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Voiced uvular fricative: Wikis

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IPA – number 143
IPA – text ʁ
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity ʁ
X-SAMPA R
Kirshenbaum g"
About this sound Sound sample

The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʁ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages.

Because the IPA symbol stands for both the uvular fricative and the uvular approximant, the fricative nature of this sound may be specified by adding the uptack to the letter, [ʁ̝]. (The approximant can be specified by adding the downtack, [ʁ̞].)

Contents

Features

Features of the voiced uvular fricative:

Occurrence

In Western Europe, a uvular trill pronunciation of rhotic consonants spread from northern French to several dialects and registers of Danish, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Norwegian, Portuguese, and Swedish. However, not all of these remain a uvular trill today. In Danish, the r is a pharyngeal approximant in all but the most conservative speech. In Brazilian Portuguese, it is usually a voiceless velar fricative [x], voiceless uvular fricative [χ], or a voiceless glottal fricative [h]. Because such uvular rhotics don't often contrast with alveolar ones, <r> may often be used to represent them for ease of typesetting. For more information, see guttural R.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz цыҕ [tsəʁ] 'marten'
Adyghe гъызын [ʁəzən] 'to wail'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [tʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Armenian քաղաքավար [kʰaʁakʰaˈvaɹ] 'polite'
Avar тIагъур [tʼaˈʁur] 'cap'
Chilcotin [ʁəlkɪʃ] 'he walks'
Danish rød [ʁɶð] 'red' See Danish phonology
French rester [ʁɛste] 'to stay' See French phonology
German[1] Frau [fʁaʊ̯] 'woman' See German phonology
Modern Hebrew רע [ʁa] 'bad' May also be trilled. See Hebrew phonology
Inuktitut East Inuktitut dialect marruuk [mɑʁʁuuk] 'two'
Kabardian гъэ [ʁɑ] 'let'
Kabyle bbeγ [bːəʁ] 'to dive'
Kazakh саған [sɑˈʁɑn] 'you (singular dative)'
Kyrgyz жамгыр [dʒɑmˈʁɯr] 'rain'
Lakota aǧúyapi [aʁʊjapɪ] 'bread'
Limburgish Maastrichtian dialect roond [ʁoːnt] 'round'
Norwegian western rar [ʁɑːʁ] 'strange'
Portuguese European[2] carro [ˈkaʁu] 'car' See Portuguese phonology and Guttural R.
Sakha тоҕус [toʁus] 'nine'
Tatar яңгыр, yañğır [jɒŋˈʁɯr] 'rain'
Tsez агъи [ˈʔaʁi] 'bird'
Ubykh [ʁa] 'his, her, its' Ubykh has ten different uvular fricatives. See Ubykh phonology
Uzbek ёмғир, yomir [jɒmˈʁɨr] 'rain'
Yiddish רעגן [ˈʁɛɡŋ] 'rain'
Zhuang roek [ʁɔ̌k] 'six'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90-94
  • Wiese, Richard (1996), Phonology of German, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-824040-6
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