamese army units to go to the South.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This violated a long succession of pronouncements from Washington supporting Cambodian neutrality.^ Four days later, Lodge suggested that Richardson should be ordered back to Washington as he symbolized long-standing American support for Nhu.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard Nixon wrote to Prince Sihanouk in April 1969 assuring him that the United States respected "the sovereignty, neutrality and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia..."^ Richard Nixon and Vietnam (1969-1974) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter VII REGARDING CAMBODIA AND LAOS Article 20 (a) The parties participating in the Paris Conference on Viet-Nam shall strictly respect the 1954 Geneva Agreements on Cambodia's and the 1954 Geneva Agreements on Laos, which recognized the Cambodian and the Lao peoples' fundamental national rights, i.e., the independence, sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of these countries.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 8 With a view to contributing to and guaranteeing peace in Indochina,- the Parties to this Act acknowledge the commitment of the parties to the Agreement to respect the independence, sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity, and neutrality of Cambodia and Laos as stipulated in the Agreement, agree also to respect them and to refrain from any action at variance with them, and call on other countries to do the same.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[165] .In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by his pro-American prime minister Lon Nol.^ In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by Prime Minister Lon Nol in Cambodia, who became the chief of state.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk; Beijing, 9:10 pm, 28 March 1970 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk; Beijing, 11:40 pm, 22 March 1970 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country's borders were closed, and the U.S. and ARVN launched incursions into Cambodia to attack VPA/NLF bases and buy time for South Vietnam.^ Planning for the cross-border attack occurred at a critical time in Cambodia.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon ordered a military incursion into Cambodia in order to destroy NLF sanctuaries bordering on South Vietnam and take some pressure off the fragile Cambodian government.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ground forces were barred from operating across South Vietnam's borders into Cambodia, Laos, or North Vietnam, although the border areas of those countries were vital to the enemy's war effort.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Victims of the My Lai Massacre
The invasion of Cambodia sparked nationwide U.S. protests. .Four students were killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University during a protest in Ohio, which provoked public outrage in the United States.^ The invasion of Cambodia provoked a wave of demonstrations in the United States and in one of these, four students were killed when National guardsmen opened fire at Kent State University.

^ Four students were killed and a score injured by National Guard and police forces during demonstrations at Kent and Jackson State universities.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14: Two students at predominantly African American Jackson (Mississippi) State University are killed by police during a protest over civil rights issues and over the events at Kent State.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The reaction to the incident by the Nixon administration was seen as callous and indifferent, providing additional impetus for the anti-war movement.^ The massive escalation of the war from 1964 to 1968 was justified on the basis of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident on August 2-4, 1964, in which the Johnson Administration claimed U.S. ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the media had been covering the anti-war movement before 1968, it now overshadowed the war itself.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communism) "The anti-war movement", said the S.D.S. in literature out of Antioch College, "rests on three main elements, the Trotskyites, the Communist Party, and the radical pacifists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166]
.In 1971 the Pentagon Papers were leaked to The New York Times.^ James Risen, "U.S. Program Aimed to Make Hanoi Think Released Prisoners Were Spies," New York Times, November 4, 1999 (Project Urgency, 1968) .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seth Mydans, "Of Soldiers Lost, but Not Forgotten, in Vietnam," New York Times, December 28, 1997 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John W. Finney, "U.S. Rescue Fleet Is Picking Up Vietnamese Who Fled in Boats," New York Times, 1 May 1975 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The top-secret history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, commissioned by the Department of Defense, detailed a long series of public deceptions.^ The "Pentagon Papers" A detailed history of U.S. policy toward Vietnam, written inside the Defense Department between 1967 and 1969, accompanied by many of the documents that the authors had used as sources.
  • Vietnam War Bibliography: 1954-1964 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This top-secret historical study of Vietnam, contracted by Robert McNamara (the Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson), presented a pessimistic view of victory in the Vietnam War and generated additional criticism of U.S. policy.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telegram from the SecDef (McNamara) to the Commander in Chief Pacific (Felt) and the Chief MAAG Vietnam (McGarr) Washington, 11-28-61, TOP SECRET; Priority .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Supreme Court ruled that its publication was legal.^ Wald, 1968 ; NYT , 1/12/68 ] January 24, 1968: US Supreme Court rules 6 to 1 in the case of United States v.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ UC users only "Supreme Court, 6-3, Upholds Newspapers On Publication Of The Pentagon Report; Times Resumes Its Series, Halted 15 Days."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[167]
.The ARVN launched Operation Lam Son 719 in February 1971, aimed at cutting the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos.^ Lam Son 719 & Vietnamization Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation LAM SON 719 had begun.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .The ostensibly neutral Laos had long been the scene of a secret war.^ March 26, 1964: In an hour-long speech, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara forcefully rejects "withdrawal", "neutralization", or "peace at any price" in the war Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Secret War in Laos Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After meeting resistance, ARVN forces retreated in a confused rout.^ Only small delaying forces offered sporadic resistance, while main force units retreated to northeastern Cambodia.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They fled along roads littered with their own dead. .When they ran out of fuel, soldiers abandoned their vehicles and attempted to barge their way on to American helicopters sent to evacuate the wounded.^ Australia lost 510 dead and 3,131 wounded out of the 48,000 troops they had deployed to Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten minutes later they were picked up by soldiers and forced into an army vehicle.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1950 and 1953 they had lost 142,000 soldiers in attempting to stop communism entering South Korea.

.Many ARVN soldiers clung to helicopter skids in a desperate attempt to save themselves.^ For 2 bloody weeks, severe fighting raged in the city as the ARVN defenders, in a last-ditch effort tried desperately to save South Vietnam from conquest.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some units all semblance of an orderly withdrawal vanished as desperate South Vietnamese soldiers pushed the wounded off evacuation helicopters or clung to helicopter skids to reach safety.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ARVN were routed along with the civilians, and some South Vietnamese soldiers shot civilians just to make room for themselves to retreat.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.U.S. aircraft had to destroy abandoned equipment, including tanks, to prevent them from falling into enemy hands.^ He also managed to destroy all weapons, files and sensitive documents to prevent them from falling into enemy hands.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the fall of 1967, the enemy had been infiltrating arms, ammunition, and men, including entire units, into Saigon and other cities and towns.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He mentioned South Vietnam only as one of the nations that would fall into the hands of the Communists if the United States failed to maintain the anti-Communist regime in Laos.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Half of the invading ARVN troops were either captured or killed.^ By April 1 , the column ceased to exist after 60,000 ARVN troops were killed.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operation was a fiasco and represented a clear failure of Vietnamization.^ The United States mine-clearing operation has progressed as rapidly as safety, available forces, weather and restrictions imposed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam would allow.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

As Karnow noted "the blunders were monumental... .The (South Vietnamese) government's top officers had been tutored by the Americans for ten or fifteen years, many at training schools in the United States, yet they had learned little."^ Yet they had little to gain from an engagement.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They return to the United States in 1976.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[168]
.In 1971 Australia and New Zealand withdrew their soldiers.^ With the United States' decision to escalate its involvement in the conflict, its ANZUS Pact allies Australia and New Zealand volunteered to contribute troops and material to the war effort.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike their US counterparts, the Australian and New Zealand soldiers used small scale guerilla warfare rather than large scale assaults.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia's peak commitment was 7672 combat troops and New Zealand 552.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. troop count was further reduced to 196,700, with a deadline to remove another 45,000 troops by February 1972. As peace protests spread across the United States, disillusionment grew in the ranks.^ On November 12 , 1971, Nixon set a 1 February 1972 deadline to remove another 45,000 U.S. troops from Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total number of U.S. troops in Vietnam dropped to 196,700 on 29 October 1971, the lowest level since January 1966.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From a strength of approximately 5,000 at the start of 1959, the Viet Cong's ranks grew to about 100,000 at the end of 1964.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drug use increased, race relations grew tense and the number of soldiers disobeying officers rose.^ Most of these negative references included increasing drug use, racial conflict, and disobedience among the U.S soldiers.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Viet Cong's control over the population increased, their military forces grew in number and size.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1961 and 1964 the Army's strength rose from about 850,000 to nearly a million men, and the number of combat divisions grew from eleven to sixteen.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fragging, or the murder of unpopular officers with fragmentation grenades, increased.^ Frag: fragmentation grenade.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hand frag: a fragmentation grenade thrown by a soldier.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fragging: the assassination of an officer by his own troops, usually be a grenade.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[169]
The Nguyen Hue Offensive, 1972, part of the Easter Offensive
.Vietnamization was again tested by the Easter Offensive of 1972, a massive conventional invasion of South Vietnam.^ Easter Offensive 1972 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional Forces: militia units organized within each district in South Vietnam to engage in offensive operations against local Việt Cộng forces.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Abrams' logistical offensive temporarily reduced the level of enemy activity in the South, bases outside South Vietnam had been inviolable to allied ground forces.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The VPA and NLF quickly overran the northern provinces and in coordination with other forces attacked from Cambodia, threatening to cut the country in half.^ Even when Communist forces prematurely attacked Kontum, Qui Nhon, Da Nang, and other towns in the northern and central provinces on 29 January, Americans were unprepared for what followed.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 7 February, an NVA regiment attacked and overran the Special Forces Camp at Lang Vei some five miles west of Khe Sanh.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wanted U.S. forces either to interdict the Laotian panhandle to stop infiltration or to counter a growing enemy threat in the central and northern provinces.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. troop withdrawals continued. .But American airpower came to the rescue with Operation Linebacker, and the offensive was halted.^ In late January, the Government of the Khmer Republic suspended all offensive operations and the United States likewise halted offensive air operations.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American plans to return in the summer of 1970 came to nothing when enemy pressure forced the abandonment of two fire support bases needed for operations there.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States countered with a buildup of American airpower to support ARVN defensive operations and to conduct Operation Linebacker against North Vietnam, but continued the withdrawal of American troops, now numbering less than 100,000, as scheduled.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it became clear that without American airpower South Vietnam could not survive.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal: The Final Battles As the Americans withdrew, South Vietnam's combat capability declined.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walter Cronkite, "the most trusted man in America", declared his belief on the CBS Evening News that it was now clear to him that the U.S. could not succeed in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last remaining American ground troops were withdrawn in August.^ Two days later, McNamara issued a statement rejecting withdrawal, neutralization, or American ground troops.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, fighting continued, but the Military Assistance Command was dissolved, remaining U.S. forces withdrawn, and American military action in South Vietnam terminated.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under this policy, American ground forces in South Vietnam, once withdrawn, were unlikely to return.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1972 election and Paris Peace Accords

