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A viral video is a video that becomes popular through the process of Internet sharing, typically through internet media sharing websites. Viral videos often contain humorous content and include televised comedy sketches such as Saturday Night Live's Lazy Sunday and Dick in a Box; amateur video clips like Star Wars Kid, the Numa Numa videos, The Dancing Cadet, The Evolution of Dance, the "Benny Lava" video, Chocolate Rain on youtube; and web-only productions such as I Got a Crush... on Obama. Some "eyewitness" events have also been caught on video and have "gone viral," including the Battle at Kruger.

Humor is sometimes considered to be a vital component and characteristic of a viral video.[citation needed] But humor is not, in fact, the defining characteristic; a viral video is any video that is passed electronically from person to person, regardless of its content.

With the proliferation of camera phones, many videos are being shot by amateurs on these devices. The availability of cheap video editing and publishing tools allows video shot on mobile phones to be edited and distributed virally both on the web by email or website, and between phones by Bluetooth or MMS. These consumer-shot videos are typically non-commercial videos intended for viewing by friends or family.

Contents

History

Viral Videos began circulation before the major video sharing sites such as YouTube, FunnyorDie, and CollegeHumor, by basic inbox-to-inbox sharing. One of these early videos was "Dancing Baby," surfacing in 1996.[1] This video was released as samples of 3D character animation software. Ron Lussier, the animator who cleaned up the raw animation, began passing the video around LucasArts (his workplace at the time).[2] The surge of viral videos seen soon after this video's circulation can be attributed to the creation of sites designated for video sharing, such as YouTube, and the availability of affordable digital cameras.[3] Due to these sites, many of the traditionally shared videos have been phased out, although some of the early examples have been added to the mainstream sites. Viral videos derived from viral marketing which is also identified as the word-of-the-mouth marketing, buzz marketing and stealth marketing. The history of viral marketing is left for open interpretation. When looking at the history, historians just focus on the specific term, "viral marketing." Since viral marketing is a drastic upgrade from the traditional word-of-the mouth, it can be seen as starting many decades before the internet.[4] Therefore, because viral videos started as content that people eagerly found imperative to pass around the concept has always been around.

Early examples

One of the first known viral videos was "Dancing Baby."[1] In 1996, Ron Lussier, one of the animators, began passing this video around his workplace (LucasArts) after cleaning up the raw sample of 3D character animation software.[2] Given the lack of early mass-outlets for viral video, some of the earliest videos to catch on in a similar way (namely, spread by e-mail) have been dwarfed by bigger hits on sites like YouTube and FunnyorDie. Some of these, however, still find lives on YouTube, etc, such as the video for Daler Mehndi's song "Tunak Tunak Tun".

The phrase "All your base are belong to us" was spread as a flash animation. To this day this animation is popular and various versions of it can be found on YouTube converted to video.

Social impact

Internet celebrities

Video websites such as YouTube often create Internet celebrities, popular individuals who have attracted significant publicity in their home countries from their videos.[5] These memes have come from many different backgrounds.

Geriatric1927, one of the most subscribed YouTube members, is an 80-year-old pensioner from England who gained widespread recognition within a week of making his debut on the site.[6] For these users, Internet fame has had various unexpected effects. YouTube user and former receptionist Brooke Brodack has been signed by NBC's Carson Daly for an 18-month development contract.[7] Another example is the uncovered fictional blog of lonelygirl15[8], which was discovered to be the work of some film directors, starring New Zealand actress Jessica Rose.[9]

Band and music promotion

YouTube has also become a means of promoting bands and their music. Many musicians, and larger companies such as Universal Music Group use YouTube to promote videos.[10]

In the same light, a video broadcasting the Free Hugs Campaign with accompanying music by the Sick Puppies led to instant fame for both the band and the campaign,[citation needed] with more campaigns taking place in different parts of the world. The main character of the video, Juan Mann, has also achieved recognition, being interviewed on Australian news programs and appearing on The Oprah Winfrey Show.

