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Volgograd (English)
Волгоград (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Train Station (V).JPG
Volgograd railway station
Map european russia volgograd.png
Volgograd on the map of European Russia
Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.7°N 44.517°E / 48.7; 44.517Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.7°N 44.517°E / 48.7; 44.517
Coat of Arms of Volgograd.png
Coat of arms
Volgograd flag.gif
Flag
Holiday Second Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Volgograd Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Volgograd Oblast[citation needed]
Administrative center of Volgograd Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Head[citation needed] Roman Grebennikov[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 565 km2 (218.1 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2002 Census) 1,011,417 inhabitants[1]
Rank 12th
- Density 1,790 /km2 (4,600/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1555[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 400001..400138[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 8442[citation needed]
Official website http://www.volgadmin.ru

Volgograd (Russian: About this sound Волгогра́д​ ; IPA: [ˌvɐlgəˈgrat]), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: About this sound Цари́цын​ ) (1589–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: About this sound Сталингра́д​ ) (1925–1961) is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometres (50 mi) long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River and has a population of 1.011 million people. The city was made famous for its resistance and extensive damage during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II.

Contents

History

Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857)

Volgograd originated with the foundation in 1589 of the fortress of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga Rivers. The fortress Sary Su (a local Tatar language name meaning: Yellow Water/River), was established to defend the unstable southern border of Tsarist Russia. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement. It was captured twice by Cossack rebels, under Stepan Razin in the rebellion of 1670 and Yemelyan Pugachev in 1774. Tsaritsyn became an important river port and commercial centre in the 19th century.

The city was the scene of heavy fighting during the Russian Civil War. Bolshevik forces occupied it during 1918, but were attacked by White forces under Anton Ivanovich Denikin.

The original name of the city, Tsaritsyn, was first recorded by English explorer Barry in 1579, though he did not refer to the city, but to the island on the Volga. The origin of the name is usually traced back to the Turkic "Sary-Su" (yellow water) or "Sary-Sin" (Yellow Island). The date of the founding of the city is considered to be July 2, 1589, when the fortress Tsaritsyn was first named in a royal charter. The fortress was located slightly above the confluence of the Volga River Queen on the right bank.

Before the Tsarina in the mouth of the river there was a settlement of the Queen of the Golden Horde.

In 1607 the fortress was in revolt against the king's troops, but was suppressed six months later. In 1608 the city had its first stone church, St. John the Baptist.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century the garrison consisted of 350-400 people.

In 1670 the fortress was taken by troops of Stepan Razin, who left after a month. In 1708, the fortress was held by insurgent Cossacks Kondrati Bulavin. In 1717, Bulavin was sacked by the Crimean Tatars and Kuban. Later, in 1774, the city unsuccessfully stormed Yemelyan Pugachev.

In 1691 Tsaritsin established customs. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan province; in 1719 to Astrakhan; from 1779 to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1773 the city became the provincial and district town. In 1780 the city was under the Saratov governorship (later as a province). According to the census in 1720, the city's population was 408 people.

In the 19th century, the population of the city increased rapidly: in 1807 less than 3000 people live in Tsaritsyn. By 1900: about 84,000.

The first railroad came to the town in 1862. The first theater opened in 1872, and the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsin's first tram line was built, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.

During the civil war in November 1917 in Tsaritsyn were proclaimed Soviet power. In 1918 Tsaritsyn was besieged by white troops Ataman Krasnov. Three assault had been repulsed. However, in June 1919 Tsaritsyn was captured troops of General Denikin, leaving the city in January 1920.

The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10, 1925. In 1931, in the city including the German settlement-colony Sarepta (founded in 1765), subsequently became the largest area of the city - Krasnoarmejskij. The first institute was opened in 1930, a year later was opened and the Pedagogical Institute.

Under Stalin, the city became a centre of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river, and as a result was attacked by Axis forces during World War II. In 1942, the city became the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad saw perhaps the greatest casualty figures of any battle in warfare (estimates are between 1,250,000[3] and 1,798,619[4]). The battle began on 17 July 1942, and on August 23 the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of the city to rubble. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the central station of the city passed from hand to hand 13 times, and the famous Mamaev Kurgan (one of the heights of the city) was captured and recaptured 8 times. By the winter of 1942–43, the German forces controlled 90% of the city, and had cornered the Soviets into two narrow pockets. On November 19, Soviet forces launched a massive counterattack. This led to the eventual encirclement of Sixth German Army. On January 31, 1943 its commander, Field Marshal Friedrich von Paulus surrendered, and on February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over.

