The Full Wiki

More info on Wales

Wales: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

























Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wales
Cymru
Flag
MottoCymru am byth
(English "Wales forever")
Anthem"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau"
(English "Land of my fathers")
Location of  Wales  (inset – orange)
in the United Kingdom (camel)

in the European continent  (white)

Capital
(and largest city)
Cardiff, Caerdydd
51°29′N 3°11′W / 51.483°N 3.183°W / 51.483; -3.183
National languages Welsh (indigenous), English (most widely used)
Demonym Welsh, Cymry
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  First Minister of Wales (Head of Welsh Assembly Government) Carwyn Jones AM
 -  Deputy First Minister for Wales Ieuan Wyn Jones AM
 -  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown MP
 -  Secretary of State (in the UK government) Peter Hain MP
Legislature UK Parliament
National Assembly for Wales
Unification
 -  by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn[1] 1056 
Area
 -  Total 20,779 km2 
8,022 sq mi 
Population
 -  2008 estimate 3,004,6001 
 -  2001 census 2,903,085 
 -  Density 140/km2 
361/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 (for national statistics) estimate
 -  Total US$85.4 billion 
 -  Per capita US$30,546 
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk2
Calling code 44
Patron saint David, Dewi
1 Office for National Statistics – UK population grows to more than 60 million
2 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.
Wales en-us-Wales.ogg /ˈweɪlz/ (Welsh: Cymru;[2] pronounced [ˈkəmrɨ] Cymru.ogg ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom,[3] bordered by England to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. Wales has a population estimated at three million and is officially bilingual; both Welsh and English have equal status and bilingual signs are the norm throughout the land. For most people in Wales, English is their only language. The once-steady decline in Welsh speaking has reversed over recent years, however, with Welsh speakers currently estimated to be around 20% of the population.[4][5]
During the Iron Age and early medieval period, Wales was inhabited by the Celtic Britons. A distinct Welsh national identity emerged in the centuries after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations today.[6][7][8] In the 13th century, the defeat of Llewelyn by Edward I completed the Anglo-Norman conquest of Wales and brought about centuries of English occupation. Wales was subsequently incorporated into England with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, creating the legal entity known today as England and Wales. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century, and in 1881 the Welsh Sunday Closing Act became the first legislation applied exclusively to Wales. In 1955, Cardiff was proclaimed as the capital city and in 1999 the National Assembly for Wales was created, which holds responsibility for a range of devolved matters.
The capital Cardiff (Welsh: Caerdydd) is the largest city in Wales with 317,500 people. For a period it was the biggest coal port in the world[9] and, for a few years before World War I, it handled a greater tonnage of cargo than either London or Liverpool.[10] Two-thirds of the Welsh population live in South Wales, with another concentration in eastern North Wales. Many tourists have been drawn to Wales's "wild... and picturesque" landscapes.[11][12] From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", attributable in part to the revival of the eisteddfod tradition.[13] Actors, singers and other artists are celebrated in Wales today, often achieving international success.[14] Cardiff is the largest media centre in the UK outside of London.[15]
Llywelyn the Great founded the Principality of Wales in 1216. Just over a hundred years after the Edwardian Conquest, in the early 15th century Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to what was to become modern Wales.[16][17] Traditionally the British Royal Family have bestowed the courtesy title of "Prince of Wales" upon the heir apparent of the reigning monarch. Wales is sometimes referred to as the "Principality of Wales", or just the "principality",[18][19] although this has no modern geographical or constitutional basis.

Contents

Etymology

Wales

The English name Wales originates from the Germanic words Walh (singular) and Walha (plural), meaning "foreigner" or "stranger". The Ænglisc-speaking Anglo-Saxons used the term Waelisc when referring to the Celtic Britons, and Wēalas when referring to their lands.
The same etymology applies to walnut (meaning "foreign (Roman) nut") as well as the wall of Cornwall and Wallonia. Old Church Slavonic also borrowed the term from the Germanic, and it is the origin of the names Wallachia and its people, the Vlachs.[20][21][22]

Cymru

The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is Welsh for "Land of the Cymry". The etymological origin of Cymry is from the (reconstructed) Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "compatriots", in the sense of "fellow countrymen".[23]
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the post-Roman Era relationship of the Welsh with the Brythonic-speaking peoples of northern England and southern Scotland, the peoples of Yr Hen Ogledd (English: The Old North). In its original use, it amounted to a self-perception that the Welsh and the "Men of the North" were one people, exclusive of all others.[24] In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to both the Welsh and the Men of the North. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century.[25] It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan written c. 633.[26]
In Welsh literature the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples (including the Welsh) and was the more common literary term until c. 1100. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh. Until circa 1560 Cymry was used indiscriminately to mean either the people (Cymry) or their homeland (Cymru).[23]
The Latinised form of the name is Cambria. Outside of Wales this form survives as the name of Cumbria in North West England, which was once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd. It is used in geology to represent a geological period (the Cambrian) and in evolutionary studies to represent the period when most major groups of complex animals appeared (the Cambrian explosion). This form also appears at times in literary references, perhaps most notably in the pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth, where the character of Camber is described as the eponymous King of Cymru.
It has occasionally been suggested, both in outdated historical sources and by some modern writers, that the Cymry were somehow linked to the 2nd century BC Cimbri or to the 7th century BC Cimmerians because of the phonetic similarity. Such suggestions have long been dismissed by scholars on etymological and other grounds.[27][28]

History

Prehistoric origins

Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey.
Wales has been inhabited by modern humans for at least 29,000 years.[29] Although continuous human habitation dates from the end of the last ice age (between 12,000 and 10,000 Before Present (BP)), when mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Central Europe began to migrate to Great Britain. Wales was free of glaciers by about 10,250 BP and people would have been able to walk between Continental Europe and Great Britain until between about 7,000 and 6,000 BP, before the post glacial rise in sea level led to Great Britain becoming an island, and the Irish Sea forming to separate Wales and Ireland.[30][31]
John Davies has theorised that the story of Cantre'r Gwaelod's drowning and tales in the Mabinogion, of the waters between Wales and Ireland being narrower and shallower, may be distant folk memories of this time.[30] The area became heavily wooded, restricting movement, and people also came to Great Britain by boat, from the Iberian Peninsula.[32]
These Neolithic colonists integrated with the indigenous people, gradually changing their lifestyles from a nomadic life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers—the Neolithic Revolution.[30][33] They cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land, developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production, and they built cromlechs such as Pentre Ifan, Bryn Celli Ddu and Parc Cwm long cairn between about 5500 BP and 6000 BP, about 1,000 to 1,500 years before either Stonehenge or The Egyptian Great Pyramid of Giza was completed.[34][35][36][37][38]
In common with people living all over Great Britain, over the following centuries the people living in what was to become known as Wales assimilated immigrants and exchanged ideas of the Bronze Age and Iron Age Celtic cultures. By the time of the Roman invasion of Britain the area of modern Wales had been divided among the tribes of the Deceangli, Ordovices, Cornovii, Demetae and Silures for centuries.[39]

Colonisation

The first documented history of the area that would become Wales was in AD 48. Following attacks by the Silures of southeast Wales, in AD 47 and 48, the Roman historian Tacitus recorded that the governor of the new Roman province of Britannia "received the submission of the Deceangli" in north-east Wales.[40]
A string of Roman forts was established across what is now the South Wales region, as far west as Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin; Latin: Maridunum), and gold was mined at Dolaucothi in Carmarthenshire. There is evidence that the Romans progressed even farther west. They also built the Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon (Latin: Isca Silurum), of which the magnificent amphitheatre is the best preserved in Britain.
The Romans were also busy in northern Wales, and the mediaeval Welsh tale Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (dream of Macsen Wledig) claims that Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig), one of the last western Roman Emperors, married Elen or Helen, the daughter of a Welsh chieftain from Segontium, present-day Caernarfon.[41] It was in the 4th century during the Roman occupation that Christianity was introduced to Wales.
After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, much of the lowlands were overrun by various Germanic tribes.[42] However, Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed and Seisyllg, Morgannwg, and Gwent emerged as independent Welsh successor states. They endured, in part because of favourable geographical features such as uplands, mountains, and rivers and a resilient society that did not collapse with the end of the Roman civitas.
This tenacious survival by the Romano-Britons and their descendants in the western kingdoms was to become the foundation of what we now know as Wales. With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and later Wessex, wrestled with Powys, Gwent, and Gwynedd to define the frontier between the two peoples.
Having lost much of what is now the West Midlands to Mercia in the sixth and early seventh centuries, a resurgent late-seventh-century Powys checked Mercian advancement. Aethelbald of Mercia, looking to defend recently acquired lands, had built Wat's Dyke. According to John Davies, this endeavour may have been with Powys king Elisedd ap Gwylog's own agreement, however, for this boundary, extending north from the valley of the River Severn to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry (Welsh: Croesoswallt) to Powys.[43] King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultative initiative when he created a larger earthwork, now known as Offa's Dyke (Welsh: Clawdd Offa). Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke:
In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh; near Rhiwabon, it was designed to ensure that Cadell ap Brochwel retained possession of the Fortress of Penygadden." And for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge, clearly with the intention of recognizing that the River Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent.[43]
However, Fox's interpretations of both the length and purpose of the Dyke have been questioned by more recent research.[44] Offa's Dyke largely remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the Conwy known then as the Perfeddwlad. By the eighth century, the eastern borders with the Anglo-Saxons had broadly been set.
Following the successful examples of Cornwall in 722 and Brittany in 865, the Britons of Wales made their peace with the Vikings and asked the Norsemen to help the Britons fight the Anglo-Saxons of Mercia to prevent an Anglo-Saxon conquest of Wales. In AD 878 the Britons of Wales unified with the Vikings of Denmark to destroy an Anglo-Saxon army of Mercians. Like Cornwall in 722, this decisive defeating of the Saxons gave Wales some decades of peace from Anglo-Saxon attack. In 1063, the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn made an alliance with Norwegian Vikings against Mercia which, as in AD 878 was successful, and the Saxons of Mercia defeated. As with Cornwall and Brittany, Viking aggression towards the Saxons/Franks ended any chance of the Anglo-Saxons/Franks conquering their Celtic neighbours.

Medieval Wales

Principalities in north Wales 1267–1276.
The southern and eastern lands lost to English settlement became known in Welsh as Lloegyr (Modern Welsh Lloegr), which may have referred to the kingdom of Mercia originally, and which came to refer to England as a whole.[45] The Germanic tribes who now dominated these lands were invariably called Saeson, meaning "Saxons". The Anglo-Saxons called the Romano-British 'Walha', meaning 'Romanised foreigner' or 'stranger'.[20]
The Welsh continued to call themselves Brythoniaid (Brythons or Britons) well into the Middle Ages, though the first use of Cymru and y Cymry is found as early as 633 in the Gododdin of Aneirin. In Armes Prydain, written in about 930, the words Cymry and Cymro are used as often as 15 times. It was not until about the 12th century however, that Cymry began to overtake Brythoniaid in their writings.
Dolwyddelan Castle, built by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in the early 13th century to watch over one of the valley routes into Gwynedd.
From the year 800 onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr's (r. 844–877) inheritance of Gwynedd and Powys. His sons in turn would found three principal dynasties (Aberffraw for Gwynedd, Dinefwr for Deheubarth, and Mathrafal for Powys), each competing for hegemony over the others.
Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda (r.900–950) founded Deheubarth out of his maternal and paternal inheritances of Dyfed and Seisyllwg, ousted the Aberffraw dynasty from Gwynedd and Powys, and codified Welsh law in 930, finally going on a pilgrimage to Rome (and allegedly having the Law Codes blessed by the Pope). Maredudd ab Owain (r.986–999) of Deheubarth (Hywel's grandson) would, (again) temporarily oust the Aberffraw line from control of Gwynedd and Powys.
Maredudd's great-grandson (through his daughter Princess Angharad) Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (r.1039–1063) would conquer his cousins' realms from his base in Powys, and even extend his authority into England. Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor."[46] Owain Gwynedd (1100–1170) of the Aberffraw line was the first Welsh ruler to use the title princeps Wallensium (prince of the Welsh), a title of substance given his victory on the Berwyn Mountains, according to John Davies.[47]
Sculpture of Owain Glyndŵr (c. 1354 or 1359 – c. 1416), the last native Welsh person to hold the title Prince of Wales.
The Aberffraw dynasty would surge to pre-eminence with Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn Fawr (the Great) (b.1173–1240), wrestling concessions out of the Magna Carta in 1215 and receiving the fealty of other Welsh lords in 1216 at the council at Aberdyfi, becoming the first Prince of Wales. His grandson Llywelyn II also secured the recognition of the title Prince of Wales from Henry III with the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. Later however, a succession of disputes, including the imprisonment of Llywelyn's wife Eleanor, daughter of Simon de Montfort, culminated in the first invasion by Edward I.
As a result of military defeat, the Treaty of Aberconwy exacted Llywelyn's fealty to England in 1277. Peace was short lived and with the 1282 Edwardian conquest the rule of the Welsh princes permanently ended. With Llywelyn's death and his brother prince Dafydd's execution, the few remaining Welsh lords did homage for their lands to Edward I. Llywelyn's head was then carried through London on a spear; his baby daughter Gwenllian was locked in the priory at Sempringham, where she remained until her death fifty four years later.[48]
To help maintain his dominance, Edward constructed a series of great stone castles. Beaumaris, Caernarfon, and Conwy were built mainly to overshadow the Welsh royal home and headquarters Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, on the north coast of Gwynedd.
After the failed revolt in 1294–5 of Madog ap Llywelyn – who styled himself prince of Wales in the so-called Penmachno Document – there was no major uprising until that led by Owain Glyndŵr a century later, against Henry IV of England. In 1404 Owain was reputedly crowned Prince of Wales in the presence of emissaries from France, Spain and Scotland; he went on to hold parliamentary assemblies at several Welsh towns, including Machynlleth. The rebellion was ultimately to founder, however, and Owain went into hiding in 1412, with peace being essentially restored in Wales by 1415.
Although the English conquest of Wales took place under the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, a formal Union did not occur until 1536,[18] shortly after which Welsh law, which continued to be used in Wales after the conquest, was fully replaced by English law under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542.

Nationalist revival

Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg logo (English: The Welsh Language Society)
In the 20th century, Wales saw a revival in its national status. Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925, seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK. In 1955, the term England and Wales became common for describing the area to which English law applied, and Cardiff was proclaimed as capital city of Wales. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (English: The Welsh Language Society) was formed in 1962, in response to fears that the language may soon die out.
Nationalism grew, particularly following the flooding of the Tryweryn valley in 1965 to create a reservoir supplying water to the English city of Liverpool. Despite 35 of the 36 Welsh Members of Parliament (MPs) voting against the bill, with the other abstaining, Parliament still passed the bill and the village of Capel Celyn was drowned, highlighting Wales's powerlessness in her own affairs in the face of the numerical superiority of English MPs in the Westminster Parliament.[49] In 1966 the Carmarthen Parliamentary seat was won by Gwynfor Evans at a by-election, Plaid Cymru's first Parliamentary seat.[50]
Both the Free Wales Army and Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru (MAC) (English: Welsh Defence Movement) were formed as a direct result of the Tryweryn destruction,[51] conducting campaigns from 1963. In the years leading up to the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales in 1969, these groups were responsible for a number of bomb blasts—destroying water pipes, tax and other offices, and part of a dam being built for a new English backed project in Clywedog, Montgomeryshire.[51] In 1967, the Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was repealed for Wales, and a legal definition of Wales, and of the boundary with England was stated.
Unofficial graffiti memorial to Capel Celyn, Tryweryn (English: Remember Tryweryn) at Llanrhystud, near Aberystwyth[52]
A referendum on the creation of an assembly for Wales in 1979 (see Wales referendum, 1979) led to a large majority for the "no" vote. However, in 1997 a referendum on the same issue secured a "yes", although by a very narrow majority. The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was set up in 1999 (as a consequence of the Government of Wales Act 1998) and possesses the power to determine how the central government budget for Wales is spent and administered (although the UK parliament reserves the right to set limits on the powers of the Welsh Assembly).
The 1998 Act was amended by the Government of Wales Act 2006 which enhanced the Assembly's powers, giving it legislative powers akin to the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly. Following the 2007 Assembly election, the One Wales Government was formed under a coalition agreement between Plaid Cymru and the Welsh Labour Party, under that agreement, a convention is due to be established to discuss further enhancing Wales's legislative and financial autonomy. A referendum on giving the Welsh assembly full law-making powers is promised "as soon as practicable, at or before the end of the assembly term (in 2011)" and both parties have agreed "in good faith to campaign for a successful outcome to such a referendum".[53]

Government and politics

Constitutionally, the United Kingdom is de jure a unitary state with one sovereign parliament and government in Westminster. Referenda held in Wales and Scotland in 1997 chose to establish a limited form of self-government in both countries. In Wales, the consequent process of devolution began with the Government of Wales Act 1998, which created the National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru).[54] Powers of the Secretary of State for Wales were transferred to the devolved government on 1 July 1999, granting the Assembly responsibility to decide how the Westminster government's budget for devolved areas is spent and administered.[55]
Devolved responsibilities include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, industry, local government, social services, tourism, transport, and the Welsh language. The National Assembly is not a sovereign authority and has no primary legislative powers, which the Westminster Government retains, but since the Government of Wales Act 2006 came into effect in 2007, the National Assembly can request powers to pass primary legislation as Assembly Measures on specific issues.[55] The UK Parliament could, in theory, overrule or even abolish the National Assembly for Wales at any time.
The Senedd building.
The Assembly consists of 60 members, known as "Assembly Members (AM)". Forty of the AMs are elected under the First Past the Post system, with the other 20 elected via the Additional Member System via regional lists in 5 different regions. The largest party elects the First Minister of Wales, who acts as the head of government. The Welsh Assembly Government is the executive arm, and the Assembly has delegated most of its powers to the Assembly Government. The new Assembly Building designed by Lord Rogers was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on St David's Day (1 March) 2006.
The First Minister of Wales is Carwyn Jones (since 2009), of the Labour Party, with 26 of 60 seats.[56] After the National Assembly for Wales election, 2007 Welsh Labour and Plaid Cymru; The Party of Wales, which favours Welsh independence from the rest of the United Kingdom entered into a coalition partnership to form a stable government with the "historic" One Wales agreement.
As the second largest party in the Assembly with 14 out of 60 seats, Plaid Cymru is led by Ieuan Wyn Jones, Deputy First Minister of Wales. The Presiding Officer of the Assembly is Plaid Cymru member Lord Elis-Thomas. Other parties include the Conservative Party, currently the loyal opposition with 13 seats, and the Liberal Democrats with six seats. The "LibDems" had previously formed part of a coalition government with Labour in the first Assembly. There is one independent member.
In the House of Commons – the lower house of the UK government – Wales is represented by 40 MPs (of 646) from Welsh constituencies. Labour represents 29 of the 40 seats, the Liberal Democrats hold four seats, Plaid Cymru three and the Conservatives three.[57] A Secretary of State for Wales sits in the UK cabinet and is responsible for representing matters that pertain to Wales. The Wales Office is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for Wales. The Secretary of State for Wales is Paul Murphy, who replaced Peter Hain on 24 January 2008, after Hain had resigned over an investigation into undeclared donations to his Labour Party deputy leadership campaign.
Wales is also a distinct UK electoral region of the European Union represented by 4 Members of the European Parliament.

Local government

Clock tower of Cardiff City Hall.
For the purposes of local government, Wales was divided into 22 council areas in 1996. These "unitary authorities" are responsible for the provision of all local government services.
Map of unitary authority areas
Wales Administrative Map 2009.png
Areas are Counties, unless marked * (for Cities) or † (for County Boroughs). Welsh language forms are given in parentheses, where they differ from the English..
Note that there are five cities in total in Wales: in addition to Cardiff, Newport and Swansea, the communities of Bangor and St David's also have city status.

Law

England fully annexed Wales under the Laws in Wales Act 1535, in the reign of King Henry VIII. Prior to that Welsh Law had survived de facto after the conquest up to the 15th century in areas remote from direct English control. The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 provided that all laws that applied to England would automatically apply to Wales (and Berwick-upon-Tweed, a town located on the Anglo-Scottish border) unless the law explicitly stated otherwise. This act, with regard to Wales, was repealed in 1967. However, Wales and England, as part of a single legal entity, share the same legal system—except for a few changes to accommodate the autonomy recently afforded to Wales. In this sense, English law is the law of Wales. (See England and Wales.)
English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law, and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive. The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.The Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. The three divisions are the Court of Appeal; the High Court of Justice and the Crown Court. Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court.
Since devolution in 2006, the Welsh Assembly has had the authority to draft and approve some laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales. Under powers conferred by Legislative Competency Orders agreed by all parliamentary stakeholders, it is able to pass laws known as Assembly Measures in relation to specific fields, such as health and education. As such, Assembly Measures are a subordinate form of primary legislation, lacking the scope of UK-wide Acts of Parliament, but able to be passed without the approval of the UK parliament or Royal Assent for each 'act'. Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Assembly Government can then also draft more specific secondary legislation. With devolution, the ancient and historic Wales and Chester court circuit was also disbanded and a separate Welsh court circuit was created to allow for any Measures passed by the Assembly.

Geography

Map of the National Parks of Wales.
Wales is located on a peninsula in central-west Great Britain. Its area is about 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi) – about the same size as Massachusetts, Israel, Slovenia or El Salvador and about a quarter of the area of Scotland. It is about 274 km (170 mi) northsouth and 97 km (60 mi) eastwest. Wales is bordered by England to the east and by sea in the other three directions: the Môr Hafren (Bristol Channel) to the south, Celtic Sea to the west, and the Irish Sea to the north. Altogether, Wales has over 1,200 km (746 mi) of coastline. There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest being Ynys Môn (Anglesey) in the northwest.
Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), Gwynedd is the highest mountain in Wales
Much of Wales's diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions. The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia (Eryri), and include Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), which, at 1,085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales. The 14 (or possibly 15) Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s, and are located in a small area in the north-west.
The highest outside the 3000s is Aran Fawddwy 905m (2,969 ft) in the south of Snowdonia. The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) are in the south (highest point Pen-y-Fan 886 m/2,907 ft, and are joined by the Cambrian Mountains in Mid Wales, the latter name being given to the earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian.
In the mid 19th century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick, used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology. After much dispute, the next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian, were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area. The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks were referred to as Pre-cambrian.
Wales has three National Parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast. It also has four Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. These areas include Anglesey, the Clwydian Range, the Gower Peninsula and the Wye Valley. The Gower Peninsula was the first area in the whole of the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in 1956.
Tor Bay and Three Cliffs Bay, Gower (Gŵyr), Glamorgan.
Much of the coastline of South and West Wales is designated as Heritage Coast. The coastline of the Glamorgan Heritage Coast, the Gower Peninsula, Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire, and Ceredigion is particularly wild and impressive. Gower, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay all have clean blue water, white sand beaches and impressive marine life. Despite this scenic splendour the coast of Wales has a dark side; the south and west coasts of Wales, along with the Irish and Cornish coasts, are frequently blasted by huge Atlantic westerlies/south westerlies that, over the years, have sunk and wrecked many vessels.
On the night of 25 October 1859, 114 ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic; Cornwall and Ireland also had a huge number of fatalities on its coastline from shipwrecks that night. Wales has the somewhat unenviable reputation, along with Cornwall, Ireland and Brittany, of having per square mile, some of the highest shipwreck rates in Europe.[citation needed] The shipwreck situation was particularly bad during the industrial era when ships bound for Cardiff got caught up in Atlantic gales and were decimated by "the cruel sea".
The steeple of St Giles's Church in Wrexham
Like Cornwall, Brittany and Ireland, the clean, clear waters of South-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine visitors including basking sharks, Atlantic grey seals, leatherback turtles, dolphins, porpoises, jellyfish, crabs and lobsters. Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion in particular are recognised as an area of international importance for Bottlenose dolphins, and New Quay in the middle of Cardigan Bay has the only summer residence of bottle nosed dolphins in the whole of the U.K.
The modern border between Wales and England was largely defined in the 16th century, based on medieval feudal boundaries. The boundary line (which very roughly follows Offa's Dyke up to 40 mi (64 km) of the northern coast) separates Knighton from its railway station, virtually cuts off Church Stoke from the rest of Wales, and slices straight through the village of Llanymynech (where a pub actually straddles the line).
Llyn y Fan Fawr, Carmarthenshire, mountain range near Llyn y Fan Fach within the Brecon Beacons National Park
St Winefride's Well, one of the Seven Wonders of Wales
The Seven Wonders of Wales is a list in doggerel verse of seven geographic and cultural landmarks in Wales probably composed in the late 18th century under the influence of tourism from England.[59] All the "wonders" are in north Wales: Snowdon (the highest mountain), the Gresford bells (the peal of bells in the medieval church of All Saints at Gresford), the Llangollen bridge (built in 1347 over the River Dee, Afon Dyfrdwy), St Winefride's Well (a pilgrimage site at Holywell, Treffynnon) in Flintshire), the Wrexham (Wrecsam) steeple (16th century tower of St. Giles Church in Wrexham), the Overton Yew trees (ancient yew trees in the churchyard of St. Mary's at Overton-on-Dee) and Pistyll Rhaeadr – a tall waterfall, at 240 ft (73 m). The wonders are part of the rhyme:
Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple,
Snowdon's mountain without its people,
Overton yew trees, St Winefride's Wells,
Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells.