Advertisement and business

When looking at advertisements, viral advertisements are primarily compared to regular television advertisements.[11] Viral videos not only provide important information but they also give much needed humor to any viewer. Businesses are very much acknowledge that humor plays a huge role in entertaining and capturing the desired audience. In a 2008 Office Max advertisement campaign, entitled "Penny Pranks," a man was sent around NYC trying to purchase things with only pennies. The videos were successful and highlighted the chain's back-to school-message.[12]

Whistleblowing

Viral video has become a way for people to air their grievances in instances of alleged abuses of authority. For example, in 2006, a courtroom video of Utah Third District Court judge Leslie A. Lewis spread rapidly through Utah and was picked up by the news media.[13] The video showed her finding a courtroom spectator in contempt of court and arresting him because he left the courtroom while the judge expressed her displeasure at his brother's hunting activities. The judge recused herself from the case due to her professed bias against deer hunters. Lewis lost her retention vote in the 2007 election.[citation needed]

Education

Viral videos are continuing to grow popular as teaching and instructive aids. In March 2007, an elementary school teacher, Jason Smith, created TeacherTube, a website catered to sharing creative, educational videos with other teachers. The site now features over 54,000 videos[14] Some college curriculums have begun embracing viral videos in the classroom as well. Northwestern University provides a course called YouTubing 101 . The course invites students to produce their own videos and have them go viral, focusing on marketing techniques and successful advertising strategies.[15]

Customer relations

Viral videos such as the "United Breaks Guitars" video by the Canadian folk rock music group Sons of Maxwell are examples of how viral videos can be used by consumers to force companies to react to complaints.[16] During the introduction of viral videos people seemed to be more confused than irritated.[citation needed] This new form of technology was not drastically from previous forms but, unlike traditional advertisements, viral videos hold information that has been through many circuits voluntarily.

Legal implications

Oftentimes, viral videos that do not feature original content violate copyright laws. Users upload television, movie and music clips onto popular viral websites, like YouTube, frequently. The use of this copyrighted material has caused several problems in the entertainment industry. The most notable incident occurred with the release of "Lazy Sunday", the popular digital short that appeared on NBC's Saturday Night Live. Within hours of its release, fans posted the video onto YouTube, where it received substantial hits. NBC then released an order to remove all reproductions of Lazy Sunday on various websites. They claimed that the sites committed copyright infringement under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.[17]

As viral videos have grown more popular, the entertainment industry is looking for more ways to profit from the phenomenon. Recently on YouTube, a couple posted a video of their wedding procession to Chris Brown's song "Forever". Sony, the rights holder to the song, were able to capitalize off of the success of the video by offering "Click-to-Buy" advertising which allows users to purchase the song by clicking on a black bar that appears during the video. According to Youtube, although the song was a year old, the video renewed the songs popularity and it reached #4 on ITunes and #3 on Amazon's music list.[18] The recent success of the Click-to-Buy method can allow companies to think about how they can capitalize off of the success of viral videos. Other media companies have decided to form a partnership with viral video sites, hoping that increased traffic will lead users to their sites. MTV2 provided clips of the The Andy Milonakis Show with links that led back to the original content. Advertisers, such as Nike, seed Youtube with clips of their products hoping to lure consumers.[19]

Political implications

The 2008 United States presidential election showcased the impact of political viral videos. For the first time, YouTube hosted the CNN-YouTube presidential debates, calling on YouTube users to pose the questions. With this debate, the opinions of viral video creators and users were taken seriously. There were several memorable viral videos that appeared during the campaign. In June 2007, "I Got a Crush...on Obama", a music video featuring a girl claiming to have a crush on presidential candidate Barack Obama, appeared. Unlike previous popular political videos, this did not feature any celebrities, but was purely user-generated content. The video garnered many followers and gained attention in the mainstream media.[20] Another popular[21] video was "Barack Rolled"[22], in which someone compiled words from Obama’s speeches to make it seem like he was singing the lyrics from Rick Astley’s song "Never Gonna Give You Up". This video sprung from the concept of Rickrolling, which involves providing links to users that unknowingly lead them to Astley's 1987 video.