Operation Linebacker II, December 1972
.The war was the central issue of the 1972 presidential election.^ In the 1972 U.S. presidential election the war was again a major issue.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PBS: Vietnam Online: The MIA Issue ] 1994: After his loss to Richard Nixon in the 1972 presidential election, George McGovern returns to South Dakota, where he was re-elected to the Senate in 1974.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The event comes after a presidential election campaign that revisted some of the war's most contentious issues.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nixon's opponent, George McGovern, campaigned on a platform of withdrawal from Vietnam.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An antiwar candidate, George McGovern , ran against President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PBS: Vietnam Online: The MIA Issue ] 1994: After his loss to Richard Nixon in the 1972 presidential election, George McGovern returns to South Dakota, where he was re-elected to the Senate in 1974.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Nixon's National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, continued secret negotiations with North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho.^ Henry Cabot Lodge, former American ambassador to South Vietnam, acts as US negotiator; South Vietnamese Vice President Nguyen Ca Ky represents South Vietnam; Le Duc Tho heads the North Vietnamese delegation; and Nguyen Thi Binh heads the National Liberation Front delegation.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This was to be done publicly, with the full participation of the media, to negate the claim of North Vietnamese negotiator Lee Duc Tho that Henry Kissinger could not legitimately represent South Vietnam because the U.S. did not control these areas.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon's "opening" to China coupled with later heavy bombing of Hanoi pressured North Vietnam back to the bargaining table, allowing America a face saving exit, or "a decent interval" as Nixon's national security adviser Henry Kissinger called it.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In October 1972, they reached an agreement.
.However, South Vietnamese President Thieu demanded massive changes to the peace accord.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it illustrated that the NLF appeared to have inexhaustible supplies of men and women willing to fight for the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government.

^ However, concern over the critical situation at Khe Sanh and preparations for the Tet holiday festivities preoccupied most Americans and South Vietnamese.
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.When North Vietnam went public with the agreement's details, the Nixon administration claimed that the North was attempting to embarrass the President.^ But the agreements were not honored by North Vietnam.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Nixon Administration claimed that North Vietnamese negotiators had made use of Kissinger's pronouncement as an opportunity to embarrass the president and to weaken the U.S. position at the negotiation table.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The massive escalation of the war from 1964 to 1968 was justified on the basis of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident on August 2-4, 1964, in which the Johnson Administration claimed U.S. ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The negotiations became deadlocked.^ However, by the morning of January 9, it became apparent that both sides were determined to make a serious effort to break the deadlock in negotiations.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hanoi demanded new changes.^ FOX BUTTERFIELD, "Though Unofficial, Change Is in the Air for U.S.-Hanoi Ties," New York Times, September 20, 1988 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To show his support for South Vietnam and force Hanoi back to the negotiating table, Nixon ordered Operation Linebacker II, a massive bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong 18–29 December 1972. The offensive destroyed much of the remaining economic and industrial capacity of North Vietnam.^ The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Vietnam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi.

^ Operation Linebacker II began December 18 with large raids against both Hanoi and Haiphong.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 18, 1972: Nixon orders "Christmas bombing" of North to get North Vietnamese back to conference table.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Simultaneously Nixon pressured Thieu to accept the terms of the agreement, threatening to conclude a bilateral peace deal and cut off American aid.^ In addition, Congress cut off all AID to the South Vietnamese and would not provide them with as much as a single dollar or a single bullet.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 9th September, Henry Cabot Lodge met with Diem and threatened him that aid would be cut-off unless Ngo Dinh Nhu left his government.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As this decision broke the terms of the Geneva Agreement, it was kept from the American public.

.On 15 January 1973, Nixon announced the suspension of offensive action against North Vietnam.^ On 15 January 1973 , citing progress in peace negotiations, President Nixon announced the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam which was later followed by a unilateral withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of this Case Church 1973 Congressional guarantee, the North Vietnamese were very leery of President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Regional Forces: militia units organized within each district in South Vietnam to engage in offensive operations against local Việt Cộng forces.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Paris Peace Accords on "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam" were signed on 27 January 1973, officially ending direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.^ Vietnam - The End, 1973-75 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paris Peace Accords (1973) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excerpts from the Paris Accords, January 27, 1973.
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A cease-fire was declared across North and South Vietnam.^ Its key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The plan was to destroy the North Vietnam economy and to force her to stop helping the guerrilla fighters in the south.

^ The southerners urged their colleagues in the North to sanction a new armed struggle in South Vietnam.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. POWs were released. .The agreement guaranteed the territorial integrity of Vietnam and, like the Geneva Conference of 1954, called for national elections in the North and South.^ The dividing line between North and South Vietnam established in 1954 at the Geneva Convention.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter VII REGARDING CAMBODIA AND LAOS Article 20 (a) The parties participating in the Paris Conference on Viet-Nam shall strictly respect the 1954 Geneva Agreements on Cambodia's and the 1954 Geneva Agreements on Laos, which recognized the Cambodian and the Lao peoples' fundamental national rights, i.e., the independence, sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of these countries.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 8 With a view to contributing to and guaranteeing peace in Indochina,- the Parties to this Act acknowledge the commitment of the parties to the Agreement to respect the independence, sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity, and neutrality of Cambodia and Laos as stipulated in the Agreement, agree also to respect them and to refrain from any action at variance with them, and call on other countries to do the same.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Paris Peace Accords stipulated a sixty-day period for the total withdrawal of U.S. forces.^ Paris Peace Accords (1973) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. must agree to a date certain for total withdrawal of all U.S. and allied forces from South Vietnam.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

"This article," noted Peter Church, "proved... to be the only one of the .Paris Agreements which was fully carried out."^ We shall also expect other interested nations to help insure that the agreement is carried out and peace is maintained.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By joint agreement, the full text of the agreement and the protocols to carry it out, will be issued tomorrow.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[170]

Opposition to the Vietnam War: 1962–1975

U.S. Navy riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War.
.Some advocates within the peace movement advocated a unilateral withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam.^ The U.S. must agree to a date certain for total withdrawal of all U.S. and allied forces from South Vietnam.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional Forces: militia units organized within each district in South Vietnam to engage in offensive operations against local Việt Cộng forces.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

One reason given for the withdrawal is that it would contribute to a lessening of tensions in the region and thus less human bloodshed. .Another, contrasting reason was that the Vietnamese should work out their problems independent of foreign influence.^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have explained to you repeatedly why we believe the problem of North Vietnamese troops is manageable under the agreement, and I see no reason to repeat all the arguments.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were expected to live in the villages they were assigned to defend, striving to "work themselves out of a job" by training their Vietnamese counterparts in police work and security operations.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] .Early opposition to America's involvement in Vietnam was centered around the Geneva conference of 1954 and its mandate that elections be held to unite the country.^ Some came to the conclusion that violence was the only way to persuade Diem to agree to the terms of the 1954 Geneva Conference.

^ Strasberger a part-time English Instructor voices his anger at Americas involvement in the Vietnam War.

^ As dictated in the Geneva Accords of 1954, the division was meant to be temporary, pending free elections for a national leadership.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.America's refusal to sign the Accords, and their support of Diem, was considered to be thwarting the very democracy that America claimed to be supporting.^ But Diem, supported by the United States, refused to hold elections, claiming that undemocratic conditions in the North precluded a fair contest.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diem's South Vietnamese government had not signed the Geneva Accords, so he felt no obligation to comply with them.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.John Kennedy, while Senator, opposed involvement in Vietnam.^ In April, 1962, Kennedy told McGeorge Bundy to seize upon any favourable moment to reduce our involvement in Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam service has become more respected and has been an important feature of several election campaigns, notably U.S. Senators John McCain and John F. Kerry .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to a Question on American Involvement in South Vietnam, President Kennedy's News Conference, February 14, 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116]
.Opposition to the Vietnam War tended to unite groups opposed to U.S. anti-communism, imperialism and colonialism and, for those involved with the New Left, capitalism itself, such as the Catholic Worker Movement.^ Article tells of a New England paper that has been tabulating the statistics put out by the War Department over throughout the Vietnam War.According to those statistics the war is over because the U.S. has killed all of the people living in North Vietnam.

