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Virginia Apgar
Born June 7, 1909(1909-06-07)
Westfield, New Jersey
Died August 7, 1974 (aged 65)
New York City, New York

Virginia Apgar (7 June 1909– 7 August 1974) was an American physician who specialised in anesthesia. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, and effectively founded the field of neonatology. To the public, however, she is best known as the developer of the Apgar test, a method of assessing the health of newborn babies that has drastically reduced infant mortality over the world.

Contents

Biography

She graduated from Mount Holyoke College inollege of Physicians and Surgeons|Columbia 1929, and the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in 1933. She completed a residency in surgery at Columbia in 1937. However, she was discouraged from practicing surgery by Dr. Allen Whipple, the chair of surgery at Columbia. She further trained in anesthesia and returned to Columbia in 1938 as director of the newly formed division of anesthesia.[1]

In 1949, Apgar became the first woman to become a full professor at Columbia P&S [2], while she also did clinical and research work at the affiliated Sloane Hospital for Women.[3] In 1959, she earned a Master of Public Health degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.

In 1953, she introduced the first test, called the Apgar scale, to assess the health of newborn babies. It is administered one minute and five minutes after birth, and sometimes also at 10 minutes.

While Apgar was frequently the "first woman" or "only woman" in a department, to serve in a position, or win an accolade, she avoided the organized women's movement, proclaiming that "women are liberated from the time they leave the womb".[4]

Apgar never married, and died on August 7, 1974, at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

Published work

  • More than sixty scientific papers
  • Numerous papers for the popular press
  • Is My Baby All Right? with Joan Beck (1972)

Recognition and awards

Apgar has continued to earn posthumous recognition for her contributions and achievements. In 1994, she was commemorated on a U.S. postal stamp. In November 1995 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.

References

More information

External links


Virginia Apgar
File:Virginia
Born June 7, 1909(1909-06-07)
Westfield, New Jersey
Died August 7, 1974 (aged 65)
New York City, New York

Virginia Apgar (7 June 1909– 7 August 1974) was an American physician who specialised in anesthesia. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, and effectively founded the field of neonatology. To the public, however, she is best known as the developer of the Apgar test, a method of assessing the health of newborn babies that has drastically reduced infant mortality over the world.

Contents

Biography

She graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1929 and the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in 1933. She completed a residency in surgery at Columbia in 1937. However, she was discouraged from practicing surgery by Dr. Allen Whipple, the chair of surgery at Columbia. She further trained in anesthesia and returned to Columbia in 1938 as director of the newly formed division of anesthesia.[1]

In 1949, Apgar became the first woman to become a full professor at Columbia P&S,[2] while she also did clinical and research work at the affiliated Sloane Hospital for Women.[3] In 1959, she earned a Master of Public Health degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.

In 1953, she introduced the first test, called the Apgar scale, to assess the health of newborn babies. It is administered one minute and five minutes after birth, and sometimes also at 10 minutes.

While Apgar was frequently the "first woman" or "only woman" in a department, to serve in a position, or win an accolade, she avoided the organized women's movement, proclaiming that "women are liberated from the time they leave the womb".[4]

Apgar never married, and died on August 7, 1974, at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

Published work

  • More than sixty scientific papers
  • Numerous papers for the popular press
  • Is My Baby All Right? with Joan Beck (1972)

Recognition and awards

Apgar has continued to earn posthumous recognition for her contributions and achievements. In 1994, she was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 20¢ Great Americans series postage stamp. In November 1995 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.

References

More information

  • Pearce JM (2005). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar (1909-1974): neurological evaluation of the newborn infant"]. European Neurology 54 (3): 132–4. doi:10.1159/000089084. PMID 16244485. 
  • Goodwin JW (March 2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A personal recollection of Virginia Apgar"]. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 24 (3): 248–9. PMID 12585247. 
  • Goldman R, Blickstein I (February 2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Dr. Virginia Apgar--1909-1974 [Dr. Virginia Apgar--1909-1974]"] (in Hebrew). Harefuah 140 (2): 177–8. PMID 11242930. 
  • Mazana Casanova JS (11 November 2000). "Virginia Apgar y su test posnatal medio siglo después [Virginia Apgar and her postnatal test half a century later]" (in Spanish). Anales Españoles De Pediatría 53 (5): 469. http://www.elsevier.es/revistas/ctl_servlet?_f=7012&articuloid=12405. 
  • Baskett TF (November 2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar and the newborn Apgar score"]. Resuscitation 47 (3): 215–7. doi:10.1016/S0300-9572(00)00340-3. PMID 11114450. 
  • Jay V (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "On a historical note: Dr. Virginia apgar"]. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 2 (3): 292–4. doi:10.1007/s100249900126. PMID 10191354. 
  • Morishima HO (November 1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)"]. The Journal of Pediatrics 129 (5): 768–70. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(96)70170-1. PMID 8917248. 
  • Shampo MA, Kyle RA (July 1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar--the Apgar score"]. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 70 (7): 680. PMID 7791393. 
  • Butterfield LJ (September 1994). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar, MD, MPhH"]. Neonatal Network 13 (6): 81–3. PMID 7854290. 
  • Butterfield LJ (1994). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar, MD, MPhH (1909-1974)"]. Journal of Perinatology 14 (4): 310. PMID 7965228. 
  • Ignatius J (1993). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar 1909-1974 [Virginia Apgar 1909-1974]"] (in Finnish). Duodecim 109 (1): 54–5. PMID 8013307. 
  • Appelgren L (April 1991). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The woman behind the Apgar score. Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality control of the newborn [The woman behind the Apgar score. Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality control of the newborn]"] (in Swedish). Läkartidningen 88 (14): 1304–6. PMID 2016983. 
  • Wilhelmson-Lindell B (October 1990). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar Award to Petter Karlberg. After 45 years of pioneering commission as a pediatrician, the research on body-soul-environment is tempting [Virginia Apgar Award to Petter Karlberg. After 45 years of pioneering commission as a pediatrician, the research on body-soul-environment is tempting]"] (in Swedish). Läkartidningen 87 (40): 3198–200. PMID 2232990. 
  • Kovács J (September 1989). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "In commemoration of Virginia Apgar [In commemoration of Virginia Apgar]"] (in Hungarian). Orvosi Hetilap 130 (38): 2049–50. PMID 2677904. 
  • Calmes SH (1984). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Virginia Apgar: a woman physician's career in a developing specialty"]. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 39 (6): 184–8. PMID 6392395. 
  • Schoenberg DG, Schoenberg BS (January 1977). "Eponym: yes, Virginia, there is an Apgar score". Southern Medical Journal 70 (1): 101. PMID 320667. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0038-4348&volume=70&issue=1&spage=101. 
  • Frey R, Bendixen H (January 1977). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "In memoriam Virginia Apgar 1909-1974 [In memoriam Virginia Apgar 1909-1974]"] (in German). Der Anaesthesist 26 (1): 45. PMID 319701. 
  • James LS (1976). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Dedication to Virginia Apgar, MD"]. Birth Defects Original Article Series 12 (5): xx–xxi. PMID 782603. 
  • James LS (January 1975). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Fond memories of Virginia Apgar"]. Pediatrics 55 (1): 1–4. PMID 1089236. 
  • James LW (December 1974). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Memories of Virginia Apgar"]. Teratology 10 (3): 213–5. doi:10.1002/tera.1420100302. PMID 4617325. 

External links


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