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Voskhod 1
Восход-1
Mission insignia
Voskhod1 patch.jpg
Mission statistics
Mission name Voskhod 1
Восход-1
Spacecraft type Voskhod 3KV
Spacecraft mass 5,320 kg (11,700 lb)
Crew size 3
Call sign Рубин (Rubin - "Ruby")
Booster Voskhod
Launch pad Gagarin's Start, Baikonur Cosmodrome[1]
Launch date 12 October 1964 07:30:01 (1964-10-12T07:30:01) UTC
Landing site 52°2′N 68°8′E / 52.033°N 68.133°E / 52.033; 68.133
Landing 13 October 1964 07:47:04 (1964-10-13T07:47:05) UTC
Mission duration 1d/00:17:03
Number of orbits 16
Apogee 336 km (209 mi)
Perigee 178 km (111 mi)
Orbital period 89.6 min
Orbital inclination 64.7°
Related missions
Previous mission Next mission
Vostok 5-6 mission patch.jpg Vostok 6 Voskhod2 patch.jpg Voskhod 2

The flight of the Voskhod 1 (Russian: Восход-1, Ascent 1 or Dawn 1) was the first space flight to carry more than one crewman into outer space, the first space flight without the use of spacesuits, and the first to carry either an engineer or a physician into outer space. The flight of the Voskhod 1 also set a manned spacecraft altitude record of 336 km (209 mi). This Soviet mission was specifically planned to beat the American Gemini program to the milestone of carrying a multiman crew into outer space. As a further propaganda coup, this space capsule was said to have carried a fragment of a communard banner from the Paris Commune of 1871 into orbit.

The three spacesuits for the Voskhod 1 cosmonauts were omitted; there was neither the room nor the payload capacity for the Voskhod to carry them. The original Voskhod had been designed to carry two cosmonauts, but Soviet politicians pushed the Soviet space program into squeezing three cosmonauts into Voskhod 1. The only other space flight in the short Voskhod program, Voskhod 2, carried two suited cosmonauts — of necessity, because it was the flight on which Alexei Leonov made the world's first walk in space.

Contents

Cosmonauts

Position Cosmonaut
Command Pilot Vladimir Komarov
First spaceflight
Engineer Konstantin Feoktistov
First spaceflight
Medical Doctor Boris Yegorov
First spaceflight
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Back-up crew

Position Cosmonaut
Command Pilot Boris Volynov
Engineer Vasili Lazarev
Medical Doctor Georgi Katys

Reserve Cosmonaut

Position Cosmonaut
Medical Doctor Vasili Lazarev

Mission parameters

Background

The original prime crew of cosmonauts for Voskhod 1, composed of Boris Volynov, Georgi Katys, and Boris Yegorov, was rejected just three days before the scheduled launch date for the space capsule, repordedly due to the State Commission's discovery that Volynov's mother was Jewish.[2]

There was also some controversy between the Soviet Air Force, which wanted an all-pilot space crew, and the Soviet (civilian) Chief Designer, Sergey Korolyov, who wanted to send non-military crewmen into outer space. Konstantin Feoktistov, who had been a design engineer for the Vostok, Voskhod, and Soyuz programs, was selected for this flight (and became the only Soviet outer space designer to make a spaceflight), while Boris Yegorov, a medical doctor, used his political influence to get selected for the crew through his father's Politburo connections.

Mission highlights

Voskhod 1 and 2 space capsules

The Voskhod spacecraft were basically Vostok spacecraft with a backup, solid-fuel retro-rocket added onto the top of the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and three crew couches were added to the interior at a 90-degree angle to that of the Vostok cosmonaut's position. There was no provision for escape for the crewmen in the event of a launching or landing emergency. A solid-fuel braking rocket was also added to the space capsule's parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok space capsule, no ejection seats were fitted in the Voskhod; the cosmonauts had to land inside the Voskhod descent module.

Much of the mission of Voskhod 1 was devoted to biomedical research, and to the study of how a multi-disciplinary team could work together in space. Incidentally, the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was removed from power during this spaceflight. The ground controlers informed the cosmonauts that "there is more in heaven and earth than is dreamt of in your philosophy..." and cut the mission short. The cramped conditions of the Voskhod space capsule has also been suggested as a factor ruling out a longer-duration spaceflight.

Happening as it did before the beginning of the Project Gemini two-man flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant, but temporary, international impact. The NASA Administrator, James E. Webb, called the flight of Voskhod 1 a "significant space accomplishment" adding that it was "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige."[3]

References

  1. ^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. http://www.astronautix.com/sites/baiurlc1.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-30.  
  2. ^ French, Francis; Colin Burgess, Walter Cunningham (2007). In the Shadow of the Moon. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 253–254. ISBN 0803211287.  
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Voskhod 1

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