^ As its dominant tactic in their battle against the war, the antiwar movement successfully demonized Vietnam veterans by calling a series of "tribunals" or hearings into war crimes.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But another anti-colonialist group formed in Vietnam following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a group that wanted to embrace Communism.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others, such as Stephen Spiro opposed the war based on the theory of Just War.^ The fact we had been at war, not just the Vietnam War but others too, diverted the attention of our people from our domestic concerns and certainly eroded the role of the Congress.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ridgway also opposed the use of U.S. ground forces, arguing that such an effort would severely strain the Army and possibly lead to a wider war in Asia.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a heckler was removed the issues that were then covered were the importance of our winning the war in Vietnam before others have a chance to break out and the theory that only military might can win this war.

.Some critics of U.S. withdrawal predicted that it would not contribute to peace but rather vastly increased bloodshed.^ I.e., the United States would unconditionally withdraw from South Vietnam, and would not interfere with the completely predictable takeover of South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese communists.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These critics advocated U.S. forces remain until all threats from the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army had been eliminated.^ North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces generally avoided offensive operations.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They virtually crushed the Viet Cong in the South, the "native" guerillas who were directed, reinforced, and equipped from Hanoi, and thereafter they threw back the invasion by regular North Vietnamese divisions.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advocates of U.S. withdrawal were generally known as "doves", and they called their opponents "hawks", following nomenclature dating back to the War of 1812.^ However, when one goes back and scrutinizes those anti-war demonstrations, one promptly finds they were not really against the war.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government of North Vietnam calls Nixon's decision to mine Hai Phong harbour and step up the air war 'the gravest step in escalation of the war to date'.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Some of them I had known back even in World War II. Some of them were in powerful positions.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This language has dated little in the intervening years; it is still used.[citation needed]
.High-profile opposition to the Vietnam war turned to street protests in an effort to turn U.S. political opinion against the war.^ Jeff Needle was a Vietnam Veteran who protested against the war.

^ Protests against the Vietnam war are spreading across America.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The protests gained momentum from the Civil Rights Movement that had organized to oppose segregation laws, which had laid a foundation of theory and infrastructure on which the anti-war movement grew.^ As other prominent anti-Vietnam activists have noted, John Kerry was the most effective American war protester.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kings strategy of linking poverty, civil rights and the Vietnam War seemed to be mirroring the presidential campaign of Robert Kennedy.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-war demonstrators and Yippies protest throughout the convention, clashing with police all around the convention center, in the streets and at Grant Park.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Protests were fueled by a growing network of independently published newspapers (known as "underground papers") and the timely advent of large venue rock'n'roll festivals such as Woodstock and Grateful Dead shows, attracting younger people in search of generational togetherness.^ The credibility of the government suffered further in 1971 when The New York Times , and later The Washington Post and other newspapers, published The Pentagon Papers .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were few physical protests from the people; about eighty of them were taken quietly from their homes and herded together in the plaza area.

^ One view is that he was convinced by people such as General Maxwell Taylor and Robert McNamara that it would be fairly easy to defeat communism in Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 15 October 1969, the Vietnam Moratorium peace demonstration was held in Washington D.C. and other US cities.^ A second round of "Moratorium" demonstrations was held on November 15 , 1969 .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NYT , 10/13/69 ] October 15, 1969: The 'Moratorium' peace demonstration is held in Washington and other US cities [for San Francisco Bay Area activities, see LAT , 10/15/69] .
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Moscow and the Vietnam Peace Talks, 1969 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Millions of Americans, throughout the country, participated.^ Millions of Americans, throughout the country, participate.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[171]
.The fatal shooting of four anti-war protesters at Kent State University cemented the resolve of many protesters.^ As other prominent anti-Vietnam activists have noted, John Kerry was the most effective American war protester.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muhammad Ali was one of the many distinguished black figures who protested against the war.

^ UC users only "Kent State Jury Acquits, 10-2; Panel in $46-Million Action Holds 29 Defendants Not Liable in 1970 Shooting."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The Kent State killings saw campuses erupt all across the country; in May 1970 most universities were strike-bound, for example at Wayne State University.^ KENT STATE 4 MAY 1970 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kent State, May 4, 1970 Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UC users only "Kent State Jury Acquits, 10-2; Panel in $46-Million Action Holds 29 Defendants Not Liable in 1970 Shooting."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[172] The late 1960s in the U.S. became a time of youth rebellion, mass gatherings and riots, many of which began in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but which ignited in an atmosphere of open opposition to a wartime government.[citation needed] .Provocative actions by police and by protesters turned anti-war demonstrations in Chicago at the 1968 Democratic National Convention into a riot.^ Anti-war protests and violent demonstrations became the accepted norm.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rights in Conflict; The Violent Confrontation of Demonstrators and police in the parks and streets of Chicago during the week of the Democratic National Convention of 1968.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ View clips of confrontations between demonstrators and police/National Guard, Chicago 1968 View clip from August 28, 1968 NBC evening news about confrontation in Grant Park and Lincoln Park [UCB users only] Listen to an excerpt from Abraham Ribicoff's nomination speech Listen to an excerpt from a statement by Chicago mayor Richard Daley ("The policeman isn't there to create disorder; the policeman is there to preserve disorder") "Confrontation at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Chicago mayor Richard J. Daley brought to bear 23,000 police and National Guardsman upon 10,000 protestors.^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ NYT , 11/11/65 ] November 20, 1965: A permit is finally granted to the VDC. On November 20, from 6,000 to 10,000 protestors march to DeFremery Park in Oakland.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Rights in Conflict; The Violent Confrontation of Demonstrators and police in the parks and streets of Chicago during the week of the Democratic National Convention of 1968.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[173] .Explosive news reports of American military abuses, such as the 1968 My Lai Massacre, brought new attention and support to the anti-war movement.^ My Lai massacre .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-war oriented psychologists encouraged veterans into becoming active in the anti-war movement and encouraged them to convert their acts of killing in the line of duty into atrocities, so as to resonate better with the lies that by now permeated American society.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the U.S. military buildup was in full swing, and up until the fall of Saigon, six Marine Corps CI teams had been deployed to support the war effort.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some veterans of the Vietnam War returned home to join the movement, including John Kerry, who spearheaded Vietnam Veterans Against the War and testified before Congress in televised hearings.^ In 1982 four war veterans returned to Vietnam.

^ In 1967, Vietnam Veterans Against the War was formed.

^ Welcome Home to all Vietnam Veterans.
  • Vietnam Public Links theBattleZone.com - 17 September 2009 2:22 UTC thebattlezone.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Anti-war protests ended with the final withdrawal of troops after the Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973. Momentum from the protest organizations became a main force for the growth of an environmental movement in the United States.^ Anti-war protests and violent demonstrations became the accepted norm.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paris Peace Accords (1973) .
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as the United States is involved in this war I will not serve in the armed forces."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.South Vietnam was left to defend itself alone when the fighting resumed.^ Vietnamization: U.S. policy initiated by President Richard Nixon late in the war to turn over the fighting to the South Vietnamese Army during the phased withdrawal of American troops.
  • glossary of military terms and slang from the vietnam war 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vnmilitaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all, forty five countries sent men, money or supplies to help South Vietnam defend itself.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many South Vietnamese fled to the United States in one of the largest war refugee migrations in history.^ President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball , was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamization had the added dimension of fostering political, social, and economic reforms to create a vibrant South Vietnamese state based on popular participation in national political life.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As U.S. Army units withdrew, the South Vietnamese Army found itself in a race against Communist forces to secure the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was no peace movement to protest the renewed bloodshed, and little media coverage.^ The CBS film was a final desperate attempt by the media to nail down the 'peace' movement's view of the war.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shows Theiu and the United States entangled in the strings of a puppet government.They are so tangled that there is no way they can make any progress towards the Peace Talks.

^ It was McNamara's flawed policies, the impact of the campus 'peace' movement, and the media that cost America the war.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saigon surrendered to the North in 1975; Laos and Cambodia were overrun by Communist troops that same spring.^ He also demanded that Communist forces leave Cambodia and accepted Saigon's offer to apply pressure against those located near the 683 border.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communist governments were also set-up in Laos and Cambodia.

^ Between 1961 and 1975 an estimated 10% of the people living in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos had died.

[citation needed]

Exit of the Americans: 1973–1975

.The U.S. began drastically reducing their troop support in South Vietnam during the final years of "Vietnamization". Many U.S. troops were removed from the region, and on 5 March 1971, the U.S. returned the 5th Special Forces Group, which was the first American unit deployed to South Vietnam, to its former base in Fort Bragg, North Carolina.^ Description: During Tet 2004, I returned to Vietnam for the first time in over 35 years.
  • Vietnam Public Links theBattleZone.com - 17 September 2009 2:22 UTC thebattlezone.com [Source type: General]

^ In South Vietnam, as in the United States, its forces were stretched thin.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time the 5th Special Forces Group left South Vietnam in March 1971, all CIDG units had been converted to Regional Forces or absorbed by the South Vietnamese Rangers.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[174]
.Under the Paris Peace Accord, between North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Lê Ðức Thọ and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and reluctantly signed by South Vietnamese President Thiệu, U.S. military forces withdrew from South Vietnam and prisoners were exchanged.^ That South Vietnam would pursue a ''foreign policy of peace and neutrality.''
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional Forces and Popular Forces of the VietNamese military.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that there are language similarities between the North and South Vietnamese.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.North Vietnam was allowed to continue supplying communist troops in the South, but only to the extent of replacing materials that were consumed.^ May 11, 1961: Kennedy authorizes American advisers sending 44 Special Forces Troops and other military advisers to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Dallek , 2002] March 8, 1965: The first U.S. combat troops (3,500 Marines) reach South Vietnam, landing in the coastal city of Danang.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Its key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Later that year the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Kissinger and Thọ, but the Vietnamese negotiator declined it saying that a true peace did not yet exist.^ "One myth propagated by the 'peace' movement is that the American soldier, because of his involvement in an "immoral " war, would, and later did, lose the war.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that month, President Johnson told the American people on national television that he was reducing the air-raids on North Vietnam and intended to seek a negotiated peace.