The proliferation of viral videos in the 2008 campaign only serves to highlight the fact that people increasingly turned to the internet to receive their news. In a study for the Pew Research Center in 2008, about 2% of the people sampled mentioned that they received their news from non-traditional sources such as MySpace or YouTube.[23] The campaign was widely seen as an example of the growing influence of the internet in United States politics, as evidenced by the founding of viral video producers like Brave New Films.[24]

Notable viral video sites

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "The history of viral video". Tuscoloosa News. June 6, 2007. http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20070706/TUSK04/70706001/-1/NEWS09. Retrieved November 23, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Lussier, Ron (2005). "Dancing Baby FAQ". Burning Pixel Productions. http://www.burningpixel.com/Baby/BabyFAQ.htm. 
  3. ^ Grossman, Lev (April 24, 2006). "HOW TO GET FAMOUS IN 3500 SECONDS". Time Magazine. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=11&sid=1fbaae36-8041-4c60-ad43-9dd2e76544de%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=aph&AN=20490277#db=aph&AN=20490277. 
  4. ^ Khan, Naila (April 6, 2009). "Viral Marketing". Toronto, Canada: KHNK. http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/viralmarketing.htm. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  5. ^ Feifer, Jason (June 11, 2006). "Video makers find a vast and eager audience". Worcester, Massachusetts: Worcester Telegram. http://www.telegram.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060611/NEWS/606110552/1011/FEATURES. Retrieved July 27, 2009. 
  6. ^ Geriatric1927's YouTube profile
  7. ^ Collins, Scott, "Now she has their attention." Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2006. (Accessed July 19, 2006)
  8. ^ "LG15: Viewer's Guide". EQAL. http://www.lg15.com/faq. 
  9. ^ Foremski, Tom (September 12, 2006). "SVW Exclusive: The identity of LonelyGirl15" (Web). Silicon Valley Watcher. http://www.siliconvalleywatcher.com/mt/archives/2006/09/the_identity_of.php. Retrieved July 27, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Universal Music Group". http://www.youtube.com/user/universalmusicgroup. 
  11. ^ Kulp, Steven (January 1, 2007). "Advertising Amongst Ourselves" (Web). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/etd&CISOPTR=876&filename=878.pdf. Retrieved November 22, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Using Viral Video in Small Business Marketing". Kansas City, MO: Jantsch Communications, Inc.. August 25, 2008. http://www.ducttapemarketing.com/blog/2008/08/25/using-viral-video-in-small-business-marketing/. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  13. ^ Geoffrey Fattah, Hunters Target Judge, DeseretNews.com
  14. ^ Katherine Leal Unmuth, [1], DallasNews.com
  15. ^ Wendy Leopold, [2], Northwestern.edu
  16. ^ Jackson, Cheryl V. (9 July 2009). "Passenger uses YouTube to get United's attention". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/technology/1658990,CST-NWS-united09.article. Retrieved 11 July 2009. 
  17. ^ Biggs, John (February 20, 2006). "MEDIA TALK; A Video Clip Goes Viral, and a TV Network Wants to Be the Only One to Spread It" (Web). The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02EEDE113EF933A15751C0A9609C8B63. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  18. ^ Oshiro, Dana (July 30, 2009). "Build Profit Not DMCA Suits: YouTube and the Wedding March" (Web). ReadWriteWeb. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/build_profit_not_dmca_suits_youtube_and_the_weddin.php. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  19. ^ Marrs, Scott (May 8, 2006). "Viral videos publicize- but infringe" (Web). The National Law Journal. http://www.bmpllp.com/files/1155314768.pdf. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  20. ^ Seelye, Katharine (June 15, 2007). "A Hit Shows Big Interest in Racy Material — and Obama" (Web). The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/15/us/politics/15obama.html?_r=1&ex=1190260800&en=3b68401305c074fe&ei=5070. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  21. ^ "'Barack-Roll' Video a YouTube Sensation" (Web). FOX News Network. August 14, 2008. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/elections/2008/08/14/barack-roll-video-is-big-hit-on-youtube/. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  22. ^ . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7chL_a-ZL-M. 
  23. ^ "The Internet's Broader Role in Campaign 2008" (Web). Pew Research Center. January 11, 2008. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/689/the-internets-broader-role-in-campaign-2008. Retrieved November 25, 2009. 
  24. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (29 June 2008). "Political Freelancers Use Web to Join the Attack". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/us/politics/29opposition.html?_r=2&hp&oref=slogint&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 

