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Commonwealth of Virginia
Navy blue flag with the circular Seal of Virginia centered on it. A circular seal with the words "Virginia" on the top and "Sic Semper Tyrannis" on the bottom. In the center, a woman wearing a blue toga and Athenian helmet stands on the chest of dead man wearing a purple breastplate and skirt. The woman holds a spear and sheathed sword. The man holds a broken chain while his crown lies away from the figures. Orange leaves encircle the seal.
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Old Dominion; Mother of Presidents
Motto(s): Sic Semper Tyrannis (Latin)[1]
before statehood, known as
the Colony of Virginia
Virginia is located on the Atlantic coast along the line that divides the Northern and Southern halves of the United States. It runs mostly east to west. It includes a small peninsula across a bay which is discontinuous with the rest of the state.
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) English 94.6%, Spanish 5.9%
Demonym Virginian
Capital Richmond
Largest city Virginia Beach
Largest metro area Northern Virginia
Area  Ranked 35th in the US
 - Total 42,774.2 sq mi
(110,785.67 km2)
 - Width 200 miles (320 km)
 - Length 430 miles (690 km)
 - % water 7.4
 - Latitude 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N
 - Longitude 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W
Population  Ranked 12th in the US
 - Total 7,882,590 (2009 est.)[2]
 - Density 193/sq mi  (75/km2)
Ranked 14th in the US
 - Median income  $59,562[3] (9th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Rogers[4]
5,729 ft  (1,747 m)
 - Mean 950 ft  (290 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[4]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  June 25, 1788 (10th)
Governor Bob McDonnell (R)
Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling (R)
U.S. Senators Jim Webb (D)
Mark Warner (D)
U.S. House delegation 6 Democrats,
5 Republicans (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC−5/−4
Abbreviations VA US-VA
Website http://www.virginia.gov
The Commonwealth of Virginia (Listeni /vərˈɪnjə/) is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" because it is the birthplace of eight U.S. presidents. The geography and climate of the state are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which are home to much of its flora and fauna. .The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city and Fairfax County the most populous political subdivision.^ James K. Spore, City Manager for the City of Virginia Beach .

^ City of Virginia Beach .

The state population is nearly eight million.[5]
The area's history begins with indigenous settlements, and the founding of the Virginia Colony in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as the first permanent New World English colony. Land from displaced Native American tribes, including the Powhatan, and slave labor each played significant roles in Virginia's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the Thirteen Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was the Confederate capital and the state of West Virginia separated. Although traditionally conservative and historically part of the South, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.[6]
The state government, home to the oldest legislature in the Americas, has been repeatedly ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States.[7] It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its Governors from serving consecutive terms. .Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in places like the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the Department of Defense and CIA; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, home to the region's main seaport.^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ Northern Virginia Regional Commission .

^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

.The growth of the media and technology sectors have made computer chips the state's leading export, with the industry based on the strength of Virginia's public schools and universities.^ Virginia Beach Public Schools .

[8] Virginia does not have a major professional sports franchise, but is home to several prominent collegiate sports programs.

Contents

Geography

Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.67 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.[9] Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Due to a peculiarity of Virginia's original charter, its boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. does not extend past the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River (unlike many boundaries that split a river down the middle).[10] The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.[11]

Geology and terrain

Terrain map of Virginia divided with lines into five regions. The first region on the far left is small and only in the state's panhandle. The next is larger, and covers most of the western part of the state. The next is a thin strip that covers only the mountains. The next is a wide area in the middle of the state. The left most is based on the rivers which diffuse the previous region.
Virginia is divided into five geographic regions.
The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed following a meteoroid impact crater during the Eocene.[12] Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, James, and York, which create three peninsulas in the bay.[13][14] Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau, also called the Appalachian Plateau.[15]
The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries which enter the Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic.[16] The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains.[17] The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the chain of Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m).[18] The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains, and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based, and includes Massanutten Mountain.[19] The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the south-west corner of Virginia, below the Allegheny Plateau. In this region rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.[20]
Green tree covered mountains turn blue as the progress toward the horizon.
Deciduous and evergreen trees emit hydrocarbons which give the Blue Ridge Mountains their distinct color.[21]
Because of the areas of carbonate rock, more than 4,000 caves exist in Virginia, with ten open for tourism.[22] The Virginia seismic zone has not had a history of regular activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 on the Richter magnitude scale because Virginia is located centrally on the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 and was centered about 20 miles WNW of Blacksburg.[23] Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 40 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins.[24] Besides coal, resources such as slate, kyanite, sand, and gravel are mined, with an annual value over $2 billion as of 2006.[25]

Climate

Virginia
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.1
 
46
26
 
 
3.1
 
48
27
 
 
3.7
 
57
34
 
 
3.3
 
67
43
 
 
4
 
76
52
 
 
3.7
 
83
60
 
 
4.3
 
86
64
 
 
4.1
 
85
63
 
 
3.5
 
79
57
 
 
3.4
 
69
45
 
 
3.2
 
58
35
 
 
3.2
 
48
28
average max. and min. temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: University of Virginia data 1895−1998
The climate of Virginia varies according to location, and becomes increasingly warmer farther south and east. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), from the Blue Ridge Mountains and southern Shenandoah Valley to the Atlantic coast.[26] In the Blue Ridge Mountains, the climate becomes subtropical highland (Köppen climate classification Cfb).[27] Virginia experiences seasonal extremes, from average lows of 26 °F (−3.3 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by the Gulf Stream has a strong effect on the southeastern coastal areas of the state. It also creates the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.[28] Although Hurricane Camille devastated Nelson County in 1969, and Fran and Isabel caused flash flooding in the mountains in 1996 and 2003, hurricanes rarely threaten communities far inland.[26][29]
Thunderstorms are a regular occurrence, particularly in the western part of the state. Virginia has an annual average of 35−45 days of thunderstorm activity, and an average annual precipitation of 42.7 inches (108.5 cm).[28][30] Cold air masses arriving over the mountains, especially in winter, can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996. The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains.[31] Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, though most are F2 or lower on the Fujita scale.[32]
In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.[33] .In the American Lung Association's 2009 report, 15 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution.^ American Association of Electronic Reporters and Transcribers .

^ American Lung Association of Virginia .

^ American Lung Association of the Atlantic Coast .

[34][35] Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.[36]

Flora and fauna

Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees.[37] Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge.[26] However since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests.[38] Other common trees and plants include chestnut, maple, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are in the western mountains and along the Atlantic coast.[39]
Two red-brown colored deer graze among yellow flowers in a meadow.
White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, graze at Tanner Ridge Overlook in Shenandoah National Park
Mammals include White-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia Opossum, gray fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit.[40] Birds include cardinals, barred owls, Carolina chickadees, Red-tailed Hawks, and Wild Turkeys. The Peregrine Falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park in the mid-1990s.[41] Freshwater fish include walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish.[42] Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by a plentiful amount of crayfish.[26] The Chesapeake Bay is home to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).[43]
Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, the Shenandoah National Park.[44] Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park's area (79,579 acres/322 km2) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.[45] Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.[37][46] The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina.[47]

History

A black and white drawing of a young dark-haired Native American woman turning to her right. She is holding a pipe in her right hand.
A 19th-century depiction of Pocahontas, of the Powhatan tribe, an ancestor of many of the First Families of Virginia
Jamestown 2007 marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The far-reaching social changes of the mid- to late-20th century were expressed by broad-based celebrations marking contributions of three cultures to the state: Native American, European, and African.[48][49] These three groups have each had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. War has also had an important role, and Virginia has been a focus of warfare from the American Revolution and the Civil War to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism.[50] Stories of historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.[51]

Colony

The first settlers arrived in Virginia about 5,000 years ago, and farming began there by 900 CE. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.[52] In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 to 14,000. Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language.[53]
In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to explore and plant a colony north of Spanish Florida.[54] .In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America.^ Laborers International Union of North America, Mid-Atlantic Region .

[55] The name "Virginia" may have been suggested by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen", and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina".[56] Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda.[57] The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The Company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport.[58] In 1619, colonists established an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as a British crown colony.[59]
A three story red brick colonial style hall and its left and right wings during winter.
Williamsburg was the capital from 1699 to 1780.
Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the "starving time" in 1609 and the Indian massacre of 1622, led by Opchanacanough.[60] By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived.[61] However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants.[62] African workers were first imported in 1619, and slavery was codified after 1660. After 1618, the headright system led to more indentured servants from Europe. In this system, settlers received land for each servant they transported.[63] By 1700, Chesapeake planters brought in about 100,000 indentured servants,[64] more than 75% of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland.[65] Colonists appropriated land from Native Americans by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. Williamsburg became the colonial capital in 1699, following the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693.[66]

Statehood

Upper-class middle-aged man dressed in a bright red cloak speaks before an assembly of other angry men. The subject's right hand is raise high in gesture toward the balcony.
1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765
The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War (1754–1763) were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.[67] Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year.[68] After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.[69] Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.[70]
When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington, who had commanded Virginia's forces in the French and Indian War, was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's location would make it vulnerable to British attack.[71] In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Yorktown peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781, led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.[72]
Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.[70] Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though in 1846 the Virginian area was retroceded.[73] Virginia is sometimes called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into several mid-western states.[74]

Civil War and aftermath

Wide view of a cityscape with evident destruction. Unused cannons and cannonballs litter the foreground, while a large Neoclassical building stands intact in the rear center.
Richmond, the capital of the Confederate States of America, was burned prior to its capture by the Union.
In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries.[75] After the Revolutionary War, the free black population rose, creating thriving communities in Petersburg and Richmond. Numerous individual manumissions were inspired by Quaker abolitionists and the revolution's principles.[76] Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 showed deep social discontent about slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.[77] This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.
Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital.[74] After the 1863 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House.[78] After the capture of Richmond in 1865, the capital was briefly moved to Danville.[79] Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.[80]
.During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.^ Virginia Beach Public Schools .

[81] .The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.[82] It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites.^ Central Virginia Conservation Coalition .

[83] Despite underfunding for segregated schools and services and a lack of political representation, African Americans still created vibrant communities and made progress.[84]

Modern times

Bronze sculptures of seven figures marching stand around a large rectangular block of white engraved granite.
The Virginia Civil Rights Memorial was erected in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation.
Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. .County School Board of Prince Edward County.^ Loudoun County School Board .

^ Fairfax County School Board .

^ Prince William County School Board .

This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". However in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" spearheaded by the powerful segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd, the state prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving funding.[85]
The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s and achieved the moral force to gain national legislation for protection of suffrage and civil rights for African Americans. .In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools.^ Prince William County School Board .

^ Prince George County Public Schools .

^ Prince William County Public Schools .

[86] From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. .In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.^ Americans United for Seperation of Church and State .

[87]
New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.; their work led to the development of Colonial Williamsburg, the state's most popular tourism site.[88] World War II and the Cold War led to massive expansion of national government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth.[89] Among the federal developments was the Pentagon, which was later targeted in the September 11 attacks, during which 189 people died.[90]

Cities and towns

Several tall towers lit at night form a skyline over a calm stretch of water, in which the lights are reflected.
The population of the Hampton Roads area is over 1.6 million.
Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 39 independent cities, which both operate the same way since independent cities are considered to be county-equivalent.[91] This method of treating cities and counties equally is unique to Virginia, with only four other independent cities in the United States outside Virginia.[92] Incorporated towns exist and operate under their own town governments, but are also part of a county. There are also hundreds of other unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.
Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populated. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million people.[93] .As of 2008, Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.^ City of Virginia Beach .

^ James K. Spore, City Manager for the City of Virginia Beach .

[94] Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which is home to over 1.6 million people and the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk.[93][95] Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1,111 km2).[96]
Although it is not incorporated as a city, Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents.[97] Fairfax has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market.[98] .Neighboring Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in the United States and has the highest median household income ($107,207) as of 2007.[99][100] Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.^ Loudoun County Government (administration) .

^ Arlington County Government .

[101] The Roanoke area, with a population of 292,983, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.[102]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 691,737
1800 807,557 16.7%
1810 877,683 8.7%
1820 938,261 6.9%
1830 1,044,054 11.3%
1840 1,025,227 −1.8%
1850 1,119,348 9.2%
1860 1,219,630 9.0%
1870 1,225,163 0.5%
1880 1,512,565 23.5%
1890 1,655,980 9.5%
1900 1,854,184 12.0%
1910 2,061,612 11.2%
1920 2,309,187 12.0%
1930 2,421,851 4.9%
1940 2,677,773 10.6%
1950 3,318,680 23.9%
1960 3,966,949 19.5%
1970 4,648,494 17.2%
1980 5,346,818 15.0%
1990 6,187,358 15.7%
2000 7,078,515 14.4%
Est. 2008 7,769,089 9.8%
A map of Virginia with areas colored in green for low population changing to red for areas of high population. The most red areas are in the very north of the state, the center of the state, and the very south-east of the state. The rest is mostly green.
Virginia has metropolitan areas located throughout the state.
As of 2008, Virginia had an estimated population of 7,769,089 which is an increase of 56,998, or about 1%, from the prior year and an increase of 690,574, or 9.8%, since the year 2000.[5] This includes an increase from net migration of 314,832 people into the Commonwealth. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people.[103] The center of population is located in Goochland County outside of Richmond.[104]
English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[105] English is the only language spoken by 6,245,517 (86.7%) Virginians, though it is spoken "very well" by an additional 570,638 (7.9%) for a total of 94.6% of the Commonwealth. Among speakers of other languages Spanish is the most common with 424,381 (5.9%). 226,911 (3.2%) speak Asian and Pacific Islander languages, including Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino.[106]

Ethnicity

As of 2000, the five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.4%), English (11.1%), and Irish (9.8%).[107] Because of more recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century, there are rapidly growing populations of Hispanics, particularly Central Americans, and Asians. As of 2007, 6.6% of Virginians are Hispanic, 5.4% are Asian, and 0.9% are American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.[5] The Hispanic population of the state tripled from 1990 to 2006, with two-thirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia. .Hispanics in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general United States or Virginia population.^ Virginia Business Higher Education Council .

[108]
Most African American Virginians are descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. These men, women and children were brought from west-central Africa, primarily from Angola and the Igbo areas of what is now southern Nigeria.[109] The 20th-century Great Migration of blacks from the rural South to the North reduced Virginia's black population; however, in the past 40 years there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning to Virginia and the rest of the South.[110] The western mountains have many settlements founded by Scotch-Irish immigrants before the Revolution.[111] There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.[112] People of English heritage settled throughout the state during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated to the state for work.[113]
.Northern Virginia has some of the largest populations nationwide of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War, and Korean Americans, whose migration has been more recent and was induced in part by the quality school system.^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

[114][115] Hampton Roads has a sizable Filipino population with about 45,000 in the area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy and armed forces.[116] Virginia also continues to be home to eight Native American tribes recognized by the state, though all lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.[117]
Ethnicity (2008)   Largest Ancestries by County Ancestry (2000)
White 72.4% Virginia counties colored either red, blue, yellow, green, or purple based on the populations most common ancestry. The south-east is predominately purple for African American, while the west is mostly red for American. The north has yellow for German, with two small areas green for Irish. Yellow is also found in spots in the west. A strip in the middle is blue for English.
U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation. American Factfinder provides census data and maps.
 
African American  19.9%
Black or African American 20.5%
 
German 11.7%
Hispanic or Latino 6.6%
 
American 11.4%
Asian 5.4%
 
English 11.1%
American Indian and Alaska Native  0.8%
 
Irish 9.8%

Religion

Religion (2008)
Christian[118] 76%
Baptist 27%
Roman Catholic  11%
Methodist 8%
Lutheran 2%
Other Christian 28%
Buddhism 1%
Hinduism 1%
Judaism 1%
Islam 0.5%
Unaffiliated 18%
Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008.[118] Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[119][120]
Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group, and the group which grew the most in the 1990s.[121][122] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest. The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. .The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches.^ Episcopal Diocese of Virginia .

.In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over its ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States.^ Episcopal Diocese of Virginia .

^ Americans United for Seperation of Church and State .

Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claims the secessionist churches' properties. The resulting property law case is a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.[123]
Presbyterians, Pentecostals, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians each composed 1–3% of the population as of 2001.[124] Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1.1% of the population, with 188 congregations in Virginia as of 2008.[125] Fairfax Station is home to the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While a small population in terms of the state overall, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[126] Muslims are a rapidly growing religious group throughout the state through immigration.[127] Megachurches in the state include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.[128] Several major Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College.

Economy

High-rise hotels line the ocean front covered with colorful beach-goers.
Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach's economy.
Virginia's economy is balanced, with diverse sources of income, including government and military, farming, and business. Virginia has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector.[129][130] In 2008, Forbes Magazine named Virginia the best state in the nation for business for the third year in a row.[131] The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was $397 billion in 2008.[132] As of 2000, Virginia had the highest number of counties in the top 100 wealthiest jurisdictions in the United States based upon median income.[133] Virginia is home to 18 Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state tenth nationwide.[134]
Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state.[135] Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined.[8] .Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, and consulting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor.^ Northern Virginia Technology Council .

^ Cox Communications of Northern Virginia .

.Northern Virginia's data centers currently carry more than 50% of the nation's Internet traffic, and by 2012 Dominion Power expects that 10% of all its electricity in Northern Virginia will be used by data centers.^ Dominion Virginia Power .

^ Northern Virginia Electric Cooperative .

[136] Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Northern Virginia have the highest and second highest median household income, respectively, of all counties in the United States as of 2006.[137]
As of 2007, about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres (0.27 sq mi; 0.69 km2), in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia.[138] Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.[139] Though its no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.[140] Eastern oyster harvests are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay economy, but declining oyster populations from disease, pollution, and overfishing have diminished catches.[141] Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attract tourists.[142]
Aerial view of the huge five-sided building and its multiple rings. Parking lots and highways stretch away from it.
The Pentagon, the Department of Defense headquarters, is the world's largest office building.[143]
.Many of Northern Virginia's well-educated population work directly for federal agencies.^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms.[144] .Government agencies headquartered in Northern Virginia include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office.^ Central Virginia Health Planning Agency, Inc.

^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military bases and facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of the bases is Naval Station Norfolk.[95] Virginia has more veterans than any other state, with over 800,000, and is second only to Alaska in per capita defense spending.[145][146]
Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The sales and use tax rate is 5%, while the tax rate on food is 2.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases.[147] Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.[148]

Culture

Five women dressed in long colonial style clothing sit on the stairs of tan and beige buildings talking. In front of them is a wooden wheelbarrow full of wicker baskets.
Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style is reenacted in Williamsburg.
Virginia's historic culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South. Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States.[149][150] The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.[151] The Piedmont region is one of the most famous for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.[152][153]
Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive, and sometimes troubled, past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture.[154] Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.[155] William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice.[156] Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons.[157] Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate, currently Claudia Emerson of Fredericksburg who will serve until 2010.[158]
Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state.[142] Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.[159] Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state.[112]

Fine and performing arts

A small, boxy, wooden stage with a trapezoidal overhang stands in the center of meadow. In the foreground is a running stream with a stone embankment.
The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts.
Though rich in cultural heritage, Virginia ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average.[160] .The state does fund institutions including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia.^ Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Foundation .

^ Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine .

^ Va Museum of Fine Arts Foundation .

.Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art.^ Virginia Air & Space Center .

^ Chrysler Museum of Art .

^ Va Air & Space Center .

[161] Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the state, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields.[162] .The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.^ Virginia Society for Human Life, Inc.

[163]
Theaters and venues in the state are found both in the cities and suburbs. Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.[164] The Harrison Opera House in Norfolk is home to the official Virginia Opera, while the Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates around Hampton Roads.[165] .The American Shakespeare Center in Staunton is home to resident and touring theater troupes.^ American Shakespeare Center .

[166] Signature Theatre in Arlington won the 2009 Regional Theatre Tony Award. Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors.[1] Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, Nissan Pavilion, the Barter Theatre, and the Landmark Theater.[167]

Festivals

Dozens of brown and white ponies surge out of the shallow water onto a grassy shore crowded with onlookers.
The annual Chincoteague Pony Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague.
Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. .The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September.^ The State Fair of Virginia, Inc.

^ State Fair of Virginia, Inc.

.Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists.^ City of Virginia Beach .

^ James K. Spore, City Manager for the City of Virginia Beach .

Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.[168] Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.[169] The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[170] Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer.[164]
On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts. The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.[168]

Media

Two geometric all glass towers connected by a central atrium stand in front of a grassy walkway and under a dark and cloudy sky
McLean is home to the headquarters of USA Today, the nation's most circulated newspaper.
The Hampton Roads area is the 42nd-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 60th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 68th.[171] There are 21 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers.[172] More than 800 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with over 300 such AM stations.[173][174] The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. .The locally focused Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation, which produces MHz Networks, is a non-profit corporation which owns public TV and radio stations and has offices around the state.^ Commonwealth Public Broadcasting .

[175]
The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are the Richmond Times-Dispatch, Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot, The Roanoke Times, and Newport News' Daily Press. As of 2007, the Times-Dispatch has a daily subscription of 186,441, slightly more than the Pilot at 183,024, 50th and 52nd in the nation respectively, while the Roanoke Times has about 90,557 daily subscribers as of 2008.[176][177] Several Washington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and The Politico. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, is headquartered in McLean.[178] Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is home to telecommunication companies such as Sprint Nextel and XO Communications.

Education

An entrance to a school below a white concrete overhang with red brick walls. National and local flags fly next to a circle of five rocks.
Langley High School is one of Virginia's nationally ranked schools.
Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[179] The 2009 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country.[180] All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.[181] In 2008, 81% of high school students graduated on-time after four years.[182]
.Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state.^ Alexandria City Public School .

^ Albemarle County Public Schools .

^ Alexandria City Public Schools .

As of Fall 2009, a total of 1,245,937 students were enrolled in 1,890 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including four charter schools, and an additional 106 alternative and special education centers across 134 school divisions.[183][184] .Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools.^ Virginia Beach Public Schools .

The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[185] .The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 294 state accredited and 141 non-accredited private schools.^ Va Council for Private Education .

^ Virginia Business Higher Education Council .

[186] An additional 7,020 students receive homeschooling.[187]
.Nine high schools in the Northern Virginia region are ranked in the top 100 nationwide by Newsweek magazine.^ Northern Virginia Regional Commission .

[189] .In addition, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, which requires an application, listed as the best public high school in the nation according to U.S. News & World Report.^ Newport News Public Schools .

[190] All Northern Virginia schools pay the test fees for students to take Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate exams, and Alexandria and Arlington lead the nation in college course tests.[191]
As of 2009, there are 163 colleges and universities in Virginia.[192] In the U.S. News and World Report ranking of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second and The College of William & Mary is sixth.[193][194] .James Madison University has been the number one public master's university in The South since 1993.[195] The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college and a top ranked public liberal arts college.^ Virginia Military Institute Foundation .

[196][197] .Virginia Commonwealth University is the largest university in Virginia with over 32,000 students, followed closely by Virginia Tech and George Mason University.^ Center for the Arts at George Mason University .

^ George Mason University Foundation .

[198] Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities. .Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students.^ Virginia Foundation for Community College Education .

[199] There are 116 private institutions, including Washington and Lee University, Hampden–Sydney College, Roanoke College, and the University of Richmond.[192]

Health

Two towers, one dark red brick, one half brick and half stone rise over a multi-story parking garage.
Bon Secours St. Mary's Hospital in Richmond
.Virginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 21st overall healthiest state according to the 2009 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.^ Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of the Mid-Atlantic States, Inc.

[200] Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 7,104 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 6.7 deaths per 1,000.[201] There are however racial and social health disparities, with African Americans experiencing 27.9% more premature deaths than whites, while 13.6% of Virginians lack any health insurance.[200] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2007 survey, 25.3% of Virginians are obese and another 36.6% are overweight, and only 78.4% of residents exercise regularly.[202][203] About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese.[204]
.There are 85 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.^ Virginia Adult Day Health Services .

^ Association of Health Information Outsourcing Services C/O Multi-State .

^ The Humane Society of the United States .

[205] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. .The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S.News & World Report.^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ Virginia Society of Health-System Pharmacists .

^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

[206] .Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System, is also nationally ranked, and was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.^ Bon Secour Hampton Roads Health System, Inc.

^ Bon Secours Hampton Roads Health System .

[207][208] Virginia has 124 primary care physicians per 10,000 population, which is the 13th highest nationally.[200] Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.[209]

Transportation

Blue and silver train engine with red and white accent lines moves closer leading a series of similarly colored passenger cars with shrubs and a sound wall in the background.
The Virginia Railway Express runs commuter lines in Northern Virginia.
Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local city or county authority as is usual in other states.[210] As of 2007, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 68,428 miles (110,124 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.[211] Virginia's road system is ranked as the 16th best in the nation.[212] While the Washington Metropolitan Area has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[213][214] Virginia has both low disbursements for roads and bridges, and a low road fatality rate.[212]
Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. .The Washington Metro rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia as far west as Fairfax County, although expansion plans call for Metro to reach Loudoun County by 2016.[215] Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus.^ Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

^ The Health Systems Agency of Northern Virginia, Inc.

The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.[216]
Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International, Reagan Washington National, Richmond International, Norfolk International, and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.[217] The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.[218] The Eastern Shore of Virginia is home to Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.[219][220] Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.[221]

Law and government

All white Neoclassical building with pediment and six columns rises on a grassy hill with a large American elm tree in the left foreground. Two boxier, but similarly styled wings are attached at the building's rear.
The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson and begun by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785, is home to the Virginia General Assembly.
In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.[222] The modern government is ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure. This is the second time Virginia received the highest grade in the nation, which it shares with two others.[7]
Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can.[223] Governors may however serve non-consecutive terms. The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the lower general district and circuit courts.[224]
The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. .The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia.^ Virginia State Police Association .

The Virginia Capitol Police are the oldest police department in the United States.[225] The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard.[226] Since the 1982 resumption of capital punishment in Virginia, 105 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation.[227] The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average.[228]

Politics

In the last century Virginia has shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided single-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization.[229] African Americans were effectively disfranchised until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[230] Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting.[231] Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics.[232] Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base.[233][234] Democratic support also persists in union-influenced parts of Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.[235][236]
A crowded stage of politicians both white and African American stand before supporters and press.
Jim Webb speaks at a Richmond rally with former Governors Mark Warner, Tim Kaine, and Douglas Wilder, future President Barack Obama, and others.
Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats.[237] Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Robert McDonnell as governor by a 17 point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates.[238] State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.[239]
In federal elections since 2006, Democrats have seen more success. In the 2006 Senate election, Democrat Jim Webb won on a populist platform over the Republican incumbent following a very close race.[240] The party took both U.S. Senate seats after 2008, when former Governor Mark Warner replaced retiring Republican John Warner.[241] Of the state's 11 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, Democrats hold six and Republicans hold five. Virginia, which has 13 electoral votes, was won by Democrat Barack Obama in 2008, after being won by Republican candidates in the previous ten presidential elections.[242] Virginia may be considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections.[6]

Sports

A quarterback hands off the football to his running back. The team is dressed in Chicago maroon and burnt orange jerseys with white pants.
The Virginia Tech Hokies football team has the third longest bowl game streak in the nation.[243]
Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.[244] The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state and the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C.[245] Virginia is home to many minor league clubs, especially in baseball and soccer. Additionally, the Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters and training facility, in Ashburn and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston.[246] Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Michelob ULTRA Open. NASCAR currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Current Virginia drivers in the series include Jeff Burton, Denny Hamlin, and Elliot Sadler.[247]
The Washington Nationals and Baltimore Orioles also have followings due to their proximity, and both are broadcast in the state on MASN.[248] When the New York Mets ended their long affiliation with the Norfolk Tides in 2007, the Orioles adopted the minor league club as their top level (AAA) minor league affiliate.[249] Additionally, the Nationals, Orioles, Pittsburgh Pirates, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Chicago White Sox, and Atlanta Braves also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.[250] From 1966 until 2008, Atlanta's AAA franchise was the Richmond Braves.[251] Richmond Baseball Club L.C. is currently trying to purchase a new franchise for the city.[252]
Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[253] Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Several other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.[254]

State symbols

A large square metal sign, mostly white, with the words Virgina Welcomes You in blue and red. In the center a red cardinal bird sits on a branch with two white flowers around it.
The Virginia welcome sign at the Virginia welcome center on I-95 employs the state bird, the cardinal, and the state tree and flower, the dogwood.
The state nickname is the oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.[1]
The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always To Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[255] The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance.[15] Virginia currently has no state song. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.[256] Various alternatives, including a version of "Oh Shenandoah", have met with resistance in the Virginia House of Delegates.[257]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Factpack" (PDF). Virginia General Assembly. January 11, 2007. http://legis.state.va.us/1_cap_class/class_media/4_5_pdfs/factpack-1.pdf. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Median household income in the past 12 months (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GRTTable?_bm=y&-_box_head_nbr=R1901&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-format=US-30&-CONTEXT=grt. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 9, 2006. 
  5. ^ a b c "Virginia ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008". United States Census Bureau. 2008. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US51&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en. Retrieved October 31, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Balz, Dan (October 12, 2007). "Painting America Purple". The Washington Post. http://blog.washingtonpost.com/44/2007/10/12/the_purpling_of_america.html. Retrieved November 24, 2007. 
  7. ^ a b Somashekhar, Sandhya (March 4, 2008). "Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2008/03/03/ST2008030303550.html. Retrieved March 11, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Richards, Gregory (February 24, 2007). "Computer chips now lead Virginia exports". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on 2007-03-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070310155937/http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=120082&ran=25886. Retrieved September 29, 2008. 
  9. ^ "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2004. p. 71. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/phc3-us-pt1.pdf. Retrieved November 3, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in Potomac Conflict". The Sea Grant Law Center. University of Mississippi. 2003. http://nsglc.olemiss.edu/SandBar/SandBar2/2.4supreme.htm. Retrieved November 24, 2007. 
  11. ^ Hubbard, Jr. 2009, p. 140
  12. ^ "Fact Sheet 102-98 - The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". United States Geological Survey. November 18, 1998. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs102-98/. Retrieved August 24, 2009. 
  13. ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004, pp. 7, 56−57
  14. ^ "Rivers and Watersheds". The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 23, 2007. http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/rivers/rivers.html. Retrieved April 11, 2008. 
  15. ^ a b The Encyclopedia of Virginia 1999, pp. 2–15
  16. ^ Pazzaglia 2006, pp. 135−138
  17. ^ "Virginia's Agricultural Resources". Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. http://www.deq.state.va.us/vanaturally/guide/agriculture.html. Retrieved February 8, 2008. 
  18. ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004, p. 277
  19. ^ "Physiographic Regions of Virginia". The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 16, 2007. http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/provinces/phys_regions.html. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  20. ^ Palmer 1998, pp. 49−51
  21. ^ Heinemann et al. 2007, p. 3
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  223. ^ Strum, Albert L. (June 1977). "Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia by A. E. Dick Howard". The American Political Science Review 71 (2): 714–715. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28197706%2971%3A2%3C714%3ACOTCOV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P. Retrieved December 8, 2007. 
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  225. ^ Lettner, Kimberly. "Message from the Chief". The Division of Capitol Police. http://www.vcp.state.va.us/message.htm. Retrieved September 10, 2009. 
  226. ^ Listman, Jr., John W.; Carter, III, Lt. Col. Chester C. (August 20, 2007). "Serving Commonwealth and Country". Virginia Army National Guard. http://vko.va.ngb.army.mil/VirginiaGuard/history/overview.html. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
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  229. ^ Sweeney, James R. (1999). ""Sheep without a Shepherd": The New Deal Faction in the Virginia Democratic Party". Presidential Studies Quarterly 29: 438. doi:10.1111/1741-5705.00043. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001263885. Retrieved March 31, 2008. 
  230. ^ Burchett, Michael H. (Summer 1997). "Promise and prejudice: Wise County, Virginia and the Great Migration, 1910–1920". The Journal of Negro History 82 (3): 312. doi:10.2307/2717675. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2992%28199722%2982%3A3%3C312%3APAPWCV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. Retrieved March 31, 2008. 
  231. ^ Eisman, Dale (October 25, 2006). "Webb, Allen court Hispanic, white-collar voters in N. Va.". The Virginian-Pilot. http://hamptonroads.com/node/172411. Retrieved March 29, 2008. 
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  233. ^ Miller, Gary; Schofield, Norman (May 2003). "Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States". The American Political Science Review 97 (2): 245–260. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554(200305)97%3A2%3C245%3AAAPRIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y. Retrieved December 23, 2007. 
  234. ^ Craig, Tim (December 11, 2007). "Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va. Senate". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2007/12/10/ST2007121001571.html. Retrieved December 23, 2007. 
  235. ^ "State Political Profile: Virginia". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 2006. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/elections/keyraces/56/state-profile/. Retrieved December 23, 2007. 
  236. ^ Clemons, Michael L.; Jones, Charles E. (July 2000). "African American Legislative Politics in Virginia". Journal of Black Studies 30 (6, Special Issue: African American State Legislative Politics): 744–767. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9347%28200007%2930%3A6%3C744%3AAALPIV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. Retrieved February 2, 2008. 
  237. ^ Craig, Tim; Kumar, Anita (November 8, 2007). "Kaine Hails 'Balance' in New Political Landscape". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/07/AR2007110700553_2.html. Retrieved November 7, 2007. 
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  239. ^ Murray, Mark (April 16, 2009). "Shad Planking kicks Virginia race into gear". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30248457/. Retrieved May 7, 2009. 
  240. ^ Page, Susan (November 26, 2006). "Election '06: Lessons learned by dissecting votes". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-11-26-election-lessons_x.htm. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
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  242. ^ Lewis, Bob (November 5, 2008). "Obama first Democrat to take Virginia in 44 years". Associated Press. Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2008Nov05/0,4670,ElectionVirginia,00.html. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  243. ^ Wood, Norm (December 28, 2008). "Bowl streak began humbly". Daily Press. http://www.dailypress.com/sports/college/vt/dp-spt_techbowlstreak_1228dec28,0,6067597.story. Retrieved September 11, 2009. 
  244. ^ Minium, Harry (July 19, 2001). "Region Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes "Short List" for Existing Team’s Move" (PDF). The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on 2008-02-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080226215152/http://www.facilityplanners.com/news/pdf/Professional+Sports+in+Hampton+Roads.pdf. Retrieved December 9, 2007. 
  245. ^ Utt, Ronald D. (October 2, 1998). "Cities in Denial: The False Promise of Subsidized Tourist and Entertainment Complexes". The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/urbanissues/bg1223.cfm. Retrieved October 3, 2009. 
  246. ^ Fernandes, Deirdre (January 4, 2008). "Beach officials hope to lure Redskins' training camp to Sportsplex". The Virginian-Pilot. http://hamptonroads.com/2008/01/beach-officials-hope-lure-redskins%E2%80%99-training-camp-sportsplex. Retrieved April 12, 2008. 
  247. ^ "NASCAR in Virginia". Virginia is for Lovers. September 6, 2007. http://www.virginia.org/site/features.asp?featureid=201. Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
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  251. ^ Berman, Zach (September 2, 2008). "Richmond Will Be Home of the Braves No More". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/01/AR2008090103069.html. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  252. ^ O'Connor, John (July 8, 2009). "Conn. team that could move here occupying top spot". Richmond Times-Dispatch. http://www2.timesdispatch.com/rtd/sports/professional/professional_baseball/article/conn._team_that_could_move_here_occupying_top_spot/278745/. Retrieved August 19, 2009. 
  253. ^ "Athletics Task Force Report Recommends Restructuring Of Sports Program, Finances, Academic Support". University of Virginia. April 6, 2001. http://www.virginia.edu/topnews/releases2001/athletics-april-6-2001.html. Retrieved December 9, 2007. 
  254. ^ Brady, Erik (December 14, 2006). "Virginia town is big game central". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/football/2006-12-13-focus-salem_x.htm. Retrieved February 6, 2008. 
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  257. ^ Sluss, Michael (March 2, 2006). "Proposed state song doesn't bring down the House". The Roanoke Times. http://www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/wb/xp-54991. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 

Bibliography

External links

General
Government
Tourism and recreation
Culture and history
Maps and Demographics
Map of Virgina with major highways running mostly north-south across it, with several connected. Major cities are marked on it, as are the neighboring states.
Preceded by
New Hampshire
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on June 25, 1788 (10th)
Succeeded by
New York

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Virginia (disambiguation).
The Commonwealth of Virginia [1] is a state in the South of the United States of America. The state was one of the original thirteen British colonies and is the twelfth most populated state in the USA.
Bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and the west by the Appalachian mountains, with expanses of farmland in between, Virginia has much to offer history buffs and lovers of scenic landscapes. Virginia's three largest cities are Virginia Beach, Norfolk, and Chesapeake.
Virginia is bordered by the states of Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and the District of Colombia.
Regions of Virginia
Northern Virginia, the populous area bordering Washington, D.C., is influenced by the city's culture.
Eastern Virginia includes such tourist hot-spots as Colonial Williamsburg and Virginia Beach.
Central Virginia is home to Richmond, Virginia's capital city, and features historic sites from the Revolutionary and Civil Wars.
Southwest Virginia, also known as Virginia's highlands, is a mainly rural region defined by its Appalachian heritage.
Shenandoah Valley is bordered by the Blue Ridge Mountains, a region to enjoy nature at Shenandoah National Park.
  • Blue Ridge Parkway
  • Shenandoah National Park
  • The College of William and Mary
  • James Madison University
  • Luray Caverns
  • Monticello
  • Mount Vernon
  • Natural Bridge
  • Skyline Drive
  • University of Virginia
  • Virginia Tech
  • Yogaville

Understand

"Virginia Is For Lovers" [2] is the enigmatic motto of the Virginia tourism council. What makes Virginia particularly suited for amour remains something of a mystery, but the state does have many great features: beaches, forests, some of the oldest towns in North America, and proximity to the Mid-Atlantic and the deeper South.
Virginia is one of the thirteen original colonies, and one of the first states to ratify the Declaration of Independence. It is known as the "Mother of States" as its original territory included West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Tennessee. It is also known as the "Mother of Presidents," as eight U.S. presidents were born in the state: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson.
What is known today as Virginia has been inhabited for many hundreds of years by people of European descent. Jamestown, Virginia (near Williamsburg) is the site of the first lasting British settlement in the New World, dating to 1607. Native American tribes from Virginia, such as the Powhatan, had some of the richest native cultures in the Colonies.
In colonial times, Virginia was settled mainly along the rivers that empty into the Chesapeake bay. The settlers relied on slave labor to grow cash crops, such as tobacco, and relied on trade from England for basic needs. While settlers primarily from England, Scotland, and Ireland settled along the Potomac, Rappahannock, and James Rivers, many German settlers migrated into Virginia from Pennsylvania along the Shenandoah Valley.
Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861 and has a strong Civil War heritage, as well as a strong sense of Southern pride and feeling of independence that exists in much of the state (especially the capital Richmond) even today.
Following the Reconstruction after the Civil War, Virginia's economy shifted toward growing food crops in the north of the state, while the southern interior of the state continued to grow tobacco on smaller farms. The major shipyards at Norfolk continued to grow in importance as a major coal port and a naval base.
Following the growth of the US Federal Government during and after World War 2, Northern Virginia grew at an astronomical pace as government workers and contractors settled across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. Today, Virginia's economy is dominated by military bases dotted all over the state, government contracting agencies, and residents who commute into Washington, DC. Virginia Beach serves as a popular summer vacation spot and the Appalachian Mountains offer outdoor recreation. Virginia is also a popular destination for history buffs as Virginia was a major player in much of America's history.

