Vitamin K: Wikis

  
  
  

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Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). .Both forms of the vitamin contain a functional naphthoquinone ring and an aliphatic side chain.^ Vitamin K is actually a group name for related compounds, which all have a similar molecular structure (methylated naphthoquinone ring structure).

^ All members of the vitamin K group of vitamins share a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (see figure 1).
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemical Structure Vitamin K is a group name for a number of related compounds, which have in common a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and which vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

Phylloquinone has a phytyl side chain.
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone). In menaquinone the side chain is composed of a varying number of isoprenoid residues.
.Vitamin K (K from "Koagulations-Vitamin" in German and Scandinavian languages[1]) denotes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that are needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation.^ Vitamin K is needed for the “carboxylation” of Gla-proteins.
  • Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smart-publications.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation.

^ Vitamin K is the family name for a series of essential fat-soluble compounds needed for the chemical modification of a small group of proteins with calcium-binding properties (vitamin K dependent proteins or ?-carboxyglutamic acid-proteins, generally known as Gla proteins).
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.Chemically they are 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.^ Chemically they are 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemical Structure Vitamin K is a group name for a number of related compounds, which have in common a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and which vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vitamin K1 is also known as phylloquinone or phytomenadione (also called phytonadione).^ Vitamin K1 is called phytomenadione.
  • Clinical guideline Vitamin K administration 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ich.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K, or phylloquinone, is a fat-soluble vitamin best known for its important function in the biological activity of...
  • Vitamin K: Compare Prices, Reviews & Buy Online @ Yahoo! Shopping 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC shopping.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Naturally occurring Vitamin K are in two forms: • Vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone, phytomenadione), which occurs in plants (originally isolated from alfalfa) is supplied in diet gets absorbed with other lipids.
  • Vitamin K Supplements (MENADIONE) | Vitamin K Sources and Deficiency 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.natural-cure-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vitamin K2 (menaquinone, menatetrenone) is normally produced by bacteria in the large intestine,[2] and dietary deficiency is extremely rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged, are unable to absorb the molecule, or are subject to decreased production by normal flora, as seen in broad spectrum antibiotic use[3].^ This phenomenon was not seen in normal vitamin K-sufficient animals or human subjects.

^ Plus, bacteria that normally reside in the intestines are able to make vitamin K. Antibiotics may interfere with this normal production.

^ Some broad-spectrum antibiotics (antibiotics that kill a wide variety of bacteria) may decrease the amount of vitamin K 2 produced in the intestines.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

There are three synthetic forms of vitamin K, vitamins K3, K4, and K5, which are used in many areas including the pet food industry (vitamin K3) and to inhibit fungal growth (vitamin K5) [4]

Contents

Chemical structure

.All members of the vitamin K group of vitamins share a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (see figure 1).^ Vitamins K 1 and K 2 share a common ring-structured nucleus but possess different types of side chains.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While vitamins K 1 and K 2 have different types of side chains, the side chains of the various menaquinones within the K 2 group are all of the same type but are of varying lengths.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemical Structure Vitamin K is a group name for a number of related compounds, which have in common a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and which vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K1) invariably contains in its side chain four isoprenoid residues, one of which is unsaturated.^ Phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K1) contains in its side chain four isoprenid residues one of which is unsaturated.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menaquinones have side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K 1 ) invariably contains in its side chain four isoprenoid residues, one of which is unsaturated.
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Menaquinones have side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues; generally they are designated as MK-n, where n specifies the number of isoprenoids.^ This trade of human-made vitamins is only shared with vitamin D. Bacteria in the gut produce a range of vitamin K2 forms, each with side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoids, or chemical compounds; generally they are designated as MK-n, where n specifies the number of isoprenoids.

^ Menaquinones have side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylloquinone has a phytyl side chain, whereas in menaquinone the side chain is composed of a varying number of isoprenoid residues.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is generally accepted that the naphthoquinone is the functional group, so that the mechanism of action is similar for all K-vitamins.^ On the mechanism of the anticlotting action of vitamin E quinone.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is generally accepted that the naphthoquinone is the functional group, so that the mechanism of action is similar for all K-vitamins.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the mechanisms behind vitamin K’s functions in the body?
  • Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smart-publications.com [Source type: Academic]

.Substantial differences may be expected, however, with respect to intestinal absorption, transport, tissue distribution, and bio-availability.^ Substantial differences may be expected, however, with respect to intestinal absorption, transport, tissue distribution, and bio-availability.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it can develop in persons not eating green vegetables or those taking medicine that may interfere with the growth of intestinal bacteria which produce vitamin K2.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Vitamin K Information and Product Listing! Vitamin K FAQ! 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]
  • Vitamin K Supplement Facts and Informaion 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.fitnessatlantic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Vitamin K Supplement Review 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.criticalbench.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Deficiency of vitamin K may, however, occur following the administration of certain drugs that inhibit the growth of the vitamin-synthesizing bacteria or as a result of disorders affecting the production or flow of bile which is necessary for the intestinal absorption of vitamin K. .
  • Deficiency, vitamin K definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

.These differences are caused by the different lipophilicity of the various side chains, and by the different food matrices in which they occur.^ These differences are caused by the different lipophilicity of the various side chains, and by the different food matrices in which they occur.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It now includes a group of related natural compounds - menaquinones, differing in the number of isoprene units in the side chain and in their degree of unsaturation.
  • Vitamin K, What is Vitamin K? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.3dchem.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All members of the vitamin K group of vitamins share a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (see figure 1).
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

Physiology

.Vitamin K is involved in the carboxylation of certain glutamate residues in proteins to form gamma-carboxyglutamate residues (abbreviated Gla-residues).^ This process transforms glutamate into γ-carboxyglutamate, abbreviated Gla.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MGP contains five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-residues which are formed in a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation step and which are essential for its function.

^ Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which confers functionality to vitamin K–dependent Gla-containing proteins.
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The modified residues are often (but not always) situated within specific protein domains called Gla domains.^ The modified residues are situated within specific protein domains called Gla domains.
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The Gla domain in association with the adjacent aromatic amino acid stack domain functions as a membrane binding component of these proteins.

^ Furthermore, recombinant protein C in which glutamic acid residues in the Gla domain were systematically mutated to aspartic acid residues was incompletely carboxylated.

.Gla-residues are usually involved in binding calcium.^ Gla-residues are usually involved in binding calcium .
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gla-residues are usually involved in binding calcium.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K plays a key role in the synthesis of the bone proteins osteocalcin and matrix Gla-protein, which are involved in calcium and bone metabolism.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gla-residues are essential for the biological activity of all known Gla-proteins.^ In all cases in which their function was known, the presence of the Gla-residues in these proteins turned out to be essential for functional activity.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reaction mechanism of Vitamin K-dependent carboxylases Gla-residues are usually involved in binding calcium , and are essential for the biological activity of all known Gla-proteins.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Gla-residues are essential for the biological activity of all known Gla-proteins.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[5]
At this time 14 human proteins with Gla domains have been discovered, and they play key roles in the regulation of three physiological processes:
.
  • Blood coagulation: (prothrombin (factor II), factors VII, IX, X, protein C, protein S, and protein Z).^ In contrast, PIVKA-II is a measure of the biologically inactive, undercarboxylated form of prothrombin and can detect abnormalities in prothrombin before coagulation times are prolonged.
    • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status -- Booth et al. 80 (1): 143 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ What we know so far: vitamin k is essential for the production of six of the proteins necessary for proper blood coagulation.

    ^ These coagulation factors are produced by the liver in precursor forms and are converted to functional proteins by a vitamin K-dependent reaction.

    [6]
  • .
  • Bone metabolism: osteocalcin, also called bone Gla-protein (BGP), and matrix gla protein (MGP).^ The most famous Gla protein is "osteocalcin."
    • LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) assay standardization report.
    • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Matrix Gla protein (MGP), which is required for the mineralization of bone, is also expressed in dentin.
    • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

    [7]
  • Vascular biology.[8]

Recommended amounts

.The U.S. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for an Adequate Intake (AI) of vitamin K for a 25-year old male is 120 micrograms/day.^ AI Adequate intake .
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for an Adequate Intake (AI) for a 25-year old male for Vitamin K is 120 micrograms/day.
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the future, they will be called Dietary Reference Intakes ( DRI s).
  • Human Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Adequate Intake (AI) of this phytonutrient for adult women is 90 micrograms/day, for infants is 10–20 micrograms/day, for children and adolescents 15–100 micrograms/day.^ AI Adequate intake .
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The AI for men and women is 120 and 90 μg/day, respectively.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is less than the adequate intake levels set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, which recommends 120 mcg per day for men and 90 mcg per day for women.
  • LE Magazine, March 2004 - All About Supplements: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 2002 it was found that to get maximum carboxylation of osteocalcin, one may have to take up to 1000 μg of vitamin K1. Like other liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E), vitamin K is stored in the fat tissue of the human body.^ Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, so it is stored in the body's fat tissue and liver.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K - Aultman Health Foundation 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC aultmanhealth.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K - Alternative Medicine Report 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fat-soluble vitamin —A vitamin that dissolves in and can be stored in body fat or the liver.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K1 is found in plant foods (e.g.
  • Vitamin K, 60 capsules 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

Toxicity

.Although allergic reaction from supplementation is possible, there is no known toxicity associated with high doses of the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) or menaquinone (vitamin K2) forms of vitamin K and therefore no Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) has been set.^ There are three forms of vitamin K: .

^ If there is no medical reason to take vitamin K, then there is no point in supplementation.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No tolerable upper level ( UL ) of intake has been established for vitamin K (22) .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, a synthetic form of vitamin K, vitamin K3 (menadione), is demonstrably toxic.^ Vitamin K3 - Menadione is a synthetic form that is man-made, toxicity has occurred in infants given this synthetic vitamin by injection.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vitamin K3, the third form, is a synthetic that goes by the names menaphthone or menadione.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Vitamin K Information and Product Listing! Vitamin K FAQ! 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Vitamin K3 (menadione) is a potent synthetic (manmade) form of vitamin K. .
  • ACS :: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, the FDA has banned this synthetic form of the vitamin from over-the-counter supplements because large doses have been shown to cause allergic reactions, hemolytic anemia, and cytotoxicity in liver cells.^ Large doses of vitamin A and vitamin E have been found to antagonize vitamin K (8) .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K3 - Menadione is a synthetic form that is man-made, toxicity has occurred in infants given this synthetic vitamin by injection.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vitamin K3 or menadione is a synthetic, water-soluble vitamin, which is no longer used as a prophylaxis in most parts of the world, because of its potential to cause hemolytic anemia with jaundice.
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Drug Interactions

.Phylloquinone (K1)[10][11] or menaquinone (K2) are capable of blocking the blood thinning action of anticoagulants like warfarin, which work by interfering with the action of vitamin K. They also reverse the tendency of these drugs to cause arterial calcification in the long term.^ Vitamin K 2 supplements interfere with the activity of oral anticoagulants such as warfarin.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs that deplete Vitamin K These include: .
  • Vitamin K - a powerful antioxidant to fight heart disease andosteoporosis- Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.health-n-energy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is used medically to reverse the effects of "blood-thinning" drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin).
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.consumerlab.com [Source type: Academic]

Sources

.Vitamin K1 is found chiefly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, swiss chard, and Brassica (e.g. cabbage, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts); some fruits such as avocado and kiwifruit are also high in vitamin K. By way of reference, two tablespoons of parsley contain 153% of the recommended daily amount of vitamin K.[12].^ Phylloquinone is found in some oils, especially soybean oil, and in dark-green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli.