^ By that I was saying that, if Diem was removed we would have not one coup but we would have a succession of coups and political disorder in Vietnam and it might last several years and indeed it did.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The communist leaders had expected that the ceasefire terms would favor their side. .But Saigon, bolstered by a surge of U.S. aid received just before the ceasefire went into effect, began to roll back the Vietcong.^ In the Central Highlands, enemy units moved into Kontum Province, forcing Saigon to relinquish several border posts before government forces contained the offensive.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During November 1968, an accelerated pacification plan, designed to win back territorial confidence and security as a result of the Tet offensive, was put into effect.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The command did pull some Army units closer to Saigon just before the attack.
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[175] .The communists responded with a new strategy hammered out in a series of meetings in Hanoi in March 1973, according to the memoirs of Trần Văn Trà.^ President Richard Nixon ordered a new series of air-raids on Hanoi and Haiphong.

^ In its broad outlines, Hanoi's strategy to cope with U.S. forces was the same employed by the Viet Minh against the French and by Communist forces in 1964 and 1965 against the South Vietnamese Army.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRAIG R. WHITNEY, "Hanoi Now, Meet Saigon Then," New York Times, December 28, 1997 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175]
As the Vietcong's top commander, Trà participated in several of these meetings.[175] .With U.S. bombings suspended, work on the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other logistical structures could proceed unimpeded.^ Actually several valleys and mountains, the A Shau Valley was one of the principal entry points to South Vietnam of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biography of Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh, Selected Works (Hanoi, 1960-1962), Vol.
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Dwight D. Eisenhower on the likelihood that Ho Chi Minh would win a national election in Vietnam in 1955 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175] .Logistics would be upgraded until the North was in a position to launch a massive invasion of the South, projected for the 1975–1976 dry season.^ The U.S. would pay reparations for all the losses and destruction it had caused to the Vietnamese people (North and South).
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1975 North Vietnam's leaders began planning for a new offensive, still uncertain whether the United States would resume bombing or once again intervene in the South.
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^ Although U.S. air, artillery, and logistical support 684 would be provided, this time Army advisers would not accompany South Vietnamese forces.
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[175] .Trà calculated that this date would be Hanoi's last opportunity to strike before Saigon's army could be fully trained.^ Mobilization could have eased the additional burden of providing noncommissioned officers (NCO's) and officers to man the Army's growing training bases.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The training period would be beyond that taught by Army CI. The main focus of this training would be directed towards "How to conduct Marine CI in a fast moving combat environment.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The command did pull some Army units closer to Saigon just before the attack.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A three-thousand-mile long oil pipeline would be built from North Vietnam to Vietcong headquarters in Loc Ninh, about 75 miles (121 km) northwest of Saigon.^ The long-term psychological damage to the three million soldiers who fought in Vietnam and the resulting social problems are still being counted.

^ This town sits astride Q. L. (National Road) #1, some 40 odd miles to the northeast of Saigon (on the road to Phan Thiet) and was the capitol of South Vietnams Long Khanh province.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ho Chi Minh government was also accused of slaying thousands of political opponents in North Vietnam.

[175]
.Although McGovern himself was not elected U.S. president, the November 1972 election did return a Democratic majority to both houses of Congress under McGovern's "Come home America" campaign theme.^ John F. Kennedy was elected president of the United States in November, 1960.

^ Not since George McGovern lost a bid for the presidency in 1972 has a senator returned to the Senate as a defeated presidential candidate, according to the Senate Historical Office.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 1967, McCarthy would announce his Democratic Party candidacy for the US presidency.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.On 15 March 1973, U.S. President Richard Nixon implied that the U.S. would intervene militarily if the communist side violated the ceasefire.^ Volume 44 #15 March 2 1973:5.

^ In spite of this Case Church 1973 Congressional guarantee, the North Vietnamese were very leery of President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The file contains the following items: (1) Letter from President Nixon to President Nguyen Van Thieu of the Republic of Vietnam, January 5, 1973.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[176] .Public and congressional reaction to Nixon's trial balloon was unfavorable and in April Nixon appointed Graham Martin as U.S. ambassador to Vietnam.^ President Kennedy's Speech at University of California, March 23, 1962 Memorandum to President Kennedy from Ambassador John Kenneth Galbraith on Vietnam, 4 April 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Nixon, Address to the Nation on Progress Toward Peace in Vietnam, 20 April 1970 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JAMES CHACE, "How America 'Lost the Peace'," Review of NO MORE VIETNAMS by Richard Nixon, New York Times, April 7, 1985 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Martin was a second stringer compared to previous U.S. ambassadors and his appointment was an early signal that Washington had given up on Vietnam.^ It appeared that Hung, reportedly a previous Airborne Officer Candidate at Dalat, was caught up in a so-called 'mutiny' in the early 1960s.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I was very impressed by the improvement in the military and political situation in Vietnam as compared to all previous visits, and especially in the security situation, both in Saigon and the rural areas.
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^ The Tribunal, and other critics of the war, claimed that the US behaviour in Vietnam was comparable to the atrocities committed by the Nazis in Europe during the Second World War .

[176] .During his confirmation hearings in June 1973, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated that he would recommend resumption of U.S. bombing in North Vietnam if North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam.^ Bombing was also directed against territory controlled by the NLF in South Vietnam.

^ In 1975 North Vietnam's leaders began planning for a new offensive, still uncertain whether the United States would resume bombing or once again intervene in the South.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Le Duc Tho and Vo Nguyen Giap continued to direct the military operations against South Vietnam.

.On 4 June 1973, the U.S. Senate passed the Case-Church Amendment to prohibit such intervention.^ In spite of this Case Church 1973 Congressional guarantee, the North Vietnamese were very leery of President Nixon.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ August 1973; US Congress passes the Case Church Amendment which forbids, US naval forces from sailing on the seas surrounding, US ground forces from operating on the land of, and US air forces from flying in the air over, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[176]
.The oil price shock of October 1973 caused significant damage to the South Vietnamese economy.^ Between January 1965 and October 1972, the South Vietnamese Army lost 183,528 killed and another 499,026 wounded.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. would pay reparations for all the losses and destruction it had caused to the Vietnamese people (North and South).
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other significant provision of this agreement is the requirement that the South Vietnamese parties will bring about a reduction of their armed forces, and that the forces being reduced will be demobilized.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Vietcong resumed offensive operations when dry season began and by January 1974 it had recaptured the territory it lost during the previous dry season.^ LAT , 6/28/65 ] June 28-30, 1965: General William C. Westmoreland launches the first purely offensive operation by American ground forces in Vietnam, sweeping into Vietcong territory northwest of Saigon.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In late January, the Government of the Khmer Republic suspended all offensive operations and the United States likewise halted offensive air operations.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By late summer the Easter offensive had run its course; the South Vietnamese, in a slow, cautious counteroffensive, recaptured Quang Tri City and most of the lost province.
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.After two clashes that left 55 South Vietnamese soldiers dead, President Thiệu announced on 4 January that the war had restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord was no longer in effect.^ I have asked for this radio and television time tonight for the purpose of announcing that we today have concluded an agreement to end the war and bring peace with honor in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two strains of rice, developed by the U.S. in the Philippines, that CORDS personnel tried to get South VietNamese farmers to use.
  • Vietnam Veteran's Terminology and Slang 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vietvet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obligation to South Vietnamese Allies I have two questions I would like to ask you.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War Statement - Wikisource 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.There had been over 25,000 South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period.^ As the story continues, Le Chat casually informed his cousin that when the holiday period was over, he would come after him and kill him unless he rallied to the South Vietnamese side.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the same 60-day period, all American forces will be withdrawn from South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There they were joined by other US Army and South Korean soldiers and the US Navy eventually evacuated 105,000 allied troops from that port.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[177]
.Gerald Ford took over as U.S. president on 9 August 1974 after President Nixon resigned due to the Watergate scandal.^ August 1974; Nixon resigns.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With impeachment seemingly inevitable, Nixon resigns his office on August 8, 1974.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Neither President Nixon, weakened by the Watergate scandal and forced to resign, nor his successor, Gerald Ford, was prepared to challenge Congress by resuming U.S. military activity in Southeast Asia.
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.At this time, Congress cut financial aid to South Vietnam from $1 billion a year to $700 million.^ At its peak US aid to South Vietnam had reached 30 billion dollars a year.

^ With the employment of $250 millions of aid per year from the United States and the clever manipulating of statistics, it was reported that economic production had increased dramatically.

^ President Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam appealed to President Nixon for more financial aid.