Climate

Economy

The main building of Cardiff University.
Parts of Wales have been heavily industrialised since the 18th century and the early Industrial Revolution. Coal, copper, iron, silver, lead, and gold have been extensively mined in Wales, and slate has been quarried. By the second half of the 19th century, mining and metallurgy had come to dominate the Welsh economy, transforming the landscape and society in the industrial districts of south and north-east Wales.
From the middle of the nineteenth century until the mid 1980s, the mining and export of coal was a major part of the Welsh economy. Cardiff was once the largest coal exporting port in the world[9] and, for a few years before World War One, handled a greater tonnage of cargo than either London or Liverpool.[10]
From the early 1970s, the Welsh economy faced massive restructuring with large numbers of jobs in traditional heavy industry disappearing and being replaced eventually by new ones in light industry and in services. Over this period Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the UK. However, much of the new industry has essentially been of a 'branch factory' type, often routine assembly employing low skilled workers. The Cardiff-based Bank of Wales was established in 1971, but was later taken over by HBOS and absorbed into the parent company.
Wales has struggled to develop or attract high value-added employment in sectors such as finance and research and development, attributable in part to a comparative lack of economic mass (i.e. population) – Wales lacks a large metropolitan centre and most of the country, except south east Wales, is sparsely populated. The lack of high value-added employment is reflected in lower economic output per head relative to other regions of the UK – in 2002 it stood at 90% of the EU25 average and around 80% of the UK average. However, care is needed in interpreting these data, which do not take account of regional differences in the cost of living. The gap in real living standards between Wales and more prosperous parts of the UK is not pronounced. In June 2008, Wales made history by becoming the first nation in the world to be awarded Fairtrade Status.[66]
British one Pound coin (reverse), depicting the Welsh dragon (Welsh: Y Ddraig Goch).
In 2002, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Wales was just over £26 billion ($48 billion), giving a per capita GDP of £12,651 ($19,546). As of 2006, the unemployment rate in Wales stood at 5.7% – above the UK average, but lower than in the majority of EU countries.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, the currency used in Wales is the pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England, created as the central bank for the Kingdom of England (which included Wales), is responsible for the currency of the entire United Kingdom. Banks in Wales, unlike those in Scotland and Northern Ireland, do not have the right to issue banknotes. The Royal Mint, who issue the coinage circulated over the whole of the UK, have been based at a single site in Llantrisant, south Wales since 1980, having been progressively transferring operations from their Tower Hill, London site since 1968.[67] Since decimalisation, in 1971, at least one of the coins in UK circulation has depicted a Welsh design, e.g. the 1995 and 2000 one Pound coin (shown left). However, Wales is not represented on any of the coins being minted.[68]
Due to poor-quality soil, much of Wales is unsuitable for crop-growing, and livestock farming has traditionally been the focus of agriculture. The Welsh landscape (protected by three National Parks) and 42 Blue Flag beaches, as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas. [3] See Tourism in Wales.

Healthcare

The logo of NHS Wales.
Public healthcare in Wales is provided by NHS Wales (Welsh: GIG Cymru), which was originally formed as part of the NHS structure for England and Wales created by the National Health Service Act 1946, but with powers over the NHS in Wales coming under the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969[69]. In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales was passed to the Welsh Assembly and Executive under devolution in 1999.
NHS Wales provides public healthcare in Wales and employs some 90,000 staff, making it Wales’ biggest employer.[70] The Minister for Health and Social Services is the person within the Welsh Assembly Government who holds cabinet responsibilities for both health and social care in Wales.

Demographics

Swansea city centre and Swansea Bay. Swansea is the second most populous city in Wales
The population of Wales in the United Kingdom Census 2001 was 2,903,085, which has risen to 2,958,876 according to 2005 estimates. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the cities of Cardiff (Caerdydd), Swansea (Abertawe) and Newport (Casnewydd) and surrounding areas, with another significant population in the north-east around Wrexham (Wrecsam).
According to the 2001 census, 96% of the population was White British, and 2.1% non-white (mainly of Asian origin).[71] Most non-white groups were concentrated in the southern port cities of Cardiff, Newport and Swansea. Welsh Asian communities developed mainly through immigration since World War II. More recently, parts of Wales have seen an increased number of immigrants settle from recent EU accession countries such as Poland – although some Poles also settled in Wales in the immediate aftermath of World War II.
In the 2001 Labour Force Survey, 72% of adults in Wales considered their national identity as wholly Welsh and another 7% considered themselves to be partly Welsh (Welsh and British were the most common combination). A recent study estimated that 35% of the Welsh population have surnames of Welsh origin (5.4% of the English population and 1.6% of the Scottish also bore 'Welsh' names).[72] However, some names identified as English (such as 'Greenaway') may be corruptions of Welsh ('Goronwy'). Other names common in Wales, such as 'Richards', may have originated simultaneously in other parts of Britain.
In 2002, the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from market towns in England and Wales.[73] Other recent researchers, such as Bryan Sykes and Stephen Oppenheimer, have argued that the majority of modern-day English and Welsh people trace a common ancestry to migrants who arrived in the British Isles during the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods, although the National Museum Wales consider the conclusions made to date from genetic studies "implausible".[8]
In 2001 a quarter of the Welsh population were born outside Wales, mainly in England; about 3% were born outside the UK. The proportion of people who were born in Wales differs across the country, with the highest percentages in the South Wales Valleys, and the lowest in Mid Wales and parts of the north-east. In both Blaenau Gwent and Merthyr Tydfil 92% were Welsh-born, compared to only 51% in Flintshire and 56% in Powys.[74] One of the reasons for this is that the locations of the most convenient hospitals in which to give birth are over the border in England[citation needed]. Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh ancestry,[75] as did 467,000 Canadians in Canada's 2006 census.[76]

Languages

The Eisteddfod is an annual celebration of Welsh culture, conducted in Welsh.
The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages be treated on a basis of equality. However, even English has only de facto official status in the UK (see Languages of the United Kingdom) and this has led political groups like Plaid Cymru to question whether such legislation is sufficient to ensure the survival of the Welsh language.[77]
English is spoken by almost all people in Wales and is therefore the de facto main language (see Welsh English). However, northern and western Wales retain many areas where Welsh is spoken as a first language by the majority of the population and English is learnt as a second language. 21.7% of the Welsh population is able to speak or read Welsh to some degree (based on the 2001 census), although only 16% claim to be able to speak, read and write it,[18] which may be related to the stark differences between colloquial and literary Welsh. According to a language survey conducted in 2004, a larger proportion than 21.7% claim to have some knowledge of the language.[78]
Today there are very few truly monoglot Welsh speakers, other than small children, but individuals still exist who may be considered less than fluent in English and rarely speak it. There were still many monoglots as recently as the middle of the 20th century.[79] Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used (e.g. "Cardiff" and "Caerdydd"), the decision as to which is placed first being that of the local authority.
During the 20th century a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than English or Welsh, such as Bengali or Cantonese, have established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration. This phenomenon is almost exclusive to urban Wales. The Italian Government funds the teaching of Italian to Welsh residents of Italian ancestry. These other languages do not have legal equality with English and Welsh, although public services may produce information leaflets in minority ethnic languages where there is a specific need, as happens elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales, and the result is known by various names, such as "Wenglish" or (in Caernarfon) "Cofi".

Religion

The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with 72% of the population describing themselves as Christian in the 2001 census. The Presbyterian Church of Wales is the largest denomination and was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in 1811. The Church in Wales is the next largest denomination, and forms part of the Anglican Communion. It too was part of the Church of England, and was disestablished by the British Government under the Welsh Church Act 1914 (the act did not take effect until 1920).
The Roman Catholic Church makes up the next largest denomination at 3% of the population. Non-Christian religions are small in Wales, making up approximately 1.5% of the population. 18% of people declare no religion. The Apostolic Church holds its annual Apostolic Conference in Swansea each year, usually in August. The patron saint of Wales is Saint David (Welsh: Dewi Sant), with St David's Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) celebrated annually on 1 March.
In 1904, there was a religious revival (known by some as the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival or simply The 1904 Revival) which started through the evangelism of Evan Roberts and took many parts of Wales by storm with massive numbers of people voluntarily converting to Nonconformist and Anglican Christianity, sometimes whole communities. Many of the present-day Pentecostal churches in Wales claim to have originated in this revival.
Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with over 30,000 reported Muslims in the 2001 census. There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs mainly in the South Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while curiously the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion. Judaism was the first non-Christian faith (excluding pre-Roman animism) to be established in Wales, however as of the year 2001 the community has declined to approximately 2,000.[80] Paganism and Wicca are also growing in Wales. According to the 2001 Census, there are 7,000-recorded Wiccans in England and Wales, with 31,000 Pagans.[81]

Culture

Wales has a distinctive culture including its own language, customs, holidays and music.
Wales is primarily represented by the symbol of the red Welsh Dragon, but other national emblems include the leek and daffodil. The Welsh words for leeks (cennin) and daffodils (cennin Pedr, lit. "(Saint) Peter's Leeks") are closely related and it is likely that one of the symbols came to be used due to a misunderstanding for the other one, though it is less clear which came first.

Art

Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales.[82] In the Early Medieval period, the Celtic Christianity of Wales participated in the Insular art of the British Isles and a number of illuminated manuscripts possibly of Welsh origin survive, of which the 8th century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable. The 11th century Ricemarch Psalter (now in Dublin) is certainly Welsh, made in St David's, and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence.
The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16-18th centuries tended to move elsewhere to work, but in the 18th century the dominance of landscape art in English art bought them motives to stay at home, and bought an influx of artists from outside to paint Welsh scenery. The Welsh painter Richard Wilson (1714–1782) is arguably the first major British landscapist, but rather more notable for Italian scenes than Welsh ones, although he did paint several on visits from London.[83]
The Bard, 1774, by Thomas Jones (1742–1803)
It remained difficult for artists relying on the Welsh market to support themselves until well into the 20th century. An Act of Parliament in 1857 provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom, and the Cardiff School of Art opened in 1865. Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists, and its artist's colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy in 1881.[84] The sculptor Sir William Goscombe John made many works for Welsh commissions, although he had settled in London. Christopher Williams, whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London. Thomas E. Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France. Sir Frank Brangwyn was Welsh by origin, but spent little time in Wales.
Perhaps the most famous Welsh painters, Augustus John and his sister Gwen John, mostly lived in London and Paris; however the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast remained living in Wales for most of their lives, though well in touch with the wider art world. Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff, and even after moving to London; he was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. Various artists have moved to Wales, including Eric Gill, the London-born Welshman David Jones, and the sculptor Jonah Jones. The Kardomah Gang was a intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes. Today much art is produced in Wales, as elsewhere in a great diversity of styles.
South Wales had several notable potteries in the late 18th and 19th centuries, beginning with the Cambrian Pottery (1764–1870, also known as "Swansea pottery") and including Nantgarw Pottery near Cardiff, which was in operation from 1813 to 1822 making fine porcelain, and then utilitarian pottery until 1920. Portmeirion Pottery (from 1961) has never in fact been made in Wales.

Sport

The most popular sports in Wales are rugby union and football. Wales, like other constituent nations, enjoys independent representation in major world sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and in the Commonwealth Games (however as Great Britain in the Olympics). As in New Zealand, rugby is a core part of the national identity, although football has traditionally been the more popular sport in the North Wales. Wales has its own governing bodies in rugby, the Welsh Rugby Union and in football, the Football Association of Wales (the third oldest in the world) and most other sports. Many of Wales's top athletes, sportsmen and sportswomen train at the Welsh Institute of Sport and National Indoor Athletics Centre in Cardiff, the Wales National Velodrome in Newport and the Wales National Pool in Swansea.
The Welsh national rugby union team takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Wales has also competed in every Rugby World Cup, hosting the tournament in 1999, with a best result of third place in the inaugural competition. Welsh teams also play in the European Heineken Cup and Magners League (rugby union) alongside teams from Ireland and Scotland, the EDF Energy Cup and the European Heineken Cup.
The traditional club sides, were replaced in major competitions with four regional sides in 2003 replaced by the four professional regions (Scarlets, Cardiff Blues, Newport Gwent Dragons and Ospreys) in 2004. The former club sides now operate as semi-professional clubs in their own league, linked to the four regional sides. Wales has produced ten members of the International Rugby Hall of Fame including Gareth Edwards, J.P.R. Williams and Gerald Davies. Newport Rugby Club achieved a historic win over the 'invincible' New Zealand rugby team of 1963, while Llanelli Rugby Club famously beat the All Blacks in October 1972.
Wales has had its own football league since 1992 although, for historical reasons, two Welsh clubs (Cardiff City, and Swansea City) play in the English Football League and another four Welsh clubs in its feeder leagues. (Wrexham, Newport County, Merthyr Tydfil, and Colwyn Bay).
Rugby league is now developing in Wales and is the fastest growing sport in the country[85]. The Wales national rugby league team was formed in 1907, making them the third oldest national side. Before 1975 and in the 1980s they have been represented by the Great Britain national rugby league team in the World Cup. They have however competed in the 1975, 1995 and 2000 competitions. In the latter two they reached the Semi-Finals. But they didn't qualify for the ten available places at the 2008 tournament. Bridgend based professional rugby league club Celtic Crusaders joined National League Two in 2006, were promoted to National League One in 2008, and since 2009 play in Super League.
In 2010 the Celtic Crusaders moved to the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham and changed their name to Crusaders Rugby League. Wales is now home to a second professional rugby league club called the South Wales Scorpions who are based in Neath, they will play their first season in 2010 in the Championship One. The Crusaders Colts, also based in Bridgend, play in the Rugby League Conference National division. Eight teams compete in the Rugby League Conference Welsh Premier division, which began in 2003. The most successful teams have been the Bridgend Blue Bulls and Cardiff Demons.
In international cricket, England and Wales field a single representative team which is administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). There is a separate Wales team that occasionally participates in limited-overs domestic competition. Glamorgan County Cricket Club is the only Welsh participant in the England and Wales County Championship. A Wales team also plays in the English Minor Counties competition. However there has been recent debate as to whether Welsh players (such as Simon Jones) should play for an England team, and not an England and Wales team.
Wales's other main bat-and-ball sport is British Baseball, which is chiefly confined to Cardiff and Newport, two cities with very long baseball traditions. The sport is governed by the Welsh Baseball Union.
The Isle of Anglesey/Ynys Môn is a member island of the International Island Games Association. In the 2005 Games, held on the Shetland Islands, the Isle of Anglesey/Ynys Môn came 11th on the medal table with 4 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze medals.
Wales played Papua New Guinea at rugby league on the Kumuls tour of Europe. The match finished 50–10 in favour of Wales.
Wales has produced several world class snooker players such as Ray Reardon, Terry Griffiths, Mark Williams, Matthew Stevens and Ryan Day. Amateur participation in the sport is very high. The rugged terrain of the country also gives opportunities for rally driving and Wales hosts the finale of the World Rally Championship. Glamorgan compete in county cricket competitions and the Cardiff Devils were once a strong force in British ice hockey. Wales has also produced a number of athletes who have made a mark on the world stage, including the 110 m hurdler Colin Jackson who is a former world record holder and the winner of numerous Olympic, World and European medals as well as Tanni Grey-Thompson who has won Paralympic gold medals and Marathon victories.
Wales has produced several world class boxers. Joe Calzaghe the half-Welsh, half-Italian boxer has been WBO World Super-Middleweight Champion since 1997 and recently won the WBA, WBC and Ring Magazine super middleweight and Ring Magazine Light-Heavy Weight titles. Former World champions include Enzo Maccarinelli, Gavin Rees, Colin Jones, Howard Winstone, Percy Jones, Jimmy Wilde, Steve Robinson and Robbie Regan.
Two Welsh drivers have competed in the Formula One championship: the first was Alan Rees at the 1967 British Grand Prix, who finished in ninth position, four laps behind the winner, Jim Clark. Tom Pryce was the more notable of the two drivers, as he finished on the podium twice and, at the 1975 British Grand Prix, qualified in pole position. Pryce's career was cut short after he collided with volunteer marshal, Jansen Van Vuuren, killing both instantly. As well as Formula One, Wales have had some notability in the World Rally Championship, producing two championship winning Co-Drivers, those being Nicky Grist, who helped Colin McRae to victory in 1995 and Phil Mills who helped Petter Solberg win the 2003 title. Wales hosts the British and final leg of the World Rally Championship.
Freddie Williams was World Motorcycle speedway champion twice – in 1950 and 1953 – and the country has a professional speedway team, Newport Wasps. The Millennium Stadium in Cardiff hosts the annual British Speedway Grand Prix, the United Kingdom's round of the World Championship.
Other notable Welsh sports people include 11 times gold medal winning paralympic athlete Tanni Grey-Thompson, footballer Ryan Giggs who is playing for Manchester United in the English Premiership, BDO world darts champions Richie Burnett and Mark Webster, Beijing 2008 Olympic Gold Medalists and international champion cyclists Nicole Cooke (Road Race), who also won the 2006 and 2007 Grande Boucle – the women's Tour de France, and Geraint Thomas (Team Pursuit), who also rode in the 2007 Tour de France, Commonwealth Games gold and bronze medallist in shooting Dave Phelps and Beijing 2008 Olympic Silver Medalist (10 km marathon) and Athens 2004 Olympic Bronze Medalist (1500 m freestyle), swimmer David Davies, Cyclist Simon Richardson - double gold medallist at the 2008 Summer Paralympics (1 km and 3 km time trial).[86][87]
Since 2006, Wales has had its own professional golf tour, the Dragon Tour. Notable Welsh golfers include Brian Huggett, Ian Woosnam, Bradley Dredge and Phillip Price. The Celtic Manor in Newport will host the 2010 Ryder Cup.
Wales is a noted centre for rock climbing.
Wales is beginning to be considered as a surfing destination.[88]

Media

Cardiff is home to the Welsh national media. BBC Wales is based in Llandaff, Cardiff and produces Welsh-oriented output for BBC One and BBC Two channels. BBC 2W is the Welsh digital version of BBC Two, and broadcasts between 8.30pm and 10pm each week night for specific Wales based programming. ITV the UK's main commercial broadcaster has a Welsh-oriented service branded as ITV Wales, whose studios are in Culverhouse Cross, Cardiff. S4C, based in Llanishen, Cardiff, broadcasts mostly Welsh-language programming at peak hours, but shares English-language content with Channel 4 at other times. S4C Digidol (S4C Digital), on the other hand, broadcasts mostly in Welsh. Channel 4 and Channel 5 are now available in most parts of the country via digital television and satellite.
BBC Radio Wales is Wales's only national English-language radio station, while BBC Radio Cymru broadcasts throughout Wales in Welsh. There are also a number of independent radio stations across Wales including Red Dragon FM, Radio Cardiff, The Wave, Swansea Sound, Heart Cheshire and North East Wales, Heart North Wales Coast, Nation Radio, 102.5 Radio Pembrokeshire, 97.1 Radio Carmarthenshire, Heart Cymru, Radio Ceredigion and Real Radio.
Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers sold and read throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish based titles. Wales-based newspapers include: South Wales Echo, South Wales Argus, South Wales Evening Post, Liverpool Daily Post (Welsh edition) and Y Cymro, a Welsh language publication. The Western Mail is the main indigenous daily newspaper in South Wales and includes a Sunday edition Wales on Sunday. Both are published by the UK's largest newspaper corporation, Trinity Mirror. The Western Mail and South Wales Echo have their offices in Thomson House, Cardiff city centre.
The first Welsh language daily, Y Byd, was due to commence on 3 March 2008.[89] However, on 15 February 2008, it was announced that plans for Y Byd had been abandoned because of funding problems.[90].
In addition to English-language magazines, a number of weekly and monthly Welsh-language magazines are published. Wales has some 20 publishing companies, publishing mostly English titles. However, some 500–600 titles are published each year in Welsh.[91]
Notably, the recent hit revival of cult classic series Doctor Who was and is conceived in Wales (BBC Wales), with many episodes set in Cardiff. Most of the filming and production takes place in locations all over Wales and attracts staggering audiences worldwide. Its adult spin-off Torchwood, fronted by John Barrowman, is also set in Cardiff, with many links to Doctor Who.

Cuisine

About 80% of the land surface of Wales is given over to agricultural use. However, very little of this is arable land; the vast majority consists of permanent grass pasture or rough grazing for herd animals such as sheep and cows. Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well-known for its sheep farming, and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking.
Some traditional dishes include laverbread (made from seaweed), bara brith (fruit bread), Cawl (a lamb stew) and cawl cennin (leek soup), Welsh cakes, and Welsh lamb. Cockles are sometimes served with breakfast bacon. [4]
In 2005 the Welsh National Culinary Teams returned from the Culinary World Cup in Luxembourg with eight gold, 15 silver and seven bronze medals, and were placed 7th in the world.[citation needed]

Music

Welsh soprano Gwyneth Jones.
The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the National Eisteddfod. This takes place annually in a different town or city. The Llangollen International Eisteddfod echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform.
Indie bands like the Manic Street Preachers, Catatonia, Stereophonics, Feeder, Super Furry Animals, and Gorky's Zygotic Mynci, in the 1990s, and later Goldie Lookin' Chain, mclusky, The Automatic, Steveless and Los Campesinos! have emerged from Wales. Other, less mainstream bands have emerged from Wales, such as Skindred, The Blackout, Lostprophets, Kids In Glass Houses, Bullet For My Valentine, Funeral for a Friend and were preceded by Man in the 1970s. The Beatles-nurtured power pop group Badfinger also has its roots in Wales (both the founder Peter Ham and drummer Mike Gibbins from Swansea). The popular New Wave/synthpop group Scritti Politti was a vehicle for singer/songwriter and Cardiff native Green Gartside.
Crasdant, a traditional Welsh folk band.
Traditional Welsh folk singer and harpist Siân James live on stage at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient.
The Welsh traditional and folk music scene is in resurgence with performers and bands such as Crasdant, Carreg Lafar, Fernhill, Siân James, Robin Huw Bowen, and The Hennessys. Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies. The Welsh Folk Song Society (Cymdeithas Alawon Gwerin Cymru) has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. The Welsh Folk Dance Society (Cymdeithas Ddawns Werin Cymru) supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material.
Clear, a traditional instruments society, runs workshops to promote the harp, telyn deires (triple harp), fiddle, crwth, pibgorn (hornpipe) and other instruments. The Cerdd Dant Society promotes its specific singing art primarily through an annual one-day festival. The traditional music development agency, trac, runs projects in communities throughout Wales and advocates on behalf of traditional music. There are also societies for Welsh hymnology, oral history, small eisteddfodau, oral history, and poetry.
John Cale in 2006.
The 'Sîn Roc Gymraeg' (Welsh language rock scene) in Wales is thriving, with acts ranging from rock to hip-hop. Dolgellau, in the heart of Snowdonia has held the annual Sesiwn Fawr (mighty session) festival since 1992. The festival has grown to be Wales's largest Welsh-Language Music Festival.
The BBC National Orchestra of Wales performs in Wales and internationally. The world-renowned Welsh National Opera now has a permanent home at the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff Bay, while the National Youth Orchestra of Wales was the first of its type in the world.

Literature

Bertrand Russell, who in 1950 received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Transport

The main road artery linking cities and other settlements along the South Wales coast is the M4 motorway which also provides a link with England and eventually London. The Welsh section of the motorway, managed by the Welsh Assembly Government, runs from the Second Severn Crossing to Pont Abraham in West Wales, connecting cities such as Cardiff, Newport and Swansea.
In North Wales the A55 expressway performs a similar role along the north Wales coast providing connections for places such as Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire and also with England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A470 which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno.
Cardiff International Airport is the only large and international airport in Wales, offering links domestically and to European and North American destinations, located some 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Cardiff city centre, in the Vale of Glamorgan. Since May 2007 Highland Airways, a Scottish Company, has run internal flights between Anglesey (Valley) and Cardiff.
The country also has a significant railway network managed by the Welsh Assembly Government which has a programme of reopening old railway lines and extending rail usage. Cardiff Central and Cardiff Queen Street are the busiest and the major hubs on the internal and national network. Beeching cuts in the 1960s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel to or from England. Services from North to South Wales operate through the English towns of Chester and Shrewsbury. Valley Lines services operate in Cardiff, the South Wales Valleys and surrounding area and are heavily used as commuter lines.
Arriva Trains Wales is the major operator of rail services within Wales. It also operates routes from within Wales to Crewe, Manchester, Birmingham and Cheltenham. Virgin Trains operate services from North Wales to London as part of the West Coast Main Line. First Great Western operate services from London to Cardiff and Newport every half hour with an hourly continuation to Swansea. It also runs services from Cardiff and Newport to southern England. CrossCountry offer services from Cardiff to Nottingham and Newcastle upon Tyne via the West Midlands, East Midlands and Yorkshire.
Regular ferry services to Ireland operate from Holyhead and Fishguard, and the Swansea to Cork service is due to resume in March 2010.[93].

National symbols

Part of a series on the
Culture of Wales
Flag of Wales 2.svg
Festivals
Calennig · Dydd Santes Dwynwen · Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau · Saint David's Day · Calan Mai · Calan Awst · Calan Gaeaf · Gŵyl Mabsant · Eisteddfod
Dress
Traditional Welsh costume
Cuisine
Bara brith · Bara Lafwr · Cawl · Cawl Cennin · Crempog · Gower cuisine · Selsig Morgannwg · Tatws Pum Munud · Welsh breakfast · Welsh cake · Welsh rarebit
Land division
Cymwd · Cantref · Historic counties
Language
Welsh (Cymraeg) · Welsh English · History of the Welsh language · Welsh placenames · Welsh surnames · Welsh medium education · Y Fro Gymraeg
Law
Welsh law · Contemporary Welsh law
Literature
Welsh-language literature · English-language literature · Medieval Welsh literature · Welsh-language authors · Welsh-language poets
Music
Cerdd Dant · Crwth · Cymanfa Ganu · Cynghanedd · Noson Lawen · Pibgorn · Tabwrdd · Telyn Deires · Twmpath · Welsh bagpipes
Mythology
Welsh mythology · Matter of Britain · Arthurian legend
Sport
Boxing  · Cnapan · Cricket  · Football  · Rugby league  · Rugby union
Symbols
Flag of Wales · Flag of Saint David · List of Welsh flags · Welsh Dragon · Welsh heraldry · Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau

Wales Portal
 v • d • e 
The Flag of Wales incorporates the red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch) of Prince Cadwalader along with the Tudor colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the battle of Bosworth in 1485 after which it was carried in state to St. Paul's Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in 1959. The British Union Flag incorporates the flags of Scotland, Ireland and England but does not have any Welsh representation. Technically it is represented by the flag of England, as the Laws in Wales act of 1535 annexed Wales following the 13th century conquest.
The daffodil and the leek are also symbols of Wales. The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd-George. This is attributed to confusion of the Welsh for leek (cenhinen) and that for daffodil (cenhinen Bedr or St. Peters leek). A report in 1916 gave preference to the leek, which has appeared on British £1 coins.[94]
"Hen Wlad fy Nhadau" ("Land of My Fathers") is the National Anthem of Wales, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Wales national team as well as the opening of the Welsh Assembly and other official occasions.