Talk

English is spoken by majority of residents. In rural areas and farther south, you may experience what is commonly known as “southern accent”. This accent generally does not stop fluent English speakers from understanding the person but non fluent English speakers may experience problems. Most people can deliberately speak in non accented English upon request but find it difficult to do so for extended length of time. As with all places, locals may have non standard words to refer to places, actions and people. Locals are generally understanding of tourists not understanding these words and will clarify upon request.

Get in

Virginia like all states in United States can be entered freely by people who are either American Citizens or by other people who have been allowed entry into United States. People from other countries should see the United States of America article for more information about entering from foreign counties.

By plane

Virginia has many major airports servicing its main cities. Northern Virginia (the Washington DC suburbs) is serviced by Washington-Dulles International Airport and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (or, simply "Washington National" or "Reagan" for short). Washington National airport is by far the best airport in Northern Virginia due to its proximity to the Washington Metro Rail system and lower volume. Washington-Dulles Airport is better for international flights. However, its shuttles which transport passengers between the concourses, called "Mobile Lounges," make moving through the Dulles Airport a major hassle. Some concourses are connected via moving walkways and the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority is working on an underground rail system to link the concourses.
For Central and Southern Virginia destinations, Richmond International Airport offers flights to and from many major cities East of the Mississippi and in Texas.
For Eastern Virginia, especially the Virginia Beach/Norfolk/Hampton Roads/Portsmouth area, Norfolk International Airport offers flights to and from cities all over the U.S.
Other smaller regional airports service Roanoke, Lynchburg, Charlottesville, and Harrisonburg. Flights from these airports generally only go to large hubs such as Atlanta or Washington DC.

By train

Amtrak offers passenger rail service to many Virginia cities, including Alexandria, Fredericksburg, Manassas, Richmond, Norfolk, Charlottesville, and Staunton. For destinations in Northern Virginia, the best stops are Union Station in Washington, DC and the Fredericksburg station.
Amtrak offers commuter rail service via the Virginia Railway Express. Major stops are in Manassas, Franconia-Springfield, and Fredericksburg.
Getting into Virginia from Maryland and Washington, DC is very easy via Metro Rail and Metro Bus.

By car

Virginia is connected by secondary roads and Intserstate highways to the surrounding states.
  • Interstate 81 is the main route from Tennessee and continues through Virginia into Maryland and Pennsylvania.
  • Interstate 66 connects Northwestern and Northern Virginia with Washington, DC.
  • Interstate 95 runs north-south through Vrignia connecting Washington, DC to Fredericksburg and Richmond, on to North Carolina.
  • Interstate 495 encircles Washington, DC with part of its route going through Northern Virginia. Where I-95 intersects with I-495 at the southern-most end of I-495, Interstate 395 continues northward into DC while I-95 traces the same route as the eastern half of I-495. Thus, if you are to take I-95 from Richmond to Baltimore, MD, you would merge onto I-495 going East and North until I-95 splits off from I-495 on its north side to reach Baltimore.
  • Interstate 64 runs east-west through Virginia, connecting the Hampton Roads area with Richmond and Charlottesville. West of Charlottesville, it joins I-81 at Staunton. The two highways split at Lexington, with I-64 going through the western mountains until entering West Virginia.

Get around

Travel around Virginia is primarily(like the rest of the US) by car.
Amtrak trains run from Norfolk/Newport News to Richmond and out to the western panhandle. Trains also run north and south between Richmond and the Northern Virginia/DC area. A third major line runs from the western panhandle, north through Charlottesville, and up to Northern Virginia.
Virginia Railway Express (VRE), a commuter rail line, serves Washington, DC from points as far a way as Fredericksburg and Manassas.
The Washington Metro has several rail stations in Arlington, Alexandria, and Fairfax County.
Hitchhiking is slow-going in Virginia. Rides are hard to come by and the Virginia State Police are notorious for hassling travelers (hitchers and motorists alike). Your best bet is either to stick to the state roads in the mountains, or to stick to rest stops on the major highways.
  • Crabtree Falls in Nelson County
  • Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County
  • Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in Lexington
  • Peaks of Otter in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Popular spot for hiking and fishing. Home of the famous Peaks of Otter Lodge.
  • D-Day Memorial in Bedford

Do

As one of the original thirteen colonies Virginia offers numerous opportunities for those interested in history:
  • Mt. Vernon (George Washington Residence)
  • Monticello, Poplar Forest, and UVA (All dealing with Thomas Jefferson)
  • Appomattox Court House (Site of Civil War Surrender)
  • Berkeley Plantation (Home of Benjamin Harrison and others)
  • Agecroft Hall (1600 style setting Castle)
  • Maggie Walker Historical Site (Home to Maggie Walker)
  • The Historical Triangle (Colonial Williamsburg, Jamestown, Yorktown)
  • The College of William and Mary (Jefferson's alma mater)
In addition, visitors might choose to go to Theatre IV for some great authentic plays. Byrd Theatre is always the place to see old and modern movies at rates not topping $4. Or take a stroll down to Carytown, the "Georgetown of Virginia".

Golf

From the Atlantic Ocean to the Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia golf promises great beauty and geographic diversity. A mild climate, year-round golf and a variety of package plans adds to the allure of golfing in Virginia.
Throw in some of the best resort courses in the nation and new daily fee courses designed by some of the most noted golf course designers, and you've got the winning combination for an enjoyable golf getaway. Six resorts rank among America’s top 100. Dozens of its courses, crafted by world-famous designers, are part of every list of the country’s finest places to play.

Eat

The Virginia Department of Agriculture lists producers on its Virginia Grown website [3] , and there are dozens of seasonal food and drink festivals [4] across the state. Quality processed foods made in Virginia are promoted through the Virginia's Finest [5] program.
Most of the signature dishes of the state are common to Southern/American cuisine. Country ham is a cured specialty frequently served at holiday meals and breakfast with the largest producers based around Surry county. In the Southeast is the county of Brunswick, one of several locations that claims itself to be the birthplace of Brunswick Stew [6]. The Highland County Maple Festival [7] celebrates local maple syrup producers high up in the Blue Ridge mountains, the lines for the Ruritan's pancake breakfast's are super long, though with a friendly atmosphere, and can be avoided by dining in an area restaurant/inn. Do try the maple doughnuts made with nutmeg and fresh maple syrup.
The Chesapeake Bay region produces some of the nation's best seafood, especially crab and oysters.

Drink

Tap water is safe to drink.
Virginia law requires you to be 21 to buy alcohol or consume alcohol. Photo ID will be required to prove age.
Beer and other alcoholic drinks are available from most restaurants and bars, with purchase prohibited between 2 and 6 a.m.. Variety of what is available differs from restaurant to restaurant and when in doubt people should check menu or with a waiter to see what is available.
Beer, wine, and malternatives/alcopops are sold at most grocery and convenience stores, but cannot be purchased between midnight and 6 a.m.. Certain counties in Virginia prohibit Sunday sale of alcohol, mainly the south west counties. When in doubt, check with local county police department or simply ask store owner.
Hard Liquor is only allowed to be sold by Virginia ABC (Alcoholic Beverage Control) stores. More information about these stores and other alcohol related information can be found at their website. [8]
Cheerwine, a regional cherry flavored soda, can be purchased in convenience stores in the more southern parts of the state.

Wineries

Virginia is home to over 130 wineries, spanning from the Eastern Shore to the Heart of Appalachia. Wherever you are in Virginia, there's a winery nearby. Virginia’s many wine trails across the state make visiting wineries easy and fun! Wine events statewide offer wine tasting, food, music, art, shopping and activities, such as grape stomping and hot air balloon rides.
  • Virginia Wine Travel [9]
  • Virginia Wine Festivals [10]

Stay safe

Certain cities in Virginia have crime problems, in particular, the cities of Richmond and Norfolk. However, most places in Virginia like the rest of US are safe. Check with locals to determine what areas you should avoid. Standard safety rules apply: Stay in groups as much as possible, trust your instincts and do not flash around cash or large value items. If you need urgent medical, fire or police assistance, all areas participate in 911 program.

Get out

Washington Dulles Airport is major international airport and probably best place to catch a flight to exit the US. Dulles also has large amount of Domestic flights along with Richmond International.
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Virginia
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Virginia (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Virginia.

VIRGINIA, one of the more N. of the S.E. Atlantic states of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 36° 30' and 39° 30' N., and longitude 75° 15' and 83° 40' W. It is bounded on the N.W. by Kentucky and West Virginia, the irregular boundary line following mountain ridges for a part of its course; on the N.E. by Maryland, from which it is separated by the Potomac river; on the S. by North Carolina and Tennessee, the boundary line being nominally a parallel of latitude, but actually a more irregular line. Virginia has an area of 42,627 sq. m., of which 2365 sq. m. are water surface, including land-locked bays and harbours, rivers and Lake Drummond. The state has a length of about 440 m. E. and W., measured along its S. boundary; and an extreme breadth N. and S. of about 200 m.
Table of contents

Physical Features

Virginia is crossed from N. to S. or N.E. to S.W. by four distinct physiographic provinces. The easternmost is the Coastal Plain Province, and forms a part of the great Coastal Plain bordering the S.E. United States from New York Harbour to the Rio Grande. This province occupies about 11,000 sq. m. of the state, and is known as "Tidewater Virginia." After the plain had been raised above sea-level to a higher elevation than it now occupies, it was much dissected by streams and then depressed, allowing the sea to invade the stream valleys. Such is the origin of the branching bays or "drowned river valleys," among which may be noted the lower Potomac, Rappahannock, York and James rivers. Chesapeake Bay itself is the drowned lower course of the Susquehanna river, to which the other streams mentioned were 1 The mechanism is described under Pianoforte and Spinet.
tributary previous to the depression which transformed them into bays. The land between the drowned valleys is relatively flat, and varies in height from sea-level on the E. to 150-300 ft. on the W. border. Passing westward across the "fall-line," the next province is the Piedmont, a part of the extensive Piedmont Belt reaching from Pennsylvania to Alabama. This is the most extensive of the subdivisions of Virginia, comprising 18,000 sq. m. of its area, and varying in elevation from 150-300 ft. on the E. to 700-1200 ft. along the foot of the Blue Ridge at the W. The sloping surface is gently rolling, and has resulted from the uplift and dissection of a nearly level plain of erosion developed on folded, crystalline rocks. Occasional hard rock ridges rise to a moderate elevation above the general level, while areas of unusually weak Triassic sandstones have been worn down to form lowlands. W. of the Piedmont, and like it consisting of crystalline rocks, is the Blue Ridge, a mountain belt from 3 to 20 M. in breadth, narrowing toward the N., where it passes into Maryland, and broadening southward toward its great expansion in W. North Carolina and E. Tennessee, where it is transformed into massive mountain groups. In elevation the Blue Ridge of Virginia varies from 1460 ft. at Harper's Ferry, where the Potomac river breaks through it in a splendid water-gap, to 5719 ft. in Mt. Rogers, Grayson county. About 2500 sq. m. of the state are comprised in this province.
W. of the Blue Ridge is the Newer Appalachian or Great Valley Province, characterized by parallel ridges and valleys developed by erosion on folded beds of sandstone, limestone and shales, and comprising an area of about 10,400 sq. m. in Virginia. The belts of non-resistant rock have been worn away, leaving longitudinal valleys separated by hard rock ridges. A portion of this province in which weak rocks predominate gives an unusually broad valley region, known as the Valley of Virginia, drained by the Shenandoah river, and the headwaters of the James, Roanoke, New, and Holston rivers, which dissect the broad valley floor into gently rolling low hills. At the N., near the mouth of the Shenandoah, the valley is about 250 ft. above sea-level, but rises south-westward to an elevation of more than 1600 ft. at the S. boundary of the state.
The rivers of the state flow in general from N.W. to S.E., across the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain, following courses which were established before erosion had produced much of the present topography. But in the Newer Appalachians the streams more often follow the trend of the structure until they empty into one of the larger, transverse streams. Thus the Shenandoah flows N.E. to the Potomac, the Holston S.W. toward the Tennessee. A part of this same province, in the S.W. part of the state, is drained by the New river, which flows N.W. across the ridges to the Kanawha and Ohio rivers in the Appalachian Plateau. In the limestone regions caverns and natural bridges occur, among which Luray Cavern and the Natural Bridge are well known. The drowned lower courses of the S.E. flowing streams are navigable, and afford many excellent harbours. Chesapeake Bay covers much land that might otherwise be agriculturally valuable, but repays this loss, in part at least, by its excellent fisheries, including those for oysters. In the S.E., where the low, flat Coastal Plain is poorly drained, is the Great Dismal Swamp, a fresh-water marsh covering 700 sq. m., in the midst of which is Lake Drummond, 2 m. or more in diameter. Along the shores of Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean are low, sandy beaches, often enclosing lagoons or salt marshes.

Fauna

Till about the middle of the 18th century the bison and the elk roamed the W. part of the state. The Virginia deer is common in the bottomlands; a few beaver still frequent the remoter streams; in the higher portions are still a few black bears and pumas, besides the lynx, the Virginia varying hare, the woodchuck, the red and the fox squirrel and flying squirrels. The grey squirrel is plentiful in wooded districts. On the Coastal Plain are the musk-rat, the eastern cotton-tail, chipmunk, grey fox, common mole and Virginia opossum. In colonial times the Atlantic right-whale was killed in some numbers off the coast.
Many species of water and shore birds migrate along the coast, where also others breed, as the royal, common and least terns and black skimmer; practically all the ducks are migrant species, though the wood-duck breeds. Swan, geese and brant winter on the coast. The yellow-crowned night-heron and the little blue heron nest rarely. The turkey-buzzard and the barn-owl are resident. Red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, orchard orioles, yellowwinged sparrows, the cardinal, the blue grosbeak, the Carolina wren and the mocking-bird are characteristic of the lower elevations. The ruffed grouse and wild turkey are found in the wooded mountainous districts, while the quail (here called "partridge") is a game bird of the open stubble fields.
Of reptiles, the rattlesnake and copperhead are the only poisonous species, but numerous harmless varieties are common. In the salt marshes of the coast occurs the diamond-backed terrapin. Trout abound in the mountain streams, and black bass in the rivers of the interior. The cat-fish grows to a large size in the sluggish rivers. On the coast, the striped bass, sea-bass, drum, sheepshead, weakfish, bluefish and Spanish mackerel are important as food fishes. There are valuable oyster fisheries in Chesapeake Bay.

Flora

The Coastal Plain of Virginia is covered with pine forests which merge westward with the hard woods of the Piedmont Belt, where oaks formerly prevailed, but where a second growth of pine now constitutes part of the forest. Even on the Coastal Plain the Jersey and oldfield pines of to-day replace more valuable species of the original growth. The Blue Ridge and Newer Appalachian regions are covered with pine, hemlock, white oak, cherry and yellow poplar; while that portion of these provinces lying in the S.W. part of the state still contains valuable forests of hickory and walnut, besides oak and cherry. On the Coastal Plain the cypress grows in the Dismal Swamp, river birch along the streams, and sweet gum and black gum in swampy woods. Other characteristic plants of the Coastal Plain are the cranberry, wild rice, wild yam, wax myrtle, wistaria, trumpet flower, passion flower, holly and white alder. Many of these species spread into the Piedmont Belt. Rhododendron, mountain laurel and azaleas are common in the mountains. The blackberry, black raspberry, huckleberry, blueberry, wild ginger and ginseng are widely distributed.

Climate

The climate of Virginia is generally free from extremes of heat and cold. In the Coastal Plain region the temperature is quite stable from day to day, as a result of the equalizing effect of the numerous bays which indent this province. The mean winter temperature is 39.8°, the mean summer temperature 77.2', with a mean annual of 58.6°. Killing frosts do not occur before the middle of October, nor later than the last part of April. In the Piedmont Province temperature conditions are naturally less stable, owing to the distance from the sea and to the greater inequality of surface topography. In autumn and winter sudden temperature changes are experienced, though not frequently. The mean winter temperature of this province is 35.8°; mean summer temperature, 75°; mean annual, 55.9°. Killing frosts may occur as early as the first of October and as late as the last of May. The greatest variability in temperature conditions in the state occurs in the Blue Ridge, Newer Appalachian Provinces, where the most rugged and variable topography is likewise found. The mean winter temperature for this section is 33.8°; mean summer temperature, 71.3°; mean annual, 53.2°.

Soil

Marshy soils are found along the lowest portions of the Coastal Plain, and are exceedingly productive wherever reclaimed by draining, as in portions of the Dismal Swamp. Other portions of the Coastal Plain afford more valuable soils, sandy loams overlying sandy clays. On the higher elevations the soil is light and sandy, and such areas remain relatively unproductive. The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility. Passing the high and rugged Blue Ridge, which is infertile except in the intervening valleys of its S.W. expansion, we reach the Newer Appalachians, where fertile limestone soils cover the valley floors. The Valley of Virginia is the most productive part of the state.

Forests

The woodland area of Virginia was estimated in 1900 at 23,400 sq. m., or 58% of the area of the state. The timber area originally comprised three divisions: the mountain regions growing pine and hard woods and hemlock; the Piedmont region producing chiefly oaks with some pine; and the lands below the "Fall Line," which were forested with yellow pine. Most of the pine of the mountain region has been cut, and the yellow pine and hard woods have also largely disappeared. The production of timber has, however, steadily increased. In 1900 the value of the product was $12,137,177, representing chiefly yellow pine.

Fisheries

Oysters are by far the most valuable of the fisheries products, but, of the 400,000 acres of waters within the state suitable for oyster culture, in 1909 only about one-third was used for that purpose. Next in importance were the catches of menhaden, shad, clams, squeteague and alewives; while minor catches were made of crabs, croaker, bluefish, butterfish, catfish, perch and spotted and striped bass.