.The U.S. midterm elections in 1974 brought in a new Congress dominated by Democrats who were even more determined to confront the president on the war.^ And the blood will be on the hands of the Democratic Party which has nominated and elected a man who appears to have committed treason, to have given aid and comfort to any enemy of the United States in a time of war, to the presidency.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, new and even more impressive evidence of Hanoi's aggression has accumulated.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Democrat primary, Howard Dean (Who was openly against the war) was kicking Kerry's arse in one state after another.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Congress immediately voted in restrictions on funding and military activities to be phased in through 1975 and to culminate in a total cutoff of funding in 1976.
The success of the 1973–1974 dry season offensive inspired Trà to return to Hanoi in October 1974 and plead for a larger offensive in the next dry season. .This time, Trà could travel on a drivable highway with regular fueling stops, a vast change from the days was Ho Chi Minh Trail was a dangerous mountain trek.^ Ho Chi Minh was the leader of this group.
  • Vietnam War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After declaring that Vietnam was now a united country, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

^ Biography of Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh, Selected Works (Hanoi, 1960-1962), Vol.
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .Giáp, the North Vietnamese defense minister, was reluctant to approve Trà's plan.^ He ordered the bombing of four North Vietnamese torpedo-boat bases and an oil-storage depot that had been planned three months previously.

^ The North Vietnamese had expected the American forces and now planned to hold their ground.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked U.S. naval vessels engaged in surveillance of North Vietnam's coastal defenses.
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.A larger offensive might provoke a U.S. reaction and interfere with the big push planned for 1976. Trà appealed over Giáp's head to first secretary Lê Duẩn, who approved of the operation.^ Telegram from Secretary of State Rusk Approving Limited Air and Ground Operations in Laos, 9 August 1964 .
  • Documents Relating to the Vietnam War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trà's plan called for a limited offensive from Cambodia into Phuoc Long Province.^ Communist plans called for violent, widespread, simultaneous military actions in rural and urban areas throughout the Southa general offensive.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Central Highlands, enemy units moved into Kontum Province, forcing Saigon to relinquish several border posts before government forces contained the offensive.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When their forces overran Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon, without any American military reaction, they decided to proceed with a major offensive in the Central Highlands.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strike was designed to solve local logistical problems, gauge the reaction of South Vietnamese forces, and determine whether the U.S. would return to the fray.^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the story continues, Le Chat casually informed his cousin that when the holiday period was over, he would come after him and kill him unless he rallied to the South Vietnamese side.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once at Chu Lai, the Army forces supported an extensive South Vietnamese pacification effort in Quang Tin Province.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 13 December 1974, North Vietnamese forces attacked Route 14 in Phuoc Long Province.^ There soldiers of the Americal Division, soon to go home, relaxed their security and were overrun by a North Vietnamese force.
  • CHAPTER 28: The U.S. Army in Vietnam 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once at Chu Lai, the Army forces supported an extensive South Vietnamese pacification effort in Quang Tin Province.
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^ This included hit-and-run attacks along the North Vietnamese coast.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phuoc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on 6 January 1975. Ford desperately asked Congress for funds to assist and re-supply the South before it was overrun.^ January 1975: North Vietnamese capture Phouc Long, provincial capitol of Phouc Binh.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even before South Vietnam fell, Army strategists turned their attention to what seemed to them to be the Army's more enduring and central missionthe defense of western Europe.
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^ As South Vietnamese leaders waited in vain for American assistance, Saigon fell to the Communists on 29 April 1975.
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Congress refused. .The fall of Phuoc Binh and the lack of an American response left the South Vietnamese elite demoralized and corruption grew rampant.^ On 30th July, the American destroyer, the Maddox, left Taiwan for the North Vietnamese coast.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
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^ In response to this bombing, the North Vietnamese and their Soviet advisors fired 1,242 Soviet made SAMs at the American war planes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The speed of this success led the Politburo to reassess its strategy.^ While allied forces were under pressure, the border battles of 1967 also led to a reassessment of strategy in Hanoi.
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.It was decided that operations in the Central Highlands would be turned over to General Văn Tiến Dũng and that Pleiku should be seized, if possible.^ On 7 February 1965, Communist forces attacked an American compound in Pleiku in the Central Highlands and a few days later bombed American quarters in Qui Nhon.
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^ A Communist-dominated highlands would be a strategic fulcrum, enabling the enemy to shift the weight of his operations to any part of South Vietnam.
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^ When their forces overran Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon, without any American military reaction, they decided to proceed with a major offensive in the Central Highlands.
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.Before he left for the South, Dũng was addressed by Lê Duẩn: "Never have we had military and political conditions so perfect or a strategic advantage as great as we have now."^ For a variety of diplomatic, political, and military reasons, President Johnson approached with great caution any commitment of large ground combat forces to South Vietnam.
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^ American officials disagreed over the seriousness of the guerrilla threat, the priority to be accorded political or military measures, and the need for special counterguerrilla training for the South Vietnamese Army.
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^ But potential benefits were nullified by the absence of a clear doctrine and a coherent operational strategy for the conduct of counterinsurgency, and by chronic military and political shortcomings on the part of the South Vietnamese.
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[179]
.At the start of 1975 the South Vietnamese had three times as much artillery and twice the number of tanks and armoured cars as the opposition.^ In addition, Congress cut off all AID to the South Vietnamese and would not provide them with as much as a single dollar or a single bullet.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ South Vietnamese sources said three militiamen on the ground were killed when the airplane fell.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Vietnam War Statistics 9 February 2010 17:15 UTC vietnamresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States furnished its allies the heavier M48 tank to match the NVA's T54 tank and heavier artillery to counter North Vietnamese 130mm.
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.They also had 1,400 aircraft and a two-to-one numerical superiority in combat troops over their Communist enemies.^ During the next two days allied units warded off repeated enemy attacks as Communist forces desperately tried to score a victory.
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^ Improvements of territorial and paramilitary troops were offset as they became increasingly vulnerable to attack by superior North Vietnamese forces.
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^ They were the first 'official' US combat troops to be sent to the country.

[180] .Nevertheless, they faced a well-organized, highly determined and well-funded North Vietnam.^ However, the bombing had proved to be popular with many of the American public as they had the impression that North Vietnam had been "bombed into submission."

^ The Central Research Agency, North Vietnam's central intelligence organization, directs the elaborate espionage and subversion effort...
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr.Levy does a mini survey of four students at Monmouth to see if they feel the United States should stop bombing North Vietnam.

.Much of the North's material and financial support came from the communist bloc.^ After the communist take over of China 19 in 1949, they had offered the North Vietnamese sanctuaries, weapons, war materials and training.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the polls also indicated that much of this support came from middle class families whose own sons were not at risk.

.Within South Vietnam, there was increasing chaos.^ As the activities of all the services expanded, U.S. military strength in South Vietnam increased from under 700 at the start of 1960 to almost 24,000 by the end of 1964.
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^ Kaiser admits that he the Kennedy administration did increase the number of American military personnel in South Vietnam from 600 in 1960 to 17,500 in 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the basis of the present policies that prevail there, South Vietnam is not worth the life of a single American boy.

.Their abandonment by the American military had compromised an economy dependent on U.S. financial support and the presence of a large number of U.S. troops.^ American plans to return in the summer of 1970 came to nothing when enemy pressure forced the abandonment of two fire support bases needed for operations there.
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^ As the number of American troops increased, the 9th Viet Cong Division shied away, withdrawing across the Cambodian border.
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^ Kaiser admits that he the Kennedy administration did increase the number of American military personnel in South Vietnam from 600 in 1960 to 17,500 in 1963.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Vietnam suffered from the global recession which followed the Arab oil embargo.^ If South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia would follow.

^ In the months that followed, this small team of men distributed targeted documents that claimed the Vietminh and Chinese communists had entered South Vietnam and were killing innocent civilians.

^ Johnson feared this would encourage Thailand and South Vietnam to follow the neutral policy that had been with Kennedys encouragement, achieved by the government in Laos.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Campaign 275

.On 10 March 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275, a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery.^ Regular NVA units had begun moving south and stood at the Laotian frontier, on the threshold of crossing into South Vietnam's Central Highlands.
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^ His initial aim was defensiveto stop losing the war and to build a structure that could support a later transition to an offensive campaign.
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^ When their forces overran Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon, without any American military reaction, they decided to proceed with a major offensive in the Central Highlands.
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The target was Ban Me Thuot, in Daklak Province. .If the town could be taken, the provincial capital of Pleiku and the road to the coast would be exposed for a planned campaign in 1976. The ARVN proved incapable of resisting the onslaught, and its forces collapsed on 11 March.^ According to Coretta Scott King, her husband returned to Memphis on 3rd April to prepare for a truly non-violent march and to prove SCLC could still carry out a pacifist campaign in Washington.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Challenging American forces had become the principal objective of leaders in Hanoi, who saw their plans to undermine Saigon's military resistance thwarted by U.S. intervention.
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^ Thirty-six of 44 provincial capitals and 64 of 242 district towns were attacked, as well as 5 of South Vietnam's 6 autonomous cities, among them Hue and Saigon.
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Once again, Hanoi was surprised by the speed of their success. Dung now urged the Politburo to allow him to seize Pleiku immediately and then turn his attention to Kontum. .He argued that with two months of good weather remaining until the onset of the monsoon, it would be irresponsible to not take advantage of the situation.^ He hedged, saying he would not reopen the Warren Report, but remained silent on the question of whether he would take action on his own.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also agreed that the governments in North and South Vietnam would remain in power until new elections could be arranged to unite the whole country.