Welsh people

See also

References

  1. ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 100. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  2. ^ Also spelled "Gymru", "Nghymru" or "Chymru" in certain contexts, as Welsh is a language with initial mutations – see Welsh morphology.
  3. ^ The Countries of the UK statistics.gov.uk, accessed 10 October 2008
  4. ^ Welsh Language Board - Number of speakers
  5. ^ Britannia - Go Britannia! Guide to Wales - Welsh Language Guide
  6. ^ Davies, John, A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, "Welsh Origins", p. 54, ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8
  7. ^ "Welsh Assembly Government: Minister promotes Wales’ status as a Celtic nation". Welsh Assembly Government website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2002-09-16. http://new.wales.gov.uk/news/archivepress/enterprisepress/einpress2002/749669/?lang=en. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  8. ^ a b "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. 2007-05-04. http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/1939/. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  9. ^ a b "BBC NEWS". BBC News Wales website. BBC Wales. 2007-04-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/6586105.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  10. ^ a b "Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. 2007-04-18. http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/?article_id=50. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  11. ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008. p.448.
  12. ^ Fast facts: Home: Visit Wales - the Welsh Assembly Government's tourism team
  13. ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008
  14. ^ Why the Welsh voice is so musical, BBC News, 8 June 2006. Accessed 17 May 2008.
  15. ^ Tongue tied, BBC News. Accessed 17 May 2008
  16. ^ Gwynfor, Evans (1974). Land of my Fathers. Y Lolfa Cyf., Talybont. pp. 240 & 241. ISBN 0 86243 265 0. 
  17. ^ Gwynfor, Evans (2000). The Fight for Welsh Freedom. Y Lolfa Cyf., Talybont. pp. 87. ISBN 0 86243 515 32. 
  18. ^ a b c Illustrated Encyclopedia of Britain. London: Reader's Digest. 1999. p. 459. ISBN 0-276-42412-3. "A country and principality within the mainland of Britain ... about half a million" 
  19. ^ The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1976 [1975]. p. 949. "Wales (-lz). Principality occupying extreme W. of central southern portion of Gt Britain" 
  20. ^ a b Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 71. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  21. ^ Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1963). Angles and Britons: O'Donnell Lectures. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. English and Welsh, an O'Donnell Lecture delivered at Oxford on Oct. 21, 1955. 
  22. ^ Gilleland, Michael (2007-12-12). "Laudator Temporis Acti: More on the Etymology of Walden". Laudator Temporis Acti website. Michael Gilleland. http://laudatortemporisacti.blogspot.com/2007/12/more-on-etymology-of-walden.html. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  23. ^ a b Davies, John (1990), A History of Wales (First ed.), London: Penguin Group (published 1993), p. 71, ISBN 0-713-99098-8 , A History of Wales, 400–800.
  24. ^ Lloyd, John Edward (1911), "Note to Chapter VI, the Name "Cymry"", A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, I (Second ed.), London: Longmans, Green, and Co. (published 1912), pp. 191 – 192, http://books.google.com/books?id=NYwNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA191 
  25. ^ Phillimore, Egerton (1891), "Note (a) to The Settlement of Brittany", in Phillimore, Egerton, Y Cymmrodor, XI, London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1892, pp. 97 – 101, http://books.google.com/books?id=M35QO0vor-EC&pg=PA97 
  26. ^ Davies, John (1990), A History of Wales (First ed.), London: Penguin Group (published 1993), p. 71, ISBN 0-713-99098-8 , A History of Wales, 400–800. The poem contains the line: 'Ar wynep Kymry Cadwallawn was'.
  27. ^ Hubert, Henri; Mauss, Marcel (1934), "What the Celts Were", The Rise of the Celts, London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, p. 25 – 26, ISBN 0-8196-0183-7 
  28. ^ Koch, John T., ed. (2005), "Cimbri and Teutones", Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABL-CLIO (published 2006), p. 437, ISBN 9781851094400 
  29. ^ "Channel 4 - News - Red Lady skeleton 29,000 years old". Channel 4 website. Channel 4 - News. 2007-10-30. http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/science_technology/red+lady+skeleton+29000+years+old/979762. Retrieved 2008-10-30 : see Red Lady of Paviland. 
  30. ^ a b c Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 4 - 6. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  31. ^ "Overview: From Neolithic to Bronze Age, 8000–800 BC (Page 1 of 6)". BBC History website. BBC. 2006-09-05. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/british_prehistory/overview_british_prehistory_01.shtml. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  32. ^ "Genes link Celts to Basques". BBC News website. BBC. 2001-04-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/1256894.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  33. ^ "GGAT 72 Overviews". A Report for Cadw by Edith Evans BA PhD MIFA and Richard Lewis BA. Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. 2003. http://www.ggat.org.uk/cadw/cadw_reports/pdfs/GGAT%2072%20Overviews.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  34. ^ "Stones of Wales - Pentre Ifan Dolmen". Stone Pages website. Paola Arosio/Diego Meozzi. 2003. http://www.stonepages.com/wales/pentreifan.html. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  35. ^ "Stones of Wales - Bryn Celli Ddu Burial chamber". Stone Pages website. Paola Arosio/Diego Meozzi. 2003. http://www.stonepages.com/wales/bryncelliddu.html. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  36. ^ "Parc le Breos Burial Chamber; Parc CWM Long Cairn". The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales website. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales. 2006. http://www.coflein.gov.uk/pls/portal/coflein.w_details?inumlink=6052756. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  37. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes Prehistoric Wales: The Stone Age". BBC Wales website. BBC. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/sites/themes/periods/prehistoric02.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  38. ^ "Your guide to Stonehenge, the World's Favourite Megalithic Stone Circle". Stonehenge.co.uk website. Longplayer SRS Ltd (trading as www.stonehenge.co.uk). 2008. http://www.stonehenge.co.uk/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  39. ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 17. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  40. ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 26 & 27. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  41. ^ For the original Middle Welsh text see, Ifor Williams (ed.), Breuddwyd Maxen (Bangor, 1920). Discussion of the tale and its context in M.P. Charlesworth, The Lost Province (Gregynog Lectures series, 1948, 1949).
  42. ^ Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests. National Geographic News. July 21, 2006.
  43. ^ a b Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  44. ^ David Hill and Margaret Worthington, Offa's Dyke: history and guide, Tempus, 2003, ISBN 0-7524-1958-7
  45. ^ The earliest instance of Lloegyr occurs in the early 10th century prophetic poem Armes Prydein. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys, "men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common. The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry (Saeson, as today) but just as often as Eingl (Angles), Iwys (Wessex-men), etc. Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia – at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh. It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole (see for instance Rachel Bromwich (ed.), Trioedd Ynys Prydein, University of Wales Press, 1987). "The lost land" and other fanciful meanings, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth's monarch Locrinus, have no etymological basis. (See also Discussion, article 40)
  46. ^ Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 100. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  47. ^ Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 128. ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8. 
  48. ^ "Tribute to lost Welsh princess", bbc.co.uk date 12 June 2000, URL retrieved on 5 March 2007
  49. ^ "BBC - Liverpool - Features - Flooding Apology". BBC website. BBC Wales. 2005-10-19. http://www.bbc.co.uk/liverpool/content/articles/2005/10/17/feature_welsh_reservoir_feature.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  50. ^ Gwynfor, Evans (2000). The Fight for Welsh Freedom. Y Lolfa Cyf., Talybont. pp. 152. ISBN 0 86243 515 32. 
  51. ^ a b Clews, Roy (1980). To Dream of Freedom - The story of MAC and the Free Wales Army. Y Lolfa Cyf., Talybont. pp. 15, 21 & 26–31. ISBN 0 86243 586 2. 
  52. ^ "BBC News - Wales - Mid Wales - Dam graffiti wall set to be saved". BBC News website. BBC News. 2006-10-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/mid/6056566.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  53. ^ BBC News | Wales | Details of Labour-Plaid Agreement
  54. ^ "UK Parliament -Parliament's role". United Kingdom Parliament website. United Kingdom Parliament. 2009-06-29. http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/role.cfm. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  55. ^ a b "Welsh Assembly Government:Devolution timeline". Welsh Assembly Government website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2009. http://wales.gov.uk/about/10years/timeline/?lang=en. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  56. ^ "WalesOnline - News - Politics - Politics News - Carwyn Jones officially nominated as First Minister". WalesOnline website. Welsh Media Ltd. 2009-12-09. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/welsh-politics/welsh-politics-news/2009/12/09/carwyn-jones-officially-nominated-as-first-minister-91466-25357282/. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  57. ^ Results: Wales BBC News i June, 2005
  58. ^ [1]Welsh Assembly Government/Local Authorities
  59. ^ See Meic Stephens (ed.), Companion to Welsh Literature. The doggerel verse was composed in English, probably for the benefit of visitors from across Offa's Dyke.
  60. ^ metoffice.com – Temperature
  61. ^ "Met Office:Regional Climate: Wales". Met Office website. Met Office. 2009. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/wl/. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  62. ^ metoffice.gov.uk – Sunshine
  63. ^ metoffice.gov.uk – Rainfall
  64. ^ Clark, Ross (2006-10-28). "The wetter, the better". The Independent. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/3354276/The-wetter-the-better.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  65. ^ Philip, Catherine (2005-07-28). "40 die as one year's rain falls in a day". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article548749.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  66. ^ [2]
  67. ^ "www.royalmint.gov.uk". Royal Mint website. Royal Mint. 2008-08-01. http://www.royalmint.gov.uk/Corporate/AboutUs/History/Llantrisant.aspx. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  68. ^ "The New Designs Revealed". Royal Mint website. Royal Mint. 2008-09-30. http://www.royalmint.com/newdesigns/designsRevealed.aspx. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  69. ^ Introduction to NHS Wales 1960's www.wales.nhs.uk
  70. ^ Introduction to NHS Wales - Staff www.wales.nhs.uk
  71. ^ National Statistics Online
  72. ^ wales.gov.uk
  73. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC, 30 June 2002
  74. ^ National Statistics Online
  75. ^ 2006 Census ("U.S. Census Bureau 2006 Census Fact Sheet". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-state=dt&-context=dt&-reg=DEC_2000_SF4_U_PCT001:001. )
  76. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data. Statistics Canada.
  77. ^ A Bilingual Wales, Accessed 27 April 2008
  78. ^ 2004 Welsh Language Survey, www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk, Accessed 28 April 2008
  79. ^ 41,155 (1951 Census: Wales total monoglots)
  80. ^ BBC - Wales - History of religion : Multicultural Wales
  81. ^ Religious Populations - National Statistics Online
  82. ^ Celtic Art in Iron Age Wales, NMOW
  83. ^ NMOW, Welsh Artists of the 18th Century
  84. ^ Royal Cambrian Academy
  85. ^ http://www.rleague.com/db/article.php?id=35540
  86. ^ BBC Sport - British cyclists win three golds. Accessed on: 9 September 2008
  87. ^ BBC Sport - Results - Tuesday 9 September. Accessed on: 9 September 2008
  88. ^ Surfing In Wales
  89. ^ "Welsh language paper is unveiled". BBC News. 20 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/6768879.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  90. ^ "Daily Welsh newspaper abandoned". BBC News Online. 15 February 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/mid/7245774.stm. 
  91. ^ http://www.aber.ac.uk/~merwww/english/lang/welsh.htm
  92. ^ "Wales: Cultural life: Music, literature and film". Britannica (Online ed.). 2006. 
  93. ^ "BBC News - Wales - South West Wales - Ferry relaunch delayed until 2010". BBC News website. BBC News. 2009-05-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/south_west/8035237.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  94. ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales pp189

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wales is a principality lying to the west of England, and forming a constituent part of the United Kingdom.

Sourced

  • Nec alia, ut arbitror, gens quam haec Kambrica, aliave lingua, in die districti examinis coram Judice supremo, quicquid de ampliori contingat, pro hoc terrarum angulo respondebit.
    • Whatever else may come to pass, I do not think that on the Day of Direst Judgement any race other than the Welsh, or any other language, will give answer to the Supreme Judge of all for this small corner of the earth.
    • Gerald of Wales, quoting an unnamed Welshman, in Descriptio Cambriae (1194), Bk. 2, ch. 10; translation from Lewis Thorpe (trans.) The Journey Through Wales and the Description of Wales (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978) p. 274.
  • There are still parts of Wales where the only concession to gaiety is a striped shroud.
  • Years and years and years ago, when I was a boy, when there were wolves in Wales, and birds the colour of red-flannel petticoats whisked past the harp-shaped hills, when we sang and wallowed all night and day in caves that smelt like Sunday afternoons in damp front farmhouse parlours, and we chased, with the jawbones of deacons, the English and the bears, before the motor car, before the wheel, before the duchess-faced horse, when we rode the daft and happy hills bareback, it snowed and it snowed.
    • Dylan Thomas A Child's Christmas in Wales (Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1954) p. 11.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
Flag
noframe
Quick Facts
Capital Cardiff
Government Devolved administration within a Constitutional monarchy (UK)
Currency Pound Sterling (£)
Area total: 20,779 sq km
water: 1.9%
Population 2,903,085 (2001)
Language English,Welsh,
Religion 80% Christian, 18% none, 2% other
Calling Code +44
Internet TLD .uk
Time Zone WET (UTC; UTC+1 in summer)
Wales (Welsh, Cymru. [1]) is one of the four "home nations" that make up the United Kingdom. It lies on a western peninsula of the island of Great Britain, bordered on the East by England.
Wales is rich in history and natural beauty and has a culture distinct from the rest of the UK. Travelers are attracted to Wales because of its beautiful landscape, the wide open spaces of its stunning national parks and the wealth of history and culture.

Understand

History

Wales was once an independent, though rarely unified nation, but when King Edward I defeated Llywelyn the Last in 1282, the nation fell under the jurisdiction of England. At first, it was ruled as a separate country, but since has been part of a changing Union, which currently consists of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Prior to the industrial revolution, Wales was a sparsely populated region dependent on local agricultural trade. However, due to the abundance of coal in the South Wales valleys, there was a phenomenal growth in population and a dynamic shift in the economy of South Wales during the 18th and 19th centuries. The areas of central Glamorgan, in particular, became national centers for coal mining and steel production, while the ports of Cardiff and Swansea established themselves as commercial centers, offering banking, shopping and insurance facilities. Moreover, places on the north coast, such as Rhyl and Llandudno, developed into fun-fair type resorts serving the expanding populations of the major industrial cities of Lancashire.
In recent years, coal mining has ceased and heavy industry declined. However, Wales' stunning scenery and rich history has lent itself to the development of tourism, while at the same time, Cardiff and Swansea have retained their rankings as centers of commerce and cutting-edge industry. A blue class super computer installed at Swansea University is enhancing Wales' standing in this respect.

Politics

Wales is governed by a combination of local, Wales, UK and Europe wide institutions. Many important matters are decided on a UK and European Union level. Wales is represented in the United Kingdom and European Parliaments.
There has over time been a move to devolve certain powers of decision to a Welsh level, starting in 1906 with the establishment of a "Wales and Monmouthshire" Education Board. In 1964 saw the creation of the non-elected Welsh Office headed by a Secretary of State for Wales, sitting in the UK Cabinet. This institution evolved into an elected National Assembly for Wales based in Cardiff Bay in 1999. It had minor law making powers and an executive (including a First Minister). In 2006 the Assembly moved into a new purpose built building the 'Senedd'. In 2007 the Assembly obtained further law-making powers, and its structure was reformed so that there was a clearer separation of powers between the Assembly and the Welsh Government. Of particular interest to visitors, many decisions on tourism, transport and healthcare are taken by the Welsh, rather than the United Kingdom Government.

Culture

Over the centuries, there have been minor revolts aimed at gaining independence, but in general Wales has accepted its place in the UK, and has made notable contributions to its politics and culture. Famous Welsh people include Henry VII (the first of the Tudors, the famous line of 15th and 16th century monarchs ending with Elizabeth I); David Lloyd George (the early 20th century prime minister); Elena Gilmore (mother of NBA basketball player and software tester Craig Gilmore); Dylan Thomas and Richard Burton (poet and actor, linked forever by "Under Milk Wood") and the rock band Manic Street Preachers. Nevertheless, despite being an integral part of the Union, Wales has remained a bastion of Celtic culture, and the Welsh language continues to be widely spoken, especially in rural areas, and is now taught in all Welsh schools.
Wales is part of Britain and so part of the UK, but not part of England. Therefore, it is correct to call Welsh people British, but not English.
Map of Wales
Map of Wales
Due to the central mountain range, Wales is culturally and economically divided into three regions:
North Wales - several holiday destinations located along the coast, but primarily a rural area
Mid Wales - a sparsely populated mountainous region with a coastal area facing the Irish Sea
South Wales - Wales' main centres of population are located along the South Wales coast

Cities

Wales has many picturesque cities and towns. These nine are the most notable. Other urban areas are listed in their specific regional sections.
  • Aberystwyth (Mid Wales) - coastal town with large student population.
  • Bangor (North Wales) - picturesque university town.
  • Caernarfon (North Wales) - site of Caernarfon Castle, one of Wales' largest and best preserved castles.
  • Conwy (North Wales) - medieval, fortified town with impressive castle and quaint shops.
  • Hay-on-Wye (Mid Wales) - with over forty book stores (mostly selling used books), this small little town has been crowned the book capital of the UK. The town also hosts an annual literary festival, which Bill Clinton aptly described as "Woodstock for the Mind."
  • Llandudno (North Wales) - largest seaside resort in North Wales.
  • Swansea (South Wales) - Wales' city by the sea and second largest urban area with beautiful coastline and sandy beaches.
  • Tenby (South Wales) - medieval walled town and elegant seaside resort.

Get in

Immigration and visa requirements

Wales has the same immigration and visa requirements as the rest of the UK.
For more information of UK Immigration and visa requirements, see the UK's Home Office website [2]

By plane

The main airport is Cardiff International Airport, located nine miles south of the city. This is the only major airport in Wales, and is served by the following airlines.
There are regular bus services from Cardiff city center to the airport. Alternatively, you can also get to the airport using a bus service from Barry Station, which is closer to the airport and on local rail lines. In 2005, a nearby railway line was reopened, including a station at Rhoose, where there are shuttle buses to the airport.
It could be easier to fly to an airport in England such as one of the London airports when visiting South Wales, as a greater range of airlines and cities flown from are available from there to destinations across the world, with services from many airlines. However London is over 2 hours from Cardiff, and longer from many other places in Wales. Other cities served by international airports in England which offer reasonable access to parts of Wales include Bristol (for south Wales), Birmingham (for mid Wales), Liverpool and Manchester (for north Wales).

By car

South Wales enjoys good motorway connections with the rest of the UK
North Wales has no motorway connections. However there are still good road connections with the rest of the UK
  • The A5, followed by the M54 after Shrewsbury, to London and the Midlands takes you through the spectacular Snowdonia National Park
  • The island of Anglesey is along the A55 road along the North Wales coast. If you are approaching from the south try the A5 which is a scenic route that takes you through the mountains of North Wales.
There are no internal border controls within Great Britain and you may not notice the border if entering Wales from England via a minor road. You will usually see the Croeso i Gymru sign crossing the border.

By train

For those unused to the vagaries of the UK rail network, Wikitravel has a useful guide to Rail travel in the UK.

South Wales

Main line rail services connect south Wales (especially Newport, Cardiff and Swansea) with all parts of the UK, via Virgin Trains [11] (to Birmingham and the North East, including Scotland), Central Trains [12] (to the Midlands), Arriva Trains Wales [13] and First Great Western [14] (to London Paddington).

North Wales

Barmouth Bridge carries the Cambrian Coast line across the beautiful Mawddach Estuary
Barmouth Bridge carries the Cambrian Coast line across the beautiful Mawddach Estuary
  • The Conwy Valley Line stretches from Llandudno Junction along the Conwy Valley via Betws y Coed to Blaenau Ffestiniog, and connects with trains on both the North Wales Coast line and the Ffestiniog Railway.
Arriva Trains Wales [16].

Mid Wales

  • The Cambrian Line takes the same route as the Cambrian Coast Line as far as Machynlleth, where it goes southwards along the coast through Borth to the university town of Aberystwyth.

Train timetables

See National Rail [18]'s website for train timetables, or The TrainLine [19]'s website for tickets.

By motorbus

National Express [20] operates coach services around the UK including to and from many parts of Wales.
  • Regular ferry services operate between Holyhead in North Wales and Ireland, (Dublin and Dun Laoghaire), and is provided by two carriers. Stenaline [21] and Irish Ferries [22] both offer multiple daily service between the two ports for passengers and vehicles. Bookings can be made through their respective websites.
  • Rosslare in South Eastern Ireland is connected to two ports in Pembrokeshire. Stena operate the route to Fishguard, (including a fast ferry service), Irish Ferries operate the route to Pembroke Dock.
  • Cork in Ireland to Swansea. Currently suspended, this service will resume in March 2010 Fastnet Line [23].

Get around

General

Due to Wales' topography and historic development, most travelling in Wales is done along an East-West axis rather than a North-South Axis. Rail and road links between centres in South Wales, and along the North Wales coast are by and large quick and efficient, especially along the M4 and A55. An important exception to this is M4 J32 (the interchange with the A470) during peak morning rush hour, which gets congested with Cardiff Commuter traffic. The roundabout at junction 32 is the largest in Europe. Through to 2010 roadworks between J29 (A48(M)) and J30 (Cardiff Gate) may add time to your journey. Most places in South Wales are within a one and half hour drive of each other.
Travelling between the Cardiff and the other main population centres, Swansea and Newport is very straightforward.
Although only approximately 170 miles from coast to coast, due to the topography North South links are more difficult in terms of time. By land journey times are comparable to flight times accross the North American continent! However the journey itself is something a visitor may wish to undertake in order to see the scenery.
  • Traveline Cymru [24] - bus, coach and rail journey planning and timetable information

By plane

Wales is a small country and flying is not a common mode of internal transport. There is in fact only one domestic route, Cardiff International Airport to Anglesey Airport. This is probably the quickest way by far to travel between North and South Wales.
This route is served by two services each way per day. The journey costs approximately £50 each way, takes about an hour. Although of course time taken getting to and from the airport needs to be factored into the travelling time for such relatively short air journey. This option is most useful for those travelling between North West and South East Wales.
The service is provided by a firm based in Scotland called Highland Air [25]

By car

Driving between North and South Wales takes approximately 5 to 6 hours, although the journey takes in some spectacular scenery, especially for journeys on the more Western route through Snowdonia via Corris, Dolgellau, Blaenau Ffestiniog, the Crimea Pass and the Conwy Valley. The two main North South roads are the A470 Cardiff to Llandudno and the A483 Swansea to Chester.