^ Primary dietary sources of K1 are leafy greens, such as broccoli, kale, and Swiss chard, and plant oils, such as canola and soybean oil.
  • Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smart-publications.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Green leafy vegetables are the best natural source of Vitamin K. .
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some vegetable oils, notably soybean, contain vitamin K, but at levels that would require relatively large caloric consumption to meet the USDA recommended levels.^ Some of these may contain vitamin K. .
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: General]

^ [The preparation must be Konakion MM, which contains lecithin and glycocholic acid; vitamin K requires emulsification and the presence of bile salts for its absorption.
  • Administration of Vitamin K to Newborns - from Ronnie Falcão's Midwife Archives 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.gentlebirth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Leafy green vegetables, such as kale, parsley, spinach, and turnip greens, as well as broccoli and brussels sprouts, contain large amounts of Vitamin K. Speak with your healthcare provider if you have any questions about the Vitamin K content in your food.
  • Welcome to Coumadin.com | For Patients & Caregivers - Patient Information 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.coumadin.com [Source type: General]

[13]
.It is believed that phylloquinone's tight binding to the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts is the reason behind the poor bioavailability of vitamin K in green plants.^ Naturally occurring Vitamin K are in two forms: • Vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone, phytomenadione), which occurs in plants (originally isolated from alfalfa) is supplied in diet gets absorbed with other lipids.
  • Vitamin K Supplements (MENADIONE) | Vitamin K Sources and Deficiency 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.natural-cure-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The only important molecular form of vitamin K in plants is phylloquinone (vitamin K1) but bacteria can synthesise a family of compounds called menaquinones (vitamin K2).
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Leafy green vegetables, such as spinach, kale, collards, and broccoli, are the best sources of vitamin K. The greener the plant, the higher the vitamin K content.

.For example, cooked spinach has a 4 percent bioavailability of phylloquinone.^ For example, the absorption from a 150-gram serving of spinach is 17 percent and the absorption from a 50-gram serving of spinach is 28 percent.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

.However when one adds butter to the spinach, the bioavailability increases to 13 percent due to the increased solubility of vitamin K in fat.^ Note also that Vitamin K is fat soluble.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vitamin K is fat soluble of course.

^ Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.Menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) are found in meat, eggs, dairy,[15] and natto[16].^ Many bacteria, such as Escherichia coli found in the large intestine, can synthesize Vitamin K 2 (menaquinone), [20] but not Vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone).
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Herbal Products and COUMADIN Use Vitamin K Important Safety Information Beverages Chart Dairy Products/Eggs Chart Grain Products Chart .
  • Welcome to Coumadin.com | For Patients & Caregivers - The Role of Vitamin K and COUMADIN® Use 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.coumadin.com [Source type: General]

^ K1 (Konakion, Hoffman-La Roche) (n=13) or 1 mg IM vitamin K1 (Konakion, Hoffman-La Roche) (n=16) both within six hours after birth or nothing (n=15) .
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.MK-4 is synthesized by animal tissues, the rest (mainly MK-7) are synthesized by bacteria during fermentation.^ The percentage of vitamin K 2 present as MK-4 represents that synthesized by animal tissues, while the remainder represents that synthesized by bacteria during fermentation.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two types of vitamin K: phylloquinone (vitamin K 1 ), synthesized by plants and menaquinone-n or MK-n (vitamin K 2 ), manufactured by the beneficial bacteria in your intestines .
  • Vitamin K: Why Probiotics are Essential to Vitamin K - and Why You Likely Need More of Both 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodyecology.com [Source type: General]

^ Vitamin K2 is obtained mainly from the "good" bacteria produced in the digestive tract and is also found in certain fermented foods.

.In natto 0% of vitamin K is from MK-4 and in cheese 2–7%.^ Vitamin K2 are found in some fermented foods such as cheese or natto, and can be also be made in the gut by bacteria.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fermented foods such as sauerkraut, cheese, and natto, a soy dish popular in Eastern Japan, contain substantial amounts of vitamin K 2 .
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Gut bacteria produce significant amounts of usable vitamin K. In haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, the gut has not yet been colonized with bacteria, and to prevent this disease, vitamin K shots are given to babies born in the US. Similarly, persons on large doses of antibiotics are at risk for developing vitamin K deficiency because of a lack of normal flora.^ How is vitamin K given to babies?

^ What is the risk of bleeding or thrombosis if vitamin K is given?
  • Low-dose oral vitamin K therapy for the management of asymptomatic patients with elevated international normalized ratios: a brief review -- Wilson et al. 170 (5): 821 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Newborns are commonly given vitamin K 1 injections to prevent bleeding problems.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K - Content Viewer 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.consumerlab.com [Source type: Academic]

Deficiency

.Average diets are usually not lacking in vitamin K and primary vitamin K deficiency is rare in healthy adults.^ Their mothers, however, are rarely vitamin K deficient.

^ Normal mixed diet supported with synthesis by the bacteria in the gut provides adequate amount of Vitamin K. Vitamin K Deficiency • Its deficiency leads to defective blood coagulation and haemorrhages.
  • Vitamin K Supplements (MENADIONE) | Vitamin K Sources and Deficiency 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.natural-cure-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the time, the only way to test a food for vitamin D was to feed it to rats on a mineral-deficient diet, kill the rats, and analyze the mineral content of their bones.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

.As previously mentioned, newborn infants are at an increased risk of deficiency.^ Breast milk contains lower amounts of vitamin K than modern formula milk or cow's milk and the risk of developing vitamin K deficiency is higher for the breast-fed infant ( Haroon 1982 ).
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, individuals with disorders of fat malabsorption may be at increased risk of vitamin K deficiency (6) .  .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ National Health and Medical Research Council Joint statement and recommendations on Vitamin K administration to newborn infants to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other populations with an increased prevalence of vitamin K deficiency include individuals who suffer from liver damage or disease (e.g.^ Other circumstances that may lead to vitamin K deficiency include: .

^ Acquired vitamin K-dependent carboxylation deficiency in liver disease.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis.

alcoholics), people with cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases or those who have recently had abdominal surgeries. .Groups which may suffer from secondary vitamin K deficiency include bulimics, those on stringent diets, and those taking anticoagulants.^ Only those who have symptoms of a vitamin K deficiency may need to take supplements.
  • ACS :: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other circumstances that may lead to vitamin K deficiency include: .

^ Horses that may need Vitamin K supplementation include those with anticoagulants (dicumarol, coumarin, warfarin) in their system, whether accidentally or as part of medical therapy, with chronic liver conditions, or with disturbances of the GI microorganisms such as colic, diarrhea or antibiotic treatment.
  • SmartPak Equine - Nutrition Resources 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smartpakequine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other drugs which have been associated with vitamin K deficiency include salicylates, barbiturates, and cefamandole, although the mechanism is still unknown.^ Other circumstances that may lead to vitamin K deficiency include: .

^ This recycling mechanism is called the vitamin K cycle and explains why the daily requirement for vitamin K is low and why vitamin K deficiency is rarely seen in healthy subjects.
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex and Vascular Calcification: Is This the Important Link Between Vitamin K and the Arterial Vessel Wall? -- Spronk 113 (12): 1550 -- Circulation 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common signs of a deficiency in vitamin C include swollen gums, an unexplained weakness, and nosebleeds.

.There is no difference between the sexes as both males and females are affected equally.^ There is no scientific distinction between them.
  • Human Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no difference in mean changes in height between groups.
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No other differences between groups were observed.
  • Administration of Vitamin K to Newborns - from Ronnie Falcão's Midwife Archives 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.gentlebirth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms of deficiency include heavy menstrual bleeding in women, anemia, bruising, and bleeding of the gums or nose .^ Symptoms include easy bruising and bleeding that may be manifested as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, tarry black stools, or extremely heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common signs of a deficiency in vitamin C include swollen gums, an unexplained weakness, and nosebleeds.

^ This may include: Bleeding from cuts or from your nose which does not stop.
  • HeartPoint: Coumadin 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.heartpoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Osteoporosis[18][19] and coronary heart disease[20][21] are strongly associated with lower levels of K2 (menaquinone).^ Intake is inversely associated with heart disease.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Observational studies have found that people with osteoporosis often have low levels of vitamin K, 35-38 and that people with higher intake of vitamin K have a lower incidence of osteoporosis.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K - Content Viewer 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Home | Health Information 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC health-healthresources.caremark.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Osteoporosis and heart disease—they seem as unconnected as two conditions can possibly be.
  • Vitamin K Decreases Atherosclerosis and Osteoporosis « Dr. Sponaugle's Blog 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC blog.floridadetox.com [Source type: Academic]

.Menaquinone is not inhibited by salicylates as happens with K1, so menaquinone supplementation can alleviate the chronic vitamin K deficiency caused by long term aspirin use.^ Chronic malnutrition, including alcoholism, can also cause vitamin K deficiency.
  • ACS :: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K deficiency in chronic alcoholic males.
  • Vitamin K - Content Viewer 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.consumerlab.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Home | Health Information 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC health-healthresources.caremark.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown.
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Biochemistry

Discovery

.In 1929, Danish scientist Henrik Dam investigated the role of cholesterol by feeding chickens a cholesterol-depleted diet.^ In 1929, a Danish researcher discovered that when chicks were fed a fat-free diet, blood leaked out of their arteries and into their body tissues.
  • LE Magazine, March 2004 - All About Supplements: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[22] .After several weeks, the animals developed hemorrhages and started bleeding.^ After several weeks, the animals developed hemorrhages and started bleeding.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is routinely given to newborns in order to prevent bleeding known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) or vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) that can occur during the early weeks of life.
  • Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who lack sufficient amounts of vitamin K have a prolonged clotting time that can result in severe bleeding problems or hemorrhage.
  • Vitamin K: Multi-tasking for Bone Health and Beyond - Juvenon Health Journal 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC juvenon.com [Source type: Academic]

.These defects could not be restored by adding purified cholesterol to the diet.^ These defects could not be restored by adding purified cholesterol to the diet.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K : w8pedia 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.weightsnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But adding 0.5 ppm of potassium fluoride (KF) to its diet restored normal growth and health.
  • Human Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is another reason leafy greens need to be added to the diet, especially in those avoiding the cholesterol and calorie-rich, but vitamin K 2 -abundant foods mentioned above.