^ A two-month-long battle ensued, until enemy units were driven from An Loc and forced to disperse to bases in Cambodia.
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.President Nguyen Van Thieu, a former general, was fearful that his forces would be cut off in the north by the attacking communists; Thieu ordered a retreat.^ Nguyen Van Thieu became president with Nguyen Cao Ky as his vice president.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ General Westmoreland and others believed that U.S. ground forces were needed to stave off an irrevocable shift of the military and political balance in favor of the enemy.
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^ The assaults have generally consisted of mortarings and shellings, frequently followed by ground attacks in an obvious effort to expand the area controlled by forces under North Vietnamese command.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

The president declared this to be a "lighten the top and keep the bottom" strategy. .But in what appeared to be a repeat of Operation Lam Son 719, the withdrawal soon turned into a bloody rout.^ Lam Son 719 & Vietnamization Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation LAM SON 719 had begun.
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^ Lam Son 719 Map Go .
  • Vietnam War Master Resource Guide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.amervets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the bulk of ARVN forces attempted to flee, isolated units fought desperately.^ Enemy forces also overwhelmed several South Vietnamese fire support bases, depriving ARVN units of desperately needed flank protection.
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^ During the next two days allied units warded off repeated enemy attacks as Communist forces desperately tried to score a victory.
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^ Here several violent battles erupted, as Communist forces tried to isolate and defeat individual units and possibly also to screen the retreat of their comrades into Cambodia.
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ARVN General Phu abandoned Pleiku and Kontum and retreated toward the coast, in what became known as the "column of tears".
As the ARVN tried to disengage from the enemy, refugees mixed in with the line of retreat. The poor condition of roads and bridges, damaged by years of conflict and neglect, slowed Phu's column. .As the North Vietnamese forces approached, panic set in.^ There soldiers of the Americal Division, soon to go home, relaxed their security and were overrun by a North Vietnamese force.
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^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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^ If the date was set in 1971, North Vietnam would agree to a safe withdrawal of U.S. forces and a release of all POWs.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Often abandoned by the officers, the soldiers and civilians were shelled incessantly. The retreat degenerated into a desperate scramble for the coast. By 1 April the "column of tears" was all but annihilated. It marked one of the poorest examples of a strategic withdrawal in modern military history.[citation needed]
.On 20 March, Thieu reversed himself and ordered Hue, Vietnam's third-largest city, be held at all costs.^ Dallek , 2002] March 8, 1965: The first U.S. combat troops (3,500 Marines) reach South Vietnam, landing in the coastal city of Danang.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This was the largest anti-war protest to ever have been held in Washington DC at that time, with the number of marchers approximately equal ling the number of US soldiers in Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thirty-six of 44 provincial capitals and 64 of 242 district towns were attacked, as well as 5 of South Vietnam's 6 autonomous cities, among them Hue and Saigon.
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Thieu's contradictory orders confused and demoralized his officer corps. .As the North Vietnamese launched their attack, panic set in, and ARVN resistance withered.^ This included hit-and-run attacks along the North Vietnamese coast.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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^ Soon after entering North Vietnamese waters, Captain Herrick reported that he was under attack.

On 22 March, the VPA opened the siege of Hue. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape. Some even swam out to sea to reach boats and barges anchored offshore. In the confusion, routed ARVN soldiers fired on civilians to make way for their retreat.
.On 31 March, after a three-day battle, Hue fell.^ Done in twelve copies in Paris this second day of March, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-Three, in English, French, Russian, Vietnamese, and Chinese.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the battle for Hue City, the city remained in enemy hands for 5 days before the invading forces were dislodged by Marines.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As resistance in Hue collapsed, North Vietnamese rockets rained down on Da Nang and its airport.^ Other NVA units now crossed the demilitarized zone, quickly overrunning Hue and Da Nang, and signaling the collapse of South Vietnamese resistance in the north.
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^ Hence they threw North Vietnamese regulars into the battle, indicating that the stakes at Hue were higher than elsewhere in the South.
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^ Through a collapse of military resistance, the North Vietnamese hoped to subvert public confidence in the government's ability to provide security, triggering a crescendo of popular protest to halt the fighting and force a political accommodation.
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By 28 March, 35,000 VPA troops were poised to attack the suburbs. .By 30 March, 100,000 leaderless ARVN troops surrendered as the VPA marched victoriously through Da Nang.^ March 1965, a Marine CI sub-team from 3rd CIT landed on Red Beach with the 1stMarine Brigade, The landing site was on the outskirts of Da Nang City.
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^ Therefore, Sterling rounded up this troops, advised the civilians using the safe-house of the probable danger and moved out for Da Nang.
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^ A few days proir to the Tet Offensive, the VC battalion size unit had been caught in the open along the Da Nang River by ARVN forces.
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.With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end.^ He wanted U.S. forces either to interdict the Laotian panhandle to stop infiltration or to counter a growing enemy threat in the central and northern provinces.
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^ In the Central Highlands, enemy units moved into Kontum Province, forcing Saigon to relinquish several border posts before government forces contained the offensive.
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^ As Hanoi's forces spilled out of the highlands, they cut off South Vietnamese defenders in the northern provinces from the rest of the country.
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Final North Vietnamese offensive

.With the northern half of the country under their control, the Politburo ordered General Dung to launch the final offensive against Saigon.^ Those were our instructions, but they seemed so out of line that we finally began to go ashore, against our orders, and investigate the villages that were supposed to be our targets.
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurriedly established defense lines around Saigon could not hold back the inexorable enemy offensive against the capital.
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^ LAT , 6/28/65 ] June 28-30, 1965: General William C. Westmoreland launches the first purely offensive operation by American ground forces in Vietnam, sweeping into Vietcong territory northwest of Saigon.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The operational plan for the Ho Chi Minh Campaign called for the capture of Saigon before 1 May.^ Saigon was immediately renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ After declaring that Vietnam was now a united country, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

^ Actually several valleys and mountains, the A Shau Valley was one of the principal entry points to South Vietnam of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
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.Hanoi wished to avoid the coming monsoon and prevent any redeployment of ARVN forces defending the capital.^ As Hanoi's forces spilled out of the highlands, they cut off South Vietnamese defenders in the northern provinces from the rest of the country.
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.Northern forces, their morale boosted by their recent victories, rolled on, taking Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, and Da Lat.^ For any type of operations, secure logistical enclaves at deep-water ports (Cam Ranh Bay, Nha Trang, Qui Nhon, for example) were a military necessity.
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^ SATELLITE PICTURES OF HUE CITY, PLEIKU, DA NANG, CAM RANH BAY, AN HOA, SAIGON, HOI AN .
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^ TODAY'S BRAVE AND HONORABLE MILITARY IS TOMORROW'S VETERANS RECENT SATELLITE PICTURES OF HUE CITY, PLEIKU, DA NANG, CAM RANH BAY, AN HOA, SAIGON, HOI AN AND OTHER AREAS OF VIETNAM .
  • PROUD HONORABLE VIETNAM VETERANS 18 September 2009 0:48 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 7 April, three North Vietnamese divisions attacked Xuan Loc, 40 miles (64 km) east of Saigon.^ On 2nd August, the Maddox opened fire on three North Vietnamese boats, seriously damaging one boat but not sinking it.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There soldiers of the Americal Division, soon to go home, relaxed their security and were overrun by a North Vietnamese force.
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^ Before overrunning Xuan Loc the NVA had committed six full divisions, plus a host of various support troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The North Vietnamese met fierce resistance at Xuan Loc from the ARVN 18th Division.^ During this fight, the ARVN 18th had 5,000 men at Xuan Loc.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There soldiers of the Americal Division, soon to go home, relaxed their security and were overrun by a North Vietnamese force.
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^ Before overrunning Xuan Loc the NVA had committed six full divisions, plus a host of various support troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.For two bloody weeks, severe fighting raged as the ARVN defenders made a last stand to try to block the North Vietnamese advance.^ In response to this bombing, the North Vietnamese and their Soviet advisors fired 1,242 Soviet made SAMs at the American war planes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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^ Warned by Johnsons announcement, the North Vietnamese managed to bring down two American planes, killing one pilot and capturing the other.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By 21 April, however, the exhausted garrison surrendered.
.An embittered and tearful President Thieu resigned on the same day, declaring that the United States of America had betrayed South Vietnam.^ President Thieu, accusing the United States of betrayal, resigned and left the country.

^ In South Vietnam, as in the United States, its forces were stretched thin.
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^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
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.In a scathing attack on the U.S., he suggested U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years ago, promising military aid which then failed to materialise.^ The bullet was sent on its way several years ago when a certain element in our society decided it could take the law into its own hands."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Compelling article calling for an end to the Vietnam War.Author states that a non-violent attack on the political machine on the U.S. is needed to bring about peace.