External links


A viral video is one that becomes popular through the process of internet sharing, typically through video sharing websites and email[1]. Viral videos often contain humorous content and include televised comedy sketches, such as The Lonely Island's Lazy Sunday and Dick in a Box, amateur video clips like Star Wars Kid[2], the Numa Numa[3][4] videos, The Evolution of Dance[5], the "Benny Lava" video, Chocolate Rain[6] on YouTube; and web-only productions such as I Got a Crush... on Obama[7]. Some eyewitness events have also been caught on video and have "gone viral"[8] such as the Battle at Kruger[9].

Humor is often a characteristic of viral videos, but not a defining one. A viral video is any video that's passed electronically, from person to person, regardless of its content.

With the proliferation of camera phones[10], many videos are being shot by amateurs on these devices. The availability of inexpensive video editing and publishing tools allows video shot on mobile phones to be edited and distributed virally, by email or website, and between phones by Bluetooth or MMS. These consumer-shot videos are typically non-commercial, intended for viewing by friends or family.

Contents

History

Viral videos began circulating before the major video sharing sites such as YouTube, FunnyorDie and CollegeHumor, by email sharing. One of these early videos was "The Spirit of Christmas" which surfaced in 1995.[11] In 1996 "Dancing Baby" appeared.[11] This video was released as samples of 3D character animation software. Ron Lussier, the animator who cleaned up the raw animation, began passing the video around LucasArts, his workplace at the time.[12] The surge of viral videos seen in the wake of this video's circulation can be attributed to the advent of sites designated for video sharing, such as YouTube, and the availability of affordable digital cameras.[13] Due to these sites, many of the traditionally shared videos have been phased out, though some early examples have been added to the mainstream sites. Viral videos derive from viral marketing, also known as word of mouth marketing, buzz marketing and stealth marketing. The history of viral marketing is open to interpretation. Historians tend to focus on the specific term "viral marketing." Viral marketing is analogous to traditional word-of-mouth, so it can be seen as starting long before the internet.[14]

Early examples

One of the first known viral videos was "Dancing Baby."[11] In 1996, Ron Lussier, one of the animators, began passing this video around his workplace (LucasArts) after cleaning up the raw sample of 3D character animation software.[12] Given the lack of early mass-outlets for viral video, some of the earliest videos to catch on in a similar way (namely, spread by e-mail) have been dwarfed by bigger hits on sites like YouTube and FunnyorDie. Some of these, however, still find lives on YouTube, etc., such as the video for Daler Mehndi's song "Tunak Tunak Tun".

The phrase "All your base are belong to us" was spread as a flash animation. To this day this animation is popular and variations of it can be found on YouTube converted to video.

Social impact

Internet celebrities

Video websites such as YouTube often create Internet celebrities, individuals who have attracted significant publicity in their home countries from their videos.[15] These memes have come from many different backgrounds.