.It appeared that—together with the cholesterol—a second compound had been extracted from the food, and this compound was called the coagulation vitamin.^ It appeared that - together with the cholesterol - a second compound had been extracted from the food, and this compound was called the coagulation vitamin.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ There are three types of vitamin K: vitamin K1, which is in foods; vitamin K2, which is made in the small intestine of the body; and vitamin K3, the synthetic form, called menadione.
  • A Quick Review of Vitamin Toxicity | chiroweb.com 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chiroweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only important molecular form of vitamin K in plants is phylloquinone (vitamin K1) but bacteria can synthesise a family of compounds called menaquinones (vitamin K2).
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.The new vitamin received the letter K because the initial discoveries were reported in a German journal, in which it was designated as Koagulationsvitamin.^ The new vitamin received the letter K because the initial discoveries were reported in a German journal, in which it was designated as Koagulationsvitamin .
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients receiving TPN should be given biweekly parenteral Vitamin K and those receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics should receive weekly supplementation because of sterilization of the gut.

^ Enzymes in mammalian and avian tissues are also capable of converting menadione to the active forms of vitamin K. Ever since its initial discovery, vitamin K has been known to be important in the clotting process of blood, because of its involvement in the synthesis of four plasma clotting proteins.
  • Vitamin K Substances and Animal Feed 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Edward Adelbert Doisy of Saint Louis University did much of the research that led to the discovery of the structure and chemical nature of vitamin K.[23] Dam and Doisy shared the 1943 Nobel Prize for medicine for their work on vitamin K. Several laboratories synthesized the compound in 1939.[24]
.For several decades the vitamin K-deficient chick model was the only method of quantifying vitamin K in various foods: the chicks were made vitamin K-deficient and subsequently fed with known amounts of vitamin K-containing food.^ Evaluation of a daily dose of 25 micrograms vitamin K1 to prevent vitamin K deficiency in breast-fed infants.
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast milk contains lower amounts of vitamin K than modern formula milk or cow's milk and the risk of developing vitamin K deficiency is higher for the breast-fed infant ( Haroon 1982 ).
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At the time, the only way to test a food for vitamin D was to feed it to rats on a mineral-deficient diet, kill the rats, and analyze the mineral content of their bones.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

.The extent to which blood coagulation was restored by the diet was taken as a measure for its vitamin K content.^ Vitamin K is necessary for blood coagulation.
  • healthepic-Vitamin K and its varied functions. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.healthepic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The extent to which blood coagulation was restored by the diet was taken as a measure for its vitamin K content.
  • Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is necessary for the normal coagulation of blood.

.Three groups of physicians independently found this: Biochemical Institute, University of Copenhagen (Dam and Johannes Glavind), University of Iowa Department of Pathology (Emory Warner, Kenneth Brinkhous, and Harry Pratt Smith), and the Mayo Clinic (Hugh Butt, Albert Snell, and Arnold Osterberg).^ At three months Greer 1998 found a significantly higher level in the oral group, mean difference 0.30 ng/ml (0.10, 0.50).
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2 Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3 Clinical Epidemiology Program, Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 4 Osteoporosis and Women's Health Programs, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 5 Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 6 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 7 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada .
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0.02).
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[25] .The first published report of successful treatment with vitamin K of life-threatening hemorrhage in a jaundiced patient with prothrombin deficiency was made in 1938 by Smith, Warner, and Brinkhous.^ Vitamin K deficiency can cause bleeding in an infant in the first weeks of life.
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A unique hemorrhagic phenomenon in the infants of epileptic mothers has been reported and appears to be the result of a deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors.

^ These results also indicate that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with liver cancer.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

[26]

Function in the cell

.The precise function of vitamin K was not discovered until 1974, when three laboratories (Stenflo et al.[27], Nelsestuen et al.[28], and Magnusson et al.[29]) isolated the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor prothrombin (Factor II) from cows that received a high dose of a vitamin K antagonist, warfarin.^ Vitamin K is necessary for synthesis of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X in the liver.
  • Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ How this vitamin is involved in blood coagulation eluded scientists until 1974, when a requirement for vitamin K was shown for the formation of numerous proteins in the body known as gamma-carboxy glutamic acid (GCGA) proteins.

^ At this time fewer than 12 human Gla-proteins have been discovered, and they play key roles in the regulation of three physiological processes: * blood coagulation (prothrombin (factor II), factors VII, IX, X, protein C, protein S and protein Z) * bone metabolism * vascular biology.
  • Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was shown that while warfarin-treated cows had a form of prothrombin that contained 10 glutamate amino acid residues near the amino terminus of this protein, the normal (untreated) cows contained 10 unusual residues which were chemically identified as gamma-carboxyglutamate, or Gla.^ MGP contains five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-residues which are formed in a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation step and which are essential for its function.

^ Subsequently, CO 2 is added to the -carbon of glutamic acid to form -carboxyglutamic acid.

^ Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which confers functionality to vitamin K–dependent Gla-containing proteins.
  • PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The extra carboxyl group in Gla made clear that vitamin K plays a role in a carboxylation reaction during which Glu is converted into Gla.^ Vitamin K plays a key role...
  • Vitamin k Vitamins & Nutrition at bizrate - Shop online this holiday season for Health & Beauty Supplies 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin D plays several roles in bone.
  • LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is needed for the “carboxylation” of Gla-proteins.
  • Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smart-publications.com [Source type: Academic]

.The biochemistry of how vitamin K is used to convert Glu to Gla has been elucidated over the past thirty years in academic laboratories throughout the world.^ If processive, then once a vitamin K-dependent protein substrate has bound the enzyme all target Glu residues are converted to Gla residues before the protein substrate dissociates from the enzyme.

^ If we can only absorb one-fifth of this amount from vegetables, we cannot support our skeletal system with vitamin K 1 regardless of how efficiently we may be able to convert it to vitamin K 2 .
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The name vitamin K comes from the German word “Koagulationsvitamin.” Several forms of vitamin K are used around the world as medicine.
  • VITAMIN K: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Within the cell, vitamin K undergoes electron reduction to a reduced form of vitamin K (called vitamin K hydroquinone) by the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (or VKOR).^ The vitamin K epoxide reductase works at low concentrations of vitamin K epoxide and vitamin K quinone and is likely the physiologically important enzyme for recycling vitamin K. 26 This is the enzyme that is inhibited by warfarin, resulting in insufficient vitamin K hydroquinone to support full carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent proteins of blood coagulation, thus its role as a pharmacologically useful anticoagulant.

^ There is also evidence that vitamin K 2 plays a role as an antioxidant within the cells that synthesize the myelin sheath, which forms the electrical insulation of nerves.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also a correlation between vitamin K epoxidation and vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, but the apparent link may be because vitamin K hydroquinone is an intermediate in the formation of the epoxide and also the active form in carboxylation.

[30] .Another enzyme then oxidizes vitamin K hydroquinone to allow carboxylation of Glu to Gla; this enzyme is called the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase[31][32] or the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.^ Suttie JW: Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.

^ Megavitamin E supplementation and vitamin K-dependent carboxylation.
  • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status -- Booth et al. 80 (1): 143 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is needed for the “carboxylation” of Gla-proteins.
  • Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.smart-publications.com [Source type: Academic]

.The carboxylation reaction will only proceed if the carboxylase enzyme is able to oxidize vitamin K hydroquinone to vitamin K epoxide at the same time; the carboxylation and epoxidation reactions are said to be coupled reactions.^ Because oxidation of reduced vitamin K precedes reaction at the -C-H on the substrate glutamate residue and -carboxylation cannot occur without formation of vitamin K epoxide, this observation suggests that vitamin K epoxidation by the carboxylase may be stimulated by propeptide.

^ The vitamin K epoxide reductase works at low concentrations of vitamin K epoxide and vitamin K quinone and is likely the physiologically important enzyme for recycling vitamin K. 26 This is the enzyme that is inhibited by warfarin, resulting in insufficient vitamin K hydroquinone to support full carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent proteins of blood coagulation, thus its role as a pharmacologically useful anticoagulant.

^ Four key components are involved in the proper biosynthesis of the vitamin K–dependent proteins: the enzymes -glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1), vitamin K, and a precursor protein.
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex and Vascular Calcification: Is This the Important Link Between Vitamin K and the Arterial Vessel Wall? -- Spronk 113 (12): 1550 -- Circulation 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

vitamin .K epoxide is then re-converted to vitamin K by vitamin K epoxide reductase.^ Four key components are involved in the proper biosynthesis of the vitamin K–dependent proteins: the enzymes -glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1), vitamin K, and a precursor protein.
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex and Vascular Calcification: Is This the Important Link Between Vitamin K and the Arterial Vessel Wall? -- Spronk 113 (12): 1550 -- Circulation 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is believed that the enzymatic activity of the vitamin K epoxide reductase resides in a membrane-bound, multiprotein enzyme complex in the endoplasmic reticulum.

^ The enzyme responsible for this conversion is known as the vitamin K epoxide reductase, so named because it also reduces the vitamin K epoxide formed during the carboxylation reaction.

.These two enzymes comprise the so-called vitamin K cycle.^ This recycling mechanism is called the vitamin K cycle and explains why the daily requirement for vitamin K is low and why vitamin K deficiency is rarely seen in healthy subjects.
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex and Vascular Calcification: Is This the Important Link Between Vitamin K and the Arterial Vessel Wall? -- Spronk 113 (12): 1550 -- Circulation 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K 2 works synergistically with the two other "fat-soluble activators" that Price studied, vitamins A and D. Vitamins A and D signal to the cells to produce certain proteins and vitamin K then activates these proteins.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Warfarin or dietary vitamin K deficiency cause marked decreases in the activities of these enzymes and of the levels of sulfatides in the brains of rats and mice, while the administration of either vitamin K 1 or K 2 restores them.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

[33] .One of the reasons humans are rarely deficient in vitamin K is that vitamin K is continually recycled in our cells.^ Clinical and experimental human vitamin K deficiency.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Their mothers, however, are rarely vitamin K deficient.

^ Vitamin K deficiency from dietary vitamin K restriction in humans.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Warfarin and other coumarin drugs block the action of the vitamin K epoxide reductase.^ A different enzyme, vitamin K oxidoreductase, recycles the vitamin; this enzyme is the target of the anticoagulant drug Warfarin and its relatives.
  • On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.westonaprice.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, vitamin K was ineffective for this indication when administered subcutaneously or if the patient was taking an oral anticoagulant other than warfarin.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Treatment of Excessive Anticoagulation With Phytonadione (Vitamin K): A Meta-analysis, February 27, 2006, DeZee et al. 166 (4): 391 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An adverse vitamin E–vitamin K interaction was reported among patients taking coumarin-based oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin and phenprocoumon ( 1 – 3 ).
  • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status -- Booth et al. 80 (1): 143 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .This results in decreased concentrations of vitamin K and vitamin K hydroquinone in the tissues, such that the carboxylation reaction catalyzed by the glutamyl carboxylase is inefficient.^ The vitamin K epoxide reductase works at low concentrations of vitamin K epoxide and vitamin K quinone and is likely the physiologically important enzyme for recycling vitamin K. 26 This is the enzyme that is inhibited by warfarin, resulting in insufficient vitamin K hydroquinone to support full carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent proteins of blood coagulation, thus its role as a pharmacologically useful anticoagulant.

^ Stopped-flow kinetic study of vitamin E regeneration reaction with biological hydroquinones (reduced forms of ubiquinone, vitamin K, and tocopherolquinone) in solution.
  • LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also a correlation between vitamin K epoxidation and vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, but the apparent link may be because vitamin K hydroquinone is an intermediate in the formation of the epoxide and also the active form in carboxylation.