Agriculture

Tobacco was an important crop in the earlier history of the colony, and Virginia continued to be the leading tobacco-producing state of the Union (reporting in 1850 28.4% of the total crop) until after the Civil War, which, with the division of the state, caused it to fall into second place, Kentucky taking the lead; and in 1900 the crop of North Carolina also was larger. The state's production of tobacco in 1909 was 120,125,000 lb, valued at $10,210,625.
The production of Indian corn in 1909 was 47,328,000 bus., valued at $35,023,000; of wheat, 8,848,000 bus., valued at $10,175,000; of oats, 3,800,000 bus., valued at $2,052,000; of rye, 184,000 bus., valued at $155,000; of buckwheat, 378,000 bus., valued at $287,000; the hay crop was valued at $8,060,000 (606,000 tons). The amount of the cotton crop in 1909 was 10,000 50o-lb bales.
The value of horses in 1910 was $34,561,000 (323,000 head); of mules, $7,020,000 (54,000 head); of neat cattle, $20,034,000 (875,000 head); of swine, $5,031,000 (774,000 head); of sheep, $2,036,000 (522,000 head).

Minerals

The value of all mineral products in 1908 was $ 1 3, 12 7,395. By far the most valuable single product was bituminous coal ($3, 868 ,5 2 4; 4, 2 59, 0 4 2 tons). The existence of this mineral in the vicinity of Richmond was known as early as 1770, and the mining of it there began in 1775, but it was practically discontinued about the middle of the 19th century. The most important coalfields of the state lie in the Appalachian regions in the S.W. part of the state, though there are also rich deposits in the counties of Henrico, Chesterfield and Goochland, and in parts of Powhatan and Amelia counties. In the S.E. portion of the Kanawha basin, including Tazewell, Russell, Scott, Buchanan, Wise and Lee counties, occur rich deposits of coal, which are of great value because of their proximity to vast deposits of iron ores. In Tazewell county is the famous Pocahontas bed, which produces one of the most valuable grades of coking and steam coal to be found in the United States. There are remarkably rich deposits of iron ore in the Alleghanies, and the W. foothills of the Blue Ridge, from which most of the iron ore of the state is procured, are lined with brown hematite. Iron-mining - perhaps the first in the New World - was begun in Virginia in 1608, when the Virginia Company shipped a quantity of ore to England; and in 1619 the Company established on Falling Creek, a tributary of the James river, a colony of about 150 ironworkers from Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Sussex, who had established there several ore-reducing plants under the general management of John Berkeley of Gloucester, England, when on the 22nd of March 1622 the entire colony, excepting a girl and a boy, were massacred by the Indians. The first blast-furnace in the colony seems to have been owned by Governor Spotswood, and was built and operated at the head of the Rappahannock river about 1715 by a colony of German Protestants. Immediately after the War of Independence Virginia became an important iron-producing state. The industry waned rapidly toward the middle of the 19th century, but was renewed upon the discovery of the high-grade ores in the S.V. part of the state and the development of railway facilities. The product of iron ore in 1908 was 692,223 long tons, valued at $1,465,691. The product of pig-iron in 1908 was 320,458 long tons, valued at $4,578,000.
Manganese ore-mining began in Virginia in 1857 in the Shenandoah Valley, and the product increased from about 100 tons in that year to about 5000 tons (mined near Warminster, Nelson county) in 1868 and 1869. Thereafter Virginia and Georgia supplied most of this mineral produced in the United States, and the greater part of it has been shipped to England. Between 1885 and 1891 the average annual production was about 15,000 tons, the greatest output20,567 tons - being mined in 1886. After 1891 the product declined rapidly, amounting in 1907 to Boo tons valued at $4800.
In the production of pyrite, which is found in Louisa county and is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid employed in the treatment of wood pulp for paper-making and in the manufacture of superphosphates from phosphate rock, Virginia took first rank in 1902 with an output valued at $501,642, or 64.7% of the total yield of this mineral in the United States; and this rank was maintained in 1908, when the product was 116,340 long tons, valued at $435,522. Limestone is found in the region west of the Blue Ridge, and has been quarried extensively, the product, used chiefly for flux, being valued in 1908 at $645,385.
Virginia was by far the most important state in 1908 in the production of soapstone, nearly the whole product being taken from a long narrow belt running north-east from Nelson county into Albemarle county; more than 90% of the output was sawed into slabs for laundry and laboratory appliances. The product of talc and soapstone in 1908 was 19,616 short tons, valued at $458,252.
The value of mineral waters produced in 1908 was $207,115. The state has many mineral springs occurring in connexion with faults in the Appalachian chain of mountains; in 1908, 46 were reported, making the state third among the states of the United States in number of springs, and of these several have been in high medical repute. At 18 of these resorts are situated, some of which have at times had considerable social vogue. White Sulphur Springs, in Greenbrier county, impregnated with sulphur, with therapeutic application in jaundice, dyspepsia, &c.; Alleghany Springs, in Montgomery (disambiguation)|Montgomery county, calcareous and earthy, purgative and diuretic; Rawley Springs in Rockingham county, Sweet Chalybeate Springs in Alleghany county, and Rockbridge Alum Springs in Rockbridge county, classed as iron springs and reputed of value as tonics, and the thermal springs, Healing Springs (88° F.) and Hot Springs (Iio F.), both in Bath (disambiguation)|Bath county are noted medicinal springs.
The value of metals produced in 1908 was as follows: gold (which is found in a belt that extends from the Potomac river to Halifax (disambiguation)|Halifax county and varies from 15 to 25 in. in width), $3600 (174 fine oz. troy); copper, $33 12 (25,087 /b); and lead, $1092 (13 short tons). Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin. Asbestos was formerly mined in the western and south-western parts of the state. Barytes is mined near Lynchburg; the value of the output in 1907 was $32,833, since which date the output has decreased.

Manufactures

Virginia's manufacturing establishments increased very rapidly in number and in the value of their products during the last two decades of the 19th century. The number of all establishments increased from 5710 in 1880 to 8248 in 190o; the capital invested from $26,968,990 to $103,670,988, the average number of wage-earners from 40,184 to 72,702, the total wages from $7,425,261 to $22,445,720, and the value of products from $51,770, 992 to $132,172,910. The number of factories' increased from 3186 in 1900 to 3187 in 1905, the capital invested from $92,299,589 to $ 1 47,9 8 9, 182, the average number of wage-earners from 66,223 to 80,285, the total wages from $20,269,026 to $ 2 7,943, 0 5 8, and the value of products from $108,644,150 to $148,856,525. The manufacture of all forms of tobacco is the most important industry; the value of its products in 1905 was $16,768,204. Since 1880 there has been a rapid development in textile manufacture, for which the water power of the Piedmont region is used. A peculiar industry is the grading, roasting, cleaning and shelling of peanuts.

Transportation and Commerce

Four large railway systems practically originate in the state and radiate to the S. and W.: the Southern railway, with its main line traversing the state in the direction of its greatest length leaving Washington to run south-west through Alexandria, Charlottesville, Lynchburg and Danville to the North Carolina line, with connexions to Richmond and a line to Norfolk on the east; the Atlantic Coast line with its main lines running S. from Richmond and Norfolk; the Seaboard Air line, having its main lines also running to the S. from Richmond and Norfolk; the Norfolk & Western crossing the state from east to west in the southern part with Norfolk its eastern terminus, passing through Lynchburg and leaving the state at the south-western corner at Bristol, and the Chesapeake & Ohio crossing the state from east to west farther north than the Norfolk & Western from Newport News on the coast through Richmond to the West Virginia line. Of more recent construction is the Virginian railway, a project of H. H. Rogers, opened for traffic in 1909, which connects the coal region of West Virginia with Norfolk, crossing the southern part of the state from E. to W., and is designed chiefly for heavy freight traffic. The N. W. part of the state is entered by the Baltimore & Ohio, which has a line down the Shenandoah Valley to Lexington. Connexion between Richmond and Washington is by a union line (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac and Washington Southern railways) operated jointly by the Southern, Atlantic Coast line, Seaboard Air line, Chesapeake & Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore & Ohio railways. In 1850 there were 384 m. of railway in Virginia; in 1880, 1839 m., and in 1890 it had nearly doubled, having increased to 3,359.54 m., a gain coincident with the newly awakened industrial activity of the Southern States and an era of railway building throughout this section. The railway mileage in 1900 was 3,789.58, and in January 1909 it was 4,348.53.
Hampton Roads at the mouth of the James river, which forms the harbour for the leading ports of the state, Norfolk and Newport News, affords one of the best anchorages of the Atlantic coast. It gives shelter not only to vessels plying to its adjoining ports but serves as a harbour of refuge for shipping bound up or down the Atlantic coast, and is fre q uently used for the assembling of naval fleets. There is a large foreign trade and a regular steamship service to Boston, Providence, New York, Philadelphia and Savannah from Norfolk, and there is a considerable traffic on Chesapeake Bay, the Rappahannock, York, James and Elizabeth rivers. Fredericksburg at the head of navigation on the Rappahannock and West Point on the York have traffic of commercial importance in lumber and timber, oysters and farm produce, cotton and tobacco especially being shipped in coastwise vessels from West Point. Petersburg and Richmond on the James are connected with regular steamship lines with Norfolk, Richmond's water trade being chiefly in coal, oil, logs and fertilizer. Steamboats plying on Chesapeake Bay connect Alexandria with Norfolk. From the Elizabeth river on which Norfolk is situated lead the Albemarle & Chesapeake Canal and the Dismal Swamp Canal, which connect with the waters of Albemarle Sound. Traffic through these canals consists chiefly of forest products, logs, lumber and shingles.

Population

The population of Virginia in 1890 was 1,655,980; in 1900, 1,854,184; and in 1910, 2,061,612.2 Of the total population in 1900, 1,173,787 were native whites, 19,461 were foreign-born, 660,722 (or 35.7% of the total population) were negroes, 354 were Indians, 243 were Chinese and 10 were Japanese. The state was fifth among the states and Territories in the number of negro inhabitants, but showed a marked decrease in the ratio of negroes to the total population in the decade from 1890 to 1900, the percentage of the total population in 1890 having been 38.4.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 53,235 were natives of North Carolina, 12,504 were natives of Maryland, and 10,273 were natives of Pennsylvania. Of the foreign-born 4504 were ' Statistics for 1890 represent the value of all manufactures; those for 1900 (from this point) and 1905 show values under the factory system, excluding neighbourhood industries and hand trades.
2 According to previous censuses the population was as follows: (1790), 747, 610; (1800), 880,200; (1810), 974,600; (1820), 1,065,366; (1830), 1,211,405; (1840), 1,239,797 (1850), 1,421,661; (1860), 1,596,318; (1870), 1,225,163; (1880), 1,512,565.
Germans, 3534 were natives of Ireland and 3425 of England. Of the total population 52,264 were of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born) and 9769 were of German, 8235 of Irish and 4792 of English parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side. Out of the total of 793,546 members of religious denominations in 1906, more than half, 415,987, were Baptists; the Methodists numbered 200,771; and there were 39,6 2 8 Presbyterians, 28,700 Roman Catholics, 28,487 Protestant Episcopalians, 26,248 Disciples of Christ, and 15,010 Lutherans. Virginia in 1900 had 46.2 inhabitants to the square mile. The principal cities of the state are: Richmond (the capital), Norfolk, Petersburg, Roanoke, Newport News, Lynchburg, Portsmouth and Danville.

Government

Virginia has had six state constitutions: the first was adopted in 1776, the second in 1830, the third in 1851, the fourth in 1864, the fifth in 1869, and the sixth, the present, in 1902. Amendments to the present constitution may be proposed in either house of the General Assembly, and if they pass both houses of that and the succeeding General Assembly by a majority of the members elected to each house and are subsequently approved by a majority of the people who vote on the question at the next general election they become a part of the constitution. A majority of the members in each house of the General Assembly may at any time propose a convention to revise the constitution and, if at the next succeeding election a majority of the people voting on the question approve, the General Assembly must provide for the election of delegates. To be entitled to vote one must be a male citizen of the United States and twenty-one years of age; have been a resident of the state for two years, of the county, city, or town for one year, and of the election precinct for thirty days next preceding the election; have paid, at least six months before the election, all state poll taxes assessed against him for three years next preceding the election, unless he is a veteran of the Civil War; and have registered after the adoption of the constitution (1902). For registration prior to 1904 one of four additional qualifications was required: service in the army or navy of the United States, of the Confederate States, or of some state of the United States or of the Confederate States; direct descent from one who so served; ownership of property upon which state taxes amounting to at least one dollar were paid in the preceding year; or ability to read the constitution or at least to show an understanding of it. And to qualify for registration after 1904 one must have paid all state poll taxes assessed against him for the three years immediately preceding his application, unless he is a veteran of the Civil War; and unless physically unable he must "make application in his own handwriting, without aid, suggestion or memorandum, in the presence of the registration officers, stating therein his name, age, date and place of birth, residence and occupation at the time and for two years next preceding, whether he has previously voted, and, if so, the state, county and precinct in which he voted last"; and must answer questions relating to his qualifications.

Executive

The governor, lieutenant-governor, attorney-general, secretary of the commonwealth, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction and commissioner of agriculture are elected for a term of four y ears, every fourth year from 1905, and each new administration begins on the 1st of February. The governor must be at least thirty years of age, a resident of the state for five years next preceding his election; and, if of foreign birth, a citizen of the United States for ten years. He appoints numerous officers with the concurrence of the Senate, has the usual power of vetoing legislative bills, and has authority to inspect the records of officers, or to employ accountants to do so, and to suspend, during a recess of the General Assembly, any executive officer at the seat of government except the lieutenant-governor; he must, however, report to the General Assembly at its next session the cause of any suspension and that body determines whether the suspended officer shall be restored or removed.

Legislature

The General Assembly consists of a Senate and a House of Delegates. The Constitution provides that the number of senators shall not be more than forty nor less than thirty-three, and that the number of delegates shall not be more than one hundred nor less than ninety. Senators and delegates are elected by single districts (into which the state is apportioned once every ten years, according to population), the senators for a term of four years, the delegates for a term of two years. The only qualifications for senators and delegates are those required of an elector and residence in their districts; there are, however, a few disqualifications, such as holding certain offices in the state or a salaried Federal office. The General Assembly meets regularly at Richmond on the second Wednesday in January of each even-numbered year, and the governor must call an extra session on the application of two-thirds of the members of both houses, and may call one whenever he thinks the interests of the state require it. The length of a regular session. is limited to sixty days unless three-fifths of the members of each house concur in extending it, and no extension may exceed thirty days. Senators and delegates are paid $500 each for each regular session and $250 for each extra session. Any bill may originate in either house, but a bill of special, private or local interest must be referred to a standing committee of five members appointed by the Senate and seven members appointed by the House of Delegates, before it is referred to the committee of the house in which it originated. The governor's veto power extends to items in appropriation bills, and to overcome his veto, whether of a whole bill or an item of an appropriation bill, a two-thirds vote in each house of the members* present is required, and such two-thirds must include in each house a majority of the members elected to that house. Whenever the governor approves of the general purpose of a bill, but disapproves of some portion or portions, he may return the bill with his recommendations for amendment, and when it comes back to him, he may, whether his recommendations have been adopted or not, treat it as if it were before him for the first time.

Judiciary

The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court of appeals, circuit courts, city courts and courts of a justice of the peace. The supreme court of appeals consists of five judges, but any three of them may hold a court. They are chosen for a term of twelve years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates. The court sits at Richmond, Staunton and Wytheville. The concurrence of at least three judges is necessary to the decision of a case involving the constitutionality of a law. Whenever the docket of this court is crowded, or there is a case upon it in which it is improper for a majority of the judges to sit, the General Assembly may provide for a special court of appeals, to be composed of not more than five nor less than three judges of the circuit courts and city courts, in cities having a population of 10,000 or more. The state is divided into thirty judicial circuits and in each of these a circuit judge is chosen for a term of eight years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates. The jurisdiction of the circuit courts was extended by the present Constitution to include that which, under the preceding Constituticn, was vested in county courts, and the principal restriction is that they shall not have original jurisdiction in civil cases for the recovery of personal property amounting to less than $20. Similar to the circuit court is the corporation court in each city having a population of to,000 or more; the judge of each of these corporation courts is chosen for a term of eight years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates, and he may hold a circuit as well as a corporation court. Circuit courts and corporation courts appoint the commissioners in chancery. Three justices of the peace are elected in each magisterial district for a term of four years. There are also justices of the peace (elected) and police justices (appointed) in cities, and in various minor cases a justice's court has original jurisdiction, either exclusive or concurrent, with the circuit and corporation courts. In each city having a population of 70,000 or more a special justice of the peace, known as a civil justice, is elected by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates for a term of four years.

Local Government

Each county is divided into magisterial districts, varying in number from three to eleven. Each district elects a supervisor for a term of four years, and the district supervisors constitute a county board of supervisors, which represents the county as a corporation, manages the county property and county business, levies the county taxes, audits the accounts of the county, and recommends for appointment by the circuit court a county surveyor and a county superintendent of the poor. Each county also elects a treasurer, a sheriff, an attorney and one or more commissioners of the revenue, each for a term of four years, and a clerk, who is clerk of the circuit court, for a term of eight years. The coroner is appointed by the circuit court for a term of two years. Each magisterial district elects, besides a supervisor and justices of the peace, a constable and an overseer of the poor, each for a term of four years. The Constitution provides that all "communities" with a population less than 5000, incorporated after its adoption, shall be known as towns, and that those with a population of 5000 or more shall be known as cities. In each city incorporated after its adoption, the Constitution requires the election in each of a mayor, a treasurer and a sergeant, each fora term of four years, and the election or appointment of a commissioner of the revenue for an equal term; that in cities having a population of 10,000 or more the council shall be composed of two branches; that the mayor shall have a veto on all acts of the council and on items of appropriation, ordinances or resolutions, which can be overridden only by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch; and that no city shall incur a bonded indebtedness exceeding 18% of the assessed value of its real estate.

