WMMS: Wikis


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City of license Cleveland, Ohio[1]
Broadcast area Greater Cleveland[2]
Northeast Ohio[2]
Branding 100.7 WMMS: The Buzzard[3]
Slogan Cleveland's Rock Station[3]
Frequency 100.7 (MHz)[1]
100.7 WMMS-HD[4]
100.7-2 WMMS-HD2[4]
First air date September 28, 1968
(as WMMS)[5]
Format 100.7 (MHz) for
   Hot Talk/Active Rock[6][7][8][9]
100.7 WMMS-HD for
   Hot Talk/Active Rock[6][7][8][9][4]
100.7-2 WMMS-HD2 for
   Alternative Rock[4]
ERP 34,000 watts[10]
HAAT 183 meters[10]
Class B[10]
Facility ID 73273[1]
Callsign meaning We'reMetroMediaStereo[11]
Former callsigns 1948-1968: WHK-FM[5]
1947-1948: WHKX[5]
1946-1947: W8XUB[5]
Former frequencies 1946-1947: 107.1 (MHz)[5]
Owner Clear Channel Communications[6]
Sister stations WAKS[6]
Webcast Listen Live
Website WMMS.com

WMMS (100.7 FM) is a commercial radio station in Cleveland, Ohio, widely recognized as one of the most influential rock stations in the history of FM broadcasting.[16][17][18][19][20] Created in April 1974 as "an ironic twist on Cleveland's down-and-out reputation as a decaying Rust Belt city,"[21] its longtime promotional mascot has been The Buzzard (the station did choose to "de-emphasize" the iconic scavenger to some extent in 2007).[22] Throughout the 1970s and 80s, WMMS had a stable of personalities that was fundamentally unchanged for many years,[17][20] attained a dominant market share in the local ratings[18][20][23][24] and posted market record-high figures "never duplicated by any other station."[20][23] The station played a key role in breaking major acts like David Bowie, Rush, Fleetwood Mac, Roxy Music, Meat Loaf, the Pretenders, the New York Dolls and Bruce Springsteen.[16][20][25][26] Rolling Stone readers voted WMMS "Radio Station of the Year" nine years in a row (1979-87),[16] though the station did later admit to stuffing the annual survey's ballot box for the run's final years, claiming it was "a marketing strategy" and "much in line with what many stations did."[27][28] Considered "a true radio legend," former WMMS DJ Kid Leo was chosen for Rolling Stone's "Heavy Hundred in the Music Industry" (1980) and named "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country" in a special 1987 issue of Playboy magazine.[25] Noted filmmakers, including Cameron Crowe (Almost Famous) and Paul Schrader (Light of Day), have called on both The Buzzard and its personnel while preparing for various rock-themed productions.[29][30] WMMS was also a major driving force behind the successful campaign to bring the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to Cleveland.[31]

Clear Channel Communications has owned WMMS since 1999. The station, which broadcasts a mostly Hot Talk/Active Rock format,[6][7][8][9] serves as the flagship station for Rover's Morning Glory,[8] the Cleveland affiliate of Loveline[9] and the FM flagship for the Cleveland Browns (shared with AM sister station WTAM).[32] In addition, following a 17 month absence from the medium, radio personality Alan Cox recently took over the WMMS afternoon-drive as host of the The Alan Cox Show.[33]

The WMMS call letters once referred to a former owner: "We're MetroMedia Stereo."[11] Later the station was billed as the place "Where Music Means Something,"[12] followed by "We're Your Modern Music Station"[13] and "Your Music Marathon Station."[14] Although never used on the air, listeners have alternately known the callsign as an acronym for "Magic MuShroom" — possibly in reference to a somewhat controversial logo used before The Buzzard[15] — and "Weed Makes Me Smile."[12]


Early years

In August 1946, radio station WHK-AM — owned at that time by Forest City Publishing, itself then the parent company of The Plain Dealer — received one of the earliest experimental FM licenses under the callsign W8XUB at 107.1 Megahertz (MHz). Upon receipt of a commercial license, the new FM station first adopted the callsign WHKX at 100.7 MHz, and then WHK-FM (also 100.7). Both WHK-AM and WHK-FM were sold in 1958 to Metropolitan Broadcasting, itself renamed MetroMedia two years later. Like most early FM stations, WHK-FM mostly simulcasted the Top 40 programming of its AM sister station.

In 1968, the FCC mandated that FM stations could no longer duplicate their AM sister station's programming, in order to make the medium more commercially viable. Seeing a small but significant groundswell of support for the medium in the market, WHK-FM adopted a new Progressive Rock format. WHK-FM became one of a handful of commercial stations in the country to try that format, many of which were owned by MetroMedia. To firmly establish a separate identity, and to reflect the station's ownership, the callsign of WHK-FM was changed to WMMS ("We're MetroMedia Stereo") on September 28, 1968.

Progressive Rock years

MetroMedia found major success with Progressive Rock on WMMS FM sister stations 94.1 KMET Los Angeles, 107.7 KSAN San Francisco, 93.3 WMMR Philadelphia and 102.7 WNEW New York, but low ratings and revenue in Cleveland led the company to drop the format at WMMS by July 1969. MetroMedia first turned to Adult Standards, and then Top 40 via Drake-Chenault's automated Hit Parade '69.

WMMS reverted to Progressive Rock less than a year later. The station briefly battled with WNCR of Nationwide Communications, itself filling the void created by the brief absence of WMMS on the rock scene. Key WNCR personnel — including former WMMS personalities The Perlich Project (Martin Perlich) and Billy Bass — were soon hired by WMMS, taking most of their audience with them.[34]

In November 1972, WMMS was sold to Malrite Communications, a Michigan-based firm that relocated to Cleveland upon purchase. Under Malrite ownership, WMMS would become an Album-Oriented Rock (AOR) powerhouse, much in the same vein as its former MetroMedia Progressive Rock siblings.