.This results in the production of clotting factors with inadequate Gla.^ This results in the production of clotting factors with a greatly diminished or a complete absence of Gla.
  • Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K: One of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2) needed for the clotting of blood because of an essential role in the production of prothrombin (a clotting factor).
  • Vitamin K definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduced vitamin K is essential for the carboxylation (and thus activation) of the clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X, 6 and a coagulopathy results once the existing factors are depleted.
  • Brodifacoum Toxicosis in Two Neonatal Puppies -- Munday and Thompson 40 (2): 216 -- Veterinary Pathology 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.vetpathology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Without Gla on the amino termini of these factors, they no longer bind stably to the blood vessel endothelium and cannot activate clotting to allow formation of a clot during tissue injury.^ These four clotting factors are not activated if the function of vitamin K 1 is inhibited.
  • Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis in the Dog and Cat 6 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.vet.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin K is a factor necessary for blood clotting.
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    BIOCHEMISTRY Dictionary

    BIOCHEMISTRY DICTIONARY - V</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/cronk/biochem/V-index.cfm?definition=vitamin_K">guweb2.gonzaga.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The interactions of the Ca 2+ -binding Gla domains allow these clotting factors to be effectively targeted to where they are needed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>
    Front page
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    BIOCHEMISTRY Dictionary