Miscellaneous Laws

A married woman may manage her separate property as if she were single, except that she cannot by her sole act deprive her husband of his courtesy in her real estate. A widow is entitled to a dower in one-third of the real estate of which her husband was seized at any time during coverture. If the husband dies intestate, leaving no descendants and no paternal or maternal kindred, the whole of his estate goes to his widow absolutely. If the husband dies intestate, leaving a widow and issue, either by her or by a former marriage, the widow is entitled to at least one-third of his personal estate; if he leaves no issue by her, she is entitled to so much of his personal estate as was acquired by him by virtue of his marriage with. her prior to the 4th of April 1877; if he leaves no issue whatever, she is entitled to one-half of his personal estate. A widower is entitled by courtesy to a life interest in all his wife's real estate; if she dies intestate, he is entitled to all her personal estate; if she dies intestate, leaving no descendants and no paternal or maternal kindred, he is entitled to her whole estate absolutely. The causes for an absolute divorce are adultery; impotency; desertion for three years; a sentence to confinement in the penitentiary; a conviction of an infamous offence before marriage unknown to the other; or, if one of the parties is charged with an offence punishable with death or confinement in the penitentiary, and has been a fugitive from justice for two years; pregnancy of the wife before marriage unknown to the husband, or the wife's being a prostitute before marriage unknown to the husband. One party must be a resident of the state for one year preceding the commencement of a suit for a divorce. When a divorce is obtained because of adultery, permission of the guilty party to marry again is in the discretion of the court. Marriages between whites and negroes and bigamous marriages are void. The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $2000 and properly recorded is exempt from levy, seizure, garnishment or forced sale, except for purchase money, for services of a labouring person or mechanic, for liabilities incurred by a public officer, fiduciary or attorney for money collected, for taxes, for rent or for legal fees of a public officer. If the owner is a married man his homestead cannot be sold except by the joint deed of himself and his wife; neither can it be mortgaged without his wife's consent except for purchase money or for the erection or repair of buildings upon it. The exemption continues after his death so long as there is an unmarried widow or an unmarried minor child. The family library, family pictures, school books, a seat or pew in a house of worship, a lot in a burial ground, necessary wearing apparel, a limited amount of furniture and household utensils, some of a farmer's domestic animals and agricultural implements, and the wages of a labouring man who is a householder are exempt from levy or distress. A law enacted in 1908 forbids the employment of children under fourteen years of age in any factory, workshop, mercantile establishment, or mine within the state, except that orphans or other children dependent upon their own labour for support or upon whom invalid parents are dependent may be so employed after they are twelve years of age, and that a parent may work his or her own children in his or her own factory, workshop, mercantile establishment or mine.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.--Virginia has four hospitals for the insane: the Eastern State Hospital (1773), at Williamsburg; the South-Western State Hospital (1887), at Marion; the Western State Hospital (1828), with an epileptic colony, at Staunton; and the Central State Hospital (1870; for negroes), at Petersburg. For the care of the deaf and blind there is the Virginia School for Deaf and Blind (1839), at Staunton, and the Virginia School for Coloured Deaf and Blind Children (1908), at Newport News. The State Penitentiary is at Richmond. The Prison Association of Virginia with an Industrial School (1890) at Laurel Station, the Negro Reformatory Association of Virginia with a Manual Labour School (1897) at Broadneck Farm, Hanover, and the Virginia Home and Industrial School for white girls (1910) at Bon Air take care of juvenile offenders; these are all owned and controlled by self-perpetuating boards of trustees, but are supported by the state, receiving an allowance per capita. For each state hospital for the insane there is a special board of directors consisting of three members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate, one every two years, and over them all is the commissioner of state hospitals for the insane, who is appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for a term of four years. The members of the special boards under the chairmanship of the commissioner constitute a general board for all the hospitals, and the superintendent of each hospital is appointed by the general board. Each school for the deaf and blind is managed by a board of visitors appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate. About five-sixths of the convicts are negroes. Some of them are employed on a state farm at Lassiter, Goochland county, on which there is a tuberculosis hospital, and some of them on the public roads; in 1909 there were 350 men at the state farm, 14 road camps with about 630 men, and 1273 men and 96 women in the penitentiary at Richmond. When a prisoner has served onehalf of his term and his conduct has been good for two years (if he has been confined for that period) the board of directors may parole him for the remainder of his term, provided there is satisfactory assurance that he will not be dependent on public charity. The Prison Association of Virginia, the Negro Reformatory Association of Virginia and the Virginia Home and Industrial School for girls are each under a board of trustees appointed by the General Assembly, and each is authorized to establish houses of correction, reformatories and industrial schools. A general supervision of all state, county, municipal and private charities and corrections is vested by a law enacted in 1908 in a board of charities and corrections consisting of five members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate.

Education

The public free school system is administered by a state board of education, a superintendent of public instruction, division superintendents, and district and county school boards. The state board of education consists of the governor; the attorneygeneral; the superintendent of public instruction, who is ex officio its president; three experienced educators chosen quadrennially by the Senate from members of the faculties of the University of Virginia, the Virginia Military Institute, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, the State Female Normal School at Farmville, the School for the Deaf and Blind, and the College of William and Mary; and two division superintendents, one from a county and one from a city, chosen biennially by the other members of the board. This board prescribes the duties of the superintendent of public instruction and decides appeals from his decisions; keeps the state divided into school divisions, comprising not less than one county or city each; appoints quadrennially, with the concurrence of the Senate, one superintendent for each school division and prescribes his powers and duties; selects textbooks; provides for examination of teachers; and appoints school inspectors. In each county an electoral board, consisting of the attorney for the Commonwealth, the division superintendent and one member appointed by the judge of the circuit court, appoints a board of three school trustees for each district, one each year. The division superintendent and the school trustees of the several districts constitute a county school board. The elementary schools are maintained from the proceeds of the state school funds, consisting of interest on the literary fund, a portion of the state poll tax, a property tax not less than one mill nor more than five mills on the dollar, and special appropriations; county funds, consisting principally of a property tax; and district funds, consisting principally of a property tax and a dog tax. A law enacted in 1908 encourages the establishment of departments of agriculture, domestic economy and manual training in at least one high school in each congressional district. A law enacted in 1910 provides a fund for special aid from the state to rural graded schools with at least two rooms. With state aid normal training departments are maintained in several of the high schools in counties which adopt the provisions of the statute. All children between the ages of eight and twelve years are required to attend a public school at least twelve weeks in a year (six weeks consecutively) unless excused on account of weakness of mind or body, unless the child can read and write and is attending a private school, or unless the child lives more than two miles from the nearest school and more than one mile from an established public school wagon route. The State Female Normal School, at Farmville, is governed by a board consisting of the state superintendent and thirteen trustees appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for a term of four years. The Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, at Petersburg, is governed by a board of visitors consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and four other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for four years. In 1908 the General Assembly made an appropriation for establishing two state normal and industrial schools for women, one at Harrisonburg and the other at Fredericksburg, both under a board of trustees consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and ten other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate. The Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute, at Blacksburg, is governed by a board consisting of the state superintendent and eight visitors appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate. The Virginia Military Institute, at Lexington, is governed by a board of visitors consisting of the adjutant general,-the superintendent of public instruction and nine other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate. The University of Virginia (q.v.), at Charlottesville, was founded in 1817 and opened in 1825. The College of William and Mary (1693), at Williamsburg, became a state institution in 1906 and is likewise governed under a board appointed by the governor. Other institutions of higher learning which are not under state control are: Washington and Lee University (nonsectarian, 1749), at Lexington; Hampden-Sidney College (Presbyterian, 1776), at Hampden-Sidney; Richmond College (Baptist, 1832), at Richmond; Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, 1832), at Ashland; Emory and Henry College (Methodist Episcopal, 1838), at Emory; Roanoke College (Lutheran, 1853), at Salem; Bridgewater College (German Baptist, 1879), at Bridgewater; Fredericksburg College (Presbyterian, 1893), at Fredericksburg; Virginia Union University (Baptist, 1899), at Richmond; and Virginia Christian College (Christian, 1903), at Lynchburg.

Finance

Revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from taxes on real estate, tangible personal property, incomes in excess of $1000, wills and administrations, deeds, seals, lawsuits, banks, trust and security companies, insurance companies, express companies, railway and canal corporations, sleeping-car, parlour-car and dining-car companies, telegraph and telephone companies, franchise taxes, poll taxes, an inheritance tax and taxes on various business and professional licences. The tax laws require that property shall be assessed at its full value by commissioners of the revenue elected by counties and cities. The revenue is collected by county and city treasurers, clerks of courts, and the state corporation commission, consisting of three members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the General Assembly in joint session. The total receipts in the fiscal year1908-1909amounted to $5,536,510 and the total disbursements to $51796,980. By the 1st of January 1861 Virginia had incurred a debt amounting to nearly $39,000,000, principally in aid of internal improvements. She was unable to pay the interest on this during the Civil War, and in March 1871 the principal together with the overdue interest amounted to about $47,000,000. The General Assembly passed an act at that time for refunding two-thirds of it, claiming that the other third should be paid by West Virginia. But the advocates of a "forcible readjustment" of the debt carried the election in 1879 with the aid of the negro vote, and after prolonged negotiations in 1892 a settlement was effected under which a debt amounting to about $28,000,000 was again refunded. In 1908 this had been reduced to about $24,000,000. The sinking fund consists of damages recovered against defaulting revenue collectors, railway stock and appropriations from time to time by the legislature.