Geriatric1927, one of the most subscribed YouTube members, is an 80-year-old pensioner from England who gained widespread recognition within a week of making his debut on the site.[16] For these users, Internet fame has had various unexpected effects. YouTube user and former receptionist Brooke Brodack has been signed by NBC's Carson Daly for an 18-month development contract.[17] Another example is the uncovered fictional blog of lonelygirl15,[18] which was discovered to be the work of some film directors, starring New Zealand actress Jessica Rose.[19]

Band and music promotion

YouTube has become a means of promoting bands and their music. Many independent musicians, as well as large companies such as Universal Music Group, use YouTube to promote videos.[20]

A video broadcasting the Free Hugs Campaign, with accompanying music by the Sick Puppies, led to instant fame for both the band and the campaign,[21][22] with more campaigns taking place in different parts of the world. The main character of the video, Juan Mann, achieved recognition after being interviewed on Australian news programs and appearing on The Oprah Winfrey Show.

Advertisement and business

Viral advertisements are frequently compared to television advertisements.[23] Viral videos not only provide important information but humor and entertainment to the viewer. Humor can play an important role in attracting a desired audience. In a 2008 Office Max advertisement campaign entitled "Penny Pranks," a man was sent around NYC to purchase things with only pennies. The videos were successful and highlighted the chain's back-to-school message.[24]

Whistleblowing

Viral video has become a way for people to air their grievances in cases of alleged abuses of authority. For example, in 2006 a courtroom video of Utah Third District Court judge Leslie A. Lewis spread rapidly throughout Utah and was picked up by the news media.[25] The video showed her finding a courtroom spectator in contempt of court and arresting him because he left the courtroom while she expressed her displeasure at his brother's hunting activities. Judge Lewis recused herself from the case due to her professed bias against deer hunters. She subsequently lost her retention vote in the 2007 election.[citation needed]

Education

Viral videos continue to increase in popularity as teaching and instructive aids. In March 2007, an elementary school teacher, Jason Smith, created TeacherTube, a website for sharing educational videos with other teachers. The site now features over 54,000 videos.[26] Some college curricula are now using viral videos in the classroom as well. Northwestern University offers a course called "YouTubing 101" . The course invites students to produce their own viral videos, focusing on marketing techniques and advertising strategies.[27]

Customer relations

"United Breaks Guitars", by the Canadian folk rock music group Sons of Maxwell, is an example of how viral videos can be used by consumers to pressure companies to settle complaints.[28] At the inception of the viral video phenomenon many people were more confused than irritated.[citation needed] This new strategy was not very different from previous forms but unlike traditional advertisements, viral videos hold information that's been circulated voluntarily.[clarification needed]

Cyberbullying

The Canadian high school student known as Star Wars Kid was subjected to significant harassment and ostracizing after the viral success of his video. His family accepted a financial settlement after suing the individuals responsible for posting the video online.[29]

In July 2010, an 11-year-old girl was subjected to a campaign of harassment and cyberbullying following the viral nature of videos she had uploaded to Stickam and YouTube. As a result of the case, the potential for cyberbullying as a result of viral videos was widely discussed in the media.[30][31][32]

Legal implications

Viral videos that do not feature original content often violate copyright laws. Users frequently upload television, movie and music clips onto popular viral websites like YouTube. The use of copyrighted material has caused several problems in the entertainment industry. The most notable incident occurred following the release of "Lazy Sunday", the popular digital short that appeared on NBC's Saturday Night Live. Within hours fans posted the video onto YouTube, where it received a substantial number of hits. NBC then released an order to remove all reproductions of Lazy Sunday from YouTube and other websites, claiming that the postings constituted copyright infringement under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.[33]