    BIOCHEMISTRY DICTIONARY - V</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/cronk/biochem/V-index.cfm?definition=vitamin_K">guweb2.gonzaga.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__178" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="178">As it is impossible to predict what dose of warfarin will give the desired degree of suppression of the clotting, warfarin treatment must be carefully monitored to avoid over-dosing.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The desired goal must be provision of adequate protection against VKDB while avoiding unnecessary overload.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K Prophylaxis for Preterm Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of 3 Regimens -- Clarke et al. 118 (6): e1657 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/6/e1657">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> (See the <a href="/Warfarin" title="Warfarin">warfarin</a> article.)</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Methods_of_assessment">Methods of assessment</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Prothrombin time test:</div> <dl> <dd>Measures the time required for blood to clot</dd> <dd>Blood sample mixed with citric acid and put in a fibrometer.</dd> <dd>Delayed clot formation indicates a deficiency.</dd> </dl> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Unfortunately insensitive to mild deficiency as the values do not change until the concentration of prothrombin in the blood has declined by at least 50 percent <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Plasma Phylloquinone:</div> <dl> <dd>Was found to be positively correlated with phylloquinone intake in elderly British women, but not men <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup></dd> </dl> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">However an article by Schurges et al.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Find this article online Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Gagnon DR, et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Relatively large amounts (40–80 μg/100 g) can, however, be obtained from some cheeses (Schurgers et al., 1999).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Find this article online Bitensky L, Hart JP, Catterall A, Hodges SJ, Pilkington MJ, et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> reported no correlation between FFQ and plasma phylloquinone <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid:</div> <dl> <dd>Urinary Gla responds to changes in dietary vitamin K intake.</dd> <dd>Several days are required before any change can be observed.</dd> </dl> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__3" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="3">In a study by Booth et al.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Important studies by Murshed et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, Warfarin, and Vascular Calcification -- Danziger 3 (5): 1504 -- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/1504">cjasn.asnjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Booth SL et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Booth et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, Warfarin, and Vascular Calcification -- Danziger 3 (5): 1504 -- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/1504">cjasn.asnjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> increases of phylloquinone intakes from 100 μg to between 377–417 μg for 5 days did <em>not</em> induce a significant change Response may be age-specific <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Gla_proteins">Gla-proteins</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">At present, the following human Gla-containing proteins have been characterized to the level of primary structure: the blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, the anticoagulant proteins C and S, and the Factor X-targeting <a href="/Protein_Z" title="Protein Z">protein Z</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Characterization of a Gla-containing protein from calcified human atherosclerotic plaques.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Activity of clotting factors II, VII and X 4.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K is necessary for synthesis of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X in the liver.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__182" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="182">The bone Gla-protein <a href="/Osteocalcin" title="Osteocalcin">osteocalcin</a>, the calcification inhibiting <a href="/Matrix_gla_protein" title="Matrix gla protein">matrix gla protein</a> (MGP), the <a href="/Cell_growth" title="Cell growth">cell growth</a> regulating growth arrest specific gene 6 protein (Gas6), and the four transmembrane Gla proteins (TMGPs) the function of which is at present unknown.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) assay standardization report.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Matrix Gla protein (MGP), which is required for the mineralization of bone, is also expressed in dentin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>K2 also activates a number of other proteins that regulate bone metabolism and inhibit the growth of cancer cells.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.smart-publications.com/heart_attacks/vitamin_K.php">www.smart-publications.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__64" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="64">Gas6 can function as a <a href="/Growth_factor" title="Growth factor">growth factor</a> that activates the Axl <a href="/Receptor_(biochemistry)" title="Receptor (biochemistry)">receptor</a> <a href="/Tyrosine_kinase" title="Tyrosine kinase">tyrosine kinase</a> and stimulates cell proliferation or prevents <a href="/Apoptosis" title="Apoptosis">apoptosis</a> in some cells.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Gas6 is a calcium-dependent ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinases Axl and Sky/Rse.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The recently described role of vitamin K-dependent Gla protein as ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases, also establishes K as a link in cell growth and transformation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radmid.demon.co.uk/vitk.htm">www.radmid.demon.co.uk</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While more research is needed, Gas6 seems to be a cellular growth regulation factor with cell signaling duties.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K Information, FAQs & Products | Muscle & Strength</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muscleandstrength.com/supplements/ingredients/vitamin-k.html">www.muscleandstrength.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__126" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="126">In all cases in which their function was known, the presence of the Gla-residues in these proteins turned out to be essential for functional activity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In all cases in which their function was known, the presence of the Gla-residues in these proteins turned out to be essential for functional activity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://locke.citizendium.org/wiki/Vitamin_K">locke.citizendium.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Gla-residues are essential for the biological activity of all known Gla-proteins.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K is the family name for a series of essential fat-soluble compounds needed for the chemical modification of a small group of proteins with calcium-binding properties (vitamin K dependent proteins or ?-carboxyglutamic acid-proteins, generally known as Gla proteins).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/vitamin%20k.htm">www.nrv.gov.au</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">Gla-proteins are known to occur in a wide variety of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Gla-proteins are known to occur in a wide variety of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://locke.citizendium.org/wiki/Vitamin_K">locke.citizendium.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Another interesting class of invertebrate Gla-proteins is formed by the conotoxins, produced by the fish-hunting snail Conus geographus .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - encyclopedia article - Citizendium</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://locke.citizendium.org/wiki/Vitamin_K">locke.citizendium.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Another interesting class of invertebrate Gla-containing proteins is synthesized by the fish-hunting snail Conus geographus .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__77" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="77">The <a href="/Venom" title="Venom">venom</a> of a number of Australian snakes acts by activating the human blood clotting system.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K plays a major role in the body's blood clotting system.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=e0498803-7f62-4563-8d47-5fe33da65dd4&chunkiid=21883">healthlibrary.epnet.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K (Menadione): Vitamin K is necessary for the activation of proteins which play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism and vascular health.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> SmartPak Equine - Nutrition Resources</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.smartpakequine.com/Nutrition.aspx">www.smartpakequine.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Carboxylation activates these proteins, which perform a number of essential activities throughout the body, including regulating blood clotting and calcium.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.smart-publications.com/heart_attacks/vitamin_K.php">www.smart-publications.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__1" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="1">Remarkably, in some cases activation is accomplished by snake Gla-containing enzymes that bind to the endothelium of human blood vessels and catalyze the conversion of procoagulant clotting factors into activated ones, leading to unwanted and potentially deadly clotting.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Remarkably, in some cases activation is accomplished by snake Gla-containing enzymes that bind to the endothelium of human blood vessels and catalyze the conversion of procoagulant clotting factors into activated ones, leading to unwanted and potentially deadly clotting.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The venom of a number of Australian snakes acts by activating the human blood clotting system.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Plasma is the fluid compartment of blood containing the soluble clotting factors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K Deficiency: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Endocrinology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/126354-treatment">emedicine.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__97" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="97">Another interesting class of invertebrate Gla-containing proteins is synthesized by the fish-hunting snail <em><a href="/Conus_geographus" title="Conus geographus">Conus geographus</a></em>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which confers functionality to vitamin K–dependent Gla-containing proteins.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There have been no successful studies to date on the structure of -carboxyglutamic acid-containing bone proteins, including osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) and matrix Gla protein.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As discussed above, the carboxylase itself has sequence homology with the region of matrix Gla protein containing the -carboxylation recognition site.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Terlau_38_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Terlau-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__176" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="176">These snails produce a venom containing hundreds of neuro-active peptides, or conotoxins, which is sufficiently toxic to kill an adult human.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These snails produce a venom containing hundreds of neuro-active peptides, or conotoxins, which is sufficiently toxic to kill an adult human.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Vitamin_K/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Conotoxins are small, paralyzing neuroactive peptides that are injected into prey after a cone snail harpoons its victim.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The human gut contains a large amount of bacterially produced menaquinones, but their contribution to the maintenance of vitamin K status has been difficult to assess (Suttie, 1995).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__114" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="114">Several of the conotoxins contain 2–5 Gla residues.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>MGP contains five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-residues which are formed in a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation step and which are essential for its function.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.modern-psychiatry.com/vitamin_k.htm">www.modern-psychiatry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A large number of neuroactive Gla-containing conotoxins have recently been identified.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Indeed, gas6, a recently described Gla-domain containing protein, 32 has a leucine at residue 16 and is carboxylated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Buczek_39_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buczek-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Function_in_bacteria">Function in bacteria</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__164" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="164">Many bacteria, such as <em><a href="/Escherichia_coli" title="Escherichia coli">Escherichia coli</a></em> found in the <a href="/Large_intestine" title="Large intestine">large intestine</a>, can synthesize vitamin K<sub>2</sub> (menaquinone),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Bentley_40_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bentley-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> but not vitamin K<sub>1</sub> (phylloquinone).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K 2 (menaquinone) is synthesized by probiotic bacterial flora in the large intestine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Nutrients/Vitamin_K.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K in food There are two common forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is found in green leafy vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli and spinach, and comprises about 90 per cent of the vitamin K in a normal Western diet; and menaquinones (vitamins K2), make up the rest.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In nature there are two types of vitamin K: vitamin K1 or phylloquinone, which is found in foodstuffs like green vegetables, vegetable oils, and dairy products, and K2 or menaquinone, which is synthesized by the intestinal flora and only absorbed in small amounts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__81" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="81">In these bacteria, menaquinone will transfer two <a href="/Electrons" title="Electrons" class="mw-redirect">electrons</a> between two different small molecules, in a process called <a href="/Anaerobic_respiration" title="Anaerobic respiration">anaerobic respiration</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, the process of carboxylation differs between the liver and the periphery.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, Warfarin, and Vascular Calcification -- Danziger 3 (5): 1504 -- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/1504">cjasn.asnjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, because so few study participants had fractures, the difference in the fracture rate between the two treatment groups might have occurred by chance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There were no significant differences in adverse effects or health-related quality of life between the two groups.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Haddock_41_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Haddock-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__40" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="40">For example, a small molecule with an excess of electrons (also called an electron donor) such as <a href="/Lactic_acid" title="Lactic acid">lactate</a>, <a href="/Formate" title="Formate">formate</a>, or <a href="/NADH" title="NADH" class="mw-redirect">NADH</a>, with the help of an enzyme, will pass two electrons to a menaquinone.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Benzoquinone belongs to a class of chemicals called quinones that includes biological molecules such as coenzyme Q 10 and the K vitamins.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Two forms of vitamin K 2 supplements are commercially available: menaquinone-4 (MK-4), also called menatetrenone, and menaquinone-7 (MK-7).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__175" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="175">The menaquinone, with the help of another enzyme, will in turn transfer these 2 electrons to a suitable oxidant, such <a href="/Fumarate" title="Fumarate" class="mw-redirect">fumarate</a> or <a href="/Nitrate" title="Nitrate">nitrate</a> (also called an electron acceptor).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This naphthoquinone analog is an effective inhibitor of coenzyme Q10-enzymes of mammalian mitochondria, which are components of electron transfer mechanisms of respiration and coupled oxidative phosphorylation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Nutrients/Vitamin_K.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Adding two electrons to <a href="/Fumarate" title="Fumarate" class="mw-redirect">fumarate</a> or <a href="/Nitrate" title="Nitrate">nitrate</a> will convert the molecule to <a href="/Succinate" title="Succinate" class="mw-redirect">succinate</a> or <a href="/Nitrite" title="Nitrite">nitrite</a> + <a href="/Water" title="Water">water</a>, respectively. <a name="citable__9" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="9">Some of these reactions generate a cellular energy source, <a href="/Adenosine_triphosphate" title="Adenosine triphosphate">ATP</a>, in a manner similar to <a href="/Eukaryotic" title="Eukaryotic" class="mw-redirect">eukaryotic</a> cell <a href="/Aerobic_respiration" title="Aerobic respiration" class="mw-redirect">aerobic respiration</a>, except that the final electron acceptor is not <a href="/Molecular_oxygen" title="Molecular oxygen" class="mw-redirect">molecular oxygen</a>, but say <a href="/Fumarate" title="Fumarate" class="mw-redirect">fumarate</a> or <a href="/Nitrate" title="Nitrate">nitrate</a> (In <a href="/Aerobic_respiration" title="Aerobic respiration" class="mw-redirect">aerobic respiration</a>, the final oxidant is <a href="/Molecular_oxygen" title="Molecular oxygen" class="mw-redirect">molecular oxygen</a> (O<sub>2</sub>) , which accepts four electrons from an electron donor such as <a href="/NADH" title="NADH" class="mw-redirect">NADH</a> to be converted to <a href="/Water" title="Water">water</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These coagulation factors are produced by the liver in precursor forms and are converted to functional proteins by a vitamin K-dependent reaction.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Nutrients/Vitamin_K.