History

Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in North America. From 1583 to 1588 attempts had been made by Sir Walter Raleigh and others to establish colonies on the coast of what is now North Carolina. The only result was the naming of the country Virginia in honour of Queen Elizabeth. But glowing accounts were brought back by the early adventurers, and in 1606 an expedition was sent out by the London Company, which was chartered with rights of trade and settlement between 34° and 41° N. lat. It landed, at a place which was called Jamestown, on the 13th of May 1607, and resulted in the establishment of many plantations along the James river. The purpose of the company was to build up a profitable commercial and agricultural community; but the hostility of the natives, unfavourable climatic conditions and the character of the colonists delayed the growth of the new community. John Smith became the head of the government in September 1608, compelled the colonists to submit to law and order, built a church and prepared for more extensive agricultural and fishing operations. In 1609 the London Company was reorganized, other colonists were sent out and the boundaries of the new country were fixed, according to which Virginia was to extend from a point 200 m. south of Old Point Comfort, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, to another point 200 m. north, "west and northwest to the South Sea." The government of the country was in the hands of the London Company, which in turn committed administrative and local affairs to a governor and council who were to reside in the colony. Before the arrival of the "government" and their shiploads of settlers the original colony was reduced to the direst straits. Captain Christopher Newport (d. 1618), Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers, the new authorities, reached Jamestowri at last with 150 men, but finding things in such a deplorable state all agreed (June ro, 1610) to give up the effort to found a colony on the James and set sail for Newfoundland. At the mouth of the river they met Lord Delaware, however, who brought other colonists and plentiful supplies; and they returned, set up a trading post at what is now Hampton and undertook to bring the hostile natives to subjection. In 1611, 650 additional colonists landed, the James and Appomattox rivers were explored and "plantations" were established at Henrico and New Bermuda. In 1617 Virginia fell into the hands of a rigid Puritan, Captain Samuel Argall. The colonists were compelled on pain of death to accept the doctrine of the trinity, respect the authority of the Bible and attend church. This rigid regime was superseded in 1 619 by a milder system under Sir George Yeardley (d. 1627). Twelve hundred new colonists arrived in 1619. At the same time negro slaves and many "indentured" servants were imported as labourers.
At the beginning Virginia colonists had held their land and improvements in common. But in 1616 the land was parcelled out and the settlers were scattered along the shores of the James and Appomattox rivers many miles inland. Twenty thousand pounds of tobacco were exported in. 1619. The community had now become self-supporting, and the year that witnessed these changes witnessed also the first representative assembly in North America, the Virginia House of Burgesses, a meeting of planters sent from the plantations to assist the governor in reforming and remaking the laws of the colony. In 1621 a constitution was granted whereby the London Company appointed the governor and a council, and the people were to choose annually from their counties, towns, hundreds and plantations delegates to the House of Burgesses. The popular assembly, like the English House of Commons, granted supplies and originated laws, and the governor and Council enjoyed the right of revision and veto as did the king and the House of Lords at home. The Council sat also as a supreme court to review the county courts. This system remained unchanged until the revolution of 1776. But in 1624 the king took the place and exercised the authority of the London Company.
Before 1622 there was a population of more than 4000 in Virginia, and the many tribes of Indians who were still the proprietors of the soil over a greater portion of the country naturally became jealous, and on the 22nd of March of that year fell upon the whites and slew 350 persons. Sickness and famine once again visited the colony, and the population was reduced by nearly one-half. These losses were repaired, however; the tobacco industry grew in importance, and the settlers built their cabins far in the interior of lowland Virginia. This rapid growth was scarcely retarded by a second Indian attack, in April 1641, which resulted in the death of about 350 settlers. By 1648 the population had increased to 15,000.
Virginia was neither cavalier nor roundhead, but both. Sir William Berkeley had been the governor since 1641, and though he was loyal enough to the crown, it was without difficulty that his authority was overthrown in March 1652 and that of Cromwell proclaimed in its stead. Richard Bennett, a Puritan from Maryland, now ruled the province. Bennett and his Puritan successors, Edward Digges and Samuel Mathews, made no serious change in the administration of the colony except to extend greatly the elective franchise. But this policy was reversed in 1660, when Berkeley was restored to power. The return of Berkeley was the beginning of a reaction which concentrated authority, both in the House of Burgesses and in the Council, in the hands of the older families, and thus created a privileged class. The governor, supported by the great families, retained the same House of Burgesses for sixteen years lest a new one might not be submissive. The increasing mass of the population dwelt along the western border or on the less fertile ridges which make up the major part of the land even in tide-water Virginia. These poorer people - who were not, however, "poor whites" - developed an abiding hostility towards the oligarchy. They desired a freer land-grant system, protection against the inroads of the Indians along the border, and frequent sessions of an assembly to be chosen by all the freeholders. But a new code of laws outlawed many of these people as dissenters, and in 1676 a burdensome tax was laid by the unrepresentative assembly. The Indians had again attacked the border farmers, and the governor had refused assistance, being willing, it was generally believed, that the border population should suffer while he and his adherents enjoyed a lucrative fur trade with the Indians. Under these circumstances, Nathaniel Bacon (1647-1676), whose grandfather was a cousin of Francis Bacon, took up the cause of the borderers and severely punished the Indians at the battle of Bloody Run. But Berkeley meanwhile had outlawed Bacon, whose forces now marched on the capital demanding recognition as the authorized army of defence. This was refused, and civil war began, in which the governor was defeated and Jamestown was burned. But Bacon fell a victim to malaria and died in October in Gloucester county. Berkeley closed the conflict with wholesale executions and confiscations. Censured by the king, he sailed to England to make his defence, but died in London in 1677 without having seen Charles. Virginia remained in the hands of the reactionary party and was governed by men whose primary purpose was to "make their fortunes" at the expense of the colonials. Even the accession of William and Mary scarcely affected the fortunes of the "fifth kingdom," though Middle Plantation, a hamlet not far from Jamestown, became Williamsburg and the capital of the province in 1691, and the clergy received a head, though not a bishop, in the person of James Blair (1656-1743), an able Scottish churchman, who as commissary of the bishop of London became a counterpoise to the arbitrary governors, and who as founder and head of the College of William and Mary (established at Williamsburg in 1693) did valiant service for Virginia. Under the stimulus of Blair's activity religion and education prospered as never before. The powers and duties of the vestry were defined, the position of the parish priest was fixed and his salary was regularly provided for at the public expense, and pedagogues were brought over from Scotland.
By 1700 the population of Virginia had reached 70,000, of whom 20,000 were negro slaves. The great majority of whites were small farmers whose condition was anything but desirable and who constantly encroached upon the Indian lands in the Rappahannock region or penetrated the forests south of the James, several thousand having reached North Carolina. Between 1707 and 1740 many Scottish immigrants, traders, teachers and tobacco-growers settled along the upper Rappahannock, and, uniting with the borderers in general, they offered strong resistance to the older planters on the James and the York.
Tobacco-growing was the one vocation of Virginia, and many of the planters were able to spend their winters in London or Glasgow and to send their sons and daughters to the finishing schools of the mother country. Negro slavery grew so rapidly during the first half of the eighteenth century that the blacks outnumbered the whites in 1740. The master of slaves set the fashion. Handsome houses were built along the banks of the sluggish rivers, and numerous slaves were employed. There was as great a social distance between the planters and their families on the one side and the masses of people in Virginia on the other as that which separated the nobles from the yeomanry in Europe; and there was still another chasm between the small farmers and the negroes.
In 1716 an expedition of Governor Alexander Spotswood over the mountains advertised to the world the rich backcountry, now known as the Valley of Virginia; a migration thither from Pennsylvania and from Europe followed which revolutionized the province. The majority of blacks over whites soon gave way before the influx of white immigrants, and in 1756 there was a population of 292,000, of whom only 120,000 were negroes, and the small farmer class had grown so rapidly that the old tide-water aristocracy was in danger of being overwhelmed. The "West" had now appeared in American history. This first West, made up of the older small farmers, of the Scottish settlers, of the Germans from the Palatinate and the Scottish-Irish, far outnumbering the people of the old counties, demanded the creation of new counties and proportionate representation in the Burgesses. They did not at first succeed, but when the Seven Years' War came on they proved their worth by fighting the battles of the community against the Indians and the French. When the war was over the prestige of the up-country had been greatly enhanced, and its people soon found eastern leaders in the persons of Richard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry. In1763-1765an investigation of the finances of the colony, forced by the up-country party, showed widespread corruption, and resulted in the collapse of the tide-water oligarchy, which had been in power since 1660. In the meantime the Presbyterians, who had been officially recognized in Virginia under the Toleration Act in 1699, and had been guaranteed religious autonomy in the Valley by Governor Gooch in 1738, had sent missionaries into the border counties of eastern Virginia. The Baptists about the same time entered the colony both from the north and the south and established scores of churches. The new denominations vigorously attacked the methods and immunities of the established church, whose clergy had grown lukewarm in zeal and lax in morals. When the clergy, refusing to acknowledge the authority of the Burgesses in reducing their stipends, and, appealing to the king against the Assembly, entered the courts to recover damages from the vestries, Patrick Henry at Hanover court in 1763 easily convinced the jury and the people that the old church was wellnigh worthless. From this time the old order was doomed, for the up-country, the dissenters and the reformers had combined against it. But the passage of the Stamp Act hastened the catastrophe and gave the leaders of the new combination, notably Henry, an opportunity to humiliate the British ministry, whom not even the tide-water party could defend. The repeal of the Stamp Act, followed as it was by the Townshend scheme of indirect taxation, displeased Virginia quite as much as had the former more direct system of taxation. When the Burgesses undertook in May 1769 to declare in vigorous resolutions that the right and power of taxation, direct and indirect, rested with the local assembly, the governor hastily dissolved them, but only to find the same men assembling in the Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg and issuing forth their resolutions in defiance of executive authority. Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, with Thomas Jefferson, a new up-country leader of great ability, were the leaders.
In 1774 Lord Dunmore, the governor, led an army to the Ohio river to break an Indian coalition which had been formed to check the rapid expansion of Virginia over what is now Kentucky and West Virginia. The up-country again furnished the troops and did the fighting at Point Pleasant, where on the 10th of October the power of the Indians was completely broken. But the struggle with England had reached a crisis, and Virginia supported with zeal the revolutionary movement and took the lead in the Continental Congresses which directed the succeeding war (see United States). In 1 775 Patrick Henry organized a regiment of militia and compelled the governor to seek safety on board an English man-of-war in Chesapeake Bay. The war now assumed continental proportions, and the Virginia leaders decided in May 1776 that a declaration of independence was necessary to secure foreign assistance. When the Continental Congress issued the famous Declaration Virginia had already assembled in convention to draft a new Constitution. Although Henry, Lee and Jefferson exercised great power, they were unable to secure a Constitution which embodied the demands of their party: universal suffrage, proportional representation and religious freedom. A draft for such a Constitution was submitted by Jefferson, but the Conservatives rejected it. The system which was adopted allowed the older counties, which must be conciliated, a large majority of the representatives in the new Assembly, on the theory that the preponderance of property (slavery) in that section required this as security against the rising democracy. In place of the former governor, there was to be an executive chosen annually by the Assembly; the old Council was to be followed by a similar body elected by the Assembly; and the judges were likewise to be the creatures of the legislature. The Assembly was divided into two bodies, a Senate and a House of Delegates. The legislature would be all-powerful, and yet representation was so distributed that about one-third of the voters living in the tide-water region would return nearly two-thirds of the members of the legislature. The franchise, though not universal, was generously bestowed; it was a very liberal freehold system.
The recruiting ground for the American army in Virginia was the up-country among the Scottish-Irish and the Germans who had long fought the older section of the colony. In 1779 Norfolk was again attacked, and great damage was also done to the neighbouring towns. In January 1781 Benedict Arnold captured Richmond and compelled governor and legislature to flee beyond the Blue Ridge mountains, where one session of the Assembly was held. The last campaign of the war closed at Yorktown on the 19th of October 1781.
Virginia leaders, including Henry, were the first to urge the formation of a national government with adequate powers supersede the lame confederacy. In 1787, under the presidency of Washington, the National Convention sat in Philadelphia, with the result that the present Federal Constitution was submitted to the states for ratification during 1787-1789. In Virginia the tide-water leaders urged adoption, while the upcountry men, following Henry, opposed; but after a long and a bitter struggle, in the summer of 1788 the new instrument was accepted, the low-country winning by a majority of ten votes, partly through the influence of James Madison. Thus the eastern men, who had reluctantly supported the War of Independence, now became the sponsors for the national government, and Washington was compelled to rely on the party of slavery, not only in Virginia but in the whole South, in order to administer the affairs of the nation.
In 1784, Virginia, after some hesitation, ceded to the Federal government the north-west territory, which it held under the charter of 1609; in 1792 another large strip of the territory of Virginia became an independent state under the name of Kentucky. But the people of these cessions, especially of Kentucky, were closely allied to the great up-country party of Virginia, and altogether they formed the basis of the Jeffersonian democracy, which from 1794 opposed the chief measures of the Washington administration, and which on the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws in 1798 precipitated the first great constitutional crisis in Federal politics by the adoption in the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures of the resolutions, known by the names of those states, strongly asserting the right and duty of the states to arrest the course of the national government whenever in their opinions that course had become unconstitutional. Jefferson was the author of the Kentucky resolutions, and his friend Madison prepared those passed by the Virginia Assembly. But these leaders restrained their followers sharply whenever the suggestion of secession was made, and the question of what was meant by arresting the course of Federal legislation was left in doubt. The election of 1800 rendered unnecessary all further agitation by putting Jefferson in the President's chair. The up-country party in Virginia, with their allies along the frontiers of the other states, was now in power, and the radical of 1776 shaped the policy of the nation during the next twenty-five years. Virginia held the position of leadership in Congress, controlled the cabinet and supplied many justices of the Supreme Court.
Virginia played a leading role in the War of 1812, and up to 1835 her influence in the new Western and North-Western states was overwhelming. But the steady growth of slavery in the East and of a virile democracy in the West neutralized this influence and compelled the assembling of the constitutional convention of 1829, whose purpose was to revise the fundamental law in such a way as to give the more populous counties of the West their legitimate weight in the legislature. The result was failure, for the democracy of small farmers which would have taxed slavery out of existence was denied proportionate representation. The slave insurrection under Nat Turner in 1831 led to a second abortive effort, this time by the legislature, to do away with the fateful institution. The failure of these popular movements led to a sharp reaction in Virginia, as in the whole South, in favour of slavery. From 1835 to 1861 many leading Virginians defended slavery as a blessing and as part of a divinely established order.
In 1850 a third Convention undertook to amend the Constitution, and now that the West yielded its bitter hostility to slavery, representation was so arranged that the more populous section was enabled to control the House while the East still held the Senate; the election of judges was confided to the people; and the suffrage was broadened. Although the West was not pleased, the leaders of the slave-holding counties threatened secession.
In the national elections of 1860 Virginia returned a majority of unionist electors as against the secession candidates, Breckinridge and Lane, many of the large planters voting for the continuance of the Union, and many of the smaller slave-owners supporting the secessionists. The governor called an extra session of the legislature soon after the Federal election, and this in turn called a Convention to meet on the 13th of February 1861. The majority of this body consisted of Unionists, but the Convention passed the ordinance of secession when the Federal government (April 17) called upon the state to supply its quota of armed men to suppress "insurrection" in the lower Southern states. An alliance was made with the provisional government of the Confederate States, on April 25, without waiting for the vote of the people on the ordinance. The Convention called out Io,000 troops and appointed Colonel Robert E. Lee of the United States army as commander-in-chief. On the 23rd of May the people of the eastern counties almost unanimously voted approval of the acts of the Convention, and the western counties took steps to form the state of West Virginia (q.v.). Richmond soon became the capital of the Confederacy.
The Civil War was already begun, and Virginia was of necessity the battle-ground. Of the six great impacts made upon the Confederacy, four were upon Virginian soil: the first Manassas campaign (1861), the Peninsular battles (1862), second Manassas (1862), Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (1862-63) and the great Wilderness-Petersburg series of attacks (1864-65). About 50,000 men were killed in Virginia, and probably ioo,000 died of wounds and disease. The principal battles were: the first Manassas, or Bull Run (July 21, 1861); those around Richmond (June 26-July 2, 1862); second Manassas (August 29-30); Fredericksburg (December 12, 1862); Mechanicsville (May 2 and 3, 186 3); the Wilderness (May 5 and 6); Spottsylvania (May 8); North Anna and Bethesda church (May 29-30); Cold Harbor (June 3); the battles around Petersburg (June 15, July 30 and November 1, 1864); and Five Forks (April 1) and Appomattox (April 8-9, 1865).
With the surrender of the Confederate army under General Lee to Grant at Appomattox the task of reconstruction began. President Lincoln offered a very liberal plan of re-establishing the civil authority over the counties east of the Alleghany mountains, and Governor Francis H. Pierpont set up in Richmond a government, based upon the Lincoln plan and supported by President Johnson, which continued till the 2nd of March 1867, when the famous reconstruction order converting the state into Military District No. I was issued. General John M. Schofield was put in charge, and under his authority a constitutional Convention was summoned which bestowed the suffrage upon the former slaves, who, led by a small group of whites, who had come into the state with the invading armies, ratified the 14th and 15th amendments to the Federal Constitution and governed the community until 1869. Then the secessionists and Union men of 1861 united and regained control. Virginia was readmitted to the Union on the 26th of January 1870. The Constitution of the reconstruction years was unchanged until 1902, when the present fundamental law was adopted.
In national elections the state has supported the Democratic party, except in 1860, when its vote was cast for John Bell, the candidate of the Constitutional Union party.
Under the Crown
Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor.
1624-1626
Sir George Yeardley, „
1626-1627
Francis West (elected by Council).
1627-1628
John Pott „
1628-1629
Sir John Harvey, Governor. .
1629-1635
John West (elected by Council) .
1635-1636
Sir John Harvey, Governor. .
1636-1639
Sir Francis Wyatt, „
1639-1641
Sir William Berkeley, „
1641-1644
Richard Kemp (elected by Council)
1644-1645
Sir William Berkeley, Governor .
1645-1652
Governors Of Virginia Under the Company Edward Maria Wingfield, President of the Council 1607 (April to Sept.) John Ratcliffe, President of the Council 1607-1608 John Smith, „ „ „1608-1609George Percy, 1609 -16101610 Thomas West, Lord Delaware, "Governor and Captain General".1610-1618George Percy, Deputy Governor 161 I (March to flay) Sir Thomas Dale, "High Marshal" and Deputy Governor 1611 (May to Aug.) Sir Thomas Gates, Acting Governor 1611-1612 Sir Thomas Dale, „ „.1612-1616George Yeardley, Lieutenant or Deputy Governor.. ...1616-1617Samuel Argall,Lieutenant or Deputy Governor1617-1619Nathaniel Powell, Acting Governor 1619(April 9 to 19) Sir George Yeardley, Governor..1619-1621Sir Francis Wyatt,.1621-1624George Hamilton Douglas, Earl of Orkney, Governor-in-Chief. .
Edward Nott, Lieutenant Governor. Edmund Jenings, President of the Council .
Robert Hunter, Lieutenant Governor'. Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant Governor .
Hugh Drysdale, „ .
Robert Carter, President of the Council .
William Gooch, Lieutenant Governor.. William Anne Keppel, Earl of Albemarle, Governor-in-Chief'. .
James Blair, President of the Council. .
Sir William Gooch, Governor .
John Robinson, President of the Council .
Thomas Lee, Lewis Burwell,„ „ .
General of the American Colonies' .
John Blair, President of the Council .
Francis Fauquier, Lieutenant Governor .
Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Governor-in-Chief' .
John Blair, President of the Council .
Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt,
Governor-in-Chief. .
William Nelson, President of the Council .
John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, Governor-
in-Chief .
State
Patrick Henry.
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Nelson, jun. .
Benjamin Harrison .
Patrick Henry
Edmund Randolph
Beverley Randolph
Henry Lee .
Robert Brooke. .
James Wood, Democratic-Republican
James Monroe,
John Page, „ „
William H. Cabell, „ „
John Tyler, sen., „
James Monroe,„
George Wm. Smith (acting), Democratic Re-
publican. .
Peyton Randolph (acting). .
James Barbour, Anti-Democrat .
Wilson Cary Nicholas, Republican
James Patton Preston,
Thomas Mann Randolph, „
James Pleasants, jun.,
John Tyler, State Rights Democrat
William Branch Giles, Democrat .
1756-1763
1758 (Jan. to June)
1758-1768
1763-1768
1768 (March to Oct.)
1768-1770
1770-1771
1771-1775
1 77 6-1779
1779-1781
17
178181-1784
1784-1786
1786-1788
1788-1 79 1
17 9 1-1794
1794-1796
1196-1799
1 799 -1802
1802-1805
1805-1808
1808 -1811
1811
1811
1811 -1812
1812-1814
1814-1816
1816-1819
1819-1822
1822-1825
1825-1827
1827-1830
Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor. John Campbell, Earl of Loudon, Governor ' Never in Virginia.
John Floyd, Democrat. Littleton Waller Tazewell, Democrat .
Wyndham Robertson (acting), Democrat .
David Campbell, Whig .
'Thomas W. Gilmer, Whig. .
John M. Patton (acting), „ .
John Rutherford (acting), „. John Munford Gregory (acting), Whig. James McDowell, William Smith, Democrat.. John Buchanan Floyd, Democrat Joseph Johnson, Henry Alexander Wise, „ .
John Letcher, .
William Smith, „ Francis H. Pierpont (provisional), Republican Henry Horatio Wells, „ „ Gilbert Carlton Walker, „ James Lawson Kemper, Conservative.. Frederick Wm. Mackey Holliday, ” Debt Paying ”. .
William Ewan Cameron, Readjuster Fitzhugh Lee, Democrat .
Philip W. McKinney, Democrat .
Charles Triplett O'Ferrall, Democrat James Hoge Tyler, „ Andrew Jackson Montague, „ Claude Augustus Swanson, „ William Hodges Mann, „ Bibliography. -FOr physical description see Henry Gannett, Gazetteer of Virginia (Washington, 1904), U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 232; W. B. Rogers, Geology of the Virginias (New York, 1884); N. H. Darton and M. L. Fuller in Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 114 (Washington, 1905) of the U.S. Geological Survey; G. T. Surface, "Physiography of Virginia," pp. 741-53, vol. 38 (1906), Bulletin, Am. Geog. Soc., and "Geography of Virginia," pp. 1-60, vol. 5 (1907), Bulletin, Philadelphia Geog. Soc.; T. L. Watson et all., Mineral Resources of Virginia (Lynchburg, 1907). On fisheries see the Report of the Commission of Fisheries, 1908-9 (Richmond, 1909). For administration see J. G. Pollard (ed.), Code of Virginia (2 vols., St Paul, 1904);; and on finance, W. L. Royall, History of the Virginia Debt Controversy (Richmond, 1897). History. - General histories are: Robert Beverley, History of Virginia in Four Parts (Richmond, 1855); R. R. Howison, History of Virginia (2 vols., ibid., 1849); S. Kercheval, History of the Valley of Virginia (Woodstock, Va., 1850); and J. E. Cook, Virginia: a History of the People (Boston, 1900). On the earlier period see W. A. Clayton Torrence, "A Trial Bibliography of Colonial Virginia" (Richmond, 1910), in the Report of the Virginia State Librarian; L. G. Tyler (ed.), Narratives of Early Virginia, 1606-25 (New York, 19,07); W. Stith, History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia (ibid., 1865); Susan M. Kingsbury (ed.), Records of the Virginia Company of London (2 vols., Washington. 1906); Alexander Brown, The First Republic in America (Boston, 1898); idem (ed.), Genesis of the United States (2 vols., ibid., 1890); J. S. Bassett, The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover (New York, 1901); John Fiske, Old Virginia and her Neighbors (ibid., 1897); P. A. Bruce, Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century (2 vols., New York, 1895); J. P. Kennedy and H. R. Mcllwaine, Journals of the House of Burgesses, 1742-76 (Richmond, 1905-7); Charles Campbell, History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia (Philadelphia, 1859); E. I. Miller, Legislature of the Province of Virginia (New York, 1908); and, for religious and social conditions, Rt. Rev. W. Meade, Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia (ibid., 1857); and H. J. Eckenrode, "Separation of Church and State in Virginia" (Richmond, 1909) in the 5th Report of the Virginia State Librarian. For the more recent period see Chas. H. Ambler, Sectionalism in Virginia 1770-1861 (Chicago, 1910), a valuable study; P. L. Ford, Writings of Thomas Jefferson (to vols., New York, 1892-99); W. C. Ford, Writings of George Washington (14 vols., ibid., 1889-93); W. W. Henry, Life, Correspondence and Speeches of Patrick Henry (3 vols., ibid., 1891); J. Elliott, Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (Philadelphia, 1861); T. R. Dew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature, 1831-32 (Richmond, 1832), important for a comprehension of the slavery issue; J. C. Ballagh, A History of Slavery in Virginia (Baltimore, 1902); B. B. Munford, Virginia's Attitude toward Slavery (New York, 1909); and the Debates of the Virginia Conventions, 1776, 1829, 1850, which are very important, especially for 1829. See also R. A. Brock (ed.), Virginia Historical Collections (i i vols., Richmond, 1882-92); P. A. Bruce and W. G. Stanard, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (ibid., 1893 sqq.); W. W. Hening, The Statutes at Large (13 vols. ibid., 1819-23); and W. P. Palmer, Calendar of Virginia State Papers (11 vols., ibid., 1874).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has articles on:

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

From Latin Virginia, feminine form of Virginius or Verginius, a Roman family name, possibly identical with Vergilius. The state was named for Elizabeth I as the Virgin Queen.
Map of US highlighting Virginia

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Virginia
Plural
-
Virginia
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Richmond.
  2. A female given name .

Derived terms

Related terms

  • given name pet forms of the given name: Ginny, Ginger

Quotations

  • 1380s-1390s, Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales: The Physician's Prologue and Tale
    "Daughter," quoth he, "Virginia by thy name,
    There be two wayes, either death or shame,
    That thou must suffer, - alas that I was bore!
  • 1840 Frederick Marryat, Poor Jack, Chapter III,
    Here, in due time, she was brought to bed of a daughter, whom she christened by the name of Virginia; not so much out of respect to her last mistress, who bore that name, as because she considered it peculiarly ladylike and genteel.
  • 1854 Lydia Howard Sigourney, The Western Home, and Other Poems, Parry & McMillan, 1854, page 87 ,
    O sweet Virginia Dare!
    Thou art the lily of our love,
    The forest's sylph-like queen,
    The first-born bud from Saxon stem
    That this New World hath seen!

Translations

See also

External links


Latin

Etymology

From virgō (maiden, virgin).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Virginia (genitive Virginiae); f, first declension
  1. A feminine praenomen.

Descendants


Spanish

Proper noun

Virginia f.
  1. Virginia (state)
  2. A female given name, cognate to English Virginia.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Diapsida
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea
Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Natricinae
Genus: Virginia
Species: V. pulchra - V. striatula - V. valeriae

Name

Virginia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Erdschlangen
English: Earth Snakes

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Commonwealth of Virginia
Flag of Virginia State seal of Virginia
Flag of Virginia SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Old Dominion, Mother of Presidents
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Sic semper tyrannis
Map of the United States with Virginia highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Richmond
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Virginia Beach
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Northern Virginia
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 35thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 42,774 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(110,785 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 200 miles (320 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 430 miles (690 km)
 - % water 7.4
 - Latitude 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N
 - Longitude 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 12thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 7,078,515
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 178.8/sq mi 
69.03/km² (14th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $53,275 (7th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mount Rogers[1]
5,729 ft  (1,747 m)
 - Mean 950 ft  (290 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  June 25, 1788 (10th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Tim Kaine (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif John Warner (R)
Jim Webb (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations VAImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-VAImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.virginia.gov
.
The Commonwealth of Virginia (pronounced IPA: /vɚˈdʒɪnjə/) is a Southeastern state on the Atlantic Coast in the United States of America.
^ Virginia is not a mid-atlantic state.

^ Carolina’s Atlantic Ocean coast runs from the Virginia state line to South Carolina and encompasses ...
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Select an agency Agency Login (password required) Commonwealth of Virginia Strategic Plans Following are links to agency strategic plans for all Virginia state agencies that participate in Virginia Performs strategic planning system.

.It is named after Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was known as the Virgin Queen because she never married.^ Virginia, COLONY OF , the name given to an undefined territory in America (of which Roanoke Island , discovered in 1584, was a part) in compliment to the unmarried Queen, or because of its virgin soil.