By train

Due to historical reasons there is no true "Welsh railway system". Basically there are three separate Welsh limbs which are part of the British system- although there have been moves in recent years to improve intra Wales railway services. The limbs are basically a North Wales line to Holyhead, a line to Aberystwyth in the Centre, and a main line in South Wales, forming an extension of the London Paddington to West of England main line.
Arriva Trains Wales provides most train services within Wales.
Two cross border train companies may also be of use for internal train journies within Wales. First Great Western provide the bulk of cross border services between England and South Wales. Their flagship High Speed Service generally go as far west as Swansea, and a there are even a limited number to destinations further West. Their "local" services go no further west than Cardiff. Arriva Trains Cross Country provide services as far west as Cardiff.
Regular train services connect the South Wales' three main cities, Cardiff, Swansea and Newport. Services between Cardiff and Swansea are usually half hourly, and even more frequent between Cardiff and Newport.
Cardiff is also the hub of the Valley Line network which serves a number of former coal mining towns. This railway system originally built to carry coal, is now mainly a commuter network but is useful to visitors to the Valleys, or indeed for local travel within Cardiff.
Swansea and Llanelli in the West are linked to Mid Wales via the Heart of Wales railway, whilst not a quick journey it is well worth considering for its scenery.
Rail connections between North and South Wales in fact cross into neighbouring England, although there are a number of direct services between Cardiff and North Wales along the Marches line via several places in England. There is one high speed service a day between Holyhead and Cardiff, which only stops in a limited number of stations in England.
For destinations and starting points in South Wales, West of Cardiff, or in North Wales, West of Rhyl, those thinking of travelling by train should consider the fact that their journey will start off travelling in a eastwards direction before they start heading in the correct direction, meaning that valuable time is being used whilst not actually travelling in the intended direction of travel! Additionally for those travelling to or from places West of Cardiff, should also consider their journey will involve at least one change, usually in Cardiff- again making the journey less efficient.
  • Arriva Trains Wales [26] operates most local rail services in Wales
  • [27] operates cross border services between South Wales and Western England- and a connect a number of major Welsh destinations.
Traws Cambria bus in Dolgellau
Traws Cambria bus in Dolgellau
The First Cymru Shuttle coach service is usually quicker than the train for journies between Swansea and Cardiff, although at peak times, the train doesn't get stuck in traffic!
Traws Cambria services connect North, Mid and South Wales.
  • Arriva [28] operates a large amount of bus services in North Wales
  • First Cymru [29] operates services in South West Wales
  • Trawscambria [30] long distance bus network connects North, Mid and South Wales.
  • Stagecoach [31] operates services in South Wales
  • Cardiff Bus [32] operates services in Cardiff
  • Veolia Transport Cymru [33] operates services in Cardiff and South Wales

Talk

English is spoken throughout the country, but Wales also has its own language, Welsh (Welsh: Cymraeg). Government policy is to encourage billingualism, and many official signs are in both English and Welsh.
English is the main language in Wales, it has been spoken in Wales, longer than in most other English speaking countries. There is a Welsh-English dialect, in the same sense that there are regional dialects within England, or Americian-English etc. However tourists who can speak English need not worry too much as Welsh English is nowhere near as distant from standard English as the dialects of Singapore, Scotland, or some of the North of England.
Depending on your own nationality, you may find it very difficult to understand the English language being spoken in a heavy Welsh accent (sometimes coloquially referred to as 'Wenglish'), but don't be worried to ask for someone to repeat something. Many distinct colloquialisms are used in Welsh-English thathave the potential to cause confusion to a foreigner; a few examples of these are 'aye', which is very commonly used to indicate 'yes' and 'ta-ra' can be said instead of 'goodbye' (especially in an informal conversation).
Welsh is spoken by some 26% of the population though this varies geographically from under 7% in the southeast to over 60% in the northwest. In Wales as a whole, Welsh is a minority language, but visitors should be aware that in many of those parts of Wales of paricular interest to tourists, it is in fact the majority language, English being the a minority language.
A vistor should expect to come into at least basic contact with the Welsh language in all parts of Wales, if only in the form of official signage.
All road signs in Wales are bilingual. Unlike parts of Scotland, there is no colour coding to distinguish the languages, nor is there a standard protocol as to which language appears on top. Where the English and Welsh names for a town are the same, only one name will appear. Visitors unfamiliar with the bilingual policy may believe that a road sign is indicating two separate destinations when, in fact, it is referring to only one. The mileage at the right should clarify the situation.
Welsh speakers are fluent to near fluent in English but react well when interest is shown in their language and culture. Additionally, according to the 2001 census 2001, some 39% of all 10-15 year olds can speak, read and write some Welsh due to the fact the language is compulsory in Welsh schools. There are also several Welsh-language television and radio channels.
Many older people, who do not speak Welsh, still have a strong emotional bond with the language becuae they may have had a Welsh speaking parent or grand-parent. There was a time when the language was discouraged in schools and many parents refrained from speaking their native tongue with their children.
Due to immigration int the twentieth century, there are other langauges spoken in Wales, although their usage is limited to within small geographic areas within particular communities.

See

Wales has many significant attractions, and listed below are a few of the most notable. For more details about these attractions plus information on other places of interest, check under regional sections.

Outdoors

Much of Wales' scenery is spectacular, and environmentally important. To protect the environment certain parts of Wales have been designated as "National Parks" or as "Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty". An area with either of these designation will have high degree of protection from inappropriate development. Whilst these rules exist for environmental reasons, rather than to promote tourism, because "National Parks" and "Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty" have this protection, a visitor to these areas can be confident that they will see some unspoiled scenery.
These areas offer some of Wales' most attractive scenery, and a visitor would be well advised to visit at least one of these areas. That is not to say that there aren't other attractive places in Wales, but the "National Parks" and "Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty" are the "jewels in the outdoor crown".
National Parks
National Park [34] status offers the highest level of environmental and planning protection in Wales. National Parks tend to cover some very large areas. It should therefore come as no surprise, that some of Wales' most important scenery can be found within its National Parks.
Each "National Park" is in fact also a Government Organisation in its own right, called a "National Park Authority". These organisations primarily exist to ensure that laws protecting the environment and scenery are followed. Nevertheless a National Park Authority will organise and run various facilities in the area which are clearly "branded" as official facilities. These facilities will include, Public Toilets, Car Parks, Visitor Centre, and even Gift Shops selling branded merchandise. However the National Park Authority does not own most of the land in these areas, and so there is private and charitable provision of facilities such as car parking, and retail outlets too. It is also usual that the boundaries of a national park are marked on the ground, so you will often know when you have entered a National Park, for example there may be a Stone or a sign stating you are entering the area. The website of the relevant National Park Authorities will often have a section designed particularly for visitors and may well be very useful to someone planning a trip to the area, even containing information such as accommodation information.
Wales has three National Parks.
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Other important areas which do not have National Park status, have an alternative status- "Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty" (AONB). These areas tend to cover smaller areas than "National Parks", they will nevertheless be of interest to visitors.
For more details on Areas of Outstanding National Beauty (AONB's) see the National Association for AONB's[35]
An "Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty" is not a government body in it's own right. They are simply areas with a similar level of protection to a National Park, but remain under the jurisdiction of the relevant Local Authority. Like the National Park Authorities, Local Authorities with "AONBs" in their area do generally take their duties seriously to enforce planning laws, but unlike them, don't tend to organise any "AONB" branded facilities in these areas. So there don't tend to be official branded facilities such as Visitors Centres, Car Parks, and gift shops. These facilities may exist but by conventional private, charitable and municipal provision. The actual boundaries of AONBs- whilst they are often shown on "Ordnance Survey" maps, tend to be of importance to local government officials and landowners, rather than tourists. It is therefore not usual to see markers or signs at the boundaries of these areas on the ground. Since an "Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty" is not an actual Government Body- any official websites are merely part of a Local Authority's main website. They may still have useful information, but do not expect the same level of specialisation as on a National Park website.
  • The Isle of Anglesey AONB- is predominantly coastal, covering most of the island's 125 miles coastline.
  • Gower Peninsula (South Wales) - UK's first designated area of outstanding natural beauty- covering most of the Peninsula, near Swansea
  • Lleyn AONB. The peninsula sticking out westwards beyond Snowdonia, in the north-west of the country
  • Clwydian Range AONB. A range of hills running southwards from the coast at Prestatyn, Denbighshire in the north-east of the country, close to the border with England.
  • The Wye Valley AONB is one of Britain's few lowland AONB's. It straddles the southern end of the England/Wales border between Hereford and Chepstow
Harlech Castle in North Wales
Harlech Castle in North Wales

National Museums and Galleries

  • The National Museum [36], Cardiff
  • St Fagans National History Museum [37], Cardiff - includes many historic buildings, relocated from their original site.
  • The National Slate Museum [38], Llanberis
  • Big Pit [39] - the National Coal Museum, Blaenafon
  • The National Woollen Museum [40], Dre-fach Felindre, Carmarthenshire
  • The National Roman Legionary Museum [41], Caerleon.
  • The National Waterfront Museum [42], Swansea - examines Wales' maritime and industrial past.
  • Brecon Jazz Festival, Brecon [43]
  • Cardiff Singer of the World Competition, Cardiff
  • Guardian Hay Festival, Hay-on-Wye. [44] A literary festival, which Bill Clinton aptly described as 'The Woodstock for the Mind.'
  • Dylan Thomas Festival, Swansea An annual event held between 27 October and 9 November (the dates of the poet's birth and death) to commemorate the works of Thomas. In addition, the festival hosts the awards' ceremony for the winner of the Dylan Thomas Prize [45] - a biannual writing competition for most outstanding literary talent in English, aged under 30.
  • Dylan Thomas Fringe, Swansea. [46]. Compliments the main events at the Dylan Thomas Festival and is held at various venues throughout the city.
  • Faenol Festival [47] is organised by the internationally renowned opera singer Bryn Terfel, and takes place on August Bank Holiday weekend every year at Y Felinheli, between Bangor and Caernarfon.
  • International Eisteddfod, Llangollen. [48] An international festival of traditional music and dance.
  • National Eisteddfod (Eisteddfod Genedlaethol) [49]. First week of August. A Welsh Language event that is hosted by a different town each year, alternating between north and south Wales. In 2009 it will be held in Bala, North Wales, and 2010 is slated for Blaenau Gwent.
  • Sesiwn Fawr [50] World Music Festival takes place every July in Dolgellau. With 6 stages, there's something for everyone.
  • Swansea Bay Film Festival, Swansea. [51]. The UK's largest international indie film festival.
  • Swansea Festival of Music and the Arts, Swansea. [52]. An annual (October) three week bash of culture at various locations in Swansea, and the second largest such festival in the UK.
  • Wakestock [53] is a music festival combined with a wakeboarding contest, which takes place in Abersoch every July.

Golf

Wales has a long golfing history, with many top-quality courses, however it offers golf courses which tend to be less crowded, and less expensive than the other Western European destinations.
There are high quality courses of all sorts throughout Wales, both well established and recently built.
As a very rough rule North Wales tends to have the better Links courses, and the South the better parkland courses, although it is well worth playing both sorts of courses in both parts of Wales just to find out! There is a relatively density of courses in the Vale of Glamorgan area, between Cardiff and Bridgend, due to the proliferation of course in the last fifteen years, serving the Cardiff Commuter Belt. There is also a high density of courses in the Conwy and Llandudno area.
Further details can be obtained from the Welsh Assembly Government's official golf tourism website [54], as well as on pages concerning the specic areas of Wales.
Wales's most prestigous courses include:
  • The Celtic Manor Resort [55] - located in Newport, Monmouthshire, it has three courses, and is the venue for the 2010 Ryder Cup.
  • Conwy (Caernarvonshire), Conwy, Caernarvonshire - this Links hosted a final qualifying round for the 2006 Open Championship
  • Machynys Golf and Country Club [56], Llanelli, Carmarthenshire - Links, opened in 2005 Wales' first and so far only Nicklaus-designed course.

Heritage Railways

These are more generally thought of as pleasurable attractions rather than ways to get around, although the Ffestiniog Railway from Porthmadog to Blaenau Ffestiniog can be used to link places on main rail lines, and the planned extension to the Welsh Highland Railway will create a useful link between Caernarfon, Beddgelert and Porthmadog. They are all historic lines that have been either preserved or restored and steam is a major feature on these lines.
A Talyllyn Railway train passing a level crossing near Brynglas Station
A Talyllyn Railway train passing a level crossing near Brynglas Station
The Snowdon Mountain Railway [61] must be the best known of all.
Hillwalking on Cadair Idris
Hillwalking on Cadair Idris
Wales' offers some spectacular coastal and mountainous scenery. Which offers the opportunity for various activity holidays.
  • Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales and offers ideal hiking opportunities.
  • Cadair Idris, close to the Mid-Wales coast, overlooking Dolgellau to the north and Bro Dysynni to the south-west is another very popular mountain. It has good rail access on both North and South sides from the Cambrian Coast Line, but this is virtually at sea level. The actual summit is 893 m or 2,930 ft above sea level. This makes for a strenuous walk which takes most of the day.
  • Pen y Fan, is the highest mountain in South Wales, situated in the Brecon Beacons. it is 886 m or 2,907 ft high.

Six Nations Rugby Tournament

Cardiff's Millennium Stadium hosts two or three matches per year as part of the premier Northern Hemisphere Rugby Tournament. As well as the match itself, Cardiff will host many visitors attending the game. Tickets and accommodation would generally need to be bought well in advance. If you are able to see a match then it is a valuable insight into Welsh culture, whether watching in a pub or in the Millennium Stadium.

Eat

Wales is not famous for its cuisine, but there are a few specialty dishes that you might like to try:
  • Cawl or Lobscouse (North) - a lamb broth.
  • Welsh Rarebit - a melted cheese dish, often spiced with ale and herbs and served on toasted bread.
  • Laver bread (pronounced "lar-ver") is not, as the name implies, bread, but a purée made from seaweed (the same kind that is used in the preparation of Japanese nori). It is generally rolled into small cakes mixed with oatmeal and served at breakfast alongside bacon rashers, though it is delicious simply heated and served on buttered toast. This dish is only available in the Swansea area and can be purchased raw at Swansea Market.
  • Ice-cream - due to an influx of Italians into Wales, the area has some of the best cones and tubs in the country. The following are UK national award winners: Frank's Ice Cream in Carmarthenshire, Joe's Ice-cream [66] in Swansea and Fecci & Sons Ice Cream in Tenby. La Belle Rouge [67] in Aberystwyth is also very highly recommended.
See the more general article on eating in the UK.
NB: Smoking in enclosed public areas, which includes restaurants and cafes, is illegal in Wales, and there is an on-the-spot fine of £50 for those who violate the ban.
  • Whisky - After an absence of over 100 years, Wales rejoined the club of Celtic countries that produce whisky in 2004 with the launch of the Welsh Whisky Company[68]. This distillery is based out of the village of Penderyn, near Brecon in South Wales. Penderyn whisky has received a number of awards and makes an interesting addition to the world of whisky. The distillery visitor centre opened in June 2008.
See the more general article on drinking in the UK, with information on pubs and real ale.
NB: Smoking in enclosed public areas, which includes pubs and cafes, is illegal in Wales, and there is an on-the-spot fine of £50 for those who violate the ban.

Sleep

Wales is very tourist-friendly, so finding hotel accommodation, a self catering holiday cottage or a place to pitch a tent should not be a problem. However, you might need to make prior reservations during the summer season in tourist areas such as Anglesey, Llandudno, Llangollen, Lleyn, Rhyl, Swansea/Mumbles and Tenby, or around the time of important sporting events in Cardiff.

Learn

Universities

Wales has ten major universities, all of which have large foreign student populations:
  • Aberystwyth [69]. A university overlooking the sea - excellent facilities.
  • Bangor [70]. A relatively small university, but with a good reputation.
  • Cardiff [71]. The largest and highest ranked of the universities.
  • Glamorgan [72]. A large university, set in the South Wales Valleys.
  • Glyndwr University, Wrexham [73]. Wales' newest university, constituted in 2008 from the North East Wales Institute of Higher Education.
  • Lampeter [74]. The third oldest university in England and Wales, behind only Oxford and Cambridge, based in the small town of Lampeter in West Wales. Home to the oldest rugby and hockey teams in Wales.
  • Newport [75]. Contains the well-renowned Newport Art School.
  • Swansea [76]. A large university located on the sea-front - often voted the top university in the UK for student experience.
  • Swansea Metropolitan [77]. This university is located at several campuses throughout the city, and it is famous for its courses in stained glass design [78] and digital media [79].
  • Trinity College, Carmarthen [80]. A small, but historic University, based in beautiful national park.
  • University Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) [81]. The self styled Cardiff metripolitan university.
  • Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama, Cardiff [82]. A college focusing on music and drama.
  • English Study Centre, 19-21 Uplands Crescent, Uplands, Swansea SA2 0NX. Tel:+44 1792 464-103. Email: info@escwales.co.uk [83]

Stay safe

In any emergency call 999 or 112 and ask for Ambulance, Fire, Police or Coast Guard when connected.
Wales is considered to be one of the safest parts of the United Kingdom, though visitors should be aware that criminal activity including violent crime is not uncommon. As in many British towns and cities, there are ongoing problems with alcohol related anti-social behaviour. It is perfectly safe to drive on Welsh roads, though visitors should take extra care on single-carriageways and single-lane roads.

Respect

Referring to Welsh people as English is incorrect and is likely to cause annoyance. The geo-political ties between England and Wales are strong, although some light-hearted anti-English sentiment is common, particularly in the patriotic North West of the country. It is common to hear the Welsh language being spoken in some parts of the country, though locals will rarely expect visitors to attempt to speak it. Using words like Bore Da (Good morning) and Diolch (Thank-you) will be appreciated in some parts of the country, but will sound strange in others -- this is due to some areas having almost exclusively English speaking populations (such as areas near the English border, along the Northern coast, the South Wales Valleys, Swansea and South Gower, South Pembrokeshire and Cardiff).

Contact

See Contact entry under United Kingdom for national information on telephone, internet and postal services.
See Contact entries under individual cities for local information.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.WALES (Cymru, Gwalia, Cambria), a Principality occupying the extreme middle-west of the southern part of the island of Great Britain, bounded E. by the English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire and Monmouthshire; S. by the Bristol Channel; W. by St George's Channel; and N. by the Irish Sea.^ WALES ( Cymru, Gwalia, Cambria ), a Principality occupying the extreme middle-west of the southern part of the island of Great Britain , bounded E. by the English counties of Cheshire , Shropshire , Herefordshire and Monmouthshire ; S. by the Bristol Channel; W. by St George's Channel; and N. by the Irish Sea.

^ Wales (Welsh Cymru ) The western part of Great Britain and a principality of the UNITED KINGDOM .
  • Wales Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucestershire border Wales on the east.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(For map see England, V.) Its area is 7467 sq.^ Its area is 7467 sq.

^ (For map see England, V .

m. .Its greatest length from N. to S. (from the Point of Air in Flint to Barry Island on the Glamorgan coast) is 136 m., while its breadth varies from 92 m.^ Its greatest length from N. to S. (from the Point of Air in Flint to Barry Island on the Glamorgan coast) is 136 m., while its breadth varies from 92 m.

^ Lobsters and crabs are caught in Cardigan Bay, and oysters are found at various points of the Pembrokeshire coast.

.(from St Davids Head to the English border beyond Crickhowell) to 37 m.^ St Davids Head to the English border beyond Crickhowell) to 37 m.

.(the distance between Aberystwyth and the Shropshire boundary at Clun Forest).^ Aberystwyth and the Shropshire boundary at Clun Forest).

.Its total circuit is about 540 m., of which 390 consist of coastline.^ Its total circuit is about 540 m., of which 390 consist of coastline.

.The principal headlands are Great Ormes Head in Carnarvonshire; Braich-y-Pwll, the most westerly point of Carnarvonshire; St Davids Head, the most westerly point of South Wales; Worms Head, the western extremity of Gower; and Lavernock Point to the W. of Cardiff.^ The principal headlands are Great Ormes Head in Carnarvonshire ; Braich-y-Pwll, the most westerly point of Carnarvonshire; St Davids Head, the most westerly point of South Wales ; Worms Head, the western extremity of Gower ; and Lavernock Point to the W. of Cardiff .

^ Great Orme's Head in North Wales has the same derivation.
  • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Norse Raids and Settlement in Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.

.The principal islands are Holy Island, off the W. coast of Anglesea; Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), near Braich-y-Pwll; and the islands of Ramsey, Grassholm, Skomer, Skokholm and Caldy (Ynys Pyr) off the Pembrokeshire coast.^ The principal islands are Holy Island , off the W. coast of Anglesea; Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), near Braich-y-Pwll; and the islands of Ramsey , Grassholm, Skomer, Skokholm and Caldy (Ynys Pyr) off the Pembrokeshire coast.

^ Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby , Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.

^ Other "-vik" names in Pembrokeshire include Helleswick, Little Wick, and Wick in Skomer Island.
  • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Norse Raids and Settlement in Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief inlets are the mouth of the Dee, dividing Flint from Cheshire; the Menai Straits, separating Anglesea from the mainland; Carnarvon Bay; Cardigan Bay, stretching from Braich-y-Pwll to St Davids Head; St Brides Bay; Milford Haven; Carmarthen Bay; and Swansea Bay.^ The chief inlets are the mouth of the Dee , dividing Flint from Cheshire; the Menai Straits , separating Anglesea from the mainland; Carnarvon Bay; Cardigan Bay, stretching from Braich-y-Pwll to St Davids Head; St Brides Bay; Milford Haven ; Carmarthen Bay; and Swansea Bay.

^ No one can fail to be impressed by the cathedral at St. David's and the Milford Haven oil refineries, unobtrusive by day are an impressive sight at night lit up like visiting spaceships.
  • Tourist Information for Wales - tourism information from Tourist Net UK 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.touristnetuk.com [Source type: News]

^ Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.

.In common parlance, as well as for judicial purposes of circuits, the Principality is divided into North Wales and South Wales, each of which consists of six counties.^ In common parlance, as well as for judicial purposes of circuits, the Principality is divided into North Wales and South Wales, each of which consists of six counties.

^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ They point to the fact that, although Henry VIII had declared the thirteen counties to constitute the Principality of Wales, a statute of Charles II so far detached Monmouthshire from the others as to annex it to the Oxford Assize Circuit.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Acreage.
Population
(1901).
.Anglesea (Ynys Fon) .^ Anglesea ( Ynys Fon ) .

176,630
50,606
.Carnarvon (Sir Arfon) .^ Carnarvon ( Sir Arfon ) .

361,156
126,883
.Denbigh (Sir Dinbych) .^ Denbigh ( Sir Dinbych ) .

423,499
129,942
.Flint (Sir Fflint) .^ Flint ( Sir Fflint ) .

164,744
81,700
.Merioneth (Sir Feirionydd) .^ Merioneth ( Sir Feirionydd ) .

427,810
49,149
Montgomery (Sir Drefaldwyn)
510,111
54,901
Acreage.
Population
(1901).
Brecon or Brecknock
(Sir Frycheiniog)
475,224
59,907
.Cardigan (Sir Aberteifi) .^ Cardigan ( Sir Aberteifi ) .

440,630
60,240
Carmarthen (Sir Gaerfyrddin)
587,816
135,328
.Glamorgan (Sir Forganwg) .^ Glamorgan ( Sir Forganwg ) .

518,863
859,931
.Pembroke (Sir Benfro).^ Pembroke ( Sir Benfro ).

.
395,151
88,732
.Radnor (Sir Faesyfed).^ Radnor ( Sir Faesyfed ).

.
301,164
23,281
North Wales. .South Wales. Mountains.^ The Cambrian Mountains, the most significant range, run north-south through central Wales.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

- Almost the whole surface of Wales is mountainous or undulating. .The most important hill system is that of the North Wales mountains, covering the county of Carnarvon and parts of Merioneth and Denbigh, wherein the Snowdonian range reaches the height of 3571 ft.^ Bala Lake, and drains parts of the counties of Merioneth, Denbigh and Flint.

^ The Highest Mountain in Wales at 3,650 ft.
  • The National Wales Theosophy Guide. Cardiff, Bangor, Swansea, Conwy,Theosophy Groups and Centres in North & South Wales, UK & Worldwide.Free Theosophy Courses. Inroductions & Guides to Theosophy. Adyar. Cardiff. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nwtgroups.smartemail.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important hill system is that of the North Wales mountains, covering the county of Carnarvon and parts of Merioneth and Denbigh , wherein the Snowdonian range reaches the height of 3571 ft.

in .Snowdon itself; of 3484 ft.^ Snowdon itself; of 3484 ft.

in .Carnedd Llywelyn; and of 3426 ft.^ Carnedd Llywelyn; and of 3426 ft.

in Carnedd Dafydd. .South of this system, and separated from it by the upper valley of the Dee, the Berwyn range extends from N.E. to S.E., and is itself adjacent to Aran-fawddy (2970 ft.^ South of this system, and separated from it by the upper valley of the Dee, the Berwyn range extends from N.E. to S.E., and is itself adjacent to Aran-fawddy (2970 ft.

), the highest point in the .Cader Idris group.^ Cader Idris group.

.The system of Mid-Wales or Powys stretches from Cardigan Bay to the English border, and contains Plinlimmon (2462 ft.^ The system of Mid-Wales or Powys stretches from Cardigan Bay to the English border, and contains Plinlimmon (2462 ft.

^ When William the Conqueror (William I) and his Norman army conquered England in 1066, the three English earldoms of Chester, Shrewsbury, and Hereford were established on the border with Wales.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the eve of the English Civil War in 1642, Puritanism, practiced by Oliver Cromwell and his supporters, was widespread in the border counties of Wales and in Pembrokeshire.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) in north .Cardigan; Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.^ Cardigan; Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.

) in north .Brecon; and Radnor Forest (2163 ft.^ Brecon ; and Radnor Forest (2163 ft.

) in mid-Radnor. .From Plinlimmon a range of hills runs in a south-westerly direction towards St Davids, terminating in the Preselly range of north Pembroke (1760 ft.^ From Plinlimmon a range of hills runs in a south-westerly direction towards St Davids, terminating in the Preselly range of north Pembroke (1760 ft.

^ South of this system, and separated from it by the upper valley of the Dee, the Berwyn range extends from N.E. to S.E., and is itself adjacent to Aran-fawddy (2970 ft.

^ The principal headlands are Great Ormes Head in Carnarvonshire ; Braich-y-Pwll, the most westerly point of Carnarvonshire; St Davids Head, the most westerly point of South Wales ; Worms Head, the western extremity of Gower ; and Lavernock Point to the W. of Cardiff .

) and dividing the broad valleys of the Teifi and Towy. .The three combined ranges of the Black Mountains, the Brecknock Beacons and the Black Forest sweep across south Brecon from W. to E., the chief elevations being the Carmarthen Van (2632 ft.^ The three combined ranges of the Black Mountains, the Brecknock Beacons and the Black Forest sweep across south Brecon from W. to E., the chief elevations being the Carmarthen Van (2632 ft.

^ Other mountain ranges include the Brecon Beacons to the southeast and Snowdon in the northwest, which reaches an elevation of 3,560 feet (1,085 meters) and is the highest mountain in Wales and England.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the south-east are the Brecon Beacons and coalfields, and in the south-west the Pembroke Peninsula with its rocky coasts.
  • Wales Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), the .Brecon Beacon (2862 ft.^ Brecon Beacon (2862 ft.

) and .Pen-7-gader fawr (2660 ft.^ Pen-7-gader fawr (2660 ft.

) near the English border.
Lakes and Rivers. - .Small lakes, such as Llyn Ogwen, Llyn Safaddan (Llangorse Lake), Talyllyn, the Teifi Pools, &c., are fairly numerous in the mountainous districts, but the only natural lake of importance is Bala Lake, or Llyn Tegid, in Merionethshire, 4 m.^ Small lakes, such as Llyn Ogwen, Llyn Safaddan (Llangorse Lake), Talyllyn, the Teifi Pools, &c., are fairly numerous in the mountainous districts, but the only natural lake of importance is Bala Lake, or Llyn Tegid, in Merionethshire, 4 m.