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CP is stored in muscles where it helps regenerate ATP, the main source of cellular energy, by replacing Phosphorous molecules as they are released.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> SmartPak Equine - Nutrition Resources</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.smartpakequine.com/Nutrition.aspx">www.smartpakequine.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is present in much higher concentrations than phylloquinone in tissues such as pancreas, salivary gland, brain, and sternum, and its concentration in these tissues is to some degree dependent on phylloquinone intake.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> ) <em><a href="/Escherichia_coli" title="Escherichia coli">Escherichia coli</a></em> can carry out <a href="/Aerobic_respiration" title="Aerobic respiration" class="mw-redirect">aerobic respiration</a> and menaquninone-mediated <a href="/Anaerobic_respiration" title="Anaerobic respiration">anaerobic respiration</a>.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_injection_in_newborns">Vitamin K injection in newborns</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">The blood clotting factors of newborn babies are roughly 30 to 60 percent that of adult values, this may be due to the reduced synthesis of precursor proteins and the sterility of their guts.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the newborn the plasma concentrations of these factors are normally 30-60% of those of adults.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The production of this vitamin and, therefore, clotting factors, begins by the fourth day of life, giving babies their ability to clot blood.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K, vitamin, benefits of, blood clotting, clot, women, deficiency, liver</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.womens-health-symmetry.com/vitamin-k.html">www.womens-health-symmetry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These medications reduce blood clotting by competing with vitamin K. Anyone on anticoagulant medicine (blood thinners) should know that the amount of K in the diet may affect how well the medications work.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K, vitamin, benefits of, blood clotting, clot, women, deficiency, liver</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.womens-health-symmetry.com/vitamin-k.html">www.womens-health-symmetry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__119" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="119">Human milk contains between 1 and 4 micrograms/litre of vitamin K1, while formula derived milk can contain up to 100 micrograms/litre in supplemented formulas.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K1 binding protein in milk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K1 predominantly is derived from the diet.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, Warfarin, and Vascular Calcification -- Danziger 3 (5): 1504 -- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/1504">cjasn.asnjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Quantitation of vitamin K in human milk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__132" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="132">Vitamin K2 concentrations in human milk appear to be much lower than those of vitamin K1. It is estimated that there is a 0.25 to 1.7 percent occurrence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in the first week of the infant's life with a prevalence of 2-10 cases per 100,000 births.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Clinical and experimental human vitamin K deficiency.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K deficiency can cause bleeding in an infant in the first weeks of life.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__161" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="161">Premature babies have even lower level and so are at a higher risk from this deficiency.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Observational studies have found that people with osteoporosis often have low levels of vitamin K, 35-38 and that people with higher intake of vitamin K have a lower incidence of osteoporosis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thirdage.com/healthguide/vitamin-k">www.thirdage.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Breast milk contains lower amounts of vitamin K than modern formula milk or cow's milk and the risk of developing vitamin K deficiency is higher for the breast-fed infant ( Haroon 1982 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In one study, the lower the levels of vitamin K in the blood, the higher the prevalence of osteoarthritis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_USA">USA</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__110" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="110">As a result of the occurrences of vitamin K deficiency bleeding, the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that 0.5 to 1.0 mg vitamin K1 be administered to all newborns shortly after birth.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Zipursky 1999 Zipursky A. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborns.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_UK">UK</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__144" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="144">In the UK vitamin K is administered to newborns as either as a single injection at birth or three orally administered doses given at birth and then over the baby's first month.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Newborns are commonly given vitamin K 1 injections to prevent bleeding problems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first dose was given at birth and the second on the seventh day postpartum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>E-News 3:44 - Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.midwiferytoday.com/enews/enews0344.asp">www.midwiferytoday.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K at birth Why is it given?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetails.aspx?p=114&np=304&id=1840">www.cyh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Controversy">Controversy</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__194" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="194">Controversy arose in the early 1990’s regarding this practice when two studies were shown suggesting a relationship between parenteral administration of vitamin K and childhood cancer (14).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K and childhood cancer: a report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.modern-psychiatry.com/vitamin_k.htm">www.modern-psychiatry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Case-control studies of relation between childhood cancer and neonatal vitamin K administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Administration of vitamin K to newborn infants and childhood cancer.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">However, poor methods and small sample sizes led to the discredit of these studies and a review of the evidence published in 2000 by Ross and Davies found no link between the two.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Recently Ross and Davies ( Ross 2000 ) reviewed the evidence in this field.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates.</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochrane/puckett/review.htm">www.nichd.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A review of 58 studies published in JAMA concludes, "These results do not support a general recommendation to reduce sodium intake."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, there is no evidence of defective carboxylation of factor IX in men with these mutations when they are not challenged with warfarin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid </c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798">bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_and_bone_health">Vitamin K and bone health</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__5" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="5">Recently vitamin K has also been lauded for its potential role in the increase of bone mass.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K, bone turnover, and bone mass in girls.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.modern-psychiatry.com/vitamin_k.htm">www.modern-psychiatry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Effects of vitamin K on bone mass and bone metabolism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VITAMIN K: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-983-VITAMIN+K.aspx?activeIngredientId=983&activeIngredientName=VITAMIN+K">www.webmd.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__191" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="191">Studies have proved that supplemental vitamin K promotes <a href="/Osteoblast" title="Osteoblast">osteotrophic</a> processes and slows <a href="/Osteoclast" title="Osteoclast">osteoclastic</a> processes via calcium bonding.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Knapen MH, Hamulyak K, Vermeer C. The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) and urinary calcium excretion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VITAMIN K: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-983-VITAMIN+K.aspx?activeIngredientId=983&activeIngredientName=VITAMIN+K">www.webmd.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Over the past 5 y, vitamin K supplements have been widely promoted by the lay media for increasing bone mass.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__59" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="59">In Japan, a form of vitamin K<sub>2</sub> is recognized as a treatment for <a href="/Osteoporosis" title="Osteoporosis">osteoporosis</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K2 is an approved treatment for osteoporosis in Japan.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K has been approved in Japan for the treatment of osteoporosis since 1995.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thirdage.com/healthguide/vitamin-k">www.thirdage.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Kanai1997_46_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kanai1997-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__45" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="45">However the long term effects and benefits are unknown and it remains controversial.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A. There are few long term human studies regarding the benefits of vitamin K as a supplement for bone health.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, little is known about the long-term benefits or harms of vitamin K supplements.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from <a name="citable__4" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="4">May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup> Data from the 1998 Nurses Health Study found an inverse relationship between dietary vitamin K<sub>1</sub> and the risk of <a href="/Hip_fracture" title="Hip fracture">hip fracture</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thirdage.com/healthguide/vitamin-k">www.thirdage.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Observational studies have found that people with osteoporosis often have low levels of vitamin K, 35-38 and that people with higher intake of vitamin K have a lower incidence of osteoporosis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thirdage.com/healthguide/vitamin-k">www.thirdage.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">After being given 110 micrograms/day of vitamin K, the main results showed that women who consumed <a href="/Lettuce" title="Lettuce">lettuce</a> one or more times per day had a significantly lower risk of hip fracture than women who consumed lettuce one or fewer times per week.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the Nurses' Health Study, the risk of heart disease was a modest 16 percent lower for those consuming more than 110 micrograms per day of vitamin K 1 , but there was no benefit from consuming any more than this.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | ThirdAge Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thirdage.com/healthguide/vitamin-k">www.thirdage.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Home | Health Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health-healthresources.caremark.com/GetHerbContent.do?primerid=21883&name=Vitamin%20K">health-healthresources.caremark.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__192" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="192">In addition to this, high intakes of <a href="/Vitamin_D" title="Vitamin D">vitamin D</a> but low intakes of vitamin K may still pose an increased risk of hip fracture hinting at a relationship between these two vitamins.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This has led researchers to look for relationships between vitamin K intake and osteoporosis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For each increase in 100 mcg of vitamin K intake, the INR may be reduced by 0.2.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Kanai1997_46_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kanai1997-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143">Other studies have shown that vitamin K-antagonists lead to early calcification of the <a href="/Epiphysis" title="Epiphysis">epiphysis</a> and epiphysial line in mice and other animals, causing seriously decreased bone growth.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Animal and lab research suggests that vitamin K might help the brain including behavioral problems , the retina of the eye, and several other cancers .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.modern-psychiatry.com/vitamin_k.htm">www.modern-psychiatry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Treatments with vitamins K2, K3 and K5 were shown to markedly inhibit the growth of HCC tumors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K supplement, clot, clotting by Ray Sahelian, M.D. vitamin k benefit, side effects phylloquinone</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raysahelian.com/k.html">www.raysahelian.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__193" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="193">This is due to defects in <a href="/Osteocalcin" title="Osteocalcin">osteocalcin</a> and <a href="/Matrix_gla_protein" title="Matrix gla protein">matrix gla protein</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The most famous Gla protein is "osteocalcin."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Knapen MH, Hamulyak K, Vermeer C. The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) and urinary calcium excretion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) assay standardization report.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Their primary function is to prevent overcalcification of the bone and cartilage. <a name="citable__171" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="171">Vitamin K is important in the process of carboxylating glutamic acid (Glu) in these proteins to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which is necessary for their function.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This process transforms glutamate into γ-carboxyglutamate, abbreviated Gla.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which confers functionality to vitamin K–dependent Gla-containing proteins.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Atherocalcin, a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid containing protein from atherosclerotic plaque.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_and_Alzheimer_27s_disease">Vitamin K and Alzheimer's disease</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__141" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="141">Research into the antioxidant properties of vitamin K indicates that the concentration of vitamin K is lower in the circulation of carriers of the <a href="/Apolipoprotein_E" title="Apolipoprotein E">APOE4</a> gene and recent studies have shown its ability to inhibit <a href="/Neuron" title="Neuron">nerve cell</a> death due to <a href="/Oxidative_stress" title="Oxidative stress">oxidative stress</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Research indicates vitamin K .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K, 60 capsules</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.vrp.com/ProductPage.aspx?ProdID=1091">www.vrp.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, early test tube studies suggest that vitamin K3 (a synthetic form of vitamin K) may inhibit the growth of certain cancerous bone marrow cells, specifically, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - Elliott's Natural Foods</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.elliottsnaturalfoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=20M18CNM5ES92JJ000AKHMCCQSHD8ED1&DocID=33_000343">www.elliottsnaturalfoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>MGP also inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells from dedifferentiating into osteoblast-like cells, a well-established mechanism for vascular calcification ( 14 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K-dependent Proteins, Warfarin, and Vascular Calcification -- Danziger 3 (5): 1504 -- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/1504">cjasn.asnjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__53" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="53">It has been hypothesized that vitamin K may reduce neuronal damage and that supplementation may hold benefits to treating <a href="/Alzheimer%27s_disease" title="Alzheimer's disease">Alzheimer's disease</a>, although more research is necessary in this area.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And it may have something to do with Alzheimer's disease.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Calcium can't be regulated properly and may cause some of the damage seen in AD. Studies show that AD patients have severely dysregulated calcium in their brains.* Kohlmeier believes that this has to do with their lack of vitamin K-the vitamin necessary for controlling calcium in both the brain and bone.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_used_topically">Vitamin K used topically</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__21" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="21">Vitamin K may be applied topically, typically as a 5% cream, to diminish postoperative bruising from cosmetic surgery and injections, broken capillaries (spider veins), to treat <a href="/Rosacea" title="Rosacea">rosacea</a> and to aid in the fading of <a href="/Hyperpigmentation" title="Hyperpigmentation">hyperpigmentation</a> and dark under-eye circles.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Try Vitamin K Cream-- helps reduce redness, broken capillaries, rosacea and irritation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K | LIVESTRONG.COM</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.livestrong.com/supplement/313-vitamin-k/">www.livestrong.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After surgery, vitamin K is used to speed up skin healing and reduce bruising and swelling.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VITAMIN K: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-983-VITAMIN+K.aspx?activeIngredientId=983&activeIngredientName=VITAMIN+K">www.webmd.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There are unpublished anecdotes according to which some people have found up to 5-10 milligrams useful for treating specific conditions, such as autism or spider veins.