^ Virginia Colony: 1607–1776 Sketch of Jamestown c.1608At the end of the 16th century, when England began to colonize North America, Queen Elizabeth I of England (who was known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married) gave the name "Virginia" to the whole area explored by the 1584 expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh along the coast of North America.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Commonwealth of Virginia (named after Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was known as the Virgin Queen) is one of the original thirteen colonies of the United States that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Virginia Colony was the first part of the Americas to be continuously inhabited by colonists from its founding as a European colony up to the American Revolution.^ Virginia was the first part of the Americas to be continuously inhabited by English colonists from its founding as a European colony up to the American Revolution.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Charter was granted to Virginia Colonists.
  • Colonial Virginia Genealogy 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC colonialancestors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virginia became a royal colony and so it continued to the war of the Revolution.
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

.The Virginia Company of London became incorporated as a joint stock company by a proprietary charter drawn up on April 10, 1606.^ The London Virginia Company became incorporated as a joint stock company by a proprietary charter drawn up on April 10, 1606.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King James I assumed England's throne in 1603, and in an effort to raise funds, granted a charter ( for financial considerations ) to the Virginia Company in 1606, a group of London based entrepreneurs.
  • Map of Virginia - Virginia Map, Richmond History, VA Attractions Facts - World Atlas 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.worldatlas.com [Source type: News]

^ When, therefore, the London Company, or Virginian Company, as named by the second charter, were convinced that gold could not be found in that part of America, their interest in the colony was greatly diminished, and to this fact was due much of the anarchy and disorder in Virginia.
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

.The commonwealth was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution to form the United States of America.^ The Commonwealth of Virginia (named after Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was known as the Virgin Queen) is one of the original thirteen colonies of the United States that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The State of Virginia is one of the thirteen original states to come together and form the United States of America.
  • State Of Virginia - Find State Of Virginia items for sale on eBay! 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC popular.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States of the American Union.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The capital is Richmond and the most populous city is Virginia Beach.^ Fairfax County is the most populous county in Virginia.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Email Newsletters Hampton Roads - America’s First Region © 1999 - 2010 City of Virginia Beach.
  • Official City of Virginia Beach Web Site 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.vbgov.com [Source type: News]
  • City of Virginia Beach Events 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.vbgov.com [Source type: News]

^ Area 110,785 square kilometers (42,774 square miles) Population 7,386,330 Capital Richmond; 197,456 .
  • Virginia facts, Virginia travel videos, flags, photos - National Geographic 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC travel.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

.The most populous local jurisdiction is Fairfax County in Northern Virginia.^ Fairfax County is the most populous county in Virginia.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reston Limousine was among 60 Northern Virginia businesses honored at the 2008 Celebration of Northern Virginia Business Success recently hosted by the Fairfax County Economic Development Authority in Tysons Corner.
  • Virginia Limousine Association � Serving limousine and transportation companies and their clients across the Commonwealth of Virginia. 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC virginialimousineassociation.org [Source type: General]

^ Get Local...Virginia Counties and Regions or Cities Maps, yellow pages, white pages, newspapers and other local information.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independent cities and counties function in the same manner; according to the US Census Bureau independent cities are considered county-equivalent.^ Maryland was ranked by the US Census Bureau as the fifth-most violent state in the nation, with a 51 percent recidivism rate among its convicted violent offenders.
  • Save Maryland - For the People, By the People, Saving the “Free State” one post at a time 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.savemaryland.com [Source type: General]

^ In the same Manner must we consider a Paper Currency founded on Land; as it is Land, and as it is a Currency .
  • A Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper-Currency / by Benjamin Franklin 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC etext.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently, we have had others ask us to consider raising the same for them.
  • Virginia - Eat Wild 18 September 2009 9:48 UTC www.eatwild.com [Source type: General]

.The largest city in land area is Suffolk, which includes a large portion of the Great Dismal Swamp.^ A large portion of the members yearned for reconciliation with Great Britain, while others saw no ground for hope that the mother-country would be just.

^ Themed Lands From Storybook Land to the World's Largest Birdhouse, check out these great outdoor amusements.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

.Virginia is known as the "Mother of Presidents", because it is the birthplace of eight U.S. presidents (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson), more than any other state.^ Among them were the ancestors of George Washington, James Madison , James Monroe, John Marshall, and of many others of the far-famed "First Families of Virginia."
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginia is known as the "Mother of Presidents", because it is the birthplace of eight U.S. presidents (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson), more than any other state.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Jefferson ( its principal author ) and 6 others from Virginia.
  • Map of Virginia - Virginia Map, Richmond History, VA Attractions Facts - World Atlas 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.worldatlas.com [Source type: News]

.Virginia has a diverse economy, with many federal and military employees in Northern Virginia and Hampton Roads, which have the world's largest office building and the world's largest naval base respectively.^ Email Newsletters Hampton Roads - America’s First Region © 1999 - 2010 City of Virginia Beach.
  • Official City of Virginia Beach Web Site 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.vbgov.com [Source type: News]
  • Commonwealth's Attorney | Commonwealth's Attorney 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.vbgov.com [Source type: News]
  • City of Virginia Beach Events 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.vbgov.com [Source type: News]

^ Hampton Roads Naval Museum bids farewell to USS Wisconsin (BB-64) 7 Jan 2010 18:11 GMT ...
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., and in the metropolitan areas of Richmond and Norfolk-Hampton Roads.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times, the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia area includes Jamestown, Yorktown and the living museum of Colonial Williamsburg.^ Jamestown was founded in 1607 and named in honor of King James I. Jamestown was the original capital of the colony, Virginia, but the capital was later moved to Williamsburg due to a fire that burned down the State House.
  • State Of Virginia - Find State Of Virginia items for sale on eBay! 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC popular.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Colonial Williamsburg vacation is the ultimate living history experience, with more than 80 original buildings and 50 reconstructions depicting colonial life in the 1750 to 1780 time frame.
  • VA Rentals, Virginia Vacation Rentals, VA Cabin Rentals, Virginia Lake Rentals, Virginia Condo Rentals 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.homeaway.com [Source type: General]

^ The entrepreneurial spirit of the pioneers at Jamestown nearly 400 years ago lives on in Virginia's highly diversified modern economy.
  • Virginia facts, Virginia travel videos, flags, photos - National Geographic 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC travel.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

.Linked by the Colonial Parkway, they combine to form one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.^ One of the area's most popular off-road cycling destinations in the region, the Avalon Area offers the experienced rider some of the best singletrack in town.
  • Best Trails in Maryland | Best Maryland Trails 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: General]

^ UCLA Digital Library Sheet Music Archive American Popular Songs in the form in which they were originally published, beginng with the 1920's.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

^ In its various forms, the circus is one of the oldest forms of popular entertainment.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

Contents

Geography

Map of Virginia
Virginia - topographic map
See also: List of Virginia counties, List of Virginia county seats, List of Virginia rivers, and Lost Counties, Cities and Towns of Virginia
.Virginia is bordered by West Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia (across the Potomac River) to the north; by Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; and by Kentucky and West Virginia to the west.^ Carolina’s Atlantic Ocean coast runs from the Virginia state line to South Carolina and encompasses ...
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Geography Map of Virginia Virginia - topographic mapSee also: List of Virginia counties, List of Virginia county seats, List of Virginia rivers, Lost Counties, Cities and Towns of Virginia, and Climate of Virginia Virginia is a Commonwealth and is bordered by West Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia (across the Potomac River) to the north; by Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; and by Kentucky and West Virginia to the west.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poults are placed on farms in Virginia , North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania and West Virginia .
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

.Due to a peculiarity of Virginia's original charter, its northern boundary with Maryland does not extend past the low-water mark of the southern shore of the Potomac River, meaning Maryland possesses the whole width of the river rather than it being split between them.^ Genealogical research related to Ohio, Southern Maryland, and Northern Virginia.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more than 300 years farmers have plowed the thin strips of land and fishermen have navigated the narrow channels of water slicing through this isolated section of Maryland's Eastern Shore.
  • Best Trails in Maryland | Best Maryland Trails 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: General]

^ The three fine, west-facing vistas of Annapolis Rock, Black Roc, and High Rock plus a peculiar river of stone called the Devils Racecourse are the highlights of this hike through northern Maryland.
  • Best Trails in Maryland | Best Maryland Trails 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: General]

.Virginia has an area of 42,774 square miles (110,785 km²) making it the 35th largest state.^ Land area, 2000 (square miles) .
  • Virginia QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau 20 September 2009 7:11 UTC quickfacts.census.gov [Source type: News]
  • Maryland QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC quickfacts.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned above, hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia somewhat vulnerable, although it is rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state of Virginia is all about the outdoors, and there are 35 incredible state parks that are all worth visiting!
  • Virginia Bed and Breakfast Inns, VA B&B Gift Certificates - Most popular Virginia Bed & Breakfasts 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.bnbfinder.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.The Chesapeake Bay divides the commonwealth, with Virginia's Eastern Shore, a part of the Delmarva Peninsula, completely separate (an exclave) from the rest of the Commonwealth.^ The Chesapeake Bay divides the commonwealth, with Virginia's Eastern Shore, a part of the Delmarva Peninsula, completely separate (an exclave) from the rest of the Commonwealth.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1863 West Virginia has referred to a separate state, not the western part of Virginia.
  • Category:Virginia - Wikimedia Commons 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ High wind power potential exists off of Virginia’s Atlantic coast and in the Chesapeake Bay.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geographically, Virginia is divided into the following six regions:
.
  • Ridge and Valley—between the Appalachian Plateau and Allegheny Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east.^ Geographically, Virginia is divided into the following five regions: Ridge and Valley—between the Appalachian Plateau and Allegheny Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Blue Ridge Mountains—between the Ridge and Valley Region to the west and the Piedmont region to the east.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piedmont—between the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west and the Tidewater region to the east.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sometimes referred to as Valley and Ridge.
  • Shenandoah Valley—located within the Ridge and Valley Region; it is referred to geographically—and culturally— as its own region.
  • Blue Ridge Mountains—between the Ridge and Valley Region to the west and the Piedmont region to the east.
  • Foothills—area now recognized directly between the Piedmont and the Blue Ridge Mountains.^ Geographically, Virginia is divided into the following five regions: Ridge and Valley—between the Appalachian Plateau and Allegheny Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Shenandoah Valley—located within the Ridge and Valley Region; it is referred to geographically—and culturally— as its own region.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piedmont—between the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west and the Tidewater region to the east.
    • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Pertaining to the counties of Madison, Green, Albemarle, and Nelson. Denotes a region just west of the Southwest Mountains range and north of the James river subject to its own unique microclimate.
  • Piedmont—between the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west and the Tidewater region to the east.
  • Tidewater—between the fall line to the west and the Atlantic coast to the east; it includes the Eastern Shore.
.Virginia's long east-west axis means that metropolitan northern Virginia lies as close to New York City and New England as to its own rural western panhandle.^ Virginia's long east-west axis means that metropolitan northern Virginia lies as close to New York City and New England as to its own rural western panhandle.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disparate treatment of Blacks and Hispanics, particularly teens and young adults, by the New York City Police Department, is an issue about which Herbert has written before -  and will again, so long as it continues.
  • Blue Commonwealth | Virginia's Enduring Voice of Progress 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.bluecommonwealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Come take a virtual tour of Ocean City, Maryland and see why it has long been called "The East Coast's Number One Family Resort."
  • Ocean City Maryland Vacation Guide, Ocean City Maryland Hotels Reservations and MD Specials 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.ocean-city.com [Source type: General]

.Lee County, at the tip of the panhandle, is closer to eight other state capitals than it is to Richmond, Virginia's own capital.^ Conversely, Lee County, at the tip of the panhandle, is closer to eight other state capitals than it is to Richmond, Virginia's own capital.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eight U.S. presidents were born in Virginia , more than any other state.
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Next to education, we spend more on health care than anything else in the budget, even though Virginia's Medicaid program is very lean compared to other states.
  • Virginia State of the Commonwealth Address 2009 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

.Virginia has many National Park Service units, including one national park, the Shenandoah National Park, and numerous other areas in the National Park System.^ For a list of all areas managed by the National Park Service within Virginia, see: List of areas in the National Park System of the United States in Virginia.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virginia has a number of National Park Service units, including one national park, the Shenandoah National Park.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among them were the ancestors of George Washington, James Madison , James Monroe, John Marshall, and of many others of the far-famed "First Families of Virginia."
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

.There are thirty-four Virginia state parks.^ For Virginia state parks, see: List of Virginia state parks.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state of Virginia is all about the outdoors, and there are 35 incredible state parks that are all worth visiting!
  • Virginia Bed and Breakfast Inns, VA B&B Gift Certificates - Most popular Virginia Bed & Breakfasts 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.bnbfinder.com [Source type: General]

^ For a list of all areas managed by the National Park Service within Virginia, see: List of areas in the National Park System of the United States in Virginia.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Virginia
.The climate is considered mild compared to other areas of the United States.^ Climate The climate is generally considered mild compared to other areas of the United States.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interaction of these elements with the state's topography create micro-climates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains that are slightly but noticeably distinct from each other.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bats in the United States are considered carriers of rabies and should be excluded by professionals.
  • Maryland animal control Squirrel Raccoon Bird Bat Snake Removal 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.usanimalcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the state east of the Blue Ridge, plus the southern part of the Shenandoah Valley, has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen climate classification Cfa).^ The interaction of these elements with the state's topography create micro-climates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains that are slightly but noticeably distinct from each other.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographically, Virginia is divided into the following five regions: Ridge and Valley—between the Appalachian Plateau and Allegheny Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shenandoah Valley—located within the Ridge and Valley Region; it is referred to geographically—and culturally— as its own region.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the mountainous areas west of the Blue Ridge, the climate becomes humid continental (Koppen Dfa).^ Our "farm to family beef " is produced using the grass found here on our farm at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
  • Virginia - Eat Wild 18 September 2009 9:48 UTC www.eatwild.com [Source type: General]

^ Brittany Farms is nestled in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the historic Green Springs area.
  • Virginia - Eat Wild 18 September 2009 9:48 UTC www.eatwild.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue Ridge Online is the premier online welcome center for the Blue Ridge and Appalachian mountains of the eastern United States.
  • Blue Ridge Mountains and The Blue Ridge Parkway Online Travel Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.blueridgeonline.com [Source type: General]

.Many variations occur because of the state's significant relief.^ However, significant variations occur because of the state's significant relief.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elevations in Virginia vary from sea level to Mount Rogers at 5,729 ft (1,746 m) above sea level, with major gradations occurring at the edges of the Atlantic Ocean, the end of the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge and Allegheny chains of the Appalachian Mountains.^ Elevations in Virginia vary from sea level to the 1746 m Mount Rogers), with major gradations occurring at the edges of the Atlantic Ocean, the end of the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge and Allegheny chains of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carolina’s Atlantic Ocean coast runs from the Virginia state line to South Carolina and encompasses ...
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Geographically, Virginia is divided into the following five regions: Ridge and Valley—between the Appalachian Plateau and Allegheny Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The usually moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by the Gulf Stream, is interspersed with brief moments of danger due to the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.^ The usually moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by the Gulf Stream, is interspersed with brief moments of danger due to the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Coast Guard rescue helicopter crew medically evacuated a boat captain in the Chesapeake Bay near York Spit Channel Tuesday night.

^ They refused, and, leaving Jamestown in disgust, he explored Chesapeake Bay and its tributary streams in an open boat.

.On the other hand, cold air masses arrive over the mountains, especially in winter, leading to significant snowfalls.^ On the other hand, cold air masses arrive over the mountains, especially in winter, leading to significant snowfalls.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pulp paper, on the other hand, was much cheaper and its use made possible for publishers to reach a mass reading market at a low price.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

.However, in something of an anomaly, much of the state south of Northern Virginia has not had over one foot of snow in a single storm since the Blizzard of 1996.^ In 2006 Forbes Magazine voted Virginia the number one state in the USA with the best economy for business.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carolina’s Atlantic Ocean coast runs from the Virginia state line to South Carolina and encompasses ...
  • Virginia Travel News - Travel Industry Today 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ More often, Virginia is struck with the remnants of systems which hit further south bringing torrential rain to the state.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The interaction of these elements with the state's topography create micro-climates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains that are slightly but noticeably distinct from each other.^ The interaction of these elements with the state's topography create micro-climates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains that are slightly but noticeably distinct from each other.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People of German descent are present in sizable numbers in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The court were of opinion that these decisions were based upon a mistaken presumption that the state had received consideration for the issuing of the bond created by the act aforesaid.
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC laws.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .An additional element in recent years is the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington into northern Virginia, creating an urban heat island due to the increased energy output of the city.^ An additional element in recent years is the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington into Northern Virginia, creating an urban heat island due to the increased energy output of the city.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent legislation has created a special opportunity for you to refinance your existing mortgage into a VA Loan with great benefits.
  • VA Refinance Information from the VA Mortgage Center.com, Refinance Your Home Loan 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.vamortgagecenter.com [Source type: General]

^ And because of recent immigration, there is a rapidly growing population of Hispanics (particularly Central Americans) and Asians in the northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. Also, the Norfolk–Virginia Beach area is home to over 80,000 Filipinos and over 100,000 Vietnamese residents, along with several hundred Hmong.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, aside from the urban stations, no global warming effects have been noted by Virginia weather stations by 2001.[4]
.Severe weather is a concern in Virginia.^ Severe weather is occasionally a concern in Virginia.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia vulnerable.^ As mentioned above, hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia somewhat vulnerable, although it is rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is fairly rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened, but it happens (see Hurricane Gaston).^ As mentioned above, hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia somewhat vulnerable, although it is rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with most States on the East Coast, the majority of Virginia’s natural gas supply is delivered from the Gulf Coast region via several major interstate natural gas pipelines.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Virginia fell far behind other major coal-producing states in regulating mining conditions.
  • West Virginia's Mine Wars 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.wvculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virginia is often struck with the remnants of systems which hit further south bringing torrential rain to the state.^ More often, Virginia is struck with the remnants of systems which hit further south bringing torrential rain to the state.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thunderstorms are an occasional concern with the state averaging anywhere from 30-50 days of thunderstorm activity annually, with the highest area of occurrence going towards the west.^ Thunderstorms are an occasional concern with the state averaging anywhere from 30-50 days of thunderstorm activity annually, with the highest area of occurrence going towards the west.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eastern Virginia has a lower rate of tornadoes, and the state averages around 2 tornadoes per year.^ Conversely, eastern Virginia has a higher rate of tornadoes, and the state averages around 10 tornadoes per year.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Politics After William Mahone and the Readjuster Party lost control of Virginia politics around 1883, the Democratic Party held a strong majority position of state and federal offices for over 85 years.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Young Dems from all around Northern Virginia (and a few from around the state) will be joining other volunteers to knock on doors for Delegate Vanderhye and our Statewide Slate.
  • Blue Commonwealth | Virginia's Enduring Voice of Progress 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.bluecommonwealth.com [Source type: General]

The last tornado that Virginia experienced was around November 2006.
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Virginia Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Lynchburg 37/22 42/27 56/30 68/43 76/51 82/60 86/64 85/62 78/56 68/44 58/35 44/28
Norfolk 48/32 50/34 58/40 67/48 75/58 83/66 87/71 85/70 79/65 69/53 61/44 52/36
Richmond 45/28 49/30 58/37 69/45 76/55 84/63 88/68 86/67 80/60 69/47 60/38 50/31
Roanoke 39/25 43/27 58/32 68/44 76/52 83/60 88/65 86/63 79/57 69/45 58/37 45/29
[1]

Faults and quakes

Main article: Virginia seismic zone
.Virginia has not had a history of major seismic activity: the earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 on the Richter magnitude scale.^ As mentioned above, hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia somewhat vulnerable, although it is rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The largest, at 6.0 magnitude, came in 1897 in Blacksburg.[5] .There is no volcanic activity in the state, and it is located centrally on the North American Plate—where the Earth's crust is thicker than at the edges—which leads to fewer strong earthquakes.^ He fostered United States interests on the North American continent by treaties with Britain and Spain.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On the contrary, their harmony is unparalleled, and can be ascribed to nothing but their unbounded tolerance, because there is no other circumstance in which they differ from every nation on earth.