^ The Dee River, with its headwaters in Bala Lake, the largest natural lake in Wales, flows through northern Wales into England.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

long and about 1 m. wide. .But the great reservoir known as Lake Vyrnwy, which supplies Liverpool with water, is equal in size to Bala; and the chain of four artificial lakes constructed by the Birmingham corporation in the valleys of the Elan and Claerwen covers a large area in west Radnorshire.^ But the great reservoir known as Lake Vyrnwy , which supplies Liverpool with water, is equal in size to Bala; and the chain of four artificial lakes constructed by the Birmingham corporation in the valleys of the Elan and Claerwen covers a large area in west Radnorshire .

^ The increased standard of living throughout Great Britain has also made Wales a popular vacation and weekend retreat, principally for people from large urban areas in England.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be led by the All Wales Ethnic Minority Association (AWEMA) and will provide work and skills opportunities for over 1,000 people across West Wales and the Valleys area.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.The longest river in Wales is the Severn (180 m.^ The longest river in Wales is the Severn (180 m.

), in .Welsh Hafren, which rises in Plinlimmon, and takes a north-easterly direction through Montgomeryshire before reaching the English border.^ Welsh Hafren, which rises in Plinlimmon, and takes a north-easterly direction through Montgomeryshire before reaching the English border.

^ English Incursion to Union William I of England tried to deal with the Welsh by setting up border earldoms to protect his newly won kingdom from their incursions.
  • Wales Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Border wars were chronic between the Welsh and the seven English kingdoms known as the heptarchy.
  • Wales Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Wye (130 m.) also rises in .Plinlimmon, and forms for some 30 m.^ Plinlimmon, and forms for some 30 m.

the boundary between the counties of .Radnor and Brecon before encountering English soil near Hay.^ Radnor and Brecon before encountering English soil near Hay .

The Usk (56 m.) flows through .Breconshire, and joins the Bristol Channel at Newport in Monmouthshire.^ The Usk flows through Monmouthshire and Newport into the Bristol Channel.
  • Wales Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breconshire , and joins the Bristol Channel at Newport in Monmouthshire.

The Dee (70 m.) traverses .Bala Lake, and drains parts of the counties of Merioneth, Denbigh and Flint.^ Bala Lake, and drains parts of the counties of Merioneth, Denbigh and Flint.

^ The diocese of St Asaph (Llanelwy) consists of the county of Denbigh, nearly the whole of Flint, with portions of Montgomery, Merioneth and Shropshire.

^ The most important hill system is that of the North Wales mountains, covering the county of Carnarvon and parts of Merioneth and Denbigh , wherein the Snowdonian range reaches the height of 3571 ft.

The Towy (68 m.) flows through .Carmarthenshire, entering Carmarthen Bay at Llanstephan; the Teifi (50 m.^ Carmarthenshire , entering Carmarthen Bay at Llanstephan; the Teifi (50 m.

) rises near .Tregaron and falls into Cardigan Bay below the town of Cardigan.^ Tregaron and falls into Cardigan Bay below the town of Cardigan.

^ The estate is located on the outskirts of the village of Ciliau Aeron, just 3 miles from the bustling harbour town of Aberaeron on the Cardigan Bay coast.
  • West Wales Cottages - Coastal & Country Holiday Cottages in the Cardigan Bay area of West Wales - Cardiganshire, Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.westwales-cottages.com [Source type: General]

^ This picturesque little town is part of the beautiful, unspoilt Cardigan Bay Heritage Coast, noted for its dolphins, red kites, buzzards and other wildlife.
  • West Wales Cottages - Coastal & Country Holiday Cottages in the Cardigan Bay area of West Wales - Cardiganshire, Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.westwales-cottages.com [Source type: General]

The Taff (40 m.), rising amongst the .Brecon Beacons, enters the Bristol Channel at Cardiff.^ Brecon Beacons, enters the Bristol Channel at Cardiff.

.Other rivers are the Dovey (30 m.^ Other rivers are the Dovey (30 m.

), falling into .Cardigan Bay at Aberdovey; the TM (25 m.^ Cardigan Bay at Aberdovey ; the TM (25 m.

), entering .Carmarthen Bay at Laugharne; and the broad navigable Conway (24 m.^ Carmarthen Bay at Laugharne; and the broad navigable Conway (24 m.

), dividing the counties of Carnarvon and Denbigh.
Table of contents

Welsh Place-Names

.The place - names throughout the Principality may be said to group themselves roughly into four divisions: (i.^ The place - names throughout the Principality may be said to group themselves roughly into four divisions: (i.

^ To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and predominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast.

) .Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.^ Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.

) .Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.^ Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.

) .English names; (iv.^ English names; (iv.

) .Scandinavian and foreign names.^ Scandinavian and foreign names.

.To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire.^ To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ But although English and foreign place-names are fairly numerous throughout Wales, yet the vast majority remain Celtic either in a pure or in a corrupted form, so that some knowledge of the Celtic language is essential to interpret their meaning.

^ To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.

.Except in some districts of the Marches and in certain tracts lying along the South Wales coast, nearly all parishes, villages, hamlets, farms, houses, woods, fields, streams and valleys possess native appellations, which in most cases are descriptive of natural situation, e.g.^ Except in some districts of the Marches and in certain tracts lying along the South Wales coast, nearly all parishes, villages, hamlets, farms, houses, woods, fields, streams and valleys possess native appellations, which in most cases are descriptive of natural situation, e.g.

^ Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a hanging wood - Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt.

^ Bwthyn Barri, near Tresaith - sleeps 5 Bwthyn Barri is situated in a quiet rural location, on a 15 acre non working farm only 2 miles from the beautiful Cardigan Bay coast of West Wales and Tresaith Beach.
  • West Wales Cottages - Coastal & Country Holiday Cottages in the Cardigan Bay area of West Wales - Cardiganshire, Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.westwales-cottages.com [Source type: General]

.Nantyffin,
the boundary brook; Aberporth, mouth of the harbour; Talybont, end of the bridge; Troedyrhiw, foot of the hill; Dyffryn, a valley, &c.^ Nantyffin, the boundary brook; Aberporth, mouth of the harbour; Talybont, end of the bridge; Troedyrhiw, foot of the hill; Dyffryn, a valley, &c.

.Other place-names imply a personal connexion in addition to natural features, e.g.^ Other place-names imply a personal connexion in addition to natural features, e.g.

^ For instance, Welsh place names may be mutated in literature, and personal names may be mutated in formal texts.
  • Jessica Boynton: Hiraeth 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC people.emich.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nantygof,
the blacksmith's brook; Trefecca, the house of Rebecca; Llwyn Madoc, Madoc's grove; Pantsaeson, the Saxons' glen, &c.^ Nantygof, the blacksmith's brook; Trefecca, the house of Rebecca; Llwyn Madoc, Madoc's grove ; Pantsaeson, the Saxons ' glen, &c.

.An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno, Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS. Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c.^ An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno , Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS. Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c.

^ Celtic dialectal influences from Cumbric persisted in Northern England for many centuries, most famously in a unique set of numbers used for counting sheep.
  • THE UNITED KINGDOMS OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, NORTHERN IRELAND AND WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holyhead is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century); Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew , or Andras); St Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the banks of the Elwy.

.To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.^ To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.

^ Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.

^ Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.

.Anglicized in spelling and even to some extent changed in sound are Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin); Pembroke (Penfro); Kidwelly (Cydweli); Cardif f (Caerdydd); Llandovery (Llanymddyfri); while Lampeter, in Welsh Llanbedrpont-Stephan, affords an example of a Celtic place-name both Anglicized and abbreviated.^ Anglicized in spelling and even to some extent changed in sound are Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin); Pembroke (Penfro); Kidwelly (Cydweli); Cardif f (Caerdydd); Llandovery (Llanymddyfri); while Lampeter , in Welsh Llanbedrpont-Stephan, affords an example of a Celtic place-name both Anglicized and abbreviated.

^ Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.

^ A notable example of this curious nomenclature occurs in Bethesda , Carnarvonshire, where the name of the Congregational chapel erected early in the 10th century has altogether supplanted the original Celtic place-name of Cilfoden.

.In not a few instances modern English nomenclature has supplanted the old Welsh placenames in popular usage, although the town's original appellation is retained in Welsh literature and conversation, e.g.^ In not a few instances modern English nomenclature has supplanted the old Welsh placenames in popular usage, although the town's original appellation is retained in Welsh literature and conversation, e.g.

^ To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.

^ They, like the Basques, survived as a people (although the original culture and language of the Welsh did not survive as well as those of the Basques) on the fringes of the new Celtic society.
  • Jessica Boynton: Hiraeth 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC people.emich.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Holyhead
is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century); Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew, or Andras); St Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the banks of the Elwy.^ Holyhead is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century); Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew , or Andras); St Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the banks of the Elwy.

^ An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno , Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS. Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c.

^ A notable example of this curious nomenclature occurs in Bethesda , Carnarvonshire, where the name of the Congregational chapel erected early in the 10th century has altogether supplanted the original Celtic place-name of Cilfoden.

.Cardigan, in Welsh Aberteifi, from its situation near the mouth of the Teifi, and Brecon, in Welsh Aberhonddu, from its site near the confluence of the Usk and Honddu, are examples of corrupted Welsh names in common use - Ceredigion, Brychan - which possess in addition pure Celtic forms.^ Cardigan, in Welsh Aberteifi, from its situation near the mouth of the Teifi, and Brecon, in Welsh Aberhonddu, from its site near the confluence of the Usk and Honddu, are examples of corrupted Welsh names in common use - Ceredigion, Brychan - which possess in addition pure Celtic forms.

^ Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.

^ Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.

.In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and predominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast.^ In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and predominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast.

^ Hybrid place-names are occasionally to be met with in the colonized portions of Wales, as in Gelliswick (a combination of the Celtic gelli, a hazel grove, and the Norse wick , a haven), and in Fletherhill, where the English suffix hill is practically a translation of the Celtic prefix.

^ Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby , Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.

.Even in so thoroughly Welsh a county as Cardiganshire, English placenames are often to be encountered, e.g. New Quay, High Mead, Oakford, &c.; but many of such names are of modern invention, dating chiefly from the 18th and 19th centuries.^ New Quay , High Mead , Oakford, &c.; but many of such names are of modern invention, dating chiefly from the 18th and 19th centuries.

^ Even in so thoroughly Welsh a county as Cardiganshire , English placenames are often to be encountered, e.g.

^ Parc Gwair - Llwyndafydd, near New Quay - sleeps 4 Parc Gwair is 'Hay Meadow' in Welsh.
  • West Wales Cottages - Coastal & Country Holiday Cottages in the Cardigan Bay area of West Wales - Cardiganshire, Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.westwales-cottages.com [Source type: General]

.Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.^ Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

^ By 1100 the Norman lords had expanded their control to include the Welsh areas of Cardigan, Pembroke, Brecon, and Glamorgan.
  • Culture of Wales - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, men, life, immigrants, tribe, population, religion, rituals, Alternative name 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cowbridge
(Pontyfon) and Ludchurch (Eglwys Llwyd), others are of direct external origin, as Bishopstone, Flemingstone, Butter Hill, Briton Ferry, Manselfield, &c.^ Cowbridge (Pontyfon) and Ludchurch (Eglwys Llwyd), others are of direct external origin, as Bishopstone, Flemingstone, Butter Hill, Briton Ferry , Manselfield, &c.

.Names derived straight from an Anglo-Norman source are rare; Beaupre, Beaumaris, Beaufort, Fleur-de-Lis, Roche, may be cited as examples of such.^ Names derived straight from an Anglo-Norman source are rare; Beaupre, Beaumaris , Beaufort , Fleur-de-Lis , Roche, may be cited as examples of such.

.Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby, Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.^ Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby , Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.

^ It is widely accepted that a colony of Scandinavians settled on both sides of the great fjord of Milford Haven in South Pembrokeshire.
  • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Norse Raids and Settlement in Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.

.Specimens of Latinized names in connexion with ecclesiastical foundations are preserved in Strata Florida and Valle Crucis Abbeys.^ Specimens of Latinized names in connexion with ecclesiastical foundations are preserved in Strata Florida and Valle Crucis Abbeys.

.Hybrid place-names are occasionally to be met with in the colonized portions of Wales, as in Gelliswick (a combination of the Celtic gelli, a hazel grove, and the Norse wick, a haven), and in Fletherhill, where the English suffix hill is practically a translation of the Celtic prefix.^ Hybrid place-names are occasionally to be met with in the colonized portions of Wales, as in Gelliswick (a combination of the Celtic gelli, a hazel grove, and the Norse wick , a haven), and in Fletherhill, where the English suffix hill is practically a translation of the Celtic prefix.

^ To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ But although English and foreign place-names are fairly numerous throughout Wales, yet the vast majority remain Celtic either in a pure or in a corrupted form, so that some knowledge of the Celtic language is essential to interpret their meaning.

.A striking peculiarity of the Principality is the prevalence of Scriptural place-names; a circumstance due undoubtedly to the popular religious movements of the 19th century.^ A striking peculiarity of the Principality is the prevalence of Scriptural place-names; a circumstance due undoubtedly to the popular religious movements of the 19th century.

^ New Quay , High Mead , Oakford, &c.; but many of such names are of modern invention, dating chiefly from the 18th and 19th centuries.

^ Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.

.Not only are such names as Horeb, Zion, Penuel, Siloh, &c., bestowed on Nonconformist chapels, but these Biblical terms have likewise been applied to their surrounding houses, and in not a few instances to growing towns and villages.^ Not only are such names as Horeb , Zion , Penuel, Siloh, &c., bestowed on Nonconformist chapels, but these Biblical terms have likewise been applied to their surrounding houses, and in not a few instances to growing towns and villages.

^ In not a few instances modern English nomenclature has supplanted the old Welsh placenames in popular usage, although the town's original appellation is retained in Welsh literature and conversation, e.g.

.A notable example of this curious nomenclature occurs in Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, where the name of the Congregational chapel erected early in the 10th century has altogether supplanted the original Celtic place-name of Cilfoden.^ A notable example of this curious nomenclature occurs in Bethesda , Carnarvonshire, where the name of the Congregational chapel erected early in the 10th century has altogether supplanted the original Celtic place-name of Cilfoden.

^ To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.

^ Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.

.But although English and foreign place-names are fairly numerous throughout Wales, yet the vast majority remain Celtic either in a pure or in a corrupted form, so that some knowledge of the Celtic language is essential to interpret their meaning.^ To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ But although English and foreign place-names are fairly numerous throughout Wales, yet the vast majority remain Celtic either in a pure or in a corrupted form, so that some knowledge of the Celtic language is essential to interpret their meaning.

^ Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.

.A small glossary of some of the more common component words is appended below.^ A small glossary of some of the more common component words is appended below.

^ If you need help with some words go to Pagan Witchcraft Glossary .
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.Aber, the mouth or estuary of a river - Aberystwyth, Abergwili.^ Aber, the mouth or estuary of a river - Aberystwyth, Abergwili.

.Ach, water - Clydach, Clarach.^ Ach, water - Clydach, Clarach.

.Afon, a river - a word which retains its primitive meaning in Wales, whilst it has become a proper name in England - Glanafon, Manorafon.^ Afon, a river - a word which retains its primitive meaning in Wales, whilst it has become a proper name in England - Glanafon, Manorafon.

^ Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.

^ Wy, or gwy, an obsolete Celtic word for water, preserved in the names of many Welsh rivers - Elwy, Gwili, Wye or Gwy.

.Bettws, a corrupt form of the English " bead-house," or possibly of the Latin " beatus " - Bettws-y-coed, Bettws Ifan.^ Bettws, a corrupt form of the English " bead -house," or possibly of the Latin " beatus " - Bettws-y-coed , Bettws Ifan.

^ Porth, a gate or harbour - perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta " - Aberporth, Pump Porth (" the Five Gates ").

^ Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin " hospitium ," often used of the guest-house of an abbey - Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite.

.Blaen, the top - Blaendyffryn, Blaencwm.^ Blaen, the top - Blaendyffryn, Blaencwm.

.Bod, house or abode - Bodfuan, Hafod.^ Bod, house or abode - Bodfuan, Hafod.

.Bron, the human breast, hence breast of hill - Brongest, Cilbronnau.^ Bron, the human breast , hence breast of hill - Brongest, Cilbronnau.

.Bryn, a hill - Brynmawr, Penbryn.^ Bryn, a hill - Brynmawr , Penbryn.

.Bwlch, a gap - Bwlchbychan, Tanybwlch.^ Bwlch, a gap - Bwlchbychan, Tanybwlch.

.Cae, a field - Caeglas, Tynycae.^ Cae, a field - Caeglas, Tynycae.

.Caer, a fortress or fortified camp - Caerlleon, Caersws.^ Caer, a fortress or fortified camp - Caerlleon, Caersws.

.Capel, a corrupt form of the Latin " capella " applied to chapels, ancient and recent - Capel Dewi, Capel-issaf, Parc-y-capel.^ Capel, a corrupt form of the Latin " capella " applied to chapels, ancient and recent - Capel Dewi, Capel-issaf, Parc-y-capel.

^ Porth, a gate or harbour - perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta " - Aberporth, Pump Porth (" the Five Gates ").

^ Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin " hospitium ," often used of the guest-house of an abbey - Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite.

Cam, a cairn or heap of stones - Moel-trigarn.
.Carnedd, a tumulus - Carnedd Llywelyn.^ Carnedd, a tumulus - Carnedd Llywelyn.

.Cefn, a ridge - Cefn-Mably, Cefn-y-bedd.^ Cefn, a ridge - Cefn-Mably, Cefn-y-bedd.

.Cil, a retreat, said to be akin to the Goidelic kil - Ciliau-Aeron, Cilcennin.^ Cil, a retreat, said to be akin to the Goidelic kil - Ciliau-Aeron, Cilcennin.

.Cnwc, a knoll or mound - Cnwcglas (Anglicized into Knucklas, in Radnorshire).^ Cnwc, a knoll or mound - Cnwcglas (Anglicized into Knucklas, in Radnorshire).

.Coed, a wood - Coedmawr, Penycoed.^ Coed, a wood - Coedmawr, Penycoed.

.Craig, a rock or crag - Pen-y-graig.^ Craig, a rock or crag - Pen-y-graig.

.Crag, a heap or barrow - Crag Mawr, Trichrug.^ Crag, a heap or barrow - Crag Mawr, Trichrug.

.Cwm, a low valley, Anglicized into " coomb " - Cwm Gwendraeth, Blaencwm.^ Cwm, a low valley, Anglicized into " coomb " - Cwm Gwendraeth, Blaencwm.

.Din, a fortified hill, hence Dinas, a fortified town - Dinefawr, Pen Dinas.^ Din, a fortified hill, hence Dinas, a fortified town - Dinefawr, Pen Dinas.

.Dal, a meadow - Dolwilym, Dolau.^ Dal, a meadow - Dolwilym, Dolau.

.Dwr, Dwfr, water - Glyndwrdu, the patrimony of the celebrated Owen Glendower, of which his Anglicized name is a corruption.^ Dwr, Dwfr, water - Glyndwrdu, the patrimony of the celebrated Owen Glendower , of which his Anglicized name is a corruption.

.Eglwys, a corruption of the Latin " ecclesia," a church - Eglwyswrw, Tanyreglwys.^ Eglwys, a corruption of the Latin " ecclesia ," a church - Eglwyswrw, Tanyreglwys.

.Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a hanging wood - Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt.^ Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a hanging wood - Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt.

^ Wales was experiencing a time of civil war and internecine battling as the kings of the north and south attempted to enlarge their realms at the expense of their neighbors.
  • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Norse Raids and Settlement in Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.

.Gelli, a grove - Gellideg, Pengelly Forest.^ Gelli, a grove - Gellideg, Pengelly Forest.

.Glan, a bank - Glanymor, Glandofan.^ Glan, a bank - Glanymor, Glandofan.

.Glyn, a glen or narrow valley - Glyncothi, Tyglyn.^ Glyn, a glen or narrow valley - Glyncothi, Tyglyn.

.Llan, a sacred enclosure, hence a church - a most interesting and important Celtic prefix - Llandeilo, Llansaint.^ Llan, a sacred enclosure, hence a church - a most interesting and important Celtic prefix - Llandeilo, Llansaint.

.Llech, a stone - Llechryd, Trellech.^ Llech, a stone - Llechryd, Trellech.

.Llwyn, a grove - Penllwyn, Llwynybran.^ Llwyn, a grove - Penllwyn, Llwynybran.

.Llys, a court or palace - Henllys, Llysowen.^ Llys, a court or palace - Henllys, Llysowen.

.Maes, open land, or battlefield - Maesyfed (the Welsh name for Radnorshire), Maesllwch.^ Maes, open land, or battlefield - Maesyfed (the Welsh name for Radnorshire), Maesllwch.

.Moel, bald, hence a bare hill-top - Moelfre.^ Moel, bald, hence a bare hill-top - Moelfre.

.Mor, the sea - Brynmor, Glanymor.^ Mor, the sea - Brynmor, Glanymor.

.Mynydd, mountain - Llanfynydd, Mynydd Da.^ Mynydd, mountain - Llanfynydd, Mynydd Da.

.Nant, a ravine, hence also a brook - Nantgwyllt, Nannau, Nantgaredig.^ Nant, a ravine , hence also a brook - Nantgwyllt, Nannau, Nantgaredig.

.Pant, a glen or hollow - Pantycelyn, Blaenpant.^ Pant, a glen or hollow - Pantycelyn, Blaenpant.

.Parc, an enclosed field - Parc-y-Marw, Penparc.^ Parc, an enclosed field - Parc-y-Marw, Penparc.

.Pen, a summit - Penmaenmawr, Penmark.^ Pen, a summit - Penmaenmawr, Penmark.

.Pont, a bridge, a corruption of the Latin " pons " - Ponthirwen, Talybont.^ Pont , a bridge, a corruption of the Latin " pons " - Ponthirwen, Talybont.

.Porth, a gate or harbour - perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta " - Aberporth, Pump Porth (" the Five Gates ").^ Porth, a gate or harbour - perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta " - Aberporth, Pump Porth (" the Five Gates ").

^ Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin " hospitium ," often used of the guest-house of an abbey - Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite.

^ Capel, a corrupt form of the Latin " capella " applied to chapels, ancient and recent - Capel Dewi, Capel-issaf, Parc-y-capel.

.Rhiw, ascent or slope - Troedyrhiw, Rhiwlas.^ Rhiw, ascent or slope - Troedyrhiw, Rhiwlas.

.Rhos, a moor - Rhosllyn, Tyr'hos.^ Rhos, a moor - Rhosllyn, Tyr'hos.

.Rhyd, a ford - Rhydyfuwch, Glanrhyd.^ Rhyd, a ford - Rhydyfuwch, Glanrhyd.

.Sam, a causeway, generally descriptive of the old Roman paved roads - Talsarn, Sarnau, Sarn Badrig.^ Sam, a causeway , generally descriptive of the old Roman paved roads - Talsarn, Sarnau, Sarn Badrig.

.Tal, an end, also head - Taliaris, Talyllyn.^ Tal, an end, also head - Taliaris, Talyllyn.

.Tref, a homestead, hence cantref, a hundred - Hendref, Cantref-ygwaelod.^ Tref, a homestead , hence cantref, a hundred - Hendref, Cantref-ygwaelod.

.Troed, a base - Troed-y-bryn.^ Troed, a base - Troed-y-bryn.

.Ty, a house, a cottage - Tynewydd, Mynachty.^ Ty, a house, a cottage - Tynewydd, Mynachty.

.Wy, or gwy, an obsolete Celtic word for water, preserved in the names of many Welsh rivers - Elwy, Gwili, Wye or Gwy.^ Wy, or gwy, an obsolete Celtic word for water, preserved in the names of many Welsh rivers - Elwy, Gwili, Wye or Gwy.

^ Athelstan King of Wessex agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.

.Ynys, an island, or hill in the midst of a bog - Ynys Enlli (the Welsh name for Bardsey Islands), Ynyshir, Clynrynys.^ Ynys, an island, or hill in the midst of a bog - Ynys Enlli (the Welsh name for Bardsey Islands), Ynyshir, Clynrynys.

^ The principal islands are Holy Island , off the W. coast of Anglesea; Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), near Braich-y-Pwll; and the islands of Ramsey , Grassholm, Skomer, Skokholm and Caldy (Ynys Pyr) off the Pembrokeshire coast.

.Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin " hospitium," often used of the guest-house of an abbey - Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite.^ Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin " hospitium ," often used of the guest-house of an abbey - Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite.

^ Capel, a corrupt form of the Latin " capella " applied to chapels, ancient and recent - Capel Dewi, Capel-issaf, Parc-y-capel.

^ Porth, a gate or harbour - perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta " - Aberporth, Pump Porth (" the Five Gates ").

.Ystrad, a meadow or rich lowland - Ystrad Mynach, Llanfihangel Ystrad.^ Ystrad, a meadow or rich lowland - Ystrad Mynach, Llanfihangel Ystrad.

Population

.The total population of the twelve counties of the Principality was: 1,360,513 (1881), 1,519,035 (1891), 1,720,600 (1901).^ In 1841 the Welsh-speaking population was computed at 67% of the total, and in 1893 Welsh was understood or spoken by over 60% of the inhabitants in the twelve Welsh counties with the exception of the following districts, wherein English is the prevailing or the sole language employed: - viz.

^ The total population of the twelve counties of the Principality was: 1,360,513 (1881), 1,519,035 (1891), 1,720,600 (1901).

.These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery, present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.^ These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire ; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery , present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.

^ The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep , the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.

^ Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys Fon) and the Snowdonian district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the Silures , occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth.

.The whole population of Wales in Tudor, Stuart and early Georgian times can scarcely have exceeded 500,000 souls, and was probably less.^ The whole population of Wales in Tudor , Stuart and early Georgian times can scarcely have exceeded 500,000 souls, and was probably less.

^ Johnson's house and the orchard (at one time there was an orchard) now owned by Arthur Stuart; to Charles, the property now owned by Mrs. Wallace Stuart; James owned the rest of Wales.