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_and_cancer">Vitamin K and cancer</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__129" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="129">While researchers in Japan were studying the role of vitamin K<sub>2</sub> in the prevention of bone loss in females with liver disease, they discovered another possible effect of this phytonutrient.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the first study of its kind, researchers in Japan looked at vitamin K's effect on glucose and insulin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin D plays several roles in bone.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.modern-psychiatry.com/vitamin_k.htm">www.modern-psychiatry.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__80" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="80">This two year study which involved 21 women with viral <a href="/Liver_cirrhosis" title="Liver cirrhosis" class="mw-redirect">liver cirrhosis</a> found that women in the supplement group were 90 percent less likely to develop <a href="/Liver_cancer" title="Liver cancer">liver cancer</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Role of vitamin K2 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis of the liver.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.upmc.com/healthAtoZ/Pages/HealthLibrary.aspx?chunkiid=21883">www.upmc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>ConsumerLab.com - independent tests of herbal, vitamin, and mineral supplements</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consumerlab.com/tnp.asp?siteid=consumerlab&docid=/tnp/pg000929">www.consumerlab.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K - protects your cardiovascular system naturally</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.smart-publications.com/heart_attacks/vitamin_K.php">www.smart-publications.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We conducted a 2- to 4-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study for the Evaluation of the Clinical use of vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with Osteopenia (the ECKO trial).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, because so few study participants had fractures, the difference in the fracture rate between the two treatment groups might have occurred by chance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54">A German study performed on men with <a href="/Prostate_cancer" title="Prostate cancer">prostate cancer</a> found a significant inverse relationship between vitamin K<sub>2</sub> consumption and advanced prostate cancer.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Cox regression analysis was performed using the 2-y serum vitamin K levels as a continuous log-transformed variable, the relationship between vitamin K levels and the cumulative incidence of cancer was statistically significant at p < 0.05.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The relationship of the cumulative incidence of cancer according to tertiles of 2-y serum vitamin K levels (shown in brackets and expressed in nmol/l).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS Medicine: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196">www.plosmedicine.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Golding and coworkers (1992) reported a significant association between IM vitamin K and cancer incidence (p = 0.002; observed risk, 1.97; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3–3.0).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=162">www.nap.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Vitamin_K_as_antidote_for_poisoning_by_coumarins">Vitamin K as antidote for poisoning by coumarins</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__111" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="111">Vitamin K is a true <a href="/Antidote" title="Antidote">antidote</a> for poisoning by <a href="/Coumarin" title="Coumarin">coumarins</a> such as bromadiolone, which are commonly found in <a href="/Rodenticides" title="Rodenticides" class="mw-redirect">rodenticides</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Vitamin A The first fat soluble vitamin to be discovered was Vitamin A. Vitamin A is found in several forms such as retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid, and in the liver storage form, retinyl palmitate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, & K in Dogs</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+1448&aid=710">www.peteducation.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The vitamin K-epoxide cycle is found in extrahepatic tissues such as kidney, spleen, and lung and is inhibited by warfarin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Nutrients/Vitamin_K.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Yoder found peroxidation in substances with no vitamin D activity such as turpentine, a thirteen-year-old sample of cholesterol, and an aged sample of mineral oil.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__120" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="120">Coumarins possess <a href="/Anticoagulant" title="Anticoagulant">anticoagulatory</a> and rodenticidal properties because they can completely block synthesis of vitamin K in the liver, especially in rodents.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because they are transported in different types of lipoproteins, vitamin K 1 is primarily sent to the liver, whereas vitamin K 2 is primarily sent to the other tissues; 30 we know very little, however, about the transport of menadione in the blood.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In a study on animals subjected to oxidative stress, vitamin K by itself completely protected the liver from free radicals (but not muscles).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LE Magazine, February 2000 - Report: Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html">www.lef.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The mammary glands appear to be especially efficient at making this conversion, presumably because vitamin K 2 is essential for the growing infant.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__2" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="2">Death is usually a result of internal hemorrhage.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Most rat and mouse poisons (e.g.; Warfarin, D-Con) kill rats and mice by eliminating their ability to clot blood, hence, the rodents internally hemorrhage to death.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, & K in Dogs</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+1448&aid=710">www.peteducation.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90">Treatment usually consists of repeated intravenous doses of vitamin K, followed by doses in pill form for a period of at least two weeks, though possibly up to 2 months, afterwards.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There are two natural forms of vitamin K: vitamin K 1 and vitamin K 2 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>On the Trail of the Elusive X-Factor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/On-the-Trail-of-the-Elusive-X-Factor-A-Sixty-Two-Year-Old-Mystery-Finally-Solved.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A follow-up formula containing viable bifidobacteria was given to seven healthy Japanese children (15 to 31 months old) for 21 days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Vitamin K</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Nutrients/Vitamin_K.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After 2 weeks of full enteral feeding, serum vitamin K 1 was lower in the infants who received 0.2 mg intravenously compared with the infants in the control group.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Vitamin K Prophylaxis for Preterm Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of 3 Regimens -- Clarke et al. 118 (6): e1657 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 January 2010 12:13 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/6/e1657">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> If caught early, prognosis is good, even when great amounts are ingested.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References">References</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count:2; 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Nutr.</em> <strong>87</strong> (4): 985–92. <a href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400723" class="external text" rel="nofollow">18400723</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18400723" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18400723</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Dietary+intake+of+vitamin+K+and+risk+of+prostate+cancer+in+the+Heidelberg+cohort+of+the+European+Prospective+Investigation+into+Cancer+and+Nutrition.+%28EPIC-Heidelberg%29&rft.jtitle=Am.+J.+Clin.+Nutr.&rft.aulast=Nimptsch+K%2C+Rohrmann+S%2C+Linseisen+J&rft.au=Nimptsch+K%2C+Rohrmann+S%2C+Linseisen+J&rft.date=April+2008&rft.volume=87&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=985%E2%80%9392&rft_id=info:pmid/18400723&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ajcn.org%2Fcgi%2Fpmidlookup%3Fview%3Dlong%26pmid%3D18400723&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Vitamin_K"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li>Jane Higdon, "<a href="http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Vitamin K</a>", Micronutrient Information Center, <em><a href="/Oregon_State_University" title="Oregon State University">Linus Pauling Institute</a></em></li> <li><a href="http://ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan00/green0100.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Vitamin K: Another Reason to Eat Your Greens</a></li> <li><a href="http://ctds.info/vitamink.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Vitamin K: Signs of Deficiency</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec01/ch004/ch004m.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Vitamin K: Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, and Toxicity</a>: Merck Manual Professional</li> <li><a href="http://aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol13No2/vitk.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">An Alternative Perspective on Vitamin K Prophylaxis</a></li> <li><a href="http://k2book.com/preview.php" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Health Benefits of Vitamin K2</a></li> <li><a href="http://nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR19/nutrlist/sr19w430.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Vitamin K content</a>: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19</li> </ul> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">Vitamins</a> (<a href="/ATC_code_A11" title="ATC code A11">A11</a>)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#fd6;;"><a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">Fat soluble</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vitamin_A" title="Vitamin A">A</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Retinol" title="Retinol">Retinol</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Beta-Carotene" title="Beta-Carotene">β-Carotene</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tretinoin" title="Tretinoin">Tretinoin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Alpha-Carotene" title="Alpha-Carotene">α-Carotene</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vitamin_D" title="Vitamin D">D</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>D<sub>2</sub></strong> (<a href="/Ergosterol" title="Ergosterol">Ergosterol</a>, <a href="/Ergocalciferol" title="Ergocalciferol">Ergocalciferol</a>) <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>D<sub>3</sub></strong> (<a href="/7-Dehydrocholesterol" title="7-Dehydrocholesterol">7-Dehydrocholesterol</a>, <a href="/Previtamin_D3" title="Previtamin D3">Previtamin D3</a>, <a href="/Cholecalciferol" title="Cholecalciferol">Cholecalciferol</a>, <a href="/Calcifediol" title="Calcifediol">25-hydroxycholecalciferol</a>, <a href="/1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol" title="1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol">Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)</a>, <a href="/Calcitroic_acid" title="Calcitroic acid">Calcitroic acid</a>)<br /> </div> <strong>D<sub>4</sub></strong> (<a href="/22-dihydroergocalciferol" title="22-dihydroergocalciferol" class="mw-redirect">Dihydroergocalciferol</a>) <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Vitamin_D5" title="Vitamin D5"><strong>D<sub>5</sub></strong></a> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>D analogues</strong> (<a href="/Dihydrotachysterol" title="Dihydrotachysterol">Dihydrotachysterol</a>, <a href="/Calcipotriol" title="Calcipotriol">Calcipotriol</a>, <a href="/Tacalcitol" title="Tacalcitol">Tacalcitol</a>, <a href="/Paricalcitol" title="Paricalcitol">Paricalcitol</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vitamin_E" title="Vitamin E">E</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Tocopherol" title="Tocopherol">Tocopherol</a> (<a href="/Alpha-Tocopherol" title="Alpha-Tocopherol">Alpha</a>, <a href="/Beta-Tocopherol" title="Beta-Tocopherol">Beta</a>, <a href="/Gamma-Tocopherol" title="Gamma-Tocopherol">Gamma</a>, <a href="/Delta-Tocopherol" title="Delta-Tocopherol">Delta</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tocotrienol" title="Tocotrienol">Tocotrienol</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tocofersolan" title="Tocofersolan">Tocofersolan</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><strong class="selflink">K</strong></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Naphthoquinone" title="Naphthoquinone">Naphthoquinone</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Phylloquinone" title="Phylloquinone">Phylloquinone/K1</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Menatetrenone" title="Menatetrenone">Menatetrenone/K2</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Menadione" title="Menadione">Menadione/K3</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#fd6;;"><a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">Water soluble</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/B_vitamins" title="B vitamins">B</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>B<sub>1</sub></strong> (<a href="/Thiamine" title="Thiamine">Thiamine</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>B<sub>2</sub></strong> (<a href="/Riboflavin" title="Riboflavin">Riboflavin</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>B<sub>3</sub></strong> (<a href="/Niacin" title="Niacin">Niacin</a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide" title="Nicotinamide">Nicotinamide</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>B<sub>5</sub></strong> (<a href="/Pantothenic_acid" title="Pantothenic acid">Pantothenic acid</a>, <a href="/Panthenol" title="Panthenol">Dexpanthenol</a>, <a href="/Pantethine" title="Pantethine">Pantethine</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong><a href="/Vitamin_B6" title="Vitamin B6">B<sub>6</sub></a></strong> (<a href="/Pyridoxine" title="Pyridoxine">Pyridoxine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxal_phosphate" title="Pyridoxal phosphate">Pyridoxal phosphate</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxamine" title="Pyridoxamine">Pyridoxamine</a>)<br /> </div> <strong>B<sub>7</sub></strong> (<a href="/Biotin" title="Biotin">Biotin</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong>B<sub>9</sub></strong> (<a href="/Folic_acid" title="Folic acid">Folic acid</a>, <a href="/Dihydrofolic_acid" title="Dihydrofolic acid">Dihydrofolic acid</a>, <a href="/Folinic_acid" title="Folinic acid">Folinic acid</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong><a href="/Vitamin_B12" title="Vitamin B12">B<sub>12</sub></a></strong> (<a href="/Cyanocobalamin" title="Cyanocobalamin">Cyanocobalamin</a>, <a href="/Hydroxocobalamin" title="Hydroxocobalamin">Hydroxocobalamin</a>, <a href="/Methylcobalamin" title="Methylcobalamin">Methylcobalamin</a>, <a href="/Cobamamide" title="Cobamamide">Cobamamide</a>) <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Choline" title="Choline">Choline</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:#fd6;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">C</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ascorbic_acid" title="Ascorbic acid">Ascorbic acid</a> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dehydroascorbic_acid" title="Dehydroascorbic acid">Dehydroascorbic acid</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>see also: enzyme cofactors, enzymes, <a href="/Multivitamin" title="Multivitamin">Multivitamins</a></em></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";background:#fd6;" colspan="2"><em><a href="/Digestive_system" title="Digestive system" class="mw-redirect">digestive system</a>: anat of tract,glands,perit,diaphragm/physio/dev, noncongen/congen/congen of d+w/neoplasia, symptoms+signs/eponymous, proc, <a href="/ATC_code_A" title="ATC code A">meds:A</a> (1/2A/2B/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/12/14/16)</em></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Enzyme" title="Enzyme">Enzyme</a> <a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">cofactors</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">Active Forms</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><em><a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">vitamins</a></em>: <a href="/Thiamine_pyrophosphate" title="Thiamine pyrophosphate">TPP / ThDP</a> (B<sub>1</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Flavin_mononucleotide" title="Flavin mononucleotide">FMN</a>, <a href="/Flavin_adenine_dinucleotide" title="Flavin adenine dinucleotide" class="mw-redirect">FAD</a> (B<sub>2</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide" title="Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide">NAD<sup>+</sup></a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide" title="Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide">NADH</a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide_phosphate" title="Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate">NADP<sup>+</sup></a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide_phosphate" title="Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate">NADPH</a> (B<sub>3</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Coenzyme_A" title="Coenzyme A">Coenzyme A</a> (B<sub>5</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pyridoxal_phosphate" title="Pyridoxal phosphate">PLP / P5P</a> (B<sub>6</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Biotin" title="Biotin">Biotin</a> (B<sub>7</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tetrahydrofolic_acid" title="Tetrahydrofolic acid">THFA / H<sub>4</sub>FA</a>, <a href="/Dihydrofolic_acid" title="Dihydrofolic acid">DHFA / H<sub>2</sub>FA</a>, <a href="/5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate" title="5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate">MTHF</a> (B<sub>9</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Adenosylcobalamin" title="Adenosylcobalamin" class="mw-redirect">AdoCbl</a>, <a href="/Methylcobalamin" title="Methylcobalamin">MeCbl</a> (B<sub>12</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ascorbic_acid" title="Ascorbic acid">Ascorbic Acid</a> (C)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Phylloquinone" title="Phylloquinone">Phylloquinone</a> (K<sub>1</sub>, <a href="/Menaquinone" title="Menaquinone" class="mw-redirect">Menaquinone</a> (K<sub>2</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Coenzyme_F420" title="Coenzyme F420">Coenzyme F420</a><br /> <em>non-vitamins</em>: <a href="/Adenosine_triphosphate" title="Adenosine triphosphate">ATP</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cytidine_triphosphate" title="Cytidine triphosphate">CTP</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/S-Adenosylmethionine" title="S-Adenosylmethionine" class="mw-redirect">SAMe</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/3%27-Phosphoadenosine-5%27-phosphosulfate" title="3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate">PAPS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Glutathione" title="Glutathione">GSH</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Coenzyme_B" title="Coenzyme