^ The Edge: Going the distance If you're a distance runner looking to improve your 5K time, there's a lot more to it than simply going for a run .
  • Maryland High School Sports - ESPN Rise MD 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC sports.espn.go.com [Source type: News]

History

Main article: History of Virginia

Indigenous Americans

A 19th century depiction of Pocahontas, of the Powhatan tribe.
.At the time of the English colonization of Virginia, Native American people living in what now is Virginia includes tribes known as the Cherokee, Chesepian, Chickahominy, Chiskiack, Mattaponi, Meherrin, Monacan, Moobs, Nansemond, Nottoway, Pamunkey, Povic, Powhatan, Occoneechees, Rappahannock, Saponites and others.^ History Main article: History of Virginia Native Americans At the time of the English colonization of Virginia, Native American people living in what now is Virginia were the Cherokee, Chickahominy, Mattaponi, Meherrin, Monacan, Nansemond, Nottaway, Pamunkey, Pohick, Powhatan, Rappahannock, Saponi, and Tuscarora.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chief Powhatan was living among the Pamunkey when the English colonists first arrived in Virginia.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But now is not the time for bitterness, or retreat into our partisan corners - it’s time to overcome that disappointment with our determination to build a better Virginia, together.” .
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Virginia « - Blogs from CNN.com 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.The natives are often divided into three groups, based to a large extent upon language differences.^ The natives are often divided into three groups.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The largest group are known as the Algonquian who numbered over 10,000, most of whom were united in the Powhatan Confederacy led by Chief Powhatan.^ The largest group are known as the Algonquian who numbered over 10,000.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walters serves on the Board of Directors for the United Inventors Association, a nonprofit organization with over 10,000 innovative members and on the Board of Directors for several nonprofits working with rising entertainers and artists.
  • Virginia Attorney Profiles - VA Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1754 the population was placed at 153,000 of whom the Catholics numbered about 8000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The other groups are the Iroquoian (numbering 2,500) and the Siouan.^ The other groups are the Iroquoian (numbering 2,500) and the Siouan.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Virginia colony

Sketch of Jamestown c.1608
Main article: Colony of Virginia
.At the end of the 16th century, when England began to colonize North America, Queen Elizabeth I of England (who was known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married) gave the name "Virginia" to the whole area explored by the 1584 expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh along the coast of North America, and at one time it also included Bermuda (known as Virgineola).^ Virginia Colony: 1607–1776 Sketch of Jamestown c.1608At the end of the 16th century, when England began to colonize North America, Queen Elizabeth I of England (who was known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married) gave the name "Virginia" to the whole area explored by the 1584 expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh along the coast of North America.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It included area explored by the 1584 expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh along the coast of North America.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned above, hurricanes make the coastal area of Virginia somewhat vulnerable, although it is rare for a major hurricane to threaten the Virginia coast as hurricanes this far north tend to become somewhat weakened.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name eventually applied to the whole coast from South Carolina to Maine.^ The name eventually applied to the whole coast from South Carolina to Maine.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The London Virginia Company became incorporated as a joint stock company by a proprietary charter drawn up on April 10, 1606.^ The London Virginia Company became incorporated as a joint stock company by a proprietary charter drawn up on April 10, 1606.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, therefore, the London Company, or Virginian Company, as named by the second charter, were convinced that gold could not be found in that part of America, their interest in the colony was greatly diminished, and to this fact was due much of the anarchy and disorder in Virginia.
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1624, the Virginia Company, after a severe struggle with the Crown, was deprived of its charter.
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

.The charter granted lands stretching from approximately the 34th parallel (North Carolina) north to approximately the 45th parallel (U.S.-Canada border) and from the Atlantic Ocean westward.^ The charter granted lands stretching from approximately the 34th parallel (North Carolina) north to approximately the 45th parallel (New York) and from the Atlantic Ocean westward.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The charter granted lands stretching from approximately the 34th parallel (North Carolina) north to approximately the 45th parallel (New York)and from the Atlantic Ocean westward.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geography Map of Virginia Virginia - topographic mapSee also: List of Virginia counties, List of Virginia county seats, List of Virginia rivers, Lost Counties, Cities and Towns of Virginia, and Climate of Virginia Virginia is a Commonwealth and is bordered by West Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia (across the Potomac River) to the north; by Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; and by Kentucky and West Virginia to the west.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It swiftly financed the first permanent English settlement in the New World, which was at Jamestown, named in honor of King James I, in the Virginia Colony, in 1607. The settlement was founded by Captain Christopher Newport and Captain John Smith.^ USS Virginia was named in honor of this state.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It swiftly financed the first permanent English settlement in the New World, which was at Jamestown, named in honor of King James I, in the Virginia Colony, in 1607.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1612, Captain John Smith wrote that “heaven and earth never agreed better to frame a place for man's habitation,” and that has been our inheritance—and our obligation—ever since.
  • Virginia State of the Commonwealth Address 2009 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

.Its Second Charter was officially ratified on May 23, 1609.^ Its Second Charter was officially ratified on May 23, 1609.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of the colonists died during the starving time. A dispute over how to deal with the Indians led to Bacon's Rebellion. .To try to attract more settlers, Virginia used the headright system, in which each family of settlers got 50 acres per person.^ More often, Virginia is struck with the remnants of systems which hit further south bringing torrential rain to the state.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Virginia / WVA Genealogy A collection of family trees based on those who were the first settlers (1800s) of Monroe County, West Virginia.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not disputed, however, that John Smith was a man of wonderful energy, and that he did more for Virginia than any other of the early settlers.
  • Colonial Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.usahistory.info [Source type: Original source]

.Jamestown was the original capital of the Virginia Colony, and remained so until the State House burned (for the fourth time) in 1698. After the fire, the colonial capital was moved to nearby Middle Plantation, which was renamed Williamsburg in honor of William of Orange, King William III.^ Jamestown was the original capital of the Virginia Colony, and remained so until the State House burned (not the first time) in 1698.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the fire, the colonial capital was moved to nearby Middle Plantation, which was renamed Williamsburg in honor of William of Orange, King William III. Virginia was given its nickname, "The Old Dominion", by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775 he served on the Orange County committee of safety; the next year at the Virginia convention, which, besides advocating various Revolutionary steps, framed the Virginia constitution; in 1776-77 in the House of Delegates; and in 1778-80 in the Council of State.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Virginia was given the title, "Dominion", by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War.^ After the fire, the colonial capital was moved to nearby Middle Plantation, which was renamed Williamsburg in honor of William of Orange, King William III. Virginia was given its nickname, "The Old Dominion", by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Civil War Virginia is one of the states that seceded from the Union (on April 17, 1861) and operated independently until it joined the Confederacy during the Civil War when it turned over its military on June 8 and ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States on June 19.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virginia gold mining Virginia, arguably the wealthiest southern state before the Civil War, recovered from the Civil War and the Great Depression much faster than the rest of the South.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title.

Independent commonwealth

Virginia sent delegates to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, beginning in 1774. On June 12, 1776, the Virginia Convention adopted the Virginia Declaration of Rights written by George Mason, a document that influenced the Bill of Rights added later to the United States Constitution.
^ On June 12, 1776, the Virginia Convention adopted the Virginia Declaration of Rights written by George Mason, a document that influenced the Bill of Rights added later to the United States Constitution.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The convention of May 1776, in their declaration of .
  • Notes on the State of Virginia 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC faculty.samford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 29, 1776, the convention adopted a constitution that established Virginia as a commonwealth independent of the British Empire.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then on June 29, 1776, the convention adopted a constitution that established Virginia as a commonwealth independent of the British Empire.^ On June 29, 1776, the convention adopted a constitution that established Virginia as a commonwealth independent of the British Empire.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1775 he served on the Orange County committee of safety; the next year at the Virginia convention, which, besides advocating various Revolutionary steps, framed the Virginia constitution; in 1776-77 in the House of Delegates; and in 1778-80 in the Council of State.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ An active patriot, Blair signed the Virginia Association of June 22, 1770, which pledged to abandon importation of British goods until the Townshend Duties were repealed.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Patrick Henry, of Charlotte County, served as the first Governor of the new commonwealth from 1776 to 1779, and again from 1784 to 1786. In 1780, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of then-Governor Thomas Jefferson, who was afraid that Williamsburg's location made it vulnerable to a British attack during the American Revolutionary War.^ Patrick Henry served as the first Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779, and again from 1784 to 1786.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city of Richmond served as the capital of the Confederacy during the war.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An independent commonwealth Patrick Henry's speech on the Virginia Resolves.In 1780, during the American Revolutionary War, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of then-Governor Thomas Jefferson, who was afraid that Williamsburg's location made it vulnerable to a British attack.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the autumn of 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British on the Yorktown peninsula.^ In the autumn of 1781, American troops trapped the British on the Yorktown peninsula in the famous Battle of Yorktown.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strategy Washington evolved consisted of continual harassment of British forces while avoiding general actions.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Troops under George Washington and French Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the crucial Battle of Yorktown.^ Edward Braddock, and barely escaped death when the French defeated the general's forces in the Battle of the Monongahela, PA. As a reward for his bravery, Washington rewon his colonelcy and command of the Virginia militia forces, charged with defending the colony's frontier.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The strategy Washington evolved consisted of continual harassment of British forces while avoiding general actions.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On 12 Sept., 1814, the Maryland troops under General Stricker checked the British forces commanded by General Ross at the Battle of North Point.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The British surrender on October 19, 1781 ended the major hostilities and secured the independence of the former colonies, though sporadic fighting continued for another two years.^ This prompted a British surrender on October 19, 1781, formally ending the war and securing the former colonies' independence, even though sporadic fighting continued for two years.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proclamation of independence and the Revolution which followed it put an end to the royal authority in the American colonies, and to the proprietary rule in Maryland, and struck the shackles from the Catholics of that province.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the boys thus sent in any one year, trial is to be made at the grammar schools one or two years, and the best genius of the whole selected, and continued six years, and the residue dismissed.
  • Notes on the State of Virginia 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC faculty.samford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, but in an Act of the U.S. Congress dated July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac that had been ceded by Virginia was retroceded to Virginia effective 1847, and is now Arlington County and part of the City of Alexandria.^ Arlington County (formed 1847 from Fairfax) .
  • Virginia Census Records | Virginia Census Finder 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, but in an Act of the U.S. Congress dated July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac that had been ceded by Virginia was retroceded to Virginia effective 1847, and is now Arlington County and part of the City of Alexandria.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Became part of the District of Columbia ) .
  • Virginia Census Records | Virginia Census Finder 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

American Civil War

Main article: Virginia in the American Civil War
Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy.
.Virginia seceded from the Union (on April 17, 1861) in response to Lincoln's call for volunteers to attack the Confederate States of America after its attack on Fort Sumter.^ American Civil War Virginia is one of the states that seceded from the Union (on April 17, 1861) and operated independently until it joined the Confederacy during the Civil War when it turned over its military on June 8 and ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States on June 19.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Young Dems from all around Northern Virginia (and a few from around the state) will be joining other volunteers to knock on doors for Delegate Vanderhye and our Statewide Slate.
  • Blue Commonwealth | Virginia's Enduring Voice of Progress 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.bluecommonwealth.com [Source type: General]

^ The Civil War Archive - Union Regiments - Virginia Civil War Battle Summaries by State - Virginia CivilWarCemetery.com Chancellorsville Memorial Garden.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virginia briefly operated as an independent state until it joined the Confederacy.^ American Civil War Virginia is one of the states that seceded from the Union (on April 17, 1861) and operated independently until it joined the Confederacy during the Civil War when it turned over its military on June 8 and ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States on June 19.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many other states, by the 1850s Virginia featured a state legislature, several executive officers, and an independent judiciary.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jamestown was the original capital of the Virginia Colony, and remained so until the State House burned (not the first time) in 1698.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It turned over its military on June 8 and ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States on June 19.^ American Civil War Virginia is one of the states that seceded from the Union (on April 17, 1861) and operated independently until it joined the Confederacy during the Civil War when it turned over its military on June 8 and ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States on June 19.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Upon its admission, the CSA moved its capital from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond. .In 1863, during the Civil War, 48 counties remaining loyal to the Union in the northwest of the state separated from Virginia to form the State of West Virginia, an act which was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 1870. More battles were fought on Virginia soil than anywhere else in America during the Civil War including the First Battle of Manassas, Second Battle of Manassas, the Seven Days Battles, the Battle of Fredricksburg and the Battle of Chancellorsville.^ When it did, some counties were separated as Kanawha (later renamed West Virginia), an act which was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 1870.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state debt of Virginia amounted, prior to the late civil war, to more than $30,000,000.
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC laws.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More battles were fought on Virginia soil than anywhere else in America during the Civil War.
  • KeysDAN State of Virginia - VA 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC www.keysdan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Virginia formally rejoined the union on January 26, 1870, after Reconstruction.

Twentieth century

.The expansion during World War II and the Cold War of government programs in the areas near Washington has profoundly affected the economy of Northern Virginia, and the subsequent growth of defense projects has also generated a local information technology industry.^ Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., and in the metropolitan areas of Richmond and Norfolk-Hampton Roads.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get Local...Virginia Counties and Regions or Cities Maps, yellow pages, white pages, newspapers and other local information.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an active member of the Associated General Contractors of Virginia, Mr. Hill regularly presents to the AGC-VA membership on a variety of topics, ranging from occupational safety issues to changes in the law that affect the construction industry.
  • Virginia Attorney Profiles - VA Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Hampton Roads region has also experienced much growth.
.On January 13, 1990, Douglas Wilder became the first African American to be elected as Governor of a US state since Reconstruction when he was elected Governor of Virginia.^ Virginia Runaways Homepage Virginia Sheriffs, 1699 to 1702 Virginia State Elected Officials Database Online searchable database of Virginia governors and members of the legislature from 1776 to the present.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware History of over 500 African American families who were free in the colonial period through 1820.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vital Records US - Virginia Vital Records Information and guidelines on acquiring vital records information in the United States.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demographics

.As of 2006, Virginia had an estimated population of 7,642,884, which is an increase of 78,557, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 563,854, or 8.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 276,039 people (that is 633,794 births minus 357,755 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 276,292 people into the commonwealth.^ Births 2000-2006: 633,794 .
  • Virginia Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ Deaths 2000-2006: 357,755 .
  • Virginia Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ Estimated 2006 population: 7,642,884 .
  • Virginia Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

.Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 151,748 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 124,544 people.^ International migration 2000-2006: +151,748 .
  • Virginia Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ VONAPP mailing addresses usually have three different selections: Domestic (United States), Foreign (other than U.S.), and Military Overseas (U.S. military addresses outside of the United States).
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC vabenefits.vba.va.gov [Source type: General]

^ Internal migration 2000-2006: +124,544 .
  • Virginia Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

.The commonwealth has 940,899 residents who were born outside the United States (8.14% of the population), while 99,104 were born in a different state.^ In October, 1864, a new constitution abolished slavery and disfranchised all who had aided the rebellion against the United States .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ VONAPP mailing addresses usually have three different selections: Domestic (United States), Foreign (other than U.S.), and Military Overseas (U.S. military addresses outside of the United States).
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC vabenefits.vba.va.gov [Source type: General]

^ Greenhow, that the act of January 14, 1882, as applicable to the remedy of mandamus, did not violate the constitution of the United States.
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC laws.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.The center of population of Virginia is located in Goochland County.^ Map of Virginia Counties RootsWeb Town Search - TownCo Enter the name of a U.S. town to learn the name of the county where that town is located.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keenbell Farm is a third generation farm located in Hanover County, Virginia.
  • Virginia - Eat Wild 18 September 2009 9:48 UTC www.eatwild.com [Source type: General]

[7]
.Also in 2006, 6.58% of Virginia's population were reported as under 5 years old, 24.6% under 18, and 11.2% were senior citizens-65+.^ Rising Stars identifies the top 2.5 percent of attorneys in Virginia who are under 40 or have been in practice for less than 10 years.
  • Virginia Attorney Profiles - VA Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Females made up over half of the population.

Ethnicity

{{US .DemogTable|Virginia|03-51.csv|= | 75.70| 20.54| 0.76| 4.32| 0.15|= | 4.17| 0.42| 0.09| 0.07| 0.02|= | 74.94| 20.65| 0.74| 5.20| 0.16|= | 5.44| 0.46| 0.10| 0.09| 0.03|= | 5.84| 7.49| 4.61| 28.64| 17.09|= | 3.87| 7.27| 2.22| 28.47| 15.73|= | 39.60| 18.30| 22.10| 38.58| 24.16}} The five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.2%), English (11.1%), Irish (9.8%).^ African Ancestry in Virginia Afro-American Sources in Virginia - A Guide to Manuscripts Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County 1745-1800 by Lyman Chalkley.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wed Dec 16, 2009 at 17:09:21 PM EST .
  • Blue Commonwealth | Virginia's Enduring Voice of Progress 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.bluecommonwealth.com [Source type: General]

^ With 51 chapters and 10,000 members, the Virginia Young Democrats are the premiere volunteer organization for Democrats in the commonwealth.
  • Blue Commonwealth | Virginia's Enduring Voice of Progress 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.bluecommonwealth.com [Source type: General]

.Historically Virginia was the largest and wealthiest colony and state and the birthplace of Southern and American culture.^ This retention of his territory enabled the proprietary to save his province and the future State of Maryland from absorption by either Virginia or Pennsylvania colonies.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Society Hill: Virginia Genealogy A list of addresses for genealogical and historical societies in the state.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware History of over 500 African American families who were free in the colonial period through 1820.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A large proportion (about half) of Virginia's population was made up of enslaved Africans who worked its tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations.^ This will bring Virginia’s tobacco tax up to about half the national average.
  • Virginia State of the Commonwealth Address 2009 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

^ Probably not onetenth, if even so large a proportion, of the bondholders were tax-payers of the state of Virginia.
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 20 November 2009 23:21 UTC laws.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware History of over 500 African American families who were free in the colonial period through 1820.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Initially, these slaves were imported from west central Africa, primarily Angola. .During the eighteenth century, however, about half of them were derived from various ethnicities located in the Niger Delta region of modern day Nigeria.^ The story of fitness during the first half of the twentieth century is predominately an up-down history of a nation becoming intensely concerned about the state of its fitness during wartime and apathetic during peace time.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

^ The source of this popular music was the mother countries of the new Americans, chiefly England, but during the eighteenth century an increasing amount of this popular music was written in the colonies for colonists.
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

^ The emergence of modern children's literature is conventionally dated from the middle of the eighteenth century and credited, to John Newberry, with Pretty Little Pocket Book (1742).
  • American Studies @ The University of Virginia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: General]

.With migration to Virginia of other European groups and sale of enslaved African Americans to the Deep South, by 1860 enslaved African Americans comprised only 31% of the state's population of 1.6 million.^ New Papyrus Publishing Specializing in reference works for genealogists and historians researching the Virginias and other Southeastern U.S. States circa.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other states that have implemented such provisions have attracted significant biofuel investments and Virginia should not be left behind.
  • Virginia State of the Commonwealth Address 2009 6 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

^ Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware History of over 500 African American families who were free in the colonial period through 1820.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As Paul Heinegg has shown, the majority of free people of color in colonial Virginia were descended from marriages or relationships of white women (servants or free) and black men (slave, servant or free).^ Dark brown, light brown, white and colored eggs from our free-range chickens.
  • Virginia - Eat Wild 18 September 2009 9:48 UTC www.eatwild.com [Source type: General]

^ Notes And Documents of Free Persons of Color - Lulu.com A true chronicle of the history of a group labled, Free Persons of Color, in Colonial Virginia.
  • Cyndi's List - U.S. - Virginia 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Geography