^ January 1973; Paris Peace Agreements officially signed by all four Parties.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the time of the peace agreement the United States agreed to replace equipment on a one-by-one basis.But the United States did not keep its word.^ He mentioned South Vietnam only as one of the nations that would fall into the hands of the Communists if the United States failed to maintain the anti-Communist regime in Laos.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No longer, she wrote, would the state allow forms of protest it did not agree with.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The United States is, of course, prepared to resume mine clearance operations as soon as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam begins to act in compliance with its obligations under the Agreement.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Is an American's word reliable these days?...The United States did not keep its promise to help us fight for freedom and it was in the same fight that the United States lost 50,000 of its young men.^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ironically, most of the explosives used for these mines came from unexploded bombs dropped by the United States .

^ The Constitution begins with the words We the people of the United States and it spells out what government is, and what it should do and cannot do.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.[181] He left for Taiwan on 25 April, leaving control of the government in the hands of General Duong Van Minh.^ Robert Kennedy argued against the assassination of Diem as it would leave the government in the hands of one man that we dont know very well.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The President, Duong Van Minh, who has been in office for just three days, makes the announcement in a radio broadcast to the nation.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Conein and General Duong Van Minh in which a Coup Against Diem was Discussed, 5 October 1963 .
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.At the same time, North Vietnamese tanks had reached Bien Hoa and turned toward Saigon, brushing aside isolated ARVN units along the way.^ This included hit-and-run attacks along the North Vietnamese coast.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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^ On 8 February 1971, spearheaded by tanks and with airmobile units leapfrogging ahead to establish fire support bases in Laos, a South Vietnamese mechanized column advanced down Highway 9 toward Tchepone.
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.By the end of April, the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam had collapsed on all fronts.^ The U.S. must agree to a date certain for total withdrawal of all U.S. and allied forces from South Vietnam.
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^ It calls on the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and all other parties to the Final Act of the International Conference on Vietnam to lend their support to this endeavor.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Xuan Loc; Mar 17 Apr 17, 1975 & The End Xuan Loc was the last major battle for South Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

Thousand of refugees streamed southward, ahead of the main communist onslaught. .On 27 April, 100,000 North Vietnamese troops encircled Saigon.^ The main problem with this formula was that whereas the US troops would leave the country, the North Vietnamese troops could remain in their positions in the south.

^ Pursuing a strategy used successfully in the past, the North Vietnamese forced ARVN troops to the borders, exposing the countryside and leaving its protection in the hands of weaker forces.
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^ The Ho Chi Minh Trail was a complex web of different jungle paths that enabled communist troops to travel from North Vietnam to areas close to Saigon.

.The city was defended by about 30,000 ARVN troops.^ That works out to about 50 per 1,000 troops.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About 30,000 people turn out.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

To hasten a collapse and foment panic, the VPA shelled the airport and forced its closure. .With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out.^ For the time being, large numbers of American forces were still present to bolster his country's war effort; what would happen when they departed, no one knew.
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^ Especially when we found out that a hut for the CI element was way, way down on the Seabees' building priority list.
  • Section 9. 1960-1975 "The Vietnam War" 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mccia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The citizens of South Vietnam, no matter how apathetic they may have appeared toward their own government, turned out to be overwhelmingly anti-communist.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

Fall of Saigon

.Chaos, unrest, and panic broke out as hysterical South Vietnamese officials and civilians scrambled to leave Saigon.^ Panic ensued when some South Vietnamese units ran out of ammunition.
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^ But he was also under pressure from Washington to minimize casualties and to conduct operations with an eye toward leaving the South Vietnamese in the strongest possible military position when U.S. forces withdrew.
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^ Some American officials doubted whether the South Vietnamese could hold out until ROLLING THUNDER created pressures sufficiently strong to convince North Vietnam's leaders to reduce the level of combat in the South.
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.Martial law was declared.^ Declaring War does not mean we have to impose martial law, reinstate universal conscription or launch the nukes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.American helicopters began evacuating South Vietnamese, U.S., and foreign nationals from various parts of the city and from the U.S. embassy compound.^ Vietnamization had the added dimension of fostering political, social, and economic reforms to create a vibrant South Vietnamese state based on popular participation in national political life.
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^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To a lesser degree, through American advice and assistance to the South Vietnamese forces, he also influenced Saigon's efforts to suppress the Viet Cong and to carry out pacification.
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.Operation Frequent Wind had been delayed until the last possible moment, because of U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached.^ Anti-War/Political Activism The War February 24, 1965: The US implements Operation Rolling Thunder , a series of intense bombing campaigns lasting from February 1965 until October 1968.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ After being used on Okinawa, Col Dutton, G-2 kept the device, it was the last time Clem had seen it until it showed up in the G-3 Operations Area.
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^ Whether the Saigon government could marshal its forces effectively to provide local security and to reassert its political control remained to be seen.
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.Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel.^ Helicopter Pilot Radio Transmissions During the Saigon Evacuation, April 29, 1975 .
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^ One of the last CI operations that completed the Vietnam era was from April to November 1975.
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^ In an article that appeared in New Statesman in April 1975, he described some of the problems that existed in Saigon before the National Liberation Front victory.

Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history. .It began on 29 April, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited seats.^ However, during the month of April things changed, the North Vietnamese began an extensive artillery and rocket attack that lasted through December of 1967.
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^ As South Vietnamese leaders waited in vain for American assistance, Saigon fell to the Communists on 29 April 1975.
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^ Statement by Senator John Kennedy on the Need to Have Limited War Options, 29 February 1960 Manifesto of the Eighteen, Saigon, April 1960 .
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Martin pleaded with Washington to dispatch $700 million in emergency aid to bolster the regime and help it mobilize fresh military reserves. .But American public opinion had soured on this conflict halfway around the world.^ "Covert action allowed Eisenhower to achieve foreign policy aims without alienating American or world opinion."
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^ The publicity surrounding the My Lai massacre proved to be an important turning point in American public opinion.

^ Lyndon B. Johnson preferred the latter proposal but was aware he would have difficulty convincing the American public and the rest of the world that such action was justified.

In the U.S., South Vietnam was perceived as doomed. .President Gerald Ford had given a televised speech on 23 April, declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U.S. aid.^ President Ford's Speech on the Fall of Vietnam, New Orleans, 24 April 1975 .
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^ And the blood will be on the hands of the Democratic Party which has nominated and elected a man who appears to have committed treason, to have given aid and comfort to any enemy of the United States in a time of war, to the presidency.
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^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon.^ Hurriedly established defense lines around Saigon could not hold back the inexorable enemy offensive against the capital.
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^ The United States furnished its allies the heavier M48 tank to match the NVA's T54 tank and heavier artillery to counter North Vietnamese 130mm.
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^ By that time, the North Vietnamese had counterattacked with Soviet-built T54 and T55 tanks, heavy artillery, and infantry.
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The song "White Christmas" was broadcast as the final signal for withdrawal. .In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds.^ On 5 June 1965, during the morning hours before dawn, the Marble Mountain Air Facility was hit by a Viet Cong ground attack by over 200 sappers.
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^ Once the ground assault began and the NVA began to penetrated the perimeter of the Camp, friendly artillery fire was ordered into the Camp.
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^ The capitulation of the South Vietnamese government comes just four hours after the last frenzied evacuation of Americans from the city.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate.
.On 30 April 1975, VPA troops overcame all resistance, quickly capturing key buildings and installations.^ Kennedy continued to resist all attempts to persuade him to send troops to Vietnam.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The NLF arrived in Saigon on April 30, 1975.

^ Peak troop strength in Vietnam was 543,482, on 30 April 1969.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

A tank crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace, and at 11:30 a.m. local time the NLF flag was raised above it. .Thieu's successor, President Duong Van Minh, attempted to surrender, but VPA officers informed him that he had nothing left to surrender.^ The file contains the following items: (1) Letter from President Nixon to President Nguyen Van Thieu of the Republic of Vietnam, January 5, 1973.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Thieu, accusing the United States of betrayal, resigned and left the country.

^ The President, Duong Van Minh, who has been in office for just three days, makes the announcement in a radio broadcast to the nation.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Minh then issued his last command, ordering all South Vietnamese troops to lay down their arms.^ Once at Chu Lai, the Army forces supported an extensive South Vietnamese pacification effort in Quang Tin Province.
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^ The main problem with this formula was that whereas the US troops would leave the country, the North Vietnamese troops could remain in their positions in the south.

^ US and South Vietnamese troops eventually succeed in repelling the NLF, but the psychological and political impact in the US is tremendous.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The Communists had attained their goal: they had toppled the Saigon regime. But the cost of victory was high. .In the past decade alone, one Vietnamese in every ten had been a casualty of war—nearly a million and a half killed, three million wounded.^ On 2nd August, the Maddox opened fire on three North Vietnamese boats, seriously damaging one boat but not sinking it.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For ten days 600 men attempted to take this hill from the NLF. By the time they had obtained their objective, 476 of the US troops had been killed or wounded.

^ South Vietnamese sources said three militiamen on the ground were killed when the airplane fell.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.By war's end, the Vietnamese had been fighting foreign involvement or occupation (primarily by the French, Chinese, Japanese, British, and American governments) for 116 years.^ Americans had fought insurgents in the Philippines at the turn of the century, conducted a guerrilla campaign in Burma during World War II, helped the Greek and Philippine Governments to subdue Communist insurgencies after the war, and studied the French failure in Indochina and the British success in Malaya.
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^ However, it illustrated that the NLF appeared to have inexhaustible supplies of men and women willing to fight for the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government.