Stalingrad was awarded the title Hero City for its heroism in 1945, and King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in admiration of their bravery. A memorial complex commemorating the battle, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture of Mother Russia, was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, a hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle. A number of cities around the world (especially that which had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister/friendship/twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established between Stalingrad and Britain's Coventry during World War II (as both suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment).

The Panorama Museum sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. These include a panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument "Mamayev Kurgan." A rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev (popularized in Western media in the film Enemy at the Gates) is also on display.

In 1961, Stalingrad was changed to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of Nikita Khrushchev's programme of de-Stalinization. This was and remains somewhat contentious, given the fame of the name "Stalingrad" and its importance in wartime remembrance. There were serious proposals to revert the name to "Stalingrad" during Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1985. There remains a strong degree of local support for a reversion but intermittent proposals have been not yet accepted by the Russian government. On May 21, 2007, the CPRF or Communist Party of the Russian Federation obtained an important success in the Volgograd mayoral election. Communist candidate Roman Grebennikov was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote. Grebennikov is Russia's youngest mayor of a regional capital.

Economy

Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminium production, manufacture of machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. A large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant stands a short distance to the north of Volgograd.

Volgograd on the 1979 map

Transport

Volgograd is a major railway junction serviced by Pri Volga Railway. Rail links include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga-Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais, France with Ridder, Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram.

Volgograd is a major rail junction and with trains travelling from the city to Moscow, Saratov, Astrakhan and other cities . The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea passes the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, has been inaugurated in October 2009.[5] The city river terminal is the centre for local passenger shipping along the Volga river.

Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan and Aktau.

Local public transport is provided by buses trolleybuses and trams.

Climate

Climate data for Volgograd
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.0
(54)
14.0
(57)
21.4
(71)
28.9
(84)
37.7
(100)
39.2
(103)
39.8
(104)
39.0
(102)
38.0
(100)
31.5
(89)
18.2
(65)
11.0
(52)
39.8
(104)
Average high °C (°F) -4.5
(24)
-4.3
(24)
2.6
(37)
15.4
(60)
22.7
(73)
26.9
(80)
29.3
(85)
27.9
(82)
21.6
(71)
12.2
(54)
4.0
(39)
-1.9
(29)
12.7
(55)
Average low °C (°F) -10.7
(13)
-10.7
(13)
-4.5
(24)
5.1
(41)
12.0
(54)
16.1
(61)
18.4
(65)
17.1
(63)
11.6
(53)
4.0
(39)
-1.3
(30)
-7.0
(19)
4.2
(40)
Record low °C (°F) -32.6
(-27)
-32.1
(-26)
-26.1
(-15)
-10.1
(14)
-2.6
(27)
2.0
(36)
7.0
(45)
2.8
(37)
-3.0
(27)
-12.2
(10)
-21.7
(-7)
-29.5
(-21)
-32.6
(-27)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10.0
(0.39)
11.3
(0.44)
26.2
(1.03)
37.5
(1.48)
58.6
(2.31)
53.9
(2.12)
55.7
(2.19)
51.2
(2.02)
48.0
(1.89)
32.4
(1.28)
15.8
(0.62)
9.9
(0.39)
410.5
(16.16)
Source: Гидрометцентр России[6][7] 2010-01-25

Education

Institutions include:

Sport

FC Volgograd and FC Rotor Volgograd are both Russian Second Division football clubs, having been relegated after being in the Russian Premier League in the early 1990s. Lukoil-Spartak represent the city in water polo.

Famous residents

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Volgograd is twinned with:[8][9]

Gallery

References

Notes
  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0756613604. http://books.google.com/books?id=iU-pAQAACAAJ&ei=OtqJSa-lLJTUlQTVuu3rAQ. 
  4. ^ Wagner, Margaret, et al. (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743252195. http://books.google.com/books?id=0bRaa7UuD6EC. 
  5. ^ "Ivanov otkryl v Volgograde samyi bolshoy most v Evrope (Иванов открыл в Волгограде самый большой мост в Европе" (in Russian). Vesti. http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=319840. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  6. ^ "Гидрометцентр России" (in Russian). http://meteoinfo.ru/VolgogradClimat. Retrieved December 14, 2008. 
  7. ^ http://www.pogoda.ru.net/monitor.php?id=34560&month=7&year=2009
  8. ^ Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd
  9. ^ "VISIT VOLGOGRAD - RUSSIA - WELCOME TO THE CITY - THE HERO VOLGOGRAD!". www.visitvolgograd.info. http://www.visitvolgograd.info/Vennskapsbyer.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  10. ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/shimin/kokusai/shimai/top-e.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  11. ^ "Ruse Municipality - Fraternize Cities". © 2008-2009 Ruse Municipality. http://www.ruse-bg.eu/index.php?area=2&p=gallery&action=showimages&galid=18. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  12. ^ Executive power of Baku city

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Volgograd (Russian: Волгоград) used to be called Stalingrad. It lies along the west bank of the Volga River in Southern Russia. It was the scene of one of the most important and bloodiest battles of the Second World War.