B">Coenzyme B</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Coenzyme_M" title="Coenzyme M">Coenzyme M</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Coenzyme_Q" title="Coenzyme Q" class="mw-redirect">Coenzyme Q</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Heme" title="Heme">Heme / Haem</a> (<a href="/Heme_a" title="Heme a">A</a>, <a href="/Heme_b" title="Heme b">B</a>, <a href="/Heme_C" title="Heme C">C</a>, <a href="/Heme_o" title="Heme o">O</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lipoic_Acid" title="Lipoic Acid" class="mw-redirect">Lipoic Acid</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Methanofuran" title="Methanofuran">Methanofuran</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Molybdopterin" title="Molybdopterin">Molybdopterin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pyrroloquinoline_quinone" title="Pyrroloquinoline quinone">PQQ</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tetrahydrobiopterin" title="Tetrahydrobiopterin">THB / BH<sub>4</sub></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tetrahydromethanopterin" title="Tetrahydromethanopterin">THMPT / H<sub>4</sub>MPT</a><br /> </div> <em><a href="/Dietary_mineral" title="Dietary mineral">minerals</a></em>: <a href="/Calcium" title="Calcium">Ca<sup>2+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Copper" title="Copper">Cu<sup>2+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Iron" title="Iron">Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>3+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Magnesium" title="Magnesium">Mg<sup>2+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Manganese" title="Manganese">Mn<sup>2+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Molybdenum" title="Molybdenum">Mo</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nickel" title="Nickel">Ni<sup>2+</sup></a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Selenium" title="Selenium">Se</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Zinc" title="Zinc">Zn<sup>2+</sup></a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">Base Forms</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em><a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">vitamins</a></em>: <a href="/Thiamine" title="Thiamine">Thiamine</a> (B<sub>1</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Riboflavin" title="Riboflavin">Riboflavin</a> (B<sub>2</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Niacin" title="Niacin">Niacin</a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide" title="Nicotinamide">Niacinamide</a> (B<sub>3</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pantothenic_acid" title="Pantothenic acid">Pantothenic Acid</a> (B<sub>5</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pyridoxine" title="Pyridoxine">Pyridoxine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxamine" title="Pyridoxamine">Pyridoxamine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxal" title="Pyridoxal">Pyridoxal</a> (B<sub>6</sub>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cyanocobalamin" title="Cyanocobalamin">Cyanocobalamin</a>, <a href="/Hydroxocobalamin" title="Hydroxocobalamin">Hydroxocobalamin</a> (B<sub>12</sub>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2"><strong>Major families of <a href="/Biochemistry" title="Biochemistry">biochemicals</a></strong><br /> <a href="/Monosaccharide" title="Monosaccharide">Saccharides</a>/<a href="/Carbohydrate" title="Carbohydrate">Carbohydrates</a>/<a href="/Glycoside" title="Glycoside">Glycosides</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Amino_acid" title="Amino acid">Amino acids</a>/<a href="/Peptide" title="Peptide">Peptides</a>/<a href="/Protein" title="Protein">Proteins</a>/<a href="/Glycoprotein" title="Glycoprotein">Glycoproteins</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lipid" title="Lipid">Lipids</a>/<a href="/Terpene" title="Terpene">Terpenes</a>/<a href="/Steroid" title="Steroid">Steroids</a>/<a href="/Carotenoid" title="Carotenoid">Carotenoids</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Alkaloid" title="Alkaloid">Alkaloids</a>/<a href="/Nucleobases" title="Nucleobases" class="mw-redirect">Nucleobases</a>/<a href="/Nucleic_acids" title="Nucleic acids" class="mw-redirect">Nucleic acids</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">Cofactors</a>/<a href="/Phenylpropanoids" title="Phenylpropanoids" class="mw-redirect">Phenylpropanoids</a>/<a href="/Polyketide" title="Polyketide">Polyketides</a>/<a href="/Tetrapyrrole" title="Tetrapyrrole">Tetrapyrroles</a></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Antihemorrhagic" title="Antihemorrhagic">Antihemorrhagics</a> (<a href="/ATC_code_B02" title="ATC code B02">B02</a>)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:MistyRose;;"><a href="/Hemostatic" title="Hemostatic" class="mw-redirect">Hemostatics</a><br /> (<a href="/Coagulation" title="Coagulation">coagulation</a>)</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: MistyRose;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Systemic</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: MistyRose;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><strong class="selflink">Vitamin K</strong></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Phylloquinone" title="Phylloquinone">Phytomenadione/K1</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Menadione" title="Menadione">Menadione/K3</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: MistyRose;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Coagulation" title="Coagulation">Coagulation factors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><em>intrinsic:</em> <a href="/Factor_IX" title="Factor IX">IX</a>/<a href="/Nonacog_alfa" title="Nonacog alfa" class="mw-redirect">Nonacog alfa</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Factor_VIII" title="Factor VIII">VIII</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><em>extrinsic:</em> <a href="/Factor_VII" title="Factor VII">VII</a>/<a href="/Eptacog_alfa" title="Eptacog alfa" class="mw-redirect">Eptacog alfa</a></div> <em>common:</em> <a href="/Factor_X" title="Factor X">X</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Factor_II" title="Factor II" class="mw-redirect">II</a>/<a href="/Thrombin" title="Thrombin">Thrombin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Fibrinogen" title="Fibrinogen" class="mw-redirect">I/Fibrinogen</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: MistyRose;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other systemic</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Etamsylate" title="Etamsylate">Etamsylate</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Carbazochrome" title="Carbazochrome">Carbazochrome</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Batroxobin" title="Batroxobin">Batroxobin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Thrombopoietin_receptor_agonist" title="Thrombopoietin receptor agonist" class="mw-redirect">thrombopoietin receptor agonist</a></em> (<a href="/Romiplostim" title="Romiplostim">Romiplostim</a>, <a href="/Eltrombopag" title="Eltrombopag">Eltrombopag</a>)</div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: MistyRose;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Local</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Absorbable_gelatin_sponge" title="Absorbable gelatin sponge">Absorbable gelatin sponge</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Oxidized_cellulose" title="Oxidized cellulose">Oxidized cellulose</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tetragalacturonic_acid_hydroxymethylester" title="Tetragalacturonic acid hydroxymethylester">Tetragalacturonic acid hydroxymethylester</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Thrombin" title="Thrombin">Thrombin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Collagen" title="Collagen">Collagen</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Calcium_alginate" title="Calcium alginate">Calcium alginate</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a>/<a href="/Adrenalone" title="Adrenalone">Adrenalone</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:MistyRose;;"><a href="/Antifibrinolytic" title="Antifibrinolytic">Antifibrinolytics</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em><a href="/Amino_acid" title="Amino acid">amino acids</a></em> (<a href="/Aminocaproic_acid" title="Aminocaproic acid">Aminocaproic acid</a>, <a href="/Tranexamic_acid" title="Tranexamic acid">Tranexamic acid</a>, <a href="/Aminomethylbenzoic_acid" title="Aminomethylbenzoic acid">Aminomethylbenzoic acid</a>)<br /> <em><a href="/Serpin" 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class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <p><b>Vitamin K</b> is a <a href="/Vitamin" title="Vitamin">vitamin</a> which is soluble in fat. It is mostly needed for the <a href="/Coagulation" title="Coagulation" class="mw-redirect">coagulation</a> (clotting) of <a href="/Blood" title="Blood">blood</a>, and stops bleeding. Without Vitamin K there would be a loss of blood when you bleed which can lead to unconsciousness or even death.<sup id="cite_ref-Colorado_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Colorado-0" title="">[1]</a></sup> Vitamin K can be found in green <a href="/Vegetable" title="Vegetable">vegetables</a>, such as <a href="/Spinach" title="Spinach">spinach</a>, <a href="/Lettuce" title="Lettuce">lettuce</a>, <a href="/Broccoli" title="Broccoli">broccoli</a> or <a href="/Cabbage" title="Cabbage">cabbage</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Colorado_0-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Colorado-0" title="">[1]</a></sup> Vitamin K was discovered by <a href="/Henrik_Dam" title="Henrik Dam">Henrik Dam</a> (1895—1976), a <a href="/Danish" title="Danish">Danish</a> <a href="/Chemist" title="Chemist">chemist</a>, who won the 1943 <a href="/Nobel_Prize_in_Physiology_or_Medicine" title="Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine">Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1" title="">[2]</a></sup> </p> <a name="References" id="References"></a><h2> <span class="mw-headline">References</span></h2> <p> </p> <div class="references-small"> <ol class="references"><li id="cite_note-Colorado-0">↑ <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Colorado_0-0" title="">1.0</a></sup> <sup><a href="#cite_ref-Colorado_0-1" title="">1.1</a></sup> <span class="citation web">Anderson J, Young L. <a href="http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html" class="external text" title="http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html" rel="nofollow">"Fat-Soluble Vitamins"</a>. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html" class="external free" title="http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 30-05-2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Fat-Soluble+Vitamins&rft.atitle=&rft.aulast=Anderson+J%2C+Young+L&rft.au=Anderson+J%2C+Young+L&rft.pub=Colorado+State+University%2C+Cooperative+Extension&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ext.colostate.edu%2Fpubs%2Ffoodnut%2F09315.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Vitamin_K"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="cite_note-1"><a href="#cite_ref-1" title="">↑</a> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/dam-bio.html" class="external text" title="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/dam-bio.html" rel="nofollow">"Henrik Dam - Biography"</a>. <i>nobelprize.org</i><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/dam-bio.html" class="external free" title="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/dam-bio.html" rel="nofollow">http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/dam-bio.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 March 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Henrik+Dam+-+Biography&rft.atitle=nobelprize.org&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnobelprize.org%2Fnobel_prizes%2Fmedicine%2Flaureates%2F1943%2Fdam-bio.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Vitamin_K"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li></ol></div> <div class="notice metadata plainlinks" id="stub"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Wiki_letter_w.svg" class="new" title="File:Wiki letter w.svg"></a> <i>This <a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">short article</a> can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by <span class="plainlinks"><a href="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Vitamin_K&action=edit" class="external text" title="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Vitamin_K&action=edit" rel="nofollow">adding to it</a>. </i></div> <p></span> </p> </div> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Vitamin_K">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Vitamin_K</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">Stubs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Vitamins" title="Category:Vitamins">Vitamins</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 29, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Vitamin K, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 17, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section1/chapter3/3h.jsp" title="<A HREF=http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section1/chapter3/3h.jsp>http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section1/chapter3/3h.jsp</A>">Vitamin K Deficiency - from the Merck Manual</a> - THE MERCK MANUAL MEDICAL LIBRARY: The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ctds.info/vitamink.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Many of the features of common chronic disorders, especially connective tissue disorders, are identical to the symptoms of <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> deficiencies.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Is this a coincidence, or could <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> deficiencies be an often overloo<B>k</B>ed factor in many disorders currently attributed to genes or other causes?</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>I've been diagnosed with a variety of overlapping inherited connective tissue disorders that all have bleeding problems as symptoms, yet all of my bleeding problems stopped when I changed my diet to get more <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ctds.info/vitamink.html>http://www.ctds.info/vitamink.html</A>">Vitamin K: Signs of Deficiency</a> - Symptoms Linked to Deficiencies of Vitamin K</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol13No2/vitk.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Midwife Sara Wic<B>k</B>ham provides a much-needed update on <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> prophylaxis.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>One of these choices concerns whether a woman would li<B>k</B>e her baby to be given <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B>, either orally or by intramuscular injection.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The evidence which the medical (and midwifery) professions use to support their arguments for all babies receiving <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> is widely available - and will be repeated many times to women who are considering declining this intervention.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol13No2/vitk.htm>http://www.aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol13No2/vitk.htm</A>">An Alternative Perspective on Vitamin K Prophylaxis</a> - Vitamin K - An Alternative Perspective</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR19/nutrlist/sr19w430.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR19/nutrlist/sr19w430.pdf>http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR19/nutrlist/sr19w430.pdf</A>">Vitamin K Content - USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20eX.html" title="Olive oil contains a large amount of <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B>.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20eX.html>http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20eX.html</A>">Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Parsley, raw</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.schattauer.de/index.php?id=1268&pii=th99080165&no_cache=1" title="<A HREF=http://www.schattauer.de/index.php?id=1268&pii=th99080165&no_cache=1>http://www.schattauer.de/index.php?id=1268&pii=th99080165&no_cache=1</A>">Biochemistry and physiology of blood coagulation</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00968.x" title="<A HREF=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00968.x>http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00968.x</A>">The physiology of vitamin K nutriture and vitamin K-dependent protein function in atherosclerosis</a> - Wiley InterScience :: Session Cookies</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>VITAMIN</B> <B>K</B>, AN ESSENTIAL <B>vitamin</B>, is a cofactor for a single <B>k</B>nown enzymatic reaction: the conversion of glutamic acid to -carboxyglutamic acid in <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B>-dependent proteins during their biosynthesis.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Since the discovery of <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> and its association with blood coagulation,1 many milestones have been passed on the road to understanding the biological role of <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Important early landmar<B>k</B>s include the discovery of <B>vitamin</B> <B>K</B> antagonists and their introduction as pharmacologic agents for anticoagulation2;</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798>http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798</A>">Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid</a> - Blood -- Vitamin K-Dependent Biosynthesis of gamma -Carboxyglutamic Acid</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.biochemj.org/bj/029/1273/0291273.pdf" title="The Antihaemorrhagic <B>Vitamin</B><br><br><A HREF=http://www.biochemj.org/bj/029/1273/0291273.pdf>http://www.biochemj.org/bj/029/1273/0291273.pdf</A>">The Antihaemorrhagic Vitamin Of The Chick</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nutritiondata.com" title="Find foods highest in any <B>vitamin</B> or mineral or lowest in carbs, saturated fats, or sugars<br><br><A HREF=http://www.nutritiondata.com>http://www.nutritiondata.com</A>">Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis – NutritionData.com</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol76/volume76.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol76/volume76.pdf>http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol76/volume76.pdf</A>">IARC Monograph volume 76</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Biotin">Biotin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ascorbic_acid">Ascorbic acid</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Pyridoxal_phosphate">Pyridoxal phosphate</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Pyrroloquinoline_quinone">Pyrroloquinoline quinone</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Methylcobalamin">Methylcobalamin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Dihydrofolic_acid">Dihydrofolic acid</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Cobamamide">Cobamamide</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate">5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Phylloquinone">Phylloquinone</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Menadione">Menadione</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if (/^\w+([\.-]?\w+)*@\w+([\.-]?\w+)*(\.\w{2,3})+$/.test(myForm.str_email.value)){ return (true); } alert("Invalid E-mail Address! 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