As viral videos have increased in popularity, the entertainment industry has begun researching ways to profit from the phenomenon. Recently a couple posted a video of their wedding procession to Chris Brown's song "Forever", on YouTube. Sony, which owns the copyright to the song, was able to capitalize on the success of the video by offering a one-click buying option, which allows users to purchase the song by clicking on a black bar that appears during the video. According to YouTube, although the song was a year old, the video renewed the songs popularity and it reached #4 on iTunes and #3 on Amazon's bestseller list.[34] The recent success of the one-click buying method allows companies to profit from the success of viral videos. Other media companies have formed partnerships with video sharing sites in the hope that increased traffic will lead users to their sites. MTV2 provided clips of The Andy Milonakis Show with links to the original content. Advertisers, such as Nike, seed Youtube with clips of their products, hoping to attract consumers.[35]

Political implications

The 2008 United States presidential election showcased the impact of political viral videos. For the first time, YouTube hosted the CNN-YouTube presidential debates, calling on YouTube users to pose questions. In this debate, the opinions of viral video creators and users were taken seriously. There were several memorable viral videos that appeared during the campaign. In June 2007, "I Got a Crush...on Obama", a music video featuring a girl claiming to have a crush on presidential candidate Barack Obama, appeared. Unlike previously popular political videos, it did not feature any celebrities and was purely user-generated. The video garnered many viewers and gained attention in the mainstream media.[36]

The proliferation of viral videos in the 2008 campaign highlights the fact that people increasingly turn to the internet to receive their news. In a study for the Pew Research Center in 2008, approximately 2% of the participants said that they received their news from non-traditional sources such as MySpace or YouTube.[37] The campaign was widely seen as an example of the growing influence of the internet on United States politics; further evidenced by the founding of viral video producers like Brave New Films.[38]