Classic 'MMS

Under the leadership of Station Manager Billy Bass and Program Director Denny Sanders (who came to WMMS from Boston in 1971), WMMS helped break many new rock artists nationally, most notably David Bowie, who along with the Spiders from Mars, kicked off his American tour in Cleveland, based on the market's huge sales figures for the Bowie album, primarily due to WMMS airplay.[34]

Roughly one year after its debut, The Buzzard was arguably the most recognizable logo in Greater Cleveland. A study conducted by MBA students at Case Western Reserve University found that the new WMMS logo beat out both Chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians and even Coca-Cola. Poster by David Helton.[35]

In July 1973, John Gorman joined WMMS as music director and was promoted to program director and operations manager two months later where he remained for 13 years. During this time, with Denny Sanders as his creative services director and Rhonda Kiefer as programming assistant, WMMS broke all Cleveland ratings and revenue records. WMMS was the first radio station to employ full-time promotion and marketing directors: Dan Garfinkel and his successor, Jim Marchyshyn.

Origin of The Buzzard

Contrary to what many believe, the choice of the new WMMS mascot had nothing to do with Buzzard Day, the annual "folksy event" held in Hinckley Township, Ohio.[36] Rather, WMMS adopted a buzzard as its mascot because of the then tenuous economic state of Cleveland — the first major American city to enter into default since the Great Depression[37] — and the winged creature's reputation as a scavenger. The Buzzard was the co-creation of Gorman, Sanders and artist David Helton:[38]

We joked about The Buzzard becoming Cleveland's Mickey Mouse...

a 'Buzzard Land' amusement park filled with sex, drugs and rock and roll...

From the onset, Helton's streamlined artwork resulted in an aggressive, yet family-friendly symbol for the station, one that continues to endure more than 40 years later. The Buzzard became synonymous with WMMS, Cleveland radio and the city itself, spawning a series of T-shirts so numerous that they are now impossible to catalog, many with slogans like "Where Music Means Something," and "Ruler of the Airwaves."


A major contributor to the ratings success was an airstaff that remained fundamentally unchanged for many years: personalities like Kid Leo, Jeff & Flash, Matt the Cat, Dia Stein, Denny Sanders, Murray Saul, Betty "Crash" Korvan, Ruby Cheeks, BLF Bash (Bill Freeman), TR (Tom Renzy) and Len "Boom Boom" Goldberg were invaluable to the station's popularity.

Start Finish Personality Tenure
  6 am 10 am Jeff & Flash (Jeff Kinzbach, Ed Ferenc) 1977–1994
10 am   2 pm Matt the Cat (Matt Lapczynski) 1974-88; 90-92[39]
  2 pm   6 pm Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) 1974–1988
  6 pm 10 pm Denny Sanders 1971–1986
10 pm   2 am Steve Lushbaugh 1973–1976
10 pm   2 am Betty Korvan 1976–1983
10 pm   2 am TR (Tom Renzy) 1983–1988
  2 am   6 am BLF Bash (Bill Freeman) 1976–1998[40]

Of all the personalities that worked at WMMS, Len "Boom Boom" Goldberg was there the longest. He joined the station in early 1972 before its sale to Malrite, and stayed in different capacities until 2004. He was best known as the voice for the station's top of the hour IDs, music segues and sweepers, and commercials for WMMS, and was also a member of The Buzzard Morning Zoo in the mid 80s. He died on December 27, 2006.

Breaking new acts

Others acts broken by WMMS included Rush[26] and Roxy Music. Of special note was the early support of Bruce Springsteen by Kid Leo and others, from even before Born to Run came out. For the station's tenth anniversary in 1978, WMMS hosted and broadcast a live Springsteen concert at the Agora Theatre and Ballroom independent of his concert tour. Heavily bootlegged, the concert further cemented the relationship between the two in fans' minds, and well into the 2000s Cleveland remains one of Springsteen's strongest bases. Right up until his departure in 1988, Kid Leo played Born to Run as his signature sign-off song every Friday night: "Born to Run was the essence of everything I loved about Rock 'n' Roll."[41]

Known for its arena rock spectacle, the World Series of Rock was also notorious for rowdiness, excessive alcohol consumption and rampant drug use.[42][43]

World Series of Rock

The World Series of Rock was a recurring, day-long and usually multi-act summer rock concert held outdoors at Cleveland Municipal Stadium from 1974 through 1980.[44] Belkin Productions staged these events, attracting popular hard rock bands and as many as 88,000 fans. WMMS sponsored the concerts.[45] Attendance was by general admission.

Concertgoers occasionally fell—or jumped—off the steep stadium upper deck onto the concrete seating area far below, causing serious injury.[46][47][48][49] The Cleveland Free Clinic staffed aid stations in the stadium with physicians, nurses and other volunteers, and through 1977, made its treatment statistics public. From 1978 on, Belkin Productions conditioned its funding of the Free Clinic on the nondisclosure of the number of Clinic staff on duty at the concerts, the nature of conditions treated and the number of patients treated.[50]

Coffee Break Concert

At the time, WMMS was also broadcasting a remarkable amount of live concert broadcasts, many of which originated in Cleveland and were produced by the station itself. The Coffee Break Concert was a weekly music-interview show broadcast live from the station's studio (and later with an audience at The Agora Ballroom). Warren Zevon, John Mellencamp, Lou Reed, Peter Frampton, and a host of others performed on the program, recordings of which are widely available as bootlegs. The WMMS Coffee Break Concerts were booked by Denny Sanders and hosted by Len "Boom Boom" Goldberg and later, Matt the Cat. The concert series continued on well into the 90s, albeit much less frequently.[51][52]

Rock Hall campaign

In the mid-1980s, WMMS was an important contributor in organizing a campaign (along with former Cleveland ad agency president Edward Spizel and author-deejay Norm N. Nite) which brought the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to Cleveland. John Gorman, Denny Sanders and Kid Leo organized the original campaign with Tunc Erim, assistant to Atlantic Records president Ahmet Ertegun.

