Voiceless velar plosive: Wikis

  
  

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IPA – number 109
IPA – text k
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity k
X-SAMPA k
Kirshenbaum k
About this sound Sound sample

The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.

The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k].

Contents

Features

Features of the voiceless velar plosive:

Varieties

IPA Description
k plain k
aspirated k
palatalized k
labialized k
unreleased k
voiced k
ejective k

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ақалақь [ˈakalakʲ] 'the city' See Abkhaz phonology
Ahtna gistaann [kɪstʰɐːn] 'six'
Aleut[1] kiikax̂ [kiːkaχ] 'cranberry bush'
Arabic Standard[2] كتب [ˈkatabɐ] 'he wrote' See Arabic phonology
Bengali [kɔm] 'less, few' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian как [kak] 'how'
Chinese Cantonese /gaa1 [kaː˥˥] 'home'
Mandarin /gāo [kɑʊ˥] 'tall, high' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Standard Mandarin
Catalan[3] clenxa [ˈklɛnʲɕə] 'hair parting' See Catalan phonology
Czech kost [kost] 'bone' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] koning [ˈkonɪŋ] 'king' See Dutch phonology
English kiss [kʰɪs] 'kiss' See English phonology
Estonian kõik [kɤik] 'all'
Finnish kakku [kɑkːu] 'cake' See Finnish phonology
French[5] cabinet [kabinɛ] 'office' See French phonology
Georgian[6] ვა [kʰva] 'stone'
German Käfig [ˈkʰɛːfɪç] 'cage' See German phonology
Greek καλόγερος [kaˈlo̞ɡe̞ro̞s̠] 'monk' See Modern Greek phonology
Hindi काम [kɑːm] 'work' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hungarian akkor [ɒkkor] 'then' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[7] casa [ˈkaza] 'house' See Italian phonology
Japanese[8] /kaban [kabaɴ] 'handbag' See Japanese phonology
Korean 가다/kada [kada] 'to go' See Korean phonology
Lakota kimímela [kɪˈmɪmela] 'butterfly'
Malay kaki [kaki] 'leg'
Norwegian kake [kɑːkɛ] 'cake' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto كال [kɑl] 'year'
Polish[9] buk Pl-buk.ogg [ˈbuk] 'beech tree' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[10] corno [ˈkoɾnu] 'horn' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[11] când [ˈkɨnd] 'when' See Romanian phonology
Russian[12] короткий [kɐˈrotkʲɪj] 'short' See Russian phonology
Slovak kosť [kosc] 'bone'
Spanish[13] casa [ˈkasa] 'house' See Spanish phonology
Swedish ko [ˈkʰuː] 'cow' See Swedish phonology
Turkish kulak [kʰuläk] 'ear' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh /kawar/ 'slat' Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Vietnamese cô [ko] 'aunt; Miss' See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[14] canza [kanza] 'walking'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107  
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquipan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114  
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97  
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264  
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41  







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