Get in

Volgograd is a major railway junction with links to Moscow, the Donbas region of Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga-Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia.

European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais, France with Ridder, Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Volgograd Metrotram, [1]. Light rail service.

Volgograd International Airport (Russian: Международный Аэропорт Волгоград) (IATA: VOG), [2](Russian only).

  • Mamayev Kurgan — the site of one of the twentieth century's most important battles: Battle of Stalingrad. This huge memorial is located on top of a large hill overlooking Volgograd and the Volga River. The name derives from the hill's supposed status as the grave of Mamai, a famous Tatar Khan and general (kurgan is a Tatar word meaning burial mound).
  • The Panorama museum, ul. Chuikova. 10-17. The Panorama museum, which is located alongside the Volga river, contains artifacts from World War II. These include a panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument "Mamayev Kurgan." Here a rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev, can also be found.  edit
  • Arca
  • Grand Cafe
  • Grand Pizza
  • Volgograd
  • Mario
  • McDonalds
  • Labamba
  • Shury-Mury
  • Vizantia
  • Steak House
  • Ole
  • Chinar
  • Velvet
  • Yakitoria
  • SV
  • Pyramid
  • Blindazh
  • Bellagio
  • Deja Vu
  • Sakura

Get out

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

From Russian Волгогра́д.

Proper noun

Singular
Volgograd

Plural
-

Volgograd

  1. A city in Russia.
  2. An oblast in southwestern Russia.

Synonyms

Translations


Simple English

Volgograd (English)
Волгоград (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
File:Train Station (V).JPG
Volgograd railway station
[[image:{{Location map Template:PosMapFS|image}}|244px|Volgograd is located in {{Location map Template:PosMapFS|name}}]]
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[[Image:{{Location map Template:PosMapFS|mark}}|5x5px|link=|alt=]]
Location of Volgograd on the map of Template:PosMapFS
Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.7°N 44.517°E / 48.7; 44.517Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.7°N 44.517°E / 48.7; 44.517
File:Coat of Arms of
Coat of arms
File:Volgograd flag.gif
Flag
HolidaySecond Sunday of September[needs proof]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Volgograd Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction ofVolgograd Oblast[needs proof]
Administrative center ofVolgograd Oblast[needs proof]
Municipal status
Municipal StatusUrban okrug
Head[needs proof]Roman Grebennikov[needs proof]
Representative bodyCity Duma[needs proof]
Statistics
Area 565 km² (218.1 sq mi)[needs proof]
Population (2002 Census)1,011,417 inhabitants[1]
- Rank12th
- Density1,790/km² (4,600/sq mi)[2]
Time zoneTemplate:RussiaTimeZone
Founded1555[needs proof]
Postal code(s)400001..400138[needs proof]
Dialing code(s)+7 8442[needs proof]
Official websitehttp://www.volgadmin.ru

Volgograd formerly called Tsaritsyn (1589–1925) and Stalingrad (1925–1961) is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 km long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River and has a population of 1.011 millon people. The city was made famous for its heroic resistance and extensive damage during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II.

Contents

History

Volgograd developed from 1589 when the the fortress of Tsaritsyn was founded at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga Rivers. During the Russian Civil War the city was the scene of heavy fighting. Bolshevik forces occupied it during 1918, but were attacked by White forces.

Under Stalin, the city became heavily industrialized as a centre of heavy industry and trans-shipment by rail and river. During World War II, Stalingrad became the center of the Battle of Stalingrad as well as a turning point in the war against Germany. Essentially, the German offensive was checked at Stalingrad. The Battle of Stalingrad lasted from August 21, 1942 to February 2, 1943, where 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet soldiers were killed, wounded or captured, in addition to over 40,000 civilians killed. The city was reduced to rubble during the fierce fighting, but reconstruction began soon after the Germans were expelled from the city.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

As of 2008, Volgograd has 21 sister cities[3]:

A number of communities in France and Italy have streets or avenues named after Stalingrad, hence Place de Stalingrad in Paris and the Paris Métro station of Stalingrad.

Gallery

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References

Other websites








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