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Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Born 4 April 1900 (2010-04-04T19)
Moscow
Died about 1980
Motive Nazism
Conviction(s) Crimes against humanity
Penalty Sentenced to death by hanging, commuted to life imprison, and released after serving about 11 years
Occupation Opera singer, Nazi official, office clerk

Waldemar Klingelhöfer (born 4 April 1900, Moscow); died about 1980) was a convicted German war criminal. His highest rank was sturmbannführer (Major).

Contents

Early life

Klingelhöfer was born in Russia in the capital city of Moscow. He was the son of a funeral director of German origins. Waldemar Klingelhoefer attended school in Kassel, served in the German army from June to December 1918 and after the war studied music and voice. [1]He gave concerts throughout Germany and later received a State's Certificate as a voice teacher. In 1935 he became an opera singer.[1]

Nazi career

In the 1920s Klingelhöfer joined the Freikorps in Rossbach. In 1937 he took over the Department of Culture, a branch of the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst, or SD), office SD III-C in Kassel. In 1941 he was assigned to Einsatzgruppe B as an interpreter. This Einsatzgruppe, already by November 1941, according to its own Status Report No. 133, had killed 45,467 persons.[1]

By 26 October, Vorkommando Moscow, a part of Einsatzgruppe B, and the group staff had executed 2,457 persons, including 572 persons killed between 28 September and 26 October 1941, while Klingelhöfer was in command.[1] Klingelhöfer witnessed executions and carried out others. For example, he shot 30 Jews who had left a ghetto without permission. Klingelhöfer later claimed he did this on the orders of Arthur Nebe to make an example out of the victims, then contradicted himself by saying that three women had contacted some partisans, then returned to the town and spoke with the Jews. This, according to Klingelhöfer, made the Jews partisans and therefore subject to being shot. The three woman Klingelhöfer also shot, but unlike the Jews, he blindfolded them and buried them in a separate grave.[1]

War crimes trial

At trial, Klingelhöfer claimed that his only role in the Einsatzgruppen was that of interpreter.[1] This contention was rejected by the court, on the grounds that even if it were true, as an interpreter, his tasks included locating, evaluating and forwarding to the Einsatzgruppe command lists of Communist party functionaries. Because according to his own testimony, he knew the people would be executed when found, this made him an accessory to the crime.[1]

Beyond this, the tribunal found that Klingelhöfer was not just an interpreter, but an active leader and commander, who knew what the Einsatz units were doing to the Jews. According to Klingelhöfer's own affidavit, he had been appointed by Arthur Nebe to lead Vorkommando Moscow:

While I was assigned by Nebe to the leadership of the Vorkommando Moscow, Nebe ordered me to go from Smolensk to Tatarsk and Mstislavl to get furs for the German troops and to liquidate part of the Jews there. The Jews had already been arrested by order of Hauptsturmfuehrer Egon Noack. The executions proper were carried out by Noack under my supervision.[1]

The Einsatzgruppen operated with the assumption that a Führer order (Führerbefehl) existed that provided for and required the mass murder of Jews, Gypsies and others whom the Nazis did not deem racially worthy. Although Klingelhöfer stated several times during his testimony that he was morally opposed to the Fuehrer Order, the court found that he went along quite willingly with it. Klingelhöfer was unrepentant about the necessity for the war:

Before leaving the witness stand he stated that he would have been happy for Hitler to win the war even at the expense of its present condition with two million Germans killed, the nation in utter ruins, and all of Europe devastated. This statement has no bearing, of course, on the question of his guilt under counts one and two, but it is helpful in determining the state of mind as to whether he obeyed the so-called superior orders with a full heart or not.
The Tribunal finds from all the evidence that the defendant accepted the Fuehrer Order without reservation and that he executed it without truce.[1]

Death sentence and reprieve

On 10 April 1948 Klingelhöfer was sentenced to death in the Einsatzgruppen Trial. In 1951, under intense political pressure, United States High Commissioner John J. McCloy commuted Klingelhöfer's sentence, and those of three other Einsatzgruppen defendants, to life imprisonment.[2] On 12 December 1956 Klingelhöfer was released from Landsberg prison. In 1960 he lived in Villingen and worked as an office clerk.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Einsatzgruppen trial, Individual Judgment against Waldemar Klingelhoefer, pages 568-570, Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nuernberg, October 1946 - April 1949, Volume IV, ("Green Series) (the "Einsatzgruppen case") also available at Mazel library (well indexed HTML version)
  2. ^ Diefendorf, American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, at page 450.

References

Further reading

  • Earl, Hilary, The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History, Nipissing University, Ontario ISBN 9780521456081
  • Headland, Ronald, Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943, Rutherford 1992 ISBN 0838634184

External links

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