Voiceless uvular fricative: Wikis

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IPA – number 142
IPA – text χ
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity χ
X-SAMPA X
Kirshenbaum X
About this sound Sound sample

The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is χ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is X. The sound is represented by x̣ (x with underdot) in Americanist phonetic notation.

It is not to be confused with the voiceless velar fricative (IPA x, X-SAMPA x.)

Contents

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular fricative:

Varieties of [χ]

IPA Description
χ plain uvular fricative
χʷ labialised
χʼ ejective
χʷʼ ejective labialised
χ̜ʷ semi-labialised
χ̹ʷ strongly labialised
χʲ palatalised
χʲʼ ejective palatalised

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хпа /χpa/ 'three' Contrasts with labialized and palatalized forms
Afrikaans goed [χuˑt] 'good' Some dialects.
Aleut Atkan dialect hati [hɑtiχ] 'ten'
Arabic Ṣan‘ā’ni[1] غني [ˈχanijjɐ] 'rich' See Arabic phonology
Armenian խնդրեմ [χndɾɛm] 'please'
Avar орх [orχ] 'to lift' Contrasts with a tense form
Chilcotin ? [ʔælaχ] 'I made it'
Dutch Northern Dutch accents Scheveningen [ˈsχeːvəniŋən] 'Scheveningen' See Dutch phonology
Eyak da. [daːχ] 'and'
French roche [χɔʃ] 'rock' Rhotic consonant for some dialects. See French phonology
German Dach [daχ] 'roof' Appears only after certain back vowels in some dialects. See German phonology
Haida ḵ'aláaan [qʼʌlɑ́χʌn] 'fence'
Hebrew אוכל [oχel] 'eat' See Hebrew phonology
Kabardian нэхъ [nɑχ] 'more' Contrasts with a labialized form
Kabyle axxam [aχχam] 'house'
Klallam saʔqʷaʔ [sχaʔqʷaʔ] 'salmon backbone'
Lakota ȟóta [ˈxota] 'gray'
Lezgian хат [χatʰ] 'bead' Contrasts with a labialized form
Ongota [χibiɾi] 'bat'
Oowekyala [tsʼkʼʷχttɬkt͡s] 'the invisible one here with me will be short'
Nez Perce [ˈχǝχɑˑt͡s] 'grizzly bear'
Portuguese Brazilian carro [kaχu] 'car' Some dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Saanich WEXES [wəχəs] 'small frogs, peepers' Contrasts with a labialized form
Seri xeecoj [χɛːkox] 'wolf' Contrasts with a labialized form
Spanish[2] jugar [χuˈɣaɾ] 'to play' Allophone of /x/. See Spanish phonology
Tlingit tlaxh [tɬʰɐχ] 'very' Tlingit has four different uvular fricatives
Ubykh [asfəpχa] 'I need to eat it' Ubykh has ten different uvular fricatives. See Ubykh phonology
Uyghur یاخشی [jɑχʃi] 'good'
Yiddish בוך [bʊχ] 'book' See Yiddish phonology

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Hess, Wolfgang (2001). "Funktionale Phonetik und Phonologie". Grundlagen der Phonetik. Bonn: Institut für Kommunikationsforschung und Phonetik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.  
  • Watson, Janet (2002), written at New York, The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, Oxford University Press
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