^ Grants from £500 to £100,000 are available for up to 3 years at a time.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.But with the systematic development of the vast mineral resources of the South Wales coalfield, the population of Glamorganshire has increased at a more rapid rate than that of any other county of the United Kingdom, so that at present this county contains about half the population of all Wales.^ But with the systematic development of the vast mineral resources of the South Wales coalfield, the population of Glamorganshire has increased at a more rapid rate than that of any other county of the United Kingdom , so that at present this county contains about half the population of all Wales.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

^ After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a tale of romance than a piece of sane history.

.It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the northern districts of Glamorganshire and the southeastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality.^ It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the northern districts of Glamorganshire and the southeastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality.

^ These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire ; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery , present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.

^ The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep , the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.

.The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil, Aberdare, Pontypridd, Llanelly, Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke, Caerphilly, Maesteg, Wrexham, Penarth, Neath, Festiniog, Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen.^ The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil , Aberdare , Pontypridd , Llanelly , Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke, Caerphilly , Maesteg, Wrexham , Penarth , Neath , Festiniog , Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen.

^ Only four towns in North Wales are included in these eighteen, and the combined populations of these four - Wrexham (14,966), Festiniog (11,435), Bangor (11,269) and Holyhead (10,079) - fall far below that of Merthyr Tydfil (69,228), the fourth largest town in Glamorganshire.

^ The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.

.Only four towns in North Wales are included in these eighteen, and the combined populations of these four - Wrexham (14,966), Festiniog (11,435), Bangor (11,269) and Holyhead (10,079) - fall far below that of Merthyr Tydfil (69,228), the fourth largest town in Glamorganshire.^ Only four towns in North Wales are included in these eighteen, and the combined populations of these four - Wrexham (14,966), Festiniog (11,435), Bangor (11,269) and Holyhead (10,079) - fall far below that of Merthyr Tydfil (69,228), the fourth largest town in Glamorganshire.

^ The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil , Aberdare , Pontypridd , Llanelly , Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke, Caerphilly , Maesteg, Wrexham , Penarth , Neath , Festiniog , Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen.

^ About 400,000 tons of pig iron are produced yearly, and some of the largest iron-works in the world are situated at Merthyr Tydfil and Dowlais.

Industries

.The chief mineral product of the Principality is coal, of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually.^ The chief mineral product of the Principality is coal , of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually.

.The great South Wales coalfield, one of the largest in the kingdom, covers the greater part of Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, the south-eastern corner of Carmarthenshire, and a small portion of south Pembrokeshire, and the quality of its coal is especially suitable for smelting purposes and for use in steamships.^ The great South Wales coalfield, one of the largest in the kingdom, covers the greater part of Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, the south-eastern corner of Carmarthenshire, and a small portion of south Pembrokeshire, and the quality of its coal is especially suitable for smelting purposes and for use in steamships.

^ It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the northern districts of Glamorganshire and the southeastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality.

^ But with the systematic development of the vast mineral resources of the South Wales coalfield, the population of Glamorganshire has increased at a more rapid rate than that of any other county of the United Kingdom , so that at present this county contains about half the population of all Wales.

.The supply of limestone and ironstone in Glamorganshire is said to be practically unlimited.^ The supply of limestone and ironstone in Glamorganshire is said to be practically unlimited.

.About 400,000 tons of pig iron are produced yearly, and some of the largest iron-works in the world are situated at Merthyr Tydfil and Dowlais.^ About 400,000 tons of pig iron are produced yearly, and some of the largest iron-works in the world are situated at Merthyr Tydfil and Dowlais.

^ Aimed at voluntary organisations and community groups in the Merthyr Tydfil County Borough, grants will be between £5,000 and £25,000.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.Copper, tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly.^ Copper , tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly.

^ At this period the copper mines of Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors.

^ K eep Wales Tidy has joined forces with the Heads of the Valleys Programme to call upon Valleys residents & businesses to join in an effort to clean up the Heads of the Valleys neighbourhoods.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.In North Wales, Wrexham, Ruabon and Chirk are centres of coal-mining industry.^ In North Wales, Wrexham, Ruabon and Chirk are centres of coal- mining industry.

^ Golly Farm Beautiful barn conversion to two luxury, WTB Graded 5*, cottages, on the North Wales/Cheshire border, 10 miles from Chester, 8 miles from Wrexham.
  • Holiday Cottages Wales | Holiday Cottages Gwynedd | Holiday Cottages Anglesey | Holiday Cottages Snowdonia | Holiday Cottages Flint | Holiday Cottages Denbigh | Holiday Cottages Conwy | Holiday Cottages Wrexham 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.oas.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Find your perfect self catering holiday cottage in North Wales - Angelsey, Conwy, Denbighshire, Gwynedd, Flintshire, Wrexham and Snowdonia at UK Holiday Cottages Online.
  • Holiday Cottages Wales | Holiday Cottages Gwynedd | Holiday Cottages Anglesey | Holiday Cottages Snowdonia | Holiday Cottages Flint | Holiday Cottages Denbigh | Holiday Cottages Conwy | Holiday Cottages Wrexham 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.oas.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.There are valuable copper mines in Anglesea, and lead.^ There are valuable copper mines in Anglesea, and lead.

^ At this period the copper mines of Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors.

mines in .Flint and in north Cardiganshire, which also yield a certain deposit of silver ore.^ Flint and in north Cardiganshire, which also yield a certain deposit of silver ore.

.Gold has been discovered and worked, though only to a small extent, in Merionethshire and Carmarthenshire.^ Gold has been discovered and worked, though only to a small extent, in Merionethshire and Carmarthenshire.

^ At this period the copper mines of Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors.

.Slate quarries are very numerous throughout the Principality, the finest quality of slate being obtained in the neighbourhood of Bangor and Carnarvon, where the Penrhyn and Bethesda quarries give employment to many thousands of workmen.^ Slate quarries are very numerous throughout the Principality, the finest quality of slate being obtained in the neighbourhood of Bangor and Carnarvon, where the Penrhyn and Bethesda quarries give employment to many thousands of workmen.

.By far the larger portion of Wales is purely agricultural in character, and much of the valley land is particularly fertile, notably the Vale of Glamorgan, the Vale of Clwyd and the valleys of the Towy, the Teifi, the Usk and the Wye, which have long been celebrated for their rich pastures.^ By far the larger portion of Wales is purely agricultural in character, and much of the valley land is particularly fertile, notably the Vale of Glamorgan, the Vale of Clwyd and the valleys of the Towy, the Teifi, the Usk and the Wye, which have long been celebrated for their rich pastures.

^ Wesleyan and Presbyterian chapels are likewise numerous, and the Unitarian or Socinian body has long been powerful in the valley of the Teifi.

^ At the accession of William Rufus the domain of Gwynedd had been reduced to Anglesea and the Snowdonian district, and that of South Wales, or Deheubarth, to the lands contained in the basins of the rivers Towy and Teifi, known as Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion.

.The holdings throughout Wales are for the most part smaller in extent than the average farms of England.^ The holdings throughout Wales are for the most part smaller in extent than the average farms of England.

.Stock-raising is generally preferred to the growing of cereals, and in western Wales the oat crops exceed in size those of wheat and barley.^ Stock-raising is generally preferred to the growing of cereals, and in western Wales the oat crops exceed in size those of wheat and barley .

.The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep, the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.^ The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep , the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.

^ These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire ; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery , present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.

^ But the great reservoir known as Lake Vyrnwy , which supplies Liverpool with water, is equal in size to Bala; and the chain of four artificial lakes constructed by the Birmingham corporation in the valleys of the Elan and Claerwen covers a large area in west Radnorshire .

.The wool of the sheep is manufactured into flannel at numberless factories in the various country towns, and the supply meets an important local demand.^ The wool of the sheep is manufactured into flannel at numberless factories in the various country towns, and the supply meets an important local demand.

.The upland tracts also afford good pasturage for a number of cobs and ponies, which obtain high prices at the local fairs, and Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire have long been famous for their breed of horses and ponies.^ The upland tracts also afford good pasturage for a number of cobs and ponies, which obtain high prices at the local fairs, and Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire have long been famous for their breed of horses and ponies.

^ At the local fairs one mile constituted one heat and there were often two or three heats on the same afternoon for the same horses.

The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts. .The great herds of goats, which in medieval times subsisted on the Welsh hills, have entirely disappeared since the general adoption of the sheep-farming industry.^ The great herds of goats, which in medieval times subsisted on the Welsh hills, have entirely disappeared since the general adoption of the sheep-farming industry.

^ Also, at the time of the battle of Chrysler's Farm in 1813, when General Brown and his brigade were attacked at Hoople's Creek by the militia, several of the American were wounded.

The deep-sea fisheries on the south-western coasts are of some importance; the Mumbles, Tenby and Milford Haven being the chief centres of this industry. .Lobsters and crabs are caught in Cardigan Bay, and oysters are found at various points of the Pembrokeshire coast.^ Lobsters and crabs are caught in Cardigan Bay, and oysters are found at various points of the Pembrokeshire coast.

^ Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby , Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.

^ Its greatest length from N. to S. (from the Point of Air in Flint to Barry Island on the Glamorgan coast) is 136 m., while its breadth varies from 92 m.

.The large rivers produce salmon, which are usually sent to the great towns for sale.^ The large rivers produce salmon , which are usually sent to the great towns for sale.

.The Wye, the Usk, the Dee, the Dovey, the Teifi, the Towy and most of the Welsh rivers and lakes are frequented by anglers for salmon and trout.^ Athelstan King of Wessex agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Communications

.The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.^ The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.

^ The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.

^ The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil , Aberdare , Pontypridd , Llanelly , Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke, Caerphilly , Maesteg, Wrexham , Penarth , Neath , Festiniog , Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen.

.The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.^ The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.

^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.

.A network of lines connects the great industrial districts of Glamorganshire with the main line of the Great Western railway.^ A network of lines connects the great industrial districts of Glamorganshire with the main line of the Great Western railway.

^ The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.

^ There have been occasional strikes accompanied by acts of lawlessness in the industrial and mining districts of Glamorganshire, and also amongst the workmen employed in the quarries of Gwynedd.

.There are steamship services between Holyhead and Dublin in connexion with the trains of the London & North-Western railway; and an important traffic for dairy produce, live-stock and passengers between Fishguard and Rosslare on the Irish coast was opened in 1906 in connexion with the Great Western railway.^ There is also a boat service between Holyhead and Greenore on the Ulster coast.

^ There are steamship services between Holyhead and Dublin in connexion with the trains of the London & North-Western railway; and an important traffic for dairy produce, live-stock and passengers between Fishguard and Rosslare on the Irish coast was opened in 1906 in connexion with the Great Western railway.

^ The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.

.There is also a boat service between Holyhead and Greenore on the Ulster coast.^ There is also a boat service between Holyhead and Greenore on the Ulster coast.

^ There are steamship services between Holyhead and Dublin in connexion with the trains of the London & North-Western railway; and an important traffic for dairy produce, live-stock and passengers between Fishguard and Rosslare on the Irish coast was opened in 1906 in connexion with the Great Western railway.

^ Steamboats likewise ply between Milford , Tenby, Swansea and Cardiff and Bristol; also between Swansea and Cardiff and Dublin; and there is a regular service between Swansea and Ilfracombe .

.Steamboats likewise ply between Milford, Tenby, Swansea and Cardiff and Bristol; also between Swansea and Cardiff and Dublin; and there is a regular service between Swansea and Ilfracombe.^ Steamboats likewise ply between Milford , Tenby, Swansea and Cardiff and Bristol; also between Swansea and Cardiff and Dublin; and there is a regular service between Swansea and Ilfracombe .

^ There is also a boat service between Holyhead and Greenore on the Ulster coast.

.The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.^ The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny , all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.

^ Copper , tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly.

^ A network of lines connects the great industrial districts of Glamorganshire with the main line of the Great Western railway.

Government

.In all acts of parliament Wales is invariably included under the term of " England and Wales " and whenever an act, or any section of an act, is intended to apply to the Principality alone, then Wales is always coupled with Monmouthshire.^ In all acts of parliament Wales is invariably included under the term of " England and Wales " and whenever an act, or any section of an act, is intended to apply to the Principality alone, then Wales is always coupled with Monmouthshire.

^ Scotland, England and Wales are all visible .
  • Theosophy:- The National Wales Theosophy Website. Theosophy Groups andCentres Cardiff, Swansea ( South Wales) Bangor, Conwy, (North Wales) UK &Worldwide. Free Theosophy Courses. Inroductions & Guides to Theosophy.Theosophy Utah, Salt Lake City, USA. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.theosophywales.freeukisp.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The National Wales Theosophy Guide. Cardiff, Bangor, Swansea, Conwy,Theosophy Groups and Centres in North & South Wales, UK & Worldwide.Free Theosophy Courses. Inroductions & Guides to Theosophy. Adyar. Cardiff. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nwtgroups.smartemail.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

.The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh Sunday Closing Act (46 Victoria), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all inn-keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.^ The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh Sunday Closing Act (46 Victoria ), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all inn -keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality - as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear to the strong temperance party in Wales, and in the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, granted by Lord Salisbury's government in 1889.

.A separate act on behalf of Welsh education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire.^ A separate act on behalf of Welsh education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire.

^ The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh Sunday Closing Act (46 Victoria ), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all inn -keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.

^ With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality - as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear to the strong temperance party in Wales, and in the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, granted by Lord Salisbury's government in 1889.

.Except for the administration of these two special acts, the system of government in Wales is identical in every respect with that of England (see England and UNITED KINGDOM).^ Except for the administration of these two special acts, the system of government in Wales is identical in every respect with that of England (see England and UNITED KINGDOM).

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

^ Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.

.Royal commissions dealing with questions peculiar to Wales have been issued from time to time, notably of recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see History). Religion.^ Royal commissions dealing with questions peculiar to Wales have been issued from time to time, notably of recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see History).

^ Our tradition has a Welsh Lineage and History which goes back hundreds and thousands of years.  It didn't just appear.  We came to the United States from Wales in the 60s, and have grown quite a bit since then.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

- Ecclesiastically, the whole of Wales lies within the province of Canterbury. .The four Welsh sees, however, extend beyond the borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other hand, the sees of Hereford and Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties.^ The four Welsh sees, however, extend beyond the borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other hand, the sees of Hereford and Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties.

^ In 1841 the Welsh-speaking population was computed at 67% of the total, and in 1893 Welsh was understood or spoken by over 60% of the inhabitants in the twelve Welsh counties with the exception of the following districts, wherein English is the prevailing or the sole language employed: - viz.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

.The diocese of St Davids (Tyddewi), the largest, oldest and poorest of the four Cambrian sees, consists of the counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, almost the whole of Brecon, the greater part of Radnor, and west Glamorgan with Swansea and Gower.^ In aid of St David's Foundation, which provides a hospice at home serive in Newport, Torfaen, Caerphilly & Monmouthshire for almost 30 years.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.The cathedral church of St Davids is situated near the remote headland of St Davids in Pembrokeshire, but the episcopal residence has been fixed ever since the Reformation at Abergwili near Carmarthen, the most central spot in this vast diocese.^ The cathedral church of St Davids is situated near the remote headland of St Davids in Pembrokeshire, but the episcopal residence has been fixed ever since the Reformation at Abergwili near Carmarthen, the most central spot in this vast diocese.

^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

^ The diocese of St Davids (Tyddewi), the largest, oldest and poorest of the four Cambrian sees, consists of the counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, almost the whole of Brecon, the greater part of Radnor, and west Glamorgan with Swansea and Gower.

.The see of Llandaff comprises Monmouthshire, all Glamorganshire as far west as the Tawe, and some parishes in Brecon and Hereford.^ The see of Llandaff comprises Monmouthshire, all Glamorganshire as far west as the Tawe, and some parishes in Brecon and Hereford.

^ The four Welsh sees, however, extend beyond the borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other hand, the sees of Hereford and Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties.

^ The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny , all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.

The diocese of Bangor consists of the counties of Anglesea, Carnarvon and large portions of Merioneth and Montgomery. The diocese of St Asaph (Llanelwy) consists of the county of Denbigh, nearly the whole of Flint, with portions of Montgomery, Merioneth and Shropshire.
.Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.^ Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.

^ According to the above Report, the three most powerful dissenting bodies in Wales are the Congregationalists or Independents , whose members number 175,147 throughout Wales and Monmouthshire; the Calvinistic Methodists - a direct offshoot of the Church since the schism of 1811 - with a membership of 170,617; and the Baptists , 143,835.

^ A striking peculiarity of the Principality is the prevalence of Scriptural place-names; a circumstance due undoubtedly to the popular religious movements of the 19th century.

.Universally accepted statistics as to the various religious bodies it has been found impossible to obtain, but the Report (1910) of the Welsh Church Commission stated that, exclusive of Roman Catholics, there were 743,361 communicants or fully admitted members of some denomination, of whom 193,081 were Churchmen and 550,280 Nonconformists.^ Universally accepted statistics as to the various religious bodies it has been found impossible to obtain, but the Report (1910) of the Welsh Church Commission stated that, exclusive of Roman Catholics, there were 743,361 communicants or fully admitted members of some denomination , of whom 193,081 were Churchmen and 550,280 Nonconformists.

^ As early as the reign of Henry VIII. there were, however, to be found at court and in the universities a number of ardent and talented young Welshmen, adherents mostly of the reforming party in Church and State, who were destined to bring about a brilliant literary revival in their native land during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I .

^ Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.

.The gentry and landowners are all, broadly speaking, members of the established Church, but it is impossible to name any other class of society as belonging definitely either to " Church " or " Chapel."^ The gentry and landowners are all, broadly speaking, members of the established Church, but it is impossible to name any other class of society as belonging definitely either to " Church " or " Chapel."

^ All listed places of worship in Wales are eligible - as well as any buildings physically attached to the place of worship - such as schoolrooms or vestries - but not for other associated buildings such as church halls.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

^ The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.

According to the above Report, the three most powerful dissenting bodies in Wales are the Congregationalists or Independents, whose members number 175,147 throughout Wales and Monmouthshire; the Calvinistic Methodists - a direct offshoot of the Church since the schism of 1811 - with a membership of 170,617; and the Baptists, 143,835. Wesleyan and Presbyterian chapels are likewise numerous, and the Unitarian or Socinian body has long been powerful in the valley of the Teifi. .Nearly every existing sect is represented in Wales, including Swedenborgians and Moravians.^ Nearly every existing sect is represented in Wales, including Swedenborgians and Moravians.

The Roman Catholic Church has many followers amongst the labouring population of Irish descent in the industrial districts. .The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.^ The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth , Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

^ The diocese of St Asaph (Llanelwy) consists of the county of Denbigh, nearly the whole of Flint, with portions of Montgomery, Merioneth and Shropshire.

Since the expulsion of the religious orders from France in 1903 several communities of French monks and nuns have taken up their abode in the Principality.

History

At the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, 55 B.C., four distinct dominant tribes, or families, are enumerated west of the Severn, viz. the .Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys Fon) and the Snowdonian district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the Silures, occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth.^ Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys Fon) and the Snowdonian district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the Silures , occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth.

^ These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire ; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery , present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

.It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.^ It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.

^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

^ St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence.

On the advance of Ostorius into western Britain, he met with considerable resistance from Caractacus (Caradog), king of the Silures, but after some encounters this prince was eventually captured and sent in chains to Rome. The partial conquest by Ostorius was completed under Julius Frontinus by the year 78, after which the Romans set to work in order to pacify and develop their newly annexed territory. .At this period the copper mines of Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors.^ At this period the copper mines of Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors.

^ There are valuable copper mines in Anglesea, and lead.

^ Gold has been discovered and worked, though only to a small extent, in Merionethshire and Carmarthenshire.

.In spite of the mountainous and boggy character of the country, roads were now constructed in all directions.^ In spite of the mountainous and boggy character of the country, roads were now constructed in all directions.

.Of these the most important are the military road leading S. from Deva (Chester) by way of Uriconium (Wroxeter) and Gobannium (Abergavenny) to Isca Silurum (Caerleon-on-Usk) and Venta Silurum (Caerwent); another from Deva to Conovium (Conway), whence a road, the Sam Helen, extended due S. to Carmarthen (Maridunum), by way of Loventium (Pont Llanio), which was also connected with Gobannium; from Maridunum a road led E. through the modern county of Glamorgan by way of Leucarum (Loughor) and Nidum (Neath) to Venta Silurum.^ Of these the most important are the military road leading S. from Deva (Chester) by way of Uriconium (Wroxeter) and Gobannium (Abergavenny) to Isca Silurum (Caerleon-on-Usk) and Venta Silurum (Caerwent); another from Deva to Conovium (Conway), whence a road, the Sam Helen , extended due S. to Carmarthen (Maridunum), by way of Loventium (Pont Llanio), which was also connected with Gobannium; from Maridunum a road led E. through the modern county of Glamorgan by way of Leucarum (Loughor) and Nidum (Neath) to Venta Silurum.

^ Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys Fon) and the Snowdonian district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the Silures , occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth.

.With the accession of Constantine, Christianity was introduced by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five hundred names still remain on record.^ With the accession of Constantine , Christianity was introduced by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five hundred names still remain on record.

^ An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno , Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS. Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c.

^ Holyhead is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century); Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew , or Andras); St Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the banks of the Elwy.

.Foremost in the work of preaching and educating were SS. David, Teilo, Illtyd and Cadoc in Dyfed, Morganwg, Gwent and Brycheiniog, comprising South Wales; Cynllo, Afan and Padarn in Ceredigion and Maesyfed, or Mid-Wales; and Deiniol, Dunawd, Beuno, Kentigern and Asaph in North Wales.^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.

^ The lines of the Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea.

.To this period succeeding the fall of the Roman power is also ascribed the foundation of the many great Celtic monasteries, of which Bangor-Iscoed on the Dee, Bardsey Island, Llancarvan and Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan, Caerleon-on-Usk.^ To this period succeeding the fall of the Roman power is also ascribed the foundation of the many great Celtic monasteries, of which Bangor-Iscoed on the Dee, Bardsey Island, Llancarvan and Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan, Caerleon -on-Usk.

and .St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

^ St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence.

^ It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.

.With the withdrawal of the Roman legions, the recognized powers of the Dux Britanniarum, the Roman official who governed the upper province of Britain, were in the 5th century assumed by the Celtic prince Cunedda under the title of Gwledig (the Supreme), who fixed his court and residence at Deganwy, near the modern Llandudno.^ With the withdrawal of the Roman legions, the recognized powers of the Dux Britanniarum, the Roman official who governed the upper province of Britain, were in the 5th century assumed by the Celtic prince Cunedda under the title of Gwledig (the Supreme), who fixed his court and residence at Deganwy, near the modern Llandudno.

^ Consolidation of CambroBritish territory was found impossible; there was no settled capital; and the three princes fixed their courts respectively at Aberffraw in Anglesea, at Dynevor (Dinefawr) near Llandilo in Deheubarth, and at Mathrafal in Powys.

^ As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of York , but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside control during Saxon times.

.During the 6th century the battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with Cornwall, and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, prevented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their sovereignty over Strathclyde; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient political claims of the Roman governors of the northern province of Britain.^ During the 6th century the battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with Cornwall , and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, prevented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their sovereignty over Strathclyde ; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient political claims of the Roman governors of the northern province of Britain.

^ Bran , the king of Britain was killed in battle.

^ He made himself ruler of all of Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 8th century saw a further curtailment of the Welsh territories under Offa, king of Mercia, who annexed Shrewsbury (Amwythig) and Hereford (Henfordd) with their surrounding districts, and constructed the artificial boundary known as Offa's Dyke running due N. and S. from the mouth of the Dee to that of the Wye.^ The 8th century saw a further curtailment of the Welsh territories under Offa , king of Mercia , who annexed Shrewsbury (Amwythig) and Hereford (Henfordd) with their surrounding districts, and constructed the artificial boundary known as Offa's Dyke running due N. and S. from the mouth of the Dee to that of the Wye.

^ The partial conquest by Ostorius was completed under Julius Frontinus by the year 78, after which the Romans set to work in order to pacify and develop their newly annexed territory.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

.It was during these disastrous Mercian wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel.^ It was during these disastrous Mercian wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel.

^ Denbighshire , who is commonly credited with the honour of having produced the first printed book in the Welsh language, a small volume of proverbs published in London about the year 1545.

^ Lobsters and crabs are caught in Cardigan Bay, and oysters are found at various points of the Pembrokeshire coast.

.In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his realm.^ In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his realm .

^ The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.

^ The Welsh language possesses an extensive literature, ranging from the 9th century to the present day.

.This was Rhodri Mawr, or Roderick the Great, a name always cherished in Cymric annals.^ He succeeded his father in 844 as RHODRI Mawr("the Great") King of Gwynedd .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He succeeded his father in 844 as RHODRI "Mawr/the Great" King of Gwynedd .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANARAWD ap Rhodri , son of RHODRI Mawr ("the Great") King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Seisyllwg (-916) .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Alfred of Wessex, Rhodri also built a fleet in order to protect Anglesea, " the mother of Wales," so called on account of its extensive cornfields which supplied barren Gwynedd with provisions.^ Like Alfred of Wessex , Rhodri also built a fleet in order to protect Anglesea, " the mother of Wales," so called on account of its extensive cornfields which supplied barren Gwynedd with provisions.

.In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a hanging wood - Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt.