^ In response to this bombing, the North Vietnamese and their Soviet advisors fired 1,242 Soviet made SAMs at the American war planes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

[182]

Other countries' involvement

People's Republic of China

.In 1950, the People's Republic of China extended diplomatic recognition to the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam and sent weapons, as well as military advisors led by Luo Guibo to assist the Viet Minh in its war with the French.^ It calls on the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and all other parties to the Final Act of the International Conference on Vietnam to lend their support to this endeavor.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Regards, Mike Benge, Former VN POW '68-73 http://www.viet-myths.net/OSession01.htm Examining the Myths of the Vietnam War .
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^ The end of the Korean War made it possible for the communists to start shipping enormous amounts of weapons and other war materials to the communist forces in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first draft of the 1954 Geneva Accords was negotiated by French Prime Minister Pierre Mendes-France and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai who, fearing U.S. intervention, urged the Viet Minh to accept a partition at the 17th parallel.^ Telegram, [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian to the [PRC] Foreign Ministry, and report to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhou Enlai and the [Chinese Communist Party (CCP)] Central Committee, Concerning reporting the preliminary opinions of our side toward the Geneva Conference to the Soviet side, March 06 1954 .
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^ Preliminary Opinions on the Assessment of and Preparation for the Geneva Conference,” Prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (drafted by [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai) and approved in principle at a meeting of the CCP [Chinese Communist Party] Central Secretariat (excerpt), March 02 1954 .
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^ Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Ho Chi Minh; Beijing, 17 May 1965 .
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[183]
.China's ability to aid the Viet Minh declined when Soviet aid to China was reduced following the end of the Korean War in 1953. Moreover, a divided Vietnam posed less of a threat to China.^ The end of the Korean War made it possible for the communists to start shipping enormous amounts of weapons and other war materials to the communist forces in Vietnam.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of 1967, the threat to Binh Dinh Province posed by enemy main force units had been markedly reduced.
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^ By the year's end, American forces had returned to War Zone C to screen the Cambodian border to prevent Communist forces from re-entering South Vietnam.
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.China provided material and technical support to the Vietnamese communists worth hundreds of millions of dollars.^ After the communist take over of China 19 in 1949, they had offered the North Vietnamese sanctuaries, weapons, war materials and training.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Research on Chinese Communist Party achieves, conducted by Qiang Zhai, a China-born American scholar, provides interesting insight.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By doing so they increased the peasants hostility towards the Americans and made it more difficult for them to support the South Vietnamese government against the communists.

Chinese-supplied rice allowed North Vietnam to pull military-age men from the paddies and imposed a universal draft beginning in 1960.
.In the summer of 1962, Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90,000 rifles and guns free of charge.^ This he agreed to do and by the end of 1962 there were 12,000 in Vietnam.

.Starting in 1965, China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, rebuild roads and railroads, and to perform other engineering works.^ May 11, 1961: Kennedy authorizes American advisers sending 44 Special Forces Troops and other military advisers to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In response to this bombing, the North Vietnamese and their Soviet advisors fired 1,242 Soviet made SAMs at the American war planes.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He mentioned South Vietnam only as one of the nations that would fall into the hands of the Communists if the United States failed to maintain the anti-Communist regime in Laos.
  • The Vietnam War and the Assassination of JFK - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South.^ These combat replacements have greatly increased the capability of North Vietnamese army units in the south.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence they threw North Vietnamese regulars into the battle, indicating that the stakes at Hue were higher than elsewhere in the South.
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^ Once at Chu Lai, the Army forces supported an extensive South Vietnamese pacification effort in Quang Tin Province.
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.Between 1965 and 1970, over 320,000 Chinese soldiers served in North Vietnam.^ Three million US soldiers served in Vietnam between 1965 and 1973.

^ Peace talks between representatives from United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the NLF had been taking place in Paris since January, 1969.

^ "Aggression from the North," State Department White Paper on Vietnam, February 27, 1965 .
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The peak was in 1967, when 170,000 were stationed there.[citation needed]
.Sino-Soviet relations soured after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In October, the Chinese demanded North Vietnam cut relations with Moscow, but Hanoi refused.^ The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Vietnam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi.

^ They therefore advocated the bombing of Hanoi in an attempt to persuade North Vietnam to cut off supplies to the NLF. .

^ As a result of the meeting, Vance approved new attacks on North Vietnam beginning on the night of 3rd August.
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[184] .The Chinese began to withdraw in November 1968 in preparation for a clash with the Soviets, which occurred at Zhenbao Island in March 1969. The Chinese also began financing the Khmer Rouge as a counterweight to the Vietnamese communists at this time.^ Dellinger was allowed a visa by the State Department despite his 1968 Federal indictment as a member of the Chicago 7 [See March 20, 1969 ].
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Military Operations, 1968-1969 Vietnamization began in earnest when two brigades of the U.S. Army's 9th Infantry Division left South Vietnam in July 1968, making the South Vietnamese Army responsible for securing the southern approaches to Saigon.
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^ By that time, the North Vietnamese had counterattacked with Soviet-built T54 and T55 tanks, heavy artillery, and infantry.
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China's withdrawal from Vietnam was completed in July 1970.[citation needed]
.The Khmer Rouge launched ferocious raids into Vietnam in 1975–1978. Vietnam responded with an invasion that toppled the Khmer Rouge.^ The most recent features have dealt with commando raids into present-day Vietnam to release prisoners-of-war still held by the communists.

^ March 1975; North Vietnam mounts full scale invasion.
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^ He therefore gave permission for a plan to be put into operation that he surmised would eventually enable him to carry out the bombing raids on North Vietnam.

In response, China launched a brief, punitive invasion of Vietnam in 1979. The two nations continued the border wars in the 1980s, with China capturing disputed islands during the Battle of the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Island Skirmish in 1988.[citation needed]

South Korea

.On the anti-communist side, South Korea had the second-largest contingent of foreign troops in South Vietnam after the United States.^ In South Vietnam, as in the United States, its forces were stretched thin.
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^ Vietnamization had the added dimension of fostering political, social, and economic reforms to create a vibrant South Vietnamese state based on popular participation in national political life.
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^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first South Korean troops began arriving in 1964 and large combat battalions began arriving a year later, with the South Koreans soon developing a reputation for effectiveness.^ Dallek , 2002] March 8, 1965: The first U.S. combat troops (3,500 Marines) reach South Vietnam, landing in the coastal city of Danang.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This was the first major combat victory for the Vietcong against the South Vietnamese regular army.
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ As forces began to deploy to South Vietnam, the Army again sought to elevate the U.S. Army, Vietnam (USARV), to a full-fledged Army component command with responsibility for combat operations.
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.Indeed arguably, they conducted counterinsurgency operations so well that American commanders felt that Korean area of responsibility was the safest.^ Generally operated in the areas where they were recruited.
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^ As forces began to deploy to South Vietnam, the Army again sought to elevate the U.S. Army, Vietnam (USARV), to a full-fledged Army component command with responsibility for combat operations.
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^ Forestalling the attack, Army units remained in the area where they conducted numerous patrols and made frequent contact with the enemy.
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[185]
.This was further supported when Vietcong documents captured after the Tet Offensive warned their compatriots to never engage Koreans until full victory was certain.^ The Tet Offensive was the major turning point in the war, even though it was a total victory for the U.S, he said.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He argued: "The reality of the 1968 Tet offensive was that Hanoi had taken a big gamble and had lost on the battlefield, but they won a solid psychological victory in the United States."

^ The young woman said that prior to the beginning of the Tet Offensive, she had been attending school in Hue City and was on vacation visiting relatives, prior to her capture.
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[186] .Approximately 320,000 South Korean soldiers were sent to Vietnam, each serving a one year tour of duty.^ Moreover, the one-year tour deprived units in South Vietnam of experienced leadership.
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^ As matters stood, On 28 July 1965, President Johnson announced plans to deploy additional combat units and to increase American military strength in South Vietnam to 175,000 by year's end.
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^ These Marines were the first to complete a full 13 month tour of duty in South Vietnam; Others CI Marines prior to this time spent an average period of six months or less.
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.Maximum troop levels peaked at 50,000 in 1968, however all were withdrawn by 1973.[187] More than 5,000 South Koreans were killed and 11,000 were injured during the war.^ Nearly 6,000 civilians were dead or missing, and several thousand more were assassinated outright during the Vietcong occupation.
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^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the activities of all the services expanded, U.S. military strength in South Vietnam increased from under 700 at the start of 1960 to almost 24,000 by the end of 1964.
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[citation needed]

Australia and New Zealand

An Australian soldier in Vietnam
.Australia and New Zealand, both close allies of the United States and members of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), sent ground troops to Vietnam.^ The United States took the lead in forming a regional defense pact, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), signaling its commitment to contain Communist encroachment in the region.
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^ "New Vietnam Combat: Coke vs. Pepsi; New Vietnam Combat: Coke vs. Pepsi Commencing a battle in Southeast Asia, one 15-cent bottle at a time."
  • UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: Anti-Vietnam War Protests - San Francisco Bay Area 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ At the height of the war in Vietnam, various United Nations members (again, excluding the United States) had over 60,000 troops 10 in South Vietnam to aid them in their fight against the communists.
  • Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC 25thaviation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both nations had gained experience in counterinsurgency and jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency.^ Though diverted several times to other tasks, the brigade gained experience in conducting heliborne assaults and accustomed itself to the rigors of jungle operations.
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^ Only a handful of the MAAG's advisers had personal experience in coun