Notable viral video sites

See also

References

  1. ^ Urban Dictionary Definition http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=viral%20video
  2. ^ Starwars kid reference 900 million views MSNBC TV http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15958470/
  3. ^ Numa Numa has “…clocked up more than a billion views…” according to The Guardian Newspaper: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/sep/08/youtube-viral-promotion-trivial-pursuit
  4. ^ Guardian news reference to Numa Numa popularity: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2007/jun/08/guardianviralvideochart23
  5. ^ Observer/Guardian newspaper mentions "Evolution of Dance" regarding how everyday people have become superstars (11 April 2010) http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/apr/11/youtube-web-video-stars
  6. ^ Fox News report about Numa Numa also mentions: ...fellow viral video star, 'Chocolate Rain Guy,' aka Tay Zonday (22 Sept 2010): http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2010/09/21/catching-numa-numa-guy-gary-brolsma/
  7. ^ Crush on Obama mentioned by ABC news (13 June 2007): http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=3275802&page=1
  8. ^ DailyMail newspaper uses the term "gone viral" regarding a "viral internet sensation" with over 1,145,000 hits (11 oct 2010): http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1319626/Dancing-rain-Video-young-street-dancers-viral-internet-sensation.html
  9. ^ BBC News states "Almost 9.5m people have already watched the video, dubbed the Battle at Kruger, which was filmed by US tourist Dave Budzinski while he was on a guided safari." (9 Aug 2007): http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6938516.stm
  10. ^ Wall Street Journal reports on proliferation of camera phones (24 Sept 2010): http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704129204575506281834570988.html
  11. ^ a b c "The history of viral video". Tuscoloosa News. June 6, 2007. http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20070706/TUSK04/70706001/-1/NEWS09. Retrieved November 23, 2009. 
  12. ^ a b Lussier, Ron (2005). "Dancing Baby FAQ". Burning Pixel Productions. http://www.burningpixel.com/Baby/BabyFAQ.htm. 
  13. ^ Grossman, Lev (April 24, 2006). "HOW TO GET FAMOUS IN 3500 SECONDS". Time Magazine. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=11&sid=1fbaae36-8041-4c60-ad43-9dd2e76544de%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=aph&AN=20490277#db=aph&AN=20490277. 
  14. ^ Khan, Naila (April 6, 2009). "Viral Marketing". Toronto, Canada: KHNK. http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/viralmarketing.htm. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  15. ^ Feifer, Jason (June 11, 2006). "Video makers find a vast and eager audience". Worcester, Massachusetts: Worcester Telegram. http://www.telegram.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060611/NEWS/606110552/1011/FEATURES. Retrieved July 27, 2009. 
  16. ^ Geriatric1927's YouTube profile
  17. ^ Collins, Scott, "Now she has their attention." Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2006. (Accessed July 19, 2006)
  18. ^ "LG15: Viewer's Guide". EQAL. http://www.lg15.com/faq. 
  19. ^ Foremski, Tom (September 12, 2006). "SVW Exclusive: The identity of LonelyGirl15" (Web). Silicon Valley Watcher. http://www.siliconvalleywatcher.com/mt/archives/2006/09/the_identity_of.php. Retrieved July 27, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Universal Music Group". http://www.youtube.com/user/universalmusicgroup. 
  21. ^ 2006 YouTube Video Awards Free Hugs wins in "most inspirational" category. New York Times (27 March 2007): http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2007/03/27/arts/27tube_CA1ready.html ...see also BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6498755.stm
  22. ^ Free Hugs on The Oprah Winfrey Show (30 Oct 2006): "Thanks to a video on the website YouTube, Juan's movement is spreading worldwide—he is even organizing a global hug day!" http://www.oprah.com/oprahshow/The-Gift-of-Giving-Back
  23. ^ Kulp, Steven (January 1, 2007). "Advertising Amongst Ourselves" (Web). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/etd&CISOPTR=876&filename=878.pdf. Retrieved November 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Using Viral Video in Small Business Marketing". Kansas City, MO: Jantsch Communications, Inc.. August 25, 2008. http://www.ducttapemarketing.com/blog/2008/08/25/using-viral-video-in-small-business-marketing/. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  25. ^ Geoffrey Fattah, Hunters Target Judge, DeseretNews.com
  26. ^ Katherine Leal Unmuth, [1], DallasNews.com
  27. ^ Wendy Leopold, [2], Northwestern.edu
  28. ^ Jackson, Cheryl V. (9 July 2009). "Passenger uses YouTube to get United's attention". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/technology/1658990,CST-NWS-united09.article. Retrieved 11 July 2009. 
  29. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/where-are-they-now-the-star-wars-kid-2010-5
  30. ^ 'Jessi Slaughter' YouTube Cyberbully Case: 11-Year-Old Tells GMA She Didn't Want it to Go This Far, CBS News
  31. ^ Jessi Slaughter, nouvelle tête de turc du web américain, L'Express, France
  32. ^ Jessi Slaughter and the 4chan trolls - the case for censoring the internet, news.com.au
  33. ^ Biggs, John (February 20, 2006). "MEDIA TALK; A Video Clip Goes Viral, and a TV Network Wants to Be the Only One to Spread It" (Web). The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02EEDE113EF933A15751C0A9609C8B63. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  34. ^ Oshiro, Dana (July 30, 2009). "Build Profit Not DMCA Suits: YouTube and the Wedding March" (Web). ReadWriteWeb. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/build_profit_not_dmca_suits_youtube_and_the_weddin.php. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  35. ^ Marrs, Scott (May 8, 2006). "Viral videos publicize- but infringe" (Web). The National Law Journal. http://www.bmpllp.com/files/1155314768.pdf. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  36. ^ Seelye, Katharine (June 15, 2007). "A Hit Shows Big Interest in Racy Material — and Obama" (Web). The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/15/us/politics/15obama.html?_r=1&ex=1190260800&en=3b68401305c074fe&ei=5070. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  37. ^ "The Internet's Broader Role in Campaign 2008" (Web). Pew Research Center. January 11, 2008. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/689/the-internets-broader-role-in-campaign-2008. Retrieved November 25, 2009. 
  38. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (29 June 2008). "Political Freelancers Use Web to Join the Attack". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/us/politics/29opposition.html?_r=2&hp&oref=slogint&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 

External links








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