^ Mann's Holidays Welcome to Mann's Holidays, now in our 37th year, the longest established holiday booking agency in North and Mid Wales.
  • Holiday Cottages Wales | Holiday Cottages Gwynedd | Holiday Cottages Anglesey | Holiday Cottages Snowdonia | Holiday Cottages Flint | Holiday Cottages Denbigh | Holiday Cottages Conwy | Holiday Cottages Wrexham 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.oas.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Consolidation of CambroBritish territory was found impossible; there was no settled capital; and the three princes fixed their courts respectively at Aberffraw in Anglesea, at Dynevor (Dinefawr) near Llandilo in Deheubarth, and at Mathrafal in Powys.^ Consolidation of CambroBritish territory was found impossible; there was no settled capital; and the three princes fixed their courts respectively at Aberffraw in Anglesea, at Dynevor (Dinefawr) near Llandilo in Deheubarth, and at Mathrafal in Powys.

^ The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.

^ In Howel's code the prince of Gwynedd with his court at Aberffraw is recognized as the leading monarch in Wales; next to him ranks the prince of Deheubarth, and third in estimation is the prince of Powys.

.Howel, son of Cadell, commonly known as Howel Dda the Good, is ever celebrated in Welsh history as the framer, or rather the codifier, of the ancient laws of his country, which were promulgated to the people at his hunting lodge, Ty Gwyn ar Taf, near the modern Whitland.^ Howel, son of Cadell, commonly known as Howel Dda the Good, is ever celebrated in Welsh history as the framer, or rather the codifier, of the ancient laws of his country, which were promulgated to the people at his hunting lodge, Ty Gwyn ar Taf, near the modern Whitland.

^ Of the part played by the Cymry during the wars of the Roses it is needless to speak, since the period forms a part of English rather than of Welsh history.

^ Before tracing the history of Welsh sounds, it will be convenient to give the values of the letters in the modern alphabet  :- Tenues: p; t; c (= Eng.

.In Howel's code the prince of Gwynedd with his court at Aberffraw is recognized as the leading monarch in Wales; next to him ranks the prince of Deheubarth, and third in estimation is the prince of Powys.^ Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales.

^ In Howel's code the prince of Gwynedd with his court at Aberffraw is recognized as the leading monarch in Wales; next to him ranks the prince of Deheubarth, and third in estimation is the prince of Powys.

^ The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.

.The laws of Howel Dda throw a flood of interesting light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of justice is founded on a tribal arid not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code.^ The laws of Howel Dda throw a flood of interesting light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of justice is founded on a tribal arid not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

.The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.^ The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.

^ At the castle of Cardigan in 1176, Prince Rhys held a historic bardic entertainment, or eisteddfod , wherein the poets and harpists of Gwynedd and Deheubarth contended in amicable rivalry.

^ Consolidation of CambroBritish territory was found impossible; there was no settled capital; and the three princes fixed their courts respectively at Aberffraw in Anglesea, at Dynevor (Dinefawr) near Llandilo in Deheubarth, and at Mathrafal in Powys.

.Some degree of peace was, however, given to the distracted country during the reign of Llewelyn ap Seissyllt, the husband of Angharad, heiress of Gwynedd, who at length secured the overlordship or sovereignty of all Wales, and reigned till 1022. His son, Griffith ap Llewelyn, who, after having been driven into exile, recovered his father's realm in the battle of Pencader, Carmarthenshire, in 1041, for many years waged a war of varying success against Harold, earl of Wessex, but in 1062 he was treacherously slain, and Harold placed Wales under the old king's half-brothers, Bleddyn and Rhiwallon.^ He succeeded his half-brother in 1063 as BLEDDYN King of Gwynedd and Powys.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn , son of CYNFYN ap Gwerstan & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd ([1025]-1075) .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He succeeded his father in 754 as CYNAN King of Gwynedd , jointly with his brother.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the advent of the Normans, William the Conqueror, with the object of placing a firm feudal barrier between Wales and the earldom of Mercia, erected three palatine counties along the Cymric frontier.^ With the advent of the Normans, William the Conqueror, with the object of placing a firm feudal barrier between Wales and the earldom of Mercia, erected three palatine counties along the Cymric frontier.

.Thus Hugh the Wolf was placed in Chester (Caer), Roger de Montgomery at Shrewsbury and William FitzOsbern at Hereford.^ Thus Hugh the Wolf was placed in Chester (Caer), Roger de Montgomery at Shrewsbury and William FitzOsbern at Hereford.

.In 1081 William himself visited the Principality, and even penetrated as far west as St Davids.^ In 1081 William himself visited the Principality, and even penetrated as far west as St Davids.

.But the most important result of this first Norman invasion was to be found in the marvellous and rapid success of Robert Fitz-Hamon, earl of Gloucester, who, accompanied by a number of knightly adventurers, quickly overran South Wales, and erected a chain of castles stretching from the Wye to Milford Haven.^ But the most important result of this first Norman invasion was to be found in the marvellous and rapid success of Robert Fitz -Hamon, earl of Gloucester , who, accompanied by a number of knightly adventurers, quickly overran South Wales, and erected a chain of castles stretching from the Wye to Milford Haven.

^ In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.

^ Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap Thomas (1451- 1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond , on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III .

.The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.^ The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.

The important castles of Carmarthen and Pembroke were likewise built at this period. .At the accession of William Rufus the domain of Gwynedd had been reduced to Anglesea and the Snowdonian district, and that of South Wales, or Deheubarth, to the lands contained in the basins of the rivers Towy and Teifi, known as Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion.^ At the accession of William Rufus the domain of Gwynedd had been reduced to Anglesea and the Snowdonian district, and that of South Wales, or Deheubarth, to the lands contained in the basins of the rivers Towy and Teifi, known as Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion.

^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.

.Griffith ap Cynan, of the royal house of Gwynedd, who had been first an exile in Ireland, and later a prisoner at Chester, once more returned to his native land, and defied the Norman barons with success, whilst Henry I.^ Griffith ap Cynan, of the royal house of Gwynedd, who had been first an exile in Ireland , and later a prisoner at Chester, once more returned to his native land, and defied the Norman barons with success, whilst Henry I .

^ In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.

^ He was succeeded by David II ., at whose death without children in 1246 the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and consequently of Wales, reverted to his three nephews, sons of his half-brother Griffith, who had perished in 1244 whilst trying to escape from the Tower of London , where Henry III .

vainly endeavoured to make his .liege and follower, Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales.^ Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales.

^ In Howel's code the prince of Gwynedd with his court at Aberffraw is recognized as the leading monarch in Wales; next to him ranks the prince of Deheubarth, and third in estimation is the prince of Powys.

.Meanwhile the house of Dynevor once more rose to some degree of power under Griffith ap Rhys, whose father, Rhys ap Tudor, had been slain in 1093. The confused reign of Stephen was naturally favourable to the development of Cymric liberty, and with such strong princes as Owen, son of Griffith ap Cynan, heir to the throne of Gwynedd, and with Griffith ap Rhys ruling at Dynevor, the prospects of the Cymry grew brighter.^ The confused reign of Stephen was naturally favourable to the development of Cymric liberty, and with such strong princes as Owen, son of Griffith ap Cynan, heir to the throne of Gwynedd, and with Griffith ap Rhys ruling at Dynevor, the prospects of the Cymry grew brighter.

^ Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales.

^ Meanwhile the house of Dynevor once more rose to some degree of power under Griffith ap Rhys, whose father, Rhys ap Tudor, had been slain in 1093.

.In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.^ Later, he sold it to the late Samuel Warren who ran it until it was burned in the Wales fire.

^ RHYS ap Tewdr (-killed in battle near Brecknock Castle [Mar/Apr] 1093) .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RHYS ap Tewdwr King of Deheubarth , son of TEWDWR Mawr & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Brecknock Castle [Mar/Apr] 1093).
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fierce engagement took place wherein the Norman and Flemish troops were utterly routed, and the victorious Cymry slew thousands of their fugitives at the fords of the Teifi close to the town of Cardigan.^ A fierce engagement took place wherein the Norman and Flemish troops were utterly routed, and the victorious Cymry slew thousands of their fugitives at the fords of the Teifi close to the town of Cardigan.

The following year (1137) saw the deaths of the two powerful princes, Griffith ap Cynan, " the sovereign and protector and peacemaker of all Wales," and Griffith ap Rhys, " the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men of the south." With the accession of Henry II. peace was made with .Owen of Gwynedd, the successor of Griffith ap Cynan, and with Rhys ap Griffith of South Wales.^ Owen of Gwynedd, the successor of Griffith ap Cynan, and with Rhys ap Griffith of South Wales.

^ In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.

^ The following year (1137) saw the deaths of the two powerful princes, Griffith ap Cynan, " the sovereign and protector and peacemaker of all Wales," and Griffith ap Rhys, " the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men of the south."

.In 1169 Owen Gwynedd died and was buried in Bangor cathedral after a reign of 33 years, wherein he had successfully defended his own realm and had done much to bring about that union of all Wales which his grandson was destined to complete.^ The Twenty-fourth Realm Here you will find a complete story of our 1990 Trip to Wales and describes the Pagans we met and the Sacred Sites we visited.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ His dying wish was that the basic philosophy of the Welsh tradition be available to all through the Internet, and that seekers be given a "Taste of Wales" through home study classes.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ He succeeded in 1194 as LLYWELYN Prince of Gwynedd , ruler of All Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, " The Lord Rhys," as he is usually termed, did homage to Henry II. at Pembroke in 1171, and was appointed the royal justiciar of all South Wales.^ All listed places of worship in Wales are eligible - as well as any buildings physically attached to the place of worship - such as schoolrooms or vestries - but not for other associated buildings such as church halls.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

At the castle of Cardigan in 1176, Prince Rhys held a historic bardic entertainment, or eisteddfod, wherein the poets and harpists of Gwynedd and Deheubarth contended in amicable rivalry. .This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.^ He succeeded in 1194 as LLYWELYN Prince of Gwynedd , ruler of All Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His dying wish was that the basic philosophy of the Welsh tradition be available to all through the Internet, and that seekers be given a "Taste of Wales" through home study classes.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ He succeeded in 1194 as LLYWELYN Fawr ("the Great") Prince of Gwynedd , Prince of All Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prince of Gwynedd henceforth considered himself as a sovereign, independent, but owing a personal allegiance to the king of England, and it was to obtain a recognition of his rights as such that Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, " the Great," consistently strove under three English kings, and though his resources were small, it seemed for a time as though he might be able by uniting his countrymen to place the recognized autonomy of Gwynedd on a firm and enduring basis.^ CLICK HERE TO VISIT OVER A HUNDRED WORLD NEWS SOURCES SUCH AS CBS, ABC, AP, LONDON TIMES, ETC!!!
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.By first connecting himself with John through his marriage with the English king's daughter Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England.^ JOAN [ of England ], illegitimate daughter of JOHN King of England & his mistress Clementia Pinel (-30 Mar 1237).
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HUNYDD [Gwladus] of Gwynedd , daughter of BLEDDYN ap Cynfyn King of Gwynedd and Powys & his first wife ---.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The close of the 12th century saw the final and complete subjection of the ancient Cambro-British Church to the supremacy of Canterbury. .As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of York, but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside control during Saxon times.^ As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of York , but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside control during Saxon times.

^ With the withdrawal of the Roman legions, the recognized powers of the Dux Britanniarum, the Roman official who governed the upper province of Britain, were in the 5th century assumed by the Celtic prince Cunedda under the title of Gwledig (the Supreme), who fixed his court and residence at Deganwy, near the modern Llandudno.

^ At the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, 55 B.C., four distinct dominant tribes, or families, are enumerated west of the Severn, viz.

.The bishops of St Davids had from time to time claimed metropolitan rights over the remaining sees, but in '115 St Anselme's appointment of the monk Bernard (d.^ The bishops of St Davids had from time to time claimed metropolitan rights over the remaining sees, but in '115 St Anselme's appointment of the monk Bernard (d.

^ It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.

.1147) to St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence.^ St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence.

^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

^ It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.

.In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train, whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ He made himself ruler of all of Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III .

.But in 1199 the celebrated Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis), archdeacon of Brecon and a member of the famous Norman baronial house of de Barri, and also through his grandmother Nesta a great-grandson of Prince Rhys ap Tudor of Deheubarth, was elected bishop by the chapter of St Davids.^ But in 1199 the celebrated Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis), archdeacon of Brecon and a member of the famous Norman baronial house of de Barri, and also through his grandmother Nesta a great-grandson of Prince Rhys ap Tudor of Deheubarth, was elected bishop by the chapter of St Davids.

^ At the castle of Cardigan in 1176, Prince Rhys held a historic bardic entertainment, or eisteddfod , wherein the poets and harpists of Gwynedd and Deheubarth contended in amicable rivalry.

^ Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap Thomas (1451- 1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond , on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III .

.This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III.^ This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III .

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ Welsh, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons (see Celt : Language), is the domestic tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of the Principality.

against .John and Archbishop Hubert, who firmly refused to recognize Gerald's late election.^ John and Archbishop Hubert, who firmly refused to recognize Gerald's late election.

.Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's action, but Llewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy.^ Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's action, but Llewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy.

^ LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth , son of IORWERTH Drwyndwyn ("flat nose") Prince of Gwynedd & his wife Marared of Powys (1173-11 Apr 1240 [39] ) .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, in 1203, Gerald was compelled to make complete submission to the king and archbishop at Westminster, and henceforth Canterbury remained in undisputed possession of the Welsh sees, a circumstance that undoubtedly tended towards the later union of the two countries.^ Finally, in 1203, Gerald was compelled to make complete submission to the king and archbishop at Westminster , and henceforth Canterbury remained in undisputed possession of the Welsh sees, a circumstance that undoubtedly tended towards the later union of the two countries.

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.

.In 1238 Llewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida, whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present.^ In 1238 Llewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida , whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present.

^ Specimens of Latinized names in connexion with ecclesiastical foundations are preserved in Strata Florida and Valle Crucis Abbeys.

.Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.^ Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.

^ In 1169 Owen Gwynedd died and was buried in Bangor cathedral after a reign of 33 years, wherein he had successfully defended his own realm and had done much to bring about that union of all Wales which his grandson was destined to complete.

^ The following year (1137) saw the deaths of the two powerful princes, Griffith ap Cynan, " the sovereign and protector and peacemaker of all Wales," and Griffith ap Rhys, " the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men of the south."

.He was succeeded by David II., at whose death without children in 1246 the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and consequently of Wales, reverted to his three nephews, sons of his half-brother Griffith, who had perished in 1244 whilst trying to escape from the Tower of London, where Henry III.^ He succeeded his half-brother in 1063 as BLEDDYN King of Gwynedd and Powys.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was succeeded by David II ., at whose death without children in 1246 the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and consequently of Wales, reverted to his three nephews, sons of his half-brother Griffith, who had perished in 1244 whilst trying to escape from the Tower of London , where Henry III .

^ He succeeded his uncle in 1246 as LLYWELYN II Prince of Wales .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

was holding him as hostage for the good behaviour of Prince David. .Of Griffith's three sons, Owen, Llewelyn and David, the most popular and influential was undoubtedly Llewelyn, whose deeds and qualities were celebrated in extravagant terms by the bards of his own day, and whose evil fate has ever been a favourite theme of Welsh poets.^ Of Griffith's three sons, Owen, Llewelyn and David, the most popular and influential was undoubtedly Llewelyn, whose deeds and qualities were celebrated in extravagant terms by the bards of his own day, and whose evil fate has ever been a favourite theme of Welsh poets.

^ With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased, if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London.

^ He was succeeded by David II ., at whose death without children in 1246 the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and consequently of Wales, reverted to his three nephews, sons of his half-brother Griffith, who had perished in 1244 whilst trying to escape from the Tower of London , where Henry III .

.Though to this, the last prince of Wales, political sagacity and a firm desire for peace have often been ascribed, it must be admitted that he showed himself both turbulent and rash at a time when the most cautious diplomacy on his part was essential for his country's existence.^ Though to this, the last prince of Wales, political sagacity and a firm desire for peace have often been ascribed, it must be admitted that he showed himself both turbulent and rash at a time when the most cautious diplomacy on his part was essential for his country's existence.

^ The holdings throughout Wales are for the most part smaller in extent than the average farms of England.

^ Last Year, Menter Mon on Anglesey was named the most enterprising place in Wales.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.For Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself.^ For Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

^ With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased, if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London.

.Nevertheless, the hostile policy of Llewelyn, who had closely associated himself with the cause of Simon de Montfort and the barons, was at first successful.^ Nevertheless, the hostile policy of Llewelyn, who had closely associated himself with the cause of Simon de Montfort and the barons, was at first successful.

^ Oct 1278) ELEANOR de Montfort , daughter of SIMON de Montfort Earl of Leicester & his wife Eleanor of England (1252-19 Jun 1282).
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Griffith ap Cynan, of the royal house of Gwynedd, who had been first an exile in Ireland , and later a prisoner at Chester, once more returned to his native land, and defied the Norman barons with success, whilst Henry I .

.For after the battle of Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted to the prince.^ For after the battle of Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted to the prince.

^ This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.

^ Athelstan King of Wessex agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Llewelyn was, however, foolish enough to lose the results of this very favourable treaty by intriguing with the de Montfort family, and in 1273 he became betrothed to Eleanor de Montfort, the old Earl's only daughter, a piece of political folly which may possibly in some degree account for Edward's harsh treatment of the Welsh prince.^ Llewelyn was, however, foolish enough to lose the results of this very favourable treaty by intriguing with the de Montfort family, and in 1273 he became betrothed to Eleanor de Montfort, the old Earl's only daughter, a piece of political folly which may possibly in some degree account for Edward's harsh treatment of the Welsh prince.

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

^ Some degree of peace was, however, given to the distracted country during the reign of Llewelyn ap Seissyllt, the husband of Angharad, heiress of Gwynedd, who at length secured the overlordship or sovereignty of all Wales, and reigned till 1022.

.In 1274 Llewelyn refused to attend at Edward's coronation, although the Scottish king was present.^ In 1274 Llewelyn refused to attend at Edward's coronation , although the Scottish king was present.

.In 1276 Edward entered Wales from Chester, and after a short campaign brought his obstinate vassal to submit to the ignominious treaty of Conway, whereby Llewelyn lost almost all the benefits conferred on him by the compact of Montgomery ten years before.^ In 1276 Edward entered Wales from Chester, and after a short campaign brought his obstinate vassal to submit to the ignominious treaty of Conway, whereby Llewelyn lost almost all the benefits conferred on him by the compact of Montgomery ten years before.

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

^ In 1238 Llewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida , whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present.

.Llewelyn, utterly humbled, now behaved with such prudence that Edward at last sanctioned his marriage with Eleanor de Montfort (although such an alliance must originally have been highly distasteful to the English king), and the ceremony was performed with much pomp in Worcester Cathedral in 1278. In 1281 discontent with the king and his system of justice had again become rife in Wales, and at this point the treacherous Prince David, who had hitherto supported the king against his own brother, was the first to proclaim a national revolt.^ In 1281 discontent with the king and his system of justice had again become rife in Wales, and at this point the treacherous Prince David, who had hitherto supported the king against his own brother, was the first to proclaim a national revolt.

^ Llewelyn, utterly humbled, now behaved with such prudence that Edward at last sanctioned his marriage with Eleanor de Montfort (although such an alliance must originally have been highly distasteful to the English king), and the ceremony was performed with much pomp in Worcester Cathedral in 1278.

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

.On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms.^ On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms.

.Edward, greatly angered and now bent on putting an end for ever to the independence of the Principality, hastened into Wales; but whilst the king was campaigning in Gwynedd, Prince Llewelyn himself was slain in an obscure skirmish on the 11th of December 1282 at Cefn-ybedd, near Builth on the Wye, whither he had gone to rouse the people of Brycheiniog.^ Edward, greatly angered and now bent on putting an end for ever to the independence of the Principality, hastened into Wales; but whilst the king was campaigning in Gwynedd, Prince Llewelyn himself was slain in an obscure skirmish on the 11th of December 1282 at Cefn-ybedd, near Builth on the Wye, whither he had gone to rouse the people of Brycheiniog.

^ This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.

^ Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.

.Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy, in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

^ Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.

^ Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.

.His body is said, on doubtful authority, to have been buried honourably by the monks of Abbey Cwm Hir, near Rhayader.^ His body is said, on doubtful authority, to have been buried honourably by the monks of Abbey Cwm Hir, near Rhayader .

.Llewelyn's brother, now David III., designated by the English " the last survivor of that race of traitors," for a few months defied the English forces amongst the fastnesses of Snowdon, but ere long he was captured, tried as a disloyal English baron by a parliament at Shrewsbury, and finally executed under circumstances of great barbarity on the 3rd of October 1283. With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased, if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London.^ With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased, if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London.

^ Llewelyn's brother, now David III ., designated by the English " the last survivor of that race of traitors," for a few months defied the English forces amongst the fastnesses of Snowdon, but ere long he was captured, tried as a disloyal English baron by a parliament at Shrewsbury, and finally executed under circumstances of great barbarity on the 3rd of October 1283.

^ In 1238 Llewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida , whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present.

.Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.^ Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.

^ This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

.In April 1284 Queen Eleanor, who had meanwhile joined her husband in Wales, gave birth to a son in the newly built castle of Carnarvon, and this infant the victorious king, half in earnest and half in jest, presented to the Welsh people for a prince who could speak no word of English.^ In April 1284 Queen Eleanor, who had meanwhile joined her husband in Wales, gave birth to a son in the newly built castle of Carnarvon, and this infant the victorious king, half in earnest and half in jest, presented to the Welsh people for a prince who could speak no word of English.

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

^ In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools.

.On the 7th of February 1301, Edward of Carnarvon was formally created " prince of Wales " by his father, and henceforward the title and honours of Prince of Wales became associated with the recognized heir of the English crown.^ On the 7th of February 1301, Edward of Carnarvon was formally created " prince of Wales " by his father, and henceforward the title and honours of Prince of Wales became associated with the recognized heir of the English crown .

^ He succeeded his father in 1240 as DAFYDD II Prince of Wales .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself.

.By the Statute, or rather Ordinance of Rhuddlan, promulgated in 1284, many important changes were effected in the civil administration of Wales.^ By the Statute, or rather Ordinance of Rhuddlan, promulgated in 1284, many important changes were effected in the civil administration of Wales.

.Glamorgan and the county palatine of Pembroke had hitherto been the only portions of the country subject to English shire law, but now Edward parcelled out the ancient territory of the princes of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth into six new counties, with sheriffs, coroners and bailiffs.^ Glamorgan and the county palatine of Pembroke had hitherto been the only portions of the country subject to English shire law, but now Edward parcelled out the ancient territory of the princes of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth into six new counties, with sheriffs, coroners and bailiffs.

^ Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.

^ The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.

.Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.^ Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed.

^ Some 330 out of a possible total of 520 incumbents were now ejected in South Wales and Monmouthshire, and there is every reason to suppose that the beneficed clergy of North Wales suffered equally under the new system.

^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

.The old Welsh land tenure by gavelkind was, however, still permitted to remain in force amongst the natives of all Wales, whilst it was henceforth arranged to administer justice in the eight counties by special royal judges, and in the Marches by the officers appointed by the various lords-marchers according to the terms of their tenure.^ The old Welsh land tenure by gavelkind was, however, still permitted to remain in force amongst the natives of all Wales, whilst it was henceforth arranged to administer justice in the eight counties by special royal judges, and in the Marches by the officers appointed by the various lords-marchers according to the terms of their tenure.

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

.Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule.^ Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule.

^ The Great Schism of 1811 marks in fact the lowest point to which the fortunes of the once powerful and popular Church in Wales had sunk; - in 1811 there were only English-speaking prelates to be found, whilst the abuses of non-residence, pluralities and even nepotism were rampant everywhere.

^ In April 1284 Queen Eleanor, who had meanwhile joined her husband in Wales, gave birth to a son in the newly built castle of Carnarvon, and this infant the victorious king, half in earnest and half in jest, presented to the Welsh people for a prince who could speak no word of English.

.Municipal charters and market privileges were now granted to such towns as Cardiff, Carmarthen, Builth, Cardigan, Montgomery, Aberystwith, Newborough, &c., and this wise policy was continued under Edward II. and Edward III.^ Municipal charters and market privileges were now granted to such towns as Cardiff, Carmarthen, Builth, Cardigan, Montgomery, Aberystwith, Newborough, &c., and this wise policy was continued under Edward II. and Edward III .

.Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible.^ Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible.

^ Her husband sent her to make peace with the king her father in 1211 when the latter was attacking North Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hywel visited Athelstan King of Wessex many times between 931 and 937, and was influenced by English life and methods of government [1] .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coal, copper, timber, iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the sole staple for the whole Welsh wool trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the Plantagenet monarchs.^ Coal, copper, timber , iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the sole staple for the whole Welsh wool trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the Plantagenet monarchs.

^ It was during these disastrous Mercian wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

.A natural result of this partial treatment of the towns by the king and his vassals was that the English tongue and also English customs became prevalent if not universal in all the towns of Wales, whilst the rural districts remained strongly Cymric in character, language and sympathy.^ A natural result of this partial treatment of the towns by the king and his vassals was that the English tongue and also English customs became prevalent if not universal in all the towns of Wales, whilst the rural districts remained strongly Cymric in character, language and sympathy.

^ After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a tale of romance than a piece of sane history.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

.After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a tale of romance than a piece of sane history.^ After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a tale of romance than a piece of sane history.

^ C ommunities across Wales in need of regeneration have received more than £25 million in housing renewal aid.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

^ On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms.

.The deposition of Richard II.^ The deposition of Richard II .

and the usurpation of .Henry IV., combined with the jealousy of the rural inhabitants of Wales against the privileged dwellers of the towns, seem to have rendered the country ripe for rebellion.^ Henry IV ., combined with the jealousy of the rural inhabitants of Wales against the privileged dwellers of the towns, seem to have rendered the country ripe for rebellion.

.Upon this troubled scene now appeared Owen Glendower (Owain Glyndwfrdwy: died ?^ Upon this troubled scene now appeared Owen Glendower (Owain Glyndwfrdwy: died ?

.1415), a descendant of the former princes of Powys and a favourite courtier of the late King Richard, smarting under the effect of personal wrongs received from Henry of Lancaster.^ Powys and a favourite courtier of the late King Richard , smarting under the effect of personal wrongs received from Henry of Lancaster .

