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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Waitangi Tribunal (Māori: Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti) is a New Zealand permanent commission of inquiry established by an Act of Parliament in 1975. It is charged with investigating and making recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to actions or omissions of the Crown, in the period since 1840, that breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975 protests about unresolved Treaty of Waitangi grievances had been increasing for some time, and the Tribunal was set up to provide a legal process for the investigation of those grievances. The inquiry process contributes to the resolution of Treaty claims and, in that way, to the reconciliation of outstanding issues between Māori and Pākehā.


Investigatory powers

The Waitangi Tribunal is not a court. Because it was established as a permanent commission of inquiry, its method of investigation differs significantly from that of a court in several important respects:

  • Generally, the Tribunal has authority only to make recommendations. In certain limited situations, the Tribunal does have binding powers, but in most instances, its recommendations do not bind the Crown, the claimants, or any others participating in its inquiries. In contrast, courts can make rulings that bind the parties to whom they relate.
  • The Tribunal's process is more inquisitorial and less adversarial than that followed in the courts. In particular, it can conduct its own research so as to try to find the truth of a matter, whereas courts generally must decide a matter solely on the evidence and legal arguments presented by the participating parties.
  • The Tribunal's process is flexible - the Tribunal is not necessarily required to follow the rules of evidence that generally apply in the courts, and it may adapt its procedures as it thinks fit. For example, the Tribunal may follow 'te kawa o te marae'. In contrast, the procedure in courts is much less flexible, and there are normally strict rules of evidence to be followed.
  • The Tribunal does not have final authority to decide points of law. That power rests with the courts. However, the Tribunal has exclusive authority to determine the meaning and effect of the Treaty as it is embodied in both the Māori and the English texts.
  • The Tribunal has a limited power to summons witnesses, require the production of documents, and maintain order at its hearings. But it does not have a general power to make orders preventing something from happening or compelling something to happen. Nor can it make a party to Tribunal proceedings pay costs.

Key points

  • The Tribunal does not settle claims; it only makes recommendations to the Government. It is not involved in the settlement process, and claimants agree not to pursue matters through the Tribunal while they are engaged in the negotiation process.
  • Claims are settled by negotiation with the Government. The Office of Treaty Settlements manages the negotiation of Treaty settlements for the Government, and all matters related to negotiations should be addressed to that office.
  • The Tribunal cannot make recommendations over the return of private land. It may inquire into and report on claims relating to land that is privately owned, but unless the land is memorialised, the Tribunal may not recommend that it be returned to Māori ownership or that the Crown acquire it. (Memorialised lands are lands owned, or formerly owned, by a State-owned enterprise or a tertiary institution, or former New Zealand Railways lands, that have a memorial (or notation) on their certificate of title advising that the Waitangi Tribunal may recommend that the land be returned to Māori ownership.)


  • The Tribunal can register the claim of any Māori with a grievance against a policy, practice, act, or omission of the Crown. The Tribunal is not required to check that a claimant has a mandate from any group, but it may refuse to inquire into a claim that is considered to be frivolous or vexatious.

The Tribunal process is inquisitorial, not adversarial. It seeks to get to the truth of the matter. The aim is to determine whether a claim is well founded.


The Tribunal may have a chairperson and up to 20 members at any one time.[1] Members are appointed by the Governor-General on the recommendation of the Minister of Maori Affairs in consultation with the Minister of Justice, for a renewable term of up to three years. For specific inquiries, a panel is composed of three to seven members, at least one of whom must be Maori. The chairperson of the Waitangi Tribunal can also appoint a Maori Land Court judge to act as presiding officer.[2] This panel is then known as the Tribunal for that inquiry, for example the Central North Island Tribunal or the Taranaki Tribunal.

As of December 2009, the membership of the Tribunal was:


Deputy Chairperson

  • Judge Carrie Wainwright of the Maori Land Court.

Ordinary members

  • Robyn Anderson, historian.
  • John Baird, former managing director.
  • Dr Angela Ballara, historian.
  • Dame Margaret Bazley, former civil servant.
  • Peter Brown, community developer.
  • Tim Castle, barrister.
  • Dr Aroha Harris, historian.
  • Dr Richard Hill, historian.
  • Sir Douglas Kidd, former politician.
  • Professor Sir Hirini Moko Mead, Maori Studies academic.
  • Joanne Morris, civil servant.
  • Basil Morrison, former local politician.
  • Kihi Ngatai, kaumatua.
  • Josepth Northover, kaumatua.
  • Dr Ann Parsonson, historian.
  • Tania Simpson, policy advisor.
  • Dr Monty Souter, historian.
  • Professor Pou Temara, Maori Studies academic.
  • Keita Walker, education advisor.
  • Dr Ranginui Walker, Maori Studies academic.

See also

External links



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