Shifting format

WMMS was directly influenced by then (and current) sister station Z100 (WHTZ/100.3 FM) in New York, New York, which rose to the top of the ratings books immediately after installing a Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) format. Among the more significant moves taken by WMMS was the formatting of the Morning Zoo concept created by Z100's Scott Shannon onto the show Jeff & Flash (Jeff Kinzbach and Ed Ferenc) were already hosting. Kinzbach and Ferenc had already been a morning team—with sidekicks—since 1976, seven years prior to adopting the Morning Zoo label, so the basic structure was already in place.

The music structure also was modified at this time as artists such as Michael Jackson, Madonna and Prince soon found airplay on WMMS. The change was done for many reasons: as a nod to the sudden influence Z100's format had on the Malrite group; Gorman and Sanders intention to stay with the current music trends as the Album-Oriented Rock (AOR) format was, even then, in a state of decline; and as a means to attract a female audience. By 1984, WMMS was classified as either a CHR/AOR hybrid or as a CHR outlet, though the station also started to devote weekend programming to the Classic Rock format.

Changing times

By the late 80s, most of the original staff members had departed: John Gorman and Denny Sanders left in 1986 to launch upstart station WNCX, and Columbia Records hired Kid Leo in 1988.[53] Four different program directors, including Rich Piombino and Michael Luczak, came and went with varying levels of success. DJ additions included station engineer Ric Bennett as Rocco the Rock Dog,[39] Scooter (WMMS Music Director Brad Hanson), Lisa Dillion[39] and 'MMS mid-day veteran Matt the Cat,[39] returning in 1990 after two years. Ratings steadily increased during the time of the First Gulf War, but The Howard Stern Show was soon picked up by a then struggling WNCX. Stern's ratings exploded and this — along with a growing urgency from management not to compete with or mention Stern on the air — led to a sudden and steep ratings decline for The Buzzard Morning Zoo. Matt the Cat was permanently let go in December 1992 due to "budget problems."[39] Unable to service its growing debt, Malrite chose to leave radio and sold off all its remaining properties in 1993:[24] WMMS went to Shamrock Broadcasting, the Roy Disney broadcasting firm.[54] Management ordered a change to The Buzzard by giving it a flat-top and mullet. The station continued to decline, culminating in 1994 with the sale of WMMS to OmniAmerica — incidentally, run by former Malrite executives Carl Hirsch and Dean Thacker — and the depature of Jeff & Flash.

Rolling Stone readers' poll

Readers of Rolling Stone named WMMS "Radio Station of the Year" nine straight years (1979-1987), but a February 1988 front-page story in The Plain Dealer revealed station employees had been stuffing the annual survey's ballot box over the previous two years. The ballot box stuffing revelation is still controversial, with some upset with the deception, while others claim that all stations in every city did their share of stuffing.[16][27][28]

The Cleveland Funeral

Among the most notorious broadcasts of the The Howard Stern Show occurred on June 10, 1994.[55] Stern had arrived on the Cleveland airwaves less than two years earlier, and in that time took his syndicated program on rival WNCX from an Arbitron ranking of thirteen to number one.[56] As promised,[57] Stern held a party for his fans on the streets of Cleveland — a "Funeral" for his local rivals (namely Jeff & Flash), much like similar events held in New York,[57] Los Angeles[57] and Philadelphia[57] — and broadcast it nationwide.[55]

During the now infamous broadcast,[58] WMMS engineer William Alford snipped a broadcast wire used for the Stern show's satellite feed.[59][60] Alford was subsequently caught and arrested; Stern continued on with the program over a phone line as engineers worked to quickly patch together the severed broadcast wire.[58] Alford was later sentenced to ten days in jail and a $1,000 fine.[61] Station management initially claimed that Alford acted alone,[60] however WMMS Promotions Director Heidi Klosterman — working under the name Heidi Kramer — later pleaded guilty to a felony charge of attempted disruption of a public service and a misdemeanor of receiving stolen property; Greg Smith, a former Klosterman colleague, pled guilty to a misdemeanor of breaking and entering.[62]

The Buzzard: The Next Generation

Note the weekend contest promotion offering a Stone Temple Pilots CD — one of the many new bands featured under the Alternative Rock format. Poster by Brian Chalmers.[29]

Under OmniAmerica ownership, WMMS veteran John Gorman returned as Vice-President and Director of Operations.[63] Gorman redesigned The Buzzard as an Alternative Rock station, playing new acts like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Rage Against the Machine, Soundgarden, The Offspring, Green Day, Alice in Chains, the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Korn, Bush, The Smashing Pumpkins, Stone Temple Pilots and Nine Inch Nails.[64] To emphasize this change, WMMS was re-billed and aggressively promoted as The Buzzard: The Next Generation.[64] Gorman also brought back the original Buzzard design, now drawn by David Helton's successor Brian Chalmers.[29] WMMS even managed to lure popular morning personalities Brian and Joe (Brian Fowler and Joe Cronauer) away from rival WENZ, then an Alternative Rock station known as 107.9 The END.[65] While the change in programming alienated many longtime listeners — many of whom switched to WNCX and their full-time Classic Rock format — WMMS boosted its ratings for the first time in years by drawing in a new young audience.[63][64]

Despite quantifiable success,[64] the station was sold yet again in 1996, this time to Nationwide Communications.[66] The sale came almost immediately following passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, as radio companies nationwide rushed "at a fever pitch" to acquire new properties.[66] John Gorman — who has since openly expressed his frustration with the industry's current state[67][68][69] — first departed for CBS Radio in Detroit,[70][71] but soon left traditional radio altogether.[68]

BuzzardFest series

During this time, WMMS held a series of sold-out rock festivals that featured many of the new up-and-coming artists receiving station airplay. Buzzard-Palooza was the first of these: held in July 1994 at the Nautica Stage, the all-day concert included sets from Collective Soul, Junkhouse and Fury in the Slaughterhouse,[72] but was cut short after turning into a "rock-and-bottle-throwing melee." Cleveland Police wearing riot gear were called in just as punk rock group Green Day, the event's headliner, took the stage.[73] WMMS scheduled a second Green Day performance just two months later — this time at Blossom Music Center — and at a near record-low cost of $5 per ticket, the station gave fans a "second chance" to see the band live.[74]

The Ramones headlined BuzzardFest '95 the following spring (May 1995) at Blossom;[75] other acts included Our Lady Peace, The Rugburns and Face to Face.[75] BuzzardFest II was held the very next fall (September 1995) — again at Blossom — and featured performances from the Goo Goo Dolls, Alanis Morissette, Jewel, as well as the Dance Hall Crashers, Eleven, Green Apple Quick Step, Prick and Sons of Elvis.[76][77]

The last of these multi-act shows — simply titled BuzzardFest — was held in May 1996 at Blossom Music Center and featured performances from 311 and No Doubt, along with Candlebox, The Nixons, Goldfinger, Gods Child, Dash Rip Rock and the Holy Barbarians.[78]

Morning troubles

From the 1994 exit of Jeff & Flash — themselves enjoying a run of nearly twenty years — until the arrival of Rover in 2008, WMMS was beset by a roster of thirteen different morning shows in as many years. The Brian and Joe Radio Show was moved to afternoons in February 1997[79] after a change in ownership brought the addition of shock jock Liz Wilde.[80] Her firing less than a year later[80] sparked a successful lawsuit against both the station and then owner Nationwide Communications. Danny Czekalinski and Darla Jaye were teamed up in October 1997[81] with Liz Wilde holdover Cory Lingus[82] until August 1998.[83] Matt Harris served in the interim until WMMS hired Dick Dale from Jacksonville, Florida.[84]

In 2000, the station turned to Wolf and Mulrooney from sister station WPYX in Albany, New York.[85][86] The show was simulcast from Albany, marking the first time that a morning show on WMMS did not originate in Cleveland. The team later relocated to Cleveland, lasting only months until their acrimonious high-profile breakup forced the station to look elsewhere. Other shows like The Rick and Tom Megalis Show and Sean, Cristi and Hunter came and went in quick succession. The Bob and Tom Show aired from 2006 through early 2008, the only time since adopting a rock format that WMMS carried a syndicated program in that time slot with no connection to the station.[87]

Recent years

WMMS owner Nationwide Communications was bought out by Jacor Communications in 1997.[88] Following Jacor's takeover, WMMS ran a "Death of the Buzzard" month-long stunt in October 1998.[84] Geared as a format change to Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) as 100.7 KISS-FM,[89][90] the decision was reversed last-minute by management,[18] though the KISS-FM name and format did later end up on WMMS sister station WAKS.[6] Jacor was absorbed by media giant Clear Channel in May 1999, continuing the buying frenzy brought on by monumental federal deregulation.

A new airstaff was assembled: Slats (Tim Slats) was hired for the afternoon-drive, and Music Director Mark Pennington replaced BLF Bash (Bill Freeman) during overnights. Seth the Barbarian (Seth Williams) took the overnight shift when Pennington moved to evenings in 2001.[91] Slats helmed the afternoon shift until 2004. Bo Matthews, the new WMMS Program Director, soon hired Maxwell (Benjamin Bornstein) for a more "personality-driven" afternoon show: The Maxwell Show gradually evolved from airing mostly music to all talk, and by 2009 had become the number one afternoon program in the Cleveland market (ages 18-34).[92]

In September 2007, WMMS management chose to "de-emphasize" both The Buzzard and WMMS call letters, referring to the station as simply 100.7, save for the FCC mandated legal ID at the top of every hour.[22] Regarding the change, WMMS Program Director Bo Matthews stated that "nobody's killing anything... Chief Wahoo is not on every piece of Indians promotional material... Ronald McDonald is not in every McDonald's commercial... We're not losing the letters. All we're doing is shifting an image."[22] By April 2008, the station had reverted to its traditional branding, once again frequently making use of both The Buzzard and the WMMS callsign,[93] though the classic Buzzard design has since been replaced (David Helton's original design is still occasionally used for promotional purposes[94]). The new WMMS logo features orange wings on the sides of a weathered black shield in the shape of a U.S. Route sign, with white print reading "100.7 WMMS."[3]

The Maxwell Show

The Maxwell Show was an afternoon show starring Maxwell (Benjamin Bornstein), Stansbury (Dan Stansbury) and Chunk (Tiffany Peck) that aired from April 19, 2004 until its abrupt cancellation on November 20, 2009.

The show was comprised entirely of talk. It would usually begin with conversations regarding the goings on in the personal lives on the cast, and then move on to discussions and debates concerning topical news stories. On occasion, they would interview guests over the phone and, to a lesser extent, in the studio.

All members of the cast — Maxwell, Stansbury and Chunk — shared their most intimate details and dark secrets. Both Maxwell and Stansbury frequently discussed instances of sexual abuse that occurred during their childhoods. They also spoke candidly about Maxwell's past drug addiction with heroin and OxyContin, and his subsequent stint in rehab back in 2007. Other personal details included Maxwell's sleep apnea, his weight troubles, and his two daughters. Maxwell is married in real life and has two daughters, one from a previous relationship. He previously worked in the Tampa, Cincinnati and Baltimore markets before coming to WMMS.

Current lineup

Outdoor billboard promoting Rover's move to WMMS, a parody of Nike's ad campaign featuring Cleveland Cavaliers superstar LeBron James.[95]

At this point, WMMS has not regained the number one total listener audience which it held, more or less continuously, from 1975 to 1991. Additionally, the station now carries eleven hours of all-talk programming every weekday: Rover's Morning Glory mornings,[8] The Alan Cox Show afternoons [96][33] and Loveline nights.[9] Regardless, WMMS remains one of the most important rock stations in the history of FM radio. Most recently, Radio & Records (R&R) twice named WMMS "Rock Station of the Year: Markets 1-25" (2005, 2006) as part of the Rock Industry Achievement Awards (it should be noted that the R&R publication, in print since the early 70s, has subsequently been absorbed by Billboard magazine).[97][98]

Rover's Morning Glory

Day Start Finish Personalities Sports Weather Traffic
MON - FRI   6 AM 11 AM Rover (Shane French)
Duji (Susan Catanese)
Dieter (Dominic Dieter)
Dumb (Shaun Street)
Chocolate Charlie (Mike Toomey)
Mike Snyder Corey Rotic Nate

Hot Talk. Broadcasting weekday mornings from 6-11AM, Rover's Morning Glory is the current morning show on WMMS, itself the show's flagship station. Rover began in Cleveland in 2003 at WMMS rival WXTM 92.3 Xtreme Radio (now WKRK Radio 92.3), but in what was considered "a big blow" to that station and "a coup" for The Buzzard by WMMS veteran John Gorman, Rover moved his syndicated program over in April 2008. Show affiliate stations include The Zone (WZNE/94.1 FM) of Rochester, New York and Radio 106.7 (WRXS/106.7 FM) of Columbus, Ohio. Show segments include The Shizzy, The Thursday Hook-Up and Know the Show. Tech Tuesday allows listeners to call-in for answers from technology expert Lance Ulanoff of PCMag.com.[8]

RoverFest — a beer-drinking festival and concert that celebrated all-things-Rover — was held June 20, 2008. West 6th Street in the Warehouse District of Downtown Cleveland was closed, a large stage was built and food and beer vendors were present. A competition for girls to be in Rover's annual Miss Morning Glory Calendar was conducted as well. Approximately 10,000 people made their way through the festival, surpassing expectations. RoverFest 2009 was held July 24, 2009 at Voinovich Park in Downtown Cleveland. The event again featured a search for girls to be in the 2010 Miss Morning Glory Calendar, along with comedian Jim Florentine, Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels from Run–D.M.C. and the band Saliva. A television special was taped to air on MavTV in October 2009. The event sold out with over 10,000 people attending.

Rover has also continued the annual Miss Morning Glory Calendar series he began in 2003. The morning show conducts a search for local, non-professional girls to be in the calendar and offers cash and other prizes to the girl who is crowned Miss Morning Glory, who gets to be featured on the calendar's cover. A large party is held for the release of the calendar – usually in November or December – which typically has all 12 girls in the calendar and everyone from the show on hand to autograph copies of the calendar.

U.G.N.O. (Ultimate Guys Night Out)

The Aftermath

Day/Time Personalities
Mon - Fri
11am - 12pm
Internet streaming only
Dumb (Shaun Street)
Chocolate Charlie (Mike Toomey)

Hot Talk. Phone screener Dumb (Shaun Street) and sound guy Chocolate Charlie (Mike Toomey) broadcast a one hour online follow-up to the morning show via the official websites of both Rover's Morning Glory and WMMS. The Aftermath can be heard online weekdays from 11AM - 12PM (Noon).[3]


Day Start Finish
MON - FRI 11 AM   3 PM

Active Rock. Featured segments: Big Hair Wednesday and Under the Covers.[3] Under the Covers recently debuted on February 22, 2010. The feature "salutes the best covers" by allowing listeners to send in cover song suggestions for airplay (Marilyn Manson's "Sweet Dreams" is one example).[99]

The Rock Report

Day/Time Personality
Various Corey Rotic

Rock news. Brief segment that plays during commercial breaks. Updates daily.

The Alan Cox Show

Day Start Finish Personalities Sports Traffic
MON - FRI   3 PM   7 PM Alan Cox
Chad Zumock
Erika Lauren (Erika Wasilewski)
Andre Knott Matt Bean

Hot Talk, limited Active Rock. Radio personality Alan Cox took over the WMMS afternoon-drive as host of the The Alan Cox Show on December 16, 2009. Cox replaced former afternoon host Maxwell (Benjamin Bornstein) — on air as host of The Maxwell Show since 2004 — after contract renewal negotiations fell through between Bornstein and the station.[100] The new afternoon talk show airs weekdays from 3-7PM.[96][33] Before arriving at WMMS, Cox was host of The Morning Fix at Q101 (WKQX/101.1 FM) in Chicago, Illinois.[101][102] Prior to Q101, Cox was heard on stations in Rockford, Illinois and Kalamazoo, Michigan before coming to prominence as host of The Alan Cox Radio Show on 105.9 The X (WXDX/105.9 FM) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[101][103][104][105] Alan Cox is known for his caustic wit, political comments and controversial comedy routines.[103]

Comedian Chad Zumock — formerly of the sketch comedy troupe Last Call Cleveland — officially joined the show on January 5, 2010.[106][107][108] Erika Lauren (Erika Wasilewski),[108] a cast member from the MTV reality series The Real World: Washington D.C.,[109] joined on January 29th, 2010.[110][111] Matt Bean provides traffic updates during commercial breaks.[112]

Show features include Audio Dump, Alan Cox's Big Friggin' Deal, Drunk Dial, Online Punchline, Caption This, Frank the Crank and The Sweatervest of Hope — a semi-mock fundraiser which used eBay to auction off one of Chad's old sweatervests as part of the Alan Cox Kinda Cares campaign. In addition, the show is now actively competing for more African American listeners, with the stated goal of becoming "the #1-rated urban show in Cleveland!" Every black listener who calls in to the show is assigned a number and placed on The Black List. Whenever a "Black Listed" individual calls back in, that person's number serves as a reference for his or her name. Clearly meant for its comedic value — WMMS sports contributor Andre Knott is #19 — the new feature does, however, draw attention to the station's effort to gain listeners over rival Z 107.9 (WENZ/107.9 FM).[113][114]

The show recently debuted the song (and music video) "Parma State of Mind", both as a parody of the Jay-Z/Alicia Keys hit "Empire State of Mind," and as a way of continuing the Northeast Ohio tradition of ribbing the Cleveland suburb — somewhat of a nod to past local horror hosts Ghoulardi and Big Chuck and Lil' John.[115][116] As of March 13, 2010, the video — which debuted on February 19 — has had more than 200,000 views on YouTube.[117] Parma mayor Dean Piero has criticized the show's parody: "Whatever. It's pretty sick. Half of [the video] isn't even filmed in Parma. The people who put it together aren't even smart enough to know where our city boundaries are..." Chad Zumock responded, "Yeah, and we really thought that Best Buy still sells 8-tracks."[118][119] Alan did later extend an invitation to Mayor Piero to appear on the show — an offer the local official accepted — to stress the viral hit's playful intent.[120]

Big Rig

Day Start Finish
MON - FRI   7 PM 10 PM

Active Rock.[3] Big Rig (Ron Michaels) actually works out of a different Clear Channel station — 98 Rock (WXTB/97.9 FM) of Tampa, Florida. His nightly WMMS broadcasts are transmitted to Cleveland via Prophet, a type of voice-tracking technology.[121]


Day Start Finish Personalities
SUN - THU 10 PM 12 AM Dr. Drew (David Drew Pinsky, M.D.)
Anderson Cowan

Hot Talk. Loveline is a nationally syndicated call-in program distributed by Westwood One that offers both practical and professional relationship advice to callers and show listeners. Often joined by various celebrity guests, Loveline is hosted by TV and Radio personality Dr. Drew. 106.7 K-Rock (KROQ/106.7 FM) of Los Angeles, California serves as the show's flagship station; WMMS functions as its Cleveland affiliate. Pacific Time Zone affiliates broadcast the show live, while Eastern Time Zone affiliates like WMMS air a tape-delay version the very next night.[9]


Day Start Finish
MON - FRI 12 AM   6 AM

Active Rock.[3] Shroom actually works out of a different Clear Channel station — WEBN (102.7 FM) of Cinncinati, Ohio. His nightly WMMS broadcasts are transmitted to Cleveland via Prophet, a type of voice-tracking technology.[122]


Hot Talk/Active Rock. Airing Saturday nights from 11PM-1AM and hosted by Malcolm and DJ Mike Czech, Scratch'N'Sniff is a unique blend of rock and hip-hop remixes and mash-ups. The show began in 2003 on 91X (XETRA/91.1 FM) of San Diego, California, but quickly grew into the nationally syndicated program now distributed by Westwood One.[123][124][125] Hosted by current WMMS Program Director Bo Matthews and "Fantasy Expert" Nathan Zegura and airing Sunday mornings at 9AM, That Fantasy Show provides news and tips on all things Fantasy Football.[126] The House of Hair, a nationally syndicated Metal show hosted by Dee Snider, runs Sunday nights from 8-10PM.[127]

Day Start Finish Personalities Programming
SAT 10 PM 11 PM Saturday Sanitarium
Metallica playlist
SAT 11 PM   1 AM Malcolm
DJ Mike Czech
Rock/Hip-Hop remixes and mash-ups
syndicated via Westwood One
SUN   9 AM Bo Matthews*
Nathan Zegura
*WMMS Program Director
That Fantasy Show
Fantasy Football talk
SUN   8 PM 10 PM Dee Snider
The House of Hair
Heavy Metal, Glam Metal and Hard Rock
syndicated via United Stations Radio Networks
Various Maria Active Rock
Various Big Rig (Ron Michaels)
works from 98 Rock (WXTB/97.9 FM) of Tampa, Florida
Active Rock
Various Shroom
works from WEBN (102.7 FM) of Cinncinati, Ohio
Active Rock
Various Miles (Miles Hlivko) Active Rock
Various Corey Rotic Active Rock
Various Keith (Keith Hotchkiss) Active Rock

Sports coverage

WMMS has served as the FM flagship station for the Cleveland Browns since 2001, sharing coverage with AM sister station WTAM.[32] WMMS previously shared Browns coverage in the 1970s, 80s and early 90s with former AM sister station WHK.

WTAM serves as the sole flagship station for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Indians, but WMMS does function as its backup station, carrying select games of each team during scheduling conflicts:[128][129]
  1. If the Cavaliers are not in the playoffs, WMMS carries the Cavaliers.
  2. If the Cavaliers are in the playoffs, WMMS carries the Indians.

Team name Radio affiliate Cavaliers/Indians
WTAM conflict:
regular season
WTAM conflict:
playoff game
Cleveland Browns 100.7 WMMS
(shared with 1100 WTAM)
Cleveland Cavaliers 1100 WTAM 100.7 WMMS 1100 WTAM
Cleveland Indians 1100 WTAM 1100 WTAM 100.7 WMMS

Further reading

  • Keith, Michael C. (1997). Voices in the Purple Haze: Underground Radio and the Sixties. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-27595-266-2. 
  • Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock and Roll and the Cleveland Connection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-691-3. 
  • Olszewski, Mike (2003). Radio Daze: Stories from the Front in Cleveland's FM Air Wars. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-773-6. 
  • Gorman, John; Feran, Tom (2007). The Buzzard: Inside the Glory Days of WMMS and Cleveland Rock Radio — A Memoir. Cleveland, Ohio: Gray & Co. ISBN 978-1-88622-847-4. 

External links


  1. ^ a b c "Station Search Details: Callsign WMMS". Media Bureau Electronic Filing and Public Access. Federal Communications Commission. 2009. http://licensing.fcc.gov/cgi-bin/ws.exe/prod/cdbs/pubacc/prod/sta_det.pl?Facility_id=73273. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Service Area Contour Map (54 dBu): WMMS". FMQ FM Radio Database Query. Federal Communications Commission. 2009. http://www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/FMTV-service-area?x=FM101537.html. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Cleveland’s Rock Station: 100.7 WMMS: The Buzzard". WMMS official website. Clear Channel Communications, Inc. 2009. http://www.wmms.com/. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Station Guide: Cleveland, OH". HDRadio.com. HD Radio. 2009. http://www.hdradioalliance.com/station_guides/widget.php?id=25&utm_source=Station+Guide+Proper&utm_term=Cleveland%2C+OH&utm_medium=Widget&utm_campaign=Station+Guides+on+hdradio.com. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives WMMS timeline". Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives. Mike Olszewski & SofTrends, Inc. 2002. http://www.cleve-radio.com/index2.htm#WMMS-FM. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Station Search: Cleveland". ClearChannel.com Radio. Clear Channel Communications. 2009. http://www.clearchannel.com/radio/StationSearch.aspx?RadioSearch=Cleveland. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Fall 2009 Station Information Profile (SIP) on File with Arbitron: WMMS". Station Information Profiles. Arbitron Inc. 2009. http://www1.arbitron.com/sip/displaySip.do?surveyID=FA09&band=fm&callLetter=WMMS. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "DJ Rover leaving WKRK for WMMS". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. 2008. http://www.cleveland.com/tv/index.ssf/2008/02/rover_reportedly_leaving_wkrk.html. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Radio Station Search Results: Ohio". Loveline Station Finder. LoveLineShow.com. 2009. http://www.lovelineshow.com/stationfinder?state=OH&ACTION%28stateSearch%29=Search. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  10. ^ a b c "FM Query Results: WMMS". FMQ FM Radio Database Query. Federal Communications Commission. 2009. http://www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/fmq?call=WMMS. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  11. ^ a b "Station Guide: Call Letters". Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives. Mike Olszewski & SofTrends, Inc. 2002. http://www.cleve-radio.com/index2.htm#CALL%20LETTERS. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Book Excerpt: The Buzzard". GrayCo.com. Gray & Company, Publishers, Cleveland, Ohio. 2007. http://www.grayco.com/cleveland/books/10517/sampleChapter.shtml. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  13. ^ a b "St. Patrick’s Day, Buzzard-style, 1983". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2009. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2009/03/16/st-patricks-day-buzzard-style-1983/. Retrieved 14 January 2010. "... programming assistant Rhonda Kiefer suggested using our call letters as an acronym for 'We’re your Modern Music Station' on some IDs, which we did." 
  14. ^ a b "The second WMMS Music Marathon Station TV spot". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2009. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2008/04/08/the-second-wmms-music-marathon-station-tv-spot/. Retrieved 23 December 2009. "We adopted the slogan – Your 'Music Marathon Station,' a subtle acronym for M-M-S..." 
  15. ^ a b "The Evolution of the Buzzard". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2009. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2008/05/06/279/. Retrieved 22 January 2010. "In this sketch by David the Buzzard is wearing a T-shirt with the original WMMS mushroom logo. It was our intent to circumspectly phase out the mushroom logo while establishing the Buzzard as our mascot." 
  16. ^ a b c d "Rock Hall to celebrate WMMS, one of the nation’s most influential radio stations". Rock Hall official website. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. 2008. http://www.rockhall.com/pressroom/rock-hall-opens-wmms-exhibit/. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "WMMS: A Cleveland Legend Turns 40". Rock Hall official website. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. 2008. http://www.rockhall.com/exhibitupcoming/wmms-a-cleveland-legend-turns-40/. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c "Buzzard to Keep Circling Airwaves". The Plain Dealer. 31 October 1998. p. 1B - Metro. "During its peak period - generally regarded as the early 1970s to the early '80s - WMMS was a civic treasure and a national giant. ... Back then, WMMS largely owned the No.1 spot in the Cleveland radio ratings... WMMS' uncanny skill in spotting upcoming trends in rock music - and giving them airplay - made it one of the most influential radio stations in the country." 
  19. ^ Willey, Jack (September 16, 1990). "Radio Man Takings His Energies North". The Columbus Dispatch. p. 1D - News. "... Munch leaves Sept. 28 to join Cleveland rock giant WMMS as its promotions director." 
  20. ^ a b c d e "WMMS". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=W8. Retrieved 22 February 2010. "... a cohesive staff developed a rock-centered radio station that came to dominate the Cleveland radio market and gain a national reputation as a forum for new Rock 'n' Roll acts. ... In the 1980s it... was one of the highest-rated radio stations in the country." 
  21. ^ "The Buzzard: Inside the Glory Days of WMMS and Cleveland Rock Radio: Hatching the Buzzard". Cleveland.com: Plain Dealer Extra. Cleveland Live, Inc. 2007. http://blog.cleveland.com/pdextra/2007/11/post_2.html. Retrieved 24 December 2009. 
  22. ^ a b c "Bye Bye Buzzard: WMMS 100.7 Clips the Wings of Its Famous, Big-Beaked, Rockin' Mascot". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. 2007. http://blog.cleveland.com/top_entertainment/2007/09/bye_bye_buzzard_wmms_1007_clip.html. Retrieved 14 September 2007. "WMMS FM/100.7, which has used a cartoon buzzard as its logo since 1974, has 'de-emphasized' the icon..." 
  23. ^ a b "The Glory Daze of Cleveland Radio". The Cleveland Free Times: Volume 11, Issue 40. 28 January 2004. "...the station's ratings were soaring, peaking with the fall 1986 book, in which it garnered its largest rating ever, a 15.7 share of the market, never duplicated by any other station." 
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  26. ^ a b "What a Rush". Toronto Star. 11 May 2002. p. J1 - Arts. "Donna Halper... music director for Cleveland's WMMS in 1974... was the first radio programmer in the U.S. to air Rush's eponymous debut album. ... she is credited with having been instrumental in landing the band its first U.S. record deal." 
  27. ^ a b "Memorable Moments: A Quick Look Back at Cleveland History Shows the Events and People Who Helped Make This City a Happening Place". The Plain Dealer. 27 August 1995. p. 1I - Arts & Living. "February 1988. WMMS Radio admits to stuffing the ballot box in the annual Rolling Stone Readers' Poll..." 
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  31. ^ "How the Rock Hall was won". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2009. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2009/09/08/how-the-rock-hall-was-won/. Retrieved 25 December 2009. 
  32. ^ a b "Gameday: On The Air". ClevelandBrowns.com. Cleveland Browns. 2009. http://www.clevelandbrowns.com/gameday/air.php. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
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  35. ^ "35 Years Ago – The Buzzard Is Born!". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2010. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2009/04/15/35-years-ago-the-buzzard-is-born/. Retrieved 8 January 2010. "A little over a year after the Buzzard logo was introduced, a group of Case Western Reserve University MBA students did a study and determined that The Buzzard was the most recognizable logo in Greater Cleveland, beating out both the Cleveland Indians (Chief Wahoo) and Coca-Cola." 
  36. ^ "Buzzard Day in Hinckley – 1976". John Gorman: The Buzzard. WordPress.com. 2009. http://buzzardbook.wordpress.com/2009/03/12/buzzard-day-in-hinckley-1976/. Retrieved 10 January 2010. "The choice of the Buzzard as the WMMS mascot had nothing to do with Hinckley. In fact, we did not learn of Hinckley’s Buzzard Day until a listener from the area tipped us off to it." 
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  51. ^ "Coffee Break Concert Gets Shot of Metallica". The Plain Dealer. 20 February 1997. p. 4B - Metro. "WMMS launched its 'Coffee Break Concerts' series during the station's heyday in the 1970s. They have been held only sporadically in the 1990s..." 
  52. ^ "Pair of Earles Headed to the Odeon in February". The Plain Dealer. 15 December 2000. p. 13 - Friday. "The rock station will hold a 'Coffee Break Concert' with Sammy Hagar on Thursday, Jan. 4, at the Odeon." 
  53. ^ "The Hit King: Kid Leo". ClevelandMagazine.com: Arts & Entertainment December 2007. Cleveland Magazine. 2009. http://www.clevelandmagazine.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=E73ABD6180B44874871A91F6BA5C249C&nm=Arts+%26+Entertainemnt&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=1578600D80804596A222593669321019&tier=4&id=6C9860EEA68A4E49BE879337DC86BEA3. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
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  61. ^ "Stern Silencer Gets Jail". The Plain Dealer. 29 June 1995. p. 4B - Metro. 
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  70. ^ "WMJI, WMMS Vice President Resigns Post". The Plain Dealer. 21 June 1996. p. 7B - Scene & Heard. 
  71. ^ "Alive and Well and Researching". The Plain Dealer. 15 April 1997. p. 5B - Scene & Heard. "... John Gorman, who has worked for just about every radio station in town, in and around mergers and sales, has finally run out. He's pushing on to Detroit to take a programming job with CBS Radio there." 
  72. ^ "Flats Hosts Illuminating River Expo". The Plain Dealer. 22 July 1994. p. 9 - Friday. 
  73. ^ "Thousands Jam Flats for Festival; Melee at Rock Concert Can't Mar River Expo". The Plain Dealer. 25 July 1994. p. 1B - Metro. 
  74. ^ "Bluesman Returns with Weird Al". The Plain Dealer. 12 August 1994. p. 39 - Friday. 
  75. ^ a b "Youth Rules at BuzzardFest '95". The Plain Dealer. 22 May 1995. p. 4E - Arts & Living. 
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  77. ^ "Price Is Right for Melee with Music". The Plain Dealer. 25 September 1995. p. 2E - Next. 
  78. ^ "Sunny Weather Shakes the Blues". The Plain Dealer. 20 May 1996. p. 8D - Arts & Living. 
  79. ^ "Getting Back on Track at Rockin' WMMS". The Plain Dealer. 19 February 1997. p. 4E - Arts & Living. "So, would you like to fancy a guess at what time slot Fowler and Cronauer have at the newly revamped WMMS? Would you like to guess '3 to 7 p.m.' - which just happens to be, ahem, afternoon-drive?" 
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  82. ^ "Listen to the Words, Not Just the Voice". The Plain Dealer. 15 September 1997. p. 5E - Arts & Living. "Cory Lingus, Sam the Mailman and D.C. began hosting... following the station's firing of their boss, Liz Wilde." 
  83. ^ "New Owner at WMMS Fires Three Personalities". The Plain Dealer. 17 August 1998. p. 3E - Entertainment. 
  84. ^ a b "'Mike O'Malley' First Show to Go: Sitcom Canceled After Two Weeks". The Plain Dealer. 2 October 1999. p. 5E - Entertainment. 
  85. ^ "Albany Morning Team May Replace Dale at WMMS". The Plain Dealer. 29 June 2000. p. 6E - EveryWoman. "This time, the door would spin out Dick Dale and bring in the team of Bob Wolf and John Mulrooney from WPYX-FM, a rock station in Albany, NY..." 
  86. ^ "Buzzard Flapping Wings, Stern Diving in Latest Arbitron". The Plain Dealer. 26 October 2000. p. 11E - Arts & Life. "... new wake-up team of Bob Wolf and John Mulrooney, who lifted the station's morning numbers more than 35 percent from last winter." 
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  90. ^ "Stunt Puts Even More Pressure on WMMS". The Plain Dealer. 2 November 1998. p. 1E - Entertainment. "... insists it really did plan to drop the Buzzard image, switch... to 'KISS 100.7,' and flip the station's format from mainstream rock to Top 40 tunes." 
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  99. ^ "Under the Covers". WMMS.com: Under the Covers. Clear Channel Communications. 2010. http://www.wmms.com/pages/2010_underthecovers/. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  100. ^ "Chris Maduri out as senior VP of CBS Radio Cleveland". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. 2009. http://www.cleveland.com/tv/index.ssf/2009/12/chris_maduri_out_as_vp_of_cbs.html. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
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  104. ^ "Alan Cox will move to mornings on WXDX". Post-Gazette.com. PG Publishing Co., Inc. 2004. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04183/339908-80.stm. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  105. ^ "Alan Cox let go from WXDX-FM". Post-Gazette.com. PG Publishing Co., Inc. 2006. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06178/701330-80.stm. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  106. ^ "Tuesday, January 5, 2010". AlanCoxShow.com: On the Show. Clear Channel Communications. 2010. http://www.alancoxshow.com/. Retrieved 6 January 2010. "Cleveland comedian Chad Zumock officially joins the show." 
  107. ^ "Meet Chad Zumock". AlanCoxShow.com: Meet Chad Zumock. Clear Channel Communications. 2010. http://www.alancoxshow.com/pages/meetchadzumock.html. Retrieved 29 January 2010. 
  108. ^ a b "'Real World' star Erika Lauren and comedian Chad Zumock join 'The Alan Cox Show' afternoons on radio station WMMS". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. 2010. http://www.cleveland.com/tv/index.ssf/2010/01/real_world_star_erika_lauren_a.html. Retrieved 29 January 2010. 
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