.With a success and speed that contemporary writers deemed miraculous, Owen stirred up his countrymen against the king, and by their aid succeeded in destroying castle after castle, and burning town after town throughout the whole length and breadth of the land between the years 1401 and 1406. In 1402 he routed the forces of the Mortimers at Bryn Glas near Knighton in Maesyfed, where he captured Sir Edmund Mortimer, the uncle and guardian of the legitimate heir to the English throne, the young earl of March.^ With a success and speed that contemporary writers deemed miraculous, Owen stirred up his countrymen against the king, and by their aid succeeded in destroying castle after castle, and burning town after town throughout the whole length and breadth of the land between the years 1401 and 1406.

^ In 1402 he routed the forces of the Mortimers at Bryn Glas near Knighton in Maesyfed, where he captured Sir Edmund Mortimer , the uncle and guardian of the legitimate heir to the English throne, the young earl of March.

^ Nevertheless, his rule and power gradually declined, and by the year 1408 Owen himself had disappeared as suddenly and mysteriously as he had arisen, and the land once more fell into undisputed possession of the king and his chosen vassals.

.The aims of Owen were described by himself in a letter addressed to Charles VI., king of France, who had hastened to acknowledge the upstart as Prince of Wales and had sent 12,000 troops on his behalf to Milford Haven.^ The aims of Owen were described by himself in a letter addressed to Charles VI ., king of France, who had hastened to acknowledge the upstart as Prince of Wales and had sent 12,000 troops on his behalf to Milford Haven.

^ Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales.

^ In 1281 discontent with the king and his system of justice had again become rife in Wales, and at this point the treacherous Prince David, who had hitherto supported the king against his own brother, was the first to proclaim a national revolt.

.In this letter Owen, who was holding his court in Llanbadarn near Aberystwith, demands his own acknowledgment as sovereign of Wales; the calling of a free Welsh parliament on the English model; the independence of the Welsh Church from the control of Canterbury; and the founding of national colleges in Wales itself.^ In this letter Owen, who was holding his court in Llanbadarn near Aberystwith, demands his own acknowledgment as sovereign of Wales; the calling of a free Welsh parliament on the English model; the independence of the Welsh Church from the control of Canterbury; and the founding of national colleges in Wales itself.

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ The Church, which had so long played a prominent and valuable part in the moral and literary education of the Welsh people, was now gradually forced out of touch with the nation through the action of alien and unsympathetic Whig prelates in Wales itself, which still remained mainly High Church and Jacobite in feeling.

.An assembly of Welsh nobles was actually summoned to meet in 1406 at Machynlleth in an ancient building still standing and known to this day as " Owen Glendower's Parliament House."^ An assembly of Welsh nobles was actually summoned to meet in 1406 at Machynlleth in an ancient building still standing and known to this day as " Owen Glendower's Parliament House."

^ The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.

.In vain did Henry and his lords-marchers endeavour to suppress the rebellion, and to capture, by fair means or foul, the person of Glendower himself; the princely adventurer seemed to bear a charmed existence, and for a few years Owen was practically master of all Wales.^ In vain did Henry and his lords-marchers endeavour to suppress the rebellion, and to capture, by fair means or foul, the person of Glendower himself; the princely adventurer seemed to bear a charmed existence, and for a few years Owen was practically master of all Wales.

^ He made himself ruler of all of Wales.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1169 Owen Gwynedd died and was buried in Bangor cathedral after a reign of 33 years, wherein he had successfully defended his own realm and had done much to bring about that union of all Wales which his grandson was destined to complete.

.Nevertheless, his rule and power gradually declined, and by the year 1408 Owen himself had disappeared as suddenly and mysteriously as he had arisen, and the land once more fell into undisputed possession of the king and his chosen vassals.^ Nevertheless, his rule and power gradually declined, and by the year 1408 Owen himself had disappeared as suddenly and mysteriously as he had arisen, and the land once more fell into undisputed possession of the king and his chosen vassals.

^ Meanwhile the house of Dynevor once more rose to some degree of power under Griffith ap Rhys, whose father, Rhys ap Tudor, had been slain in 1093.

.For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV. framed for the protection of the English dwellers in Wales and the border counties, and which were not repealed until the days of the Tudors.^ For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV. framed for the protection of the English dwellers in Wales and the border counties, and which were not repealed until the days of the Tudors.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

^ In Monmouth, the eastern portion of the county is purely Englishspeaking, and in the western districts English also prevails ( J. E. Southall, Linguistic Map of Wales).

Of the part played by the Cymry during the wars of the Roses it is needless to speak, since the period forms a part of English rather than of Welsh history. .The Yorkist faction seems to have been strongest in the eastern portion of the Principality, where the Mortimers were all-powerful, but later the close connexion of the house of Lancaster with Owen Tudor, a gentleman of Anglesea (beheaded in 1461) who had married Catherine of France, widow of Henry V., did much to invite Welsh sympathy on behalf of the claims of Henry Tudor his grandson, who claimed the English throne by right of his grandmother.^ The competition is run by Make Your Mark, on behalf of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), working in close partnership with the Welsh Assembly Government.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap Thomas (1451-1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III.^ Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap Thomas (1451- 1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond , on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III .

^ But in 1199 the celebrated Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis), archdeacon of Brecon and a member of the famous Norman baronial house of de Barri, and also through his grandmother Nesta a great-grandson of Prince Rhys ap Tudor of Deheubarth, was elected bishop by the chapter of St Davids.

^ In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.

With an army largely composed of Sir Rhys's adherents, Henry was enabled to face Richard III. at Bosworth, and consequently to obtain the crown of England. .Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.^ Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.

^ The following year (1137) saw the deaths of the two powerful princes, Griffith ap Cynan, " the sovereign and protector and peacemaker of all Wales," and Griffith ap Rhys, " the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men of the south."

^ Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.

With the Tudor dynasty firmly seated on the throne, a number of constitutional changes intended to place Welsh subjects on a complete social and political equality with Englishmen have to be recorded. The all-important Act of Union 1536 (27 Henry VIII.), converted the whole of the .Marches of Wales into shire ground, and created five new counties: Denbigh, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, or Brecon and Monmouth.^ A new scheme that will make £13 million of European funds available to reduce economic inactivity in North Wales was announced on 10 March 09.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

.At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

^ The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth , Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.

.Clause 26 of the same act likewise enacted that the 12 Welsh counties should return 24 members to the English parliament: one for each county, one for the boroughs in each county (except Merioneth), and one for the town and county of Haverfordwest.^ Clause 26 of the same act likewise enacted that the 12 Welsh counties should return 24 members to the English parliament: one for each county, one for the boroughs in each county (except Merioneth), and one for the town and county of Haverfordwest .

^ The act of 1542 also enacted that courts of justice under the name of " The King's Great Sessions in Wales " should sit twice a year in every one of the counties of Wales, except Monmouth, which was thus formally declared an English shire.

^ At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.

.It is probable that Welsh members attended the parliaments of 1536 and 1539, and certain it is that they were present at the parliament of 1541 and every parliament subsequently held.^ It is probable that Welsh members attended the parliaments of 1536 and 1539, and certain it is that they were present at the parliament of 1541 and every parliament subsequently held.

.This act of union was followed in 1542 by an " Act for certain Ordinances in the King's Majesty's Dominion and Principality of Wales " (34 & 35 Henry VIII.), which placed the court of the president and council of Wales and the Marches on a legal footing.^ The all-important Act of Union 1536 (27 Henry VIII .

^ This act of union was followed in 1542 by an " Act for certain Ordinances in the King's Majesty's Dominion and Principality of Wales " (34 & 35 Henry VIII.), which placed the court of the president and council of Wales and the Marches on a legal footing.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

This court, with a jurisdiction somewhat similar to that of the Star Chamber, had originally been called into being under Edward IV. with the object of suppressing private feuds and other illegalities amongst the lords-marchers and their retainers. .This council of Wales, the headquarters of which had been fixed at Ludlow, undoubtedly did good service on behalf of law and order under such capable presidents as Bishop Rowland Lee and William Herbert, earl of Pembroke; but it had long ceased to be of any practical use, and had in fact become an engine of oppression by the time of the Commonwealth, although it was not definitely abolished till the revolution of 1688. The act of 1542 also enacted that courts of justice under the name of " The King's Great Sessions in Wales " should sit twice a year in every one of the counties of Wales, except Monmouth, which was thus formally declared an English shire.^ The act of 1542 also enacted that courts of justice under the name of " The King's Great Sessions in Wales " should sit twice a year in every one of the counties of Wales, except Monmouth, which was thus formally declared an English shire.

^ This council of Wales, the headquarters of which had been fixed at Ludlow , undoubtedly did good service on behalf of law and order under such capable presidents as Bishop Rowland Lee and William Herbert , earl of Pembroke; but it had long ceased to be of any practical use, and had in fact become an engine of oppression by the time of the Commonwealth , although it was not definitely abolished till the revolution of 1688.

^ The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth , Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.

.For this purpose four circuits, two for North and two for South Wales, each circuit containing a convenient group of three counties, were created; whilst justices of the peace and custodes rotulorum for each shire were likewise appointed.^ For this purpose four circuits, two for North and two for South Wales, each circuit containing a convenient group of three counties, were created; whilst justices of the peace and custodes rotulorum for each shire were likewise appointed.

^ In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn.

^ Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a hanging wood - Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt.

.At the same time all ancient Welsh laws and customs, which were at variance with the recognized law of England, were now declared illegal, and Cymric land tenure by gavelkind, which had been respected by Edward I., was expressly abolished and its place taken by the ordinary practice of primogeniture.^ At the same time all ancient Welsh laws and customs, which were at variance with the recognized law of England, were now declared illegal, and Cymric land tenure by gavelkind, which had been respected by Edward I ., was expressly abolished and its place taken by the ordinary practice of primogeniture .

^ Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy , in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

It was also particularly stated that all legal procedure must henceforth be conducted in the English tongue, an arrangement which fell very heavily on poor monoglot Welshmen and appears an especially harsh and ungracious enactment when coming from a sovereign who was himself a genuine Welshman by birth. .Under the system of the Great Sessions justice was administered throughout the twelve counties of Wales for nearly three hundred years, and it was not until 1830 that this system of jurisdiction was abolished (not without some protest from Welsh members at Westminster), and the existing North and_South Wales circuits were brought into being.^ ANGHARAD , illegitimate daughter of LLYWELYN ap Iorwerth Fawr/the Great Prince of North Wales & his mistress ---.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CLIC project, previously managed by Careers Wales, is now being taken into its next 4-year phase by ProMo-Cymru, who will be working with young people, organisations & professionals to develop the project.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character. .The influence of the Renaissance seems to have been tardy in penetrating into Wales itself, nor did the numerous ecclesiastical changes during the period of the Reformation cause any marked signs either of resentment or approval amongst the mass of the Welsh people, although some of the ancient Catholic customs lingered on obstinately.^ The only Welsh primary source so far consulted is the Annales Cambri , numerous extracts from which have been incorporated into the document, although it has proved difficult to identify all Welsh persons who are named in that work.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The competition is run by Make Your Mark, on behalf of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), working in close partnership with the Welsh Assembly Government.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

As early as the reign of Henry VIII. there were, however, to be found at court and in the universities a number of ardent and talented young Welshmen, adherents mostly of the reforming party in Church and State, who were destined to bring about a brilliant literary revival in their native land during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Of this distinguished band the most memorable names are those of Bishop Richard Davies (c. 1501-1581) and of William Salesbury, the squire-scholar of Llanrwst (c. 1520-c. 1600) in Denbighshire, who is commonly credited with the honour of having produced the first printed book in the Welsh language, a small volume of proverbs published in London about the year 1545. With the accession of Elizabeth a novel and vigorous ecclesiastical policy on truly national lines was now inaugurated in Wales itself, chiefly through the instrumentality of Richard Davies, nominated bishop of St Asaph in 1559 and translated thence to St Davids in 1561, who was mainly responsible for the act of parliament of 1563, commanding the bishops of St Davids, Llandaff, Bangor, St Asaph and Hereford to prepare with all speed for public use Welsh translations of the Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer. Of the five prelates thus named, Davies alone was competent to undertake the task, and for assistance in the work of translation he called upon his old friend and former neighbour, William Salesbury, who like the bishop was an excellent Greek and Hebrew scholar. .The pair laboured with such diligence that before the close of the year 1567 the required translations of the Liturgy and the New Testament were published in London; the former being the exclusive work of the bishop, whilst the latter was principally the product of Salesbury's pen, although some portions of it were contributed by Bishop Davies and by Thomas Huet, or Hewett, precentor of St Davids (d.^ In aid of St David's Foundation, which provides a hospice at home serive in Newport, Torfaen, Caerphilly & Monmouthshire for almost 30 years.
  • Community Enterprise Wales 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cewales.org [Source type: News]

^ CLICK HERE TO VISIT OVER A HUNDRED WORLD NEWS SOURCES SUCH AS CBS, ABC, AP, LONDON TIMES, ETC!!!
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

1591). Having accomplished so much in so small a space of time, the two friends were next engaged upon a translation of the Old Testament, but owing to a quarrel, the cause of which remains obscure, this interesting literary partnership was brought to an abrupt ending about 1570. The honour of presenting his countrymen with a complete Welsh version of the Bible was reserved for William Morgan (c. 1547-1604), vicar of Llanrhayader, in Denbighshire, and afterwards bishop successively of Llandaff and of St Asaph. For eight years Morgan was busied with his self-imposed task, being greatly encouraged thereto by Archbishop Whitgift, by Bishop William Hughes (d. 1600) of St Asaph, and by other leading dignitaries of the Church both in England and in Wales. In December 1588 the first complete Welsh Bible, commonly known as " Bishop Morgan's Bible," was issued from the royal press at Westminster under the patronage of queen and primate, about Boo copies being supplied for distribution amongst the parish churches of Wales. .This famous editio princeps of the Welsh Bible, first and foremost of Welsh classics, was further supplemented under James I. by the Authorized Version, produced by Richard Parry (1560-1623), bishop of St Asaph, with the help of Dr John Davies of Mallwyd (1570-1644), the first great Welsh lexicographer.^ This famous editio princeps of the Welsh Bible, first and foremost of Welsh classics , was further supplemented under James I. by the Authorized Version, produced by Richard Parry (1560-1623), bishop of St Asaph, with the help of Dr John Davies of Mallwyd (1570-1644), the first great Welsh lexicographer.

^ At the tercentenary of " Bishop Morgan's Bible " in 1888 a national movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result that XXVIII. 9 a a memorial cross was erected in the cathedral close of St Asaph in order to perpetuate the names and national services of the eight leading Welsh translators of the Scriptures: - Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry; William Salesbury; Thomas Huet; Dr Davies of Mallwyd; Archdeacon Edmund Prys (1541-1624), author of a popular Welsh metrical version of the Psalter; and Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster (1528-1601), a native of Ruthin , who greatly assisted Bishop Morgan in his task.

^ It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.

.At the tercentenary of " Bishop Morgan's Bible " in 1888 a national movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result that XXVIII. 9 a a memorial cross was erected in the cathedral close of St Asaph in order to perpetuate the names and national services of the eight leading Welsh translators of the Scriptures: - Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry; William Salesbury; Thomas Huet; Dr Davies of Mallwyd; Archdeacon Edmund Prys (1541-1624), author of a popular Welsh metrical version of the Psalter; and Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster (1528-1601), a native of Ruthin, who greatly assisted Bishop Morgan in his task.^ At the tercentenary of " Bishop Morgan's Bible " in 1888 a national movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result that XXVIII. 9 a a memorial cross was erected in the cathedral close of St Asaph in order to perpetuate the names and national services of the eight leading Welsh translators of the Scriptures: - Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry; William Salesbury; Thomas Huet; Dr Davies of Mallwyd; Archdeacon Edmund Prys (1541-1624), author of a popular Welsh metrical version of the Psalter; and Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster (1528-1601), a native of Ruthin , who greatly assisted Bishop Morgan in his task.

^ The honour of presenting his countrymen with a complete Welsh version of the Bible was reserved for William Morgan ( c.

^ To assist these commissioners in their task of inquiry and ejectment , a body of twenty-five " Approvers " was likewise constituted, with the object of selecting itinerant preachers to replace the dismissed incumbents; and amongst the Approvers are conspicuous the names of Walter Cradock (d.

.Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: - (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of necessity in London, owing to the absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself.^ Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: - (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of necessity in London, owing to the absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself.

^ This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.

^ How wide-spread and enthusiastic is this true spirit of nationalism amongst all classes and sects of Welsh society to-day may be observed at the great meetings of the National Eisteddfod, which is held on alternate years in North and South Wales at some important centre, and at which the immense crowds collected and the interest displayed make a deep impression on the Anglo-Saxon or foreign visitors.

.It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse.^ It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse.

^ Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: - (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of necessity in London, owing to the absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself.

^ Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country.

.But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.^ But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.

^ Some 330 out of a possible total of 520 incumbents were now ejected in South Wales and Monmouthshire, and there is every reason to suppose that the beneficed clergy of North Wales suffered equally under the new system.

^ This famous editio princeps of the Welsh Bible, first and foremost of Welsh classics , was further supplemented under James I. by the Authorized Version, produced by Richard Parry (1560-1623), bishop of St Asaph, with the help of Dr John Davies of Mallwyd (1570-1644), the first great Welsh lexicographer.

.The growth of Puritanism in Wales was neither strong nor speedy, although the year 1588, which witnessed the appearance of Bishop Morgan's Bible, also gave birth to two fierce appeals to the parliament, urging a drastic Puritanical policy in Wales, from the pen of the celebrated John Penry, a native of Brecknockshire (1559-1593).^ The growth of Puritanism in Wales was neither strong nor speedy, although the year 1588, which witnessed the appearance of Bishop Morgan's Bible, also gave birth to two fierce appeals to the parliament, urging a drastic Puritanical policy in Wales, from the pen of the celebrated John Penry , a native of Brecknockshire (1559-1593).

^ Although a strong opponent of Laud's and Charles's ecclesiastical policy, Prichard lived unmolested, and even rose to be chancellor of St Davids; but the indiscreet Wroth, " the founder and father of nonconformity in Wales," being suspended in 1638 by Bishop Murray of Llandaff, founded a small community.

^ For eight years Morgan was busied with his self-imposed task, being greatly encouraged thereto by Archbishop Whitgift, by Bishop William Hughes (d.

.Far more influential than Penry amongst the Welsh were Rhys Prichard (? 1579-1644), the famous vicar of Llandovery, 1 Carmarthenshire, and William Wroth (d.^ Far more influential than Penry amongst the Welsh were Rhys Prichard (?

^ Although the assertion of the celebrated Rhys Prichard of Llandovery that in his time ( c.

^ Llandovery, 1 Carmarthenshire, and William Wroth (d.

1642), rector of Llanfaches, Monmouthshire. .Of these two Puritan divines, Vicar Prichard, who was essentially orthodox in his behaviour, forms an interesting connecting link between the learned Elizabethan translators of the Bible and the great revivalists of the 18th century, and his moral rhymes in the vernacular, collected and printed after his death under the title of The Welshman's Candle (Canwyll y Cymry), still retain some degree of popularity amongst his countrymen.^ Of these two Puritan divines, Vicar Prichard, who was essentially orthodox in his behaviour, forms an interesting connecting link between the learned Elizabethan translators of the Bible and the great revivalists of the 18th century, and his moral rhymes in the vernacular , collected and printed after his death under the title of The Welshman's Candle (Canwyll y Cymry), still retain some degree of popularity amongst his countrymen.

^ Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales.

^ In 1889 the system of intermediate schools, arranged to form an educational link between the primary schools and the colleges, was inaugurated.

.Although a strong opponent of Laud's and Charles's ecclesiastical policy, Prichard lived unmolested, and even rose to be chancellor of St Davids; but the indiscreet Wroth, " the founder and father of nonconformity in Wales," being suspended in 1638 by Bishop Murray of Llandaff, founded a small community.^ Although a strong opponent of Laud's and Charles's ecclesiastical policy, Prichard lived unmolested, and even rose to be chancellor of St Davids; but the indiscreet Wroth, " the founder and father of nonconformity in Wales," being suspended in 1638 by Bishop Murray of Llandaff, founded a small community.

^ The growth of Puritanism in Wales was neither strong nor speedy, although the year 1588, which witnessed the appearance of Bishop Morgan's Bible, also gave birth to two fierce appeals to the parliament, urging a drastic Puritanical policy in Wales, from the pen of the celebrated John Penry , a native of Brecknockshire (1559-1593).

^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

of .Independents at Llanfaches, which is thus commonly accounted the first Nonconformist chapel in Wales.^ Independents at Llanfaches, which is thus commonly accounted the first Nonconformist chapel in Wales.

.During the years prior to the Great Rebellion, however, in spite of the preaching and writings of Vicar Prichard, Wroth and others, the vast mass of Welshmen of all classes remained friendly to the High Church policy of Laud and staunch supporters of the king's prerogative.^ During the years prior to the Great Rebellion , however, in spite of the preaching and writings of Vicar Prichard, Wroth and others, the vast mass of Welshmen of all classes remained friendly to the High Church policy of Laud and staunch supporters of the king's prerogative .

^ The gentry and landowners are all, broadly speaking, members of the established Church, but it is impossible to name any other class of society as belonging definitely either to " Church " or " Chapel."

^ The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.

.Nor were the effects of the great literary revival in Elizabeth's reign by any means exhausted, for at this time Wales undoubtedly possessed a large number of native divines that were at once active parish priests and excellent scholars, many of whom had been educated at Jesus College, Oxford, the Welsh college endowed by Dr Hugh Price (d.^ Nor were the effects of the great literary revival in Elizabeth's reign by any means exhausted, for at this time Wales undoubtedly possessed a large number of native divines that were at once active parish priests and excellent scholars, many of whom had been educated at Jesus College, Oxford , the Welsh college endowed by Dr Hugh Price (d.

^ This educational system, invented by Griffith Jones and supported by the purse of Mrs Bevan, in 1760 numbered 215 schools, with a total number of 8687 contemporary scholars; and by the date of Jones's death in 1761 it has been proved that over 150,oco Welsh persons of every age and of either sex , nearly a third of the whole population of Wales at that time, were taught to read the Scriptures in their own language by means of these schools.

^ Incidentally, it will be noticed that this important Methodist revival had its origin and found its chief supporters and exponents in a restricted corner of South Wales, of which Carmarthen was the centre, in curious contrast with the literary movement in Elizabeth's reign, which was largely confined to the district round St Asaph.

.1574) and founded under Elizabeth's patronage in 1573. So striking was the devotion shown throughout the Principality to the king, who fought his last disastrous campaign in the friendly counties of Wales and the Marches, that on the final victory of the parliament there was passed within a month of Charles's execution 1 Sometimes known as vicar of Llandingat, his church being in that parish.^ Elizabeth's patronage in 1573.

^ So striking was the devotion shown throughout the Principality to the king, who fought his last disastrous campaign in the friendly counties of Wales and the Marches, that on the final victory of the parliament there was passed within a month of Charles's execution 1 Sometimes known as vicar of Llandingat, his church being in that parish.

^ The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth , Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.

in .1649 (perhaps as a special measure of punishment) an " Act for the better Propagation and Preaching of the Gospel in Wales," by the terms of which a packed body of seventy commissioners was presented with powers that were practically unlimited to deal with all matters ecclesiastical in Wales.^ Act for the better Propagation and Preaching of the Gospel in Wales," by the terms of which a packed body of seventy commissioners was presented with powers that were practically unlimited to deal with all matters ecclesiastical in Wales.

^ The cattle of Wales present all varieties of race, the Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the southwestern parts.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

.To assist these commissioners in their task of inquiry and ejectment, a body of twenty-five " Approvers " was likewise constituted, with the object of selecting itinerant preachers to replace the dismissed incumbents; and amongst the Approvers are conspicuous the names of Walter Cradock (d.^ To assist these commissioners in their task of inquiry and ejectment , a body of twenty-five " Approvers " was likewise constituted, with the object of selecting itinerant preachers to replace the dismissed incumbents; and amongst the Approvers are conspicuous the names of Walter Cradock (d.

.1659), a suspended curate of St Mary's, Cardiff, and a follower of Wroth's; and of Vavasor Powell (1617-1670), an honest but injudicious zealot.^ St Mary's, Cardiff, and a follower of Wroth's; and of Vavasor Powell (1617-1670), an honest but injudicious zealot.

.Some 330 out of a possible total of 520 incumbents were now ejected in South Wales and Monmouthshire, and there is every reason to suppose that the beneficed clergy of North Wales suffered equally under the new system.^ In Wales and England there are also some which call themselves Gwyddon and may teach a modified form of Satan Worship.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ Round, J. H. (1901) Studies in Peerage and Family History (New York), IV, The Family of Ballon and the Conquest of South Wales, p.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The greed and tyranny of several of the commissioners, and the bigotry and mismanagement of well-meaning fanatics such as Cradock and Powell, soon wrought dire confusion throughout the whole Principality, so that a monster petition, signed alike by moderate Puritans and by High Churchmen, was prepared for presentation to parliament in 1652 by Colonel Edward Freeman, attorney-general for South Wales. Despite the fierce efforts of Vavasor Powell and his brother itinerant preachers to thwart the reception of this South Wales petition at Westminster, Colonel Freeman was able to urge the claims of the petitioners, or " Anti-Propagators " as they were termed, at the bar of the House of Commons, openly declaring that by the late policy of ejectment and destruction " the light of the Gospel was almost extinguished in Wales." A new commission was now appointed to inquire into alleged abuses in Wales, and the existing evidence clearly shows how harsh and unfair was the treatment meted out to the clergy under the act of 1649, and also how utterly subversive of all ancient custom and established order were the reforms suggested by the commissioners and approvers. .At the Restoration all the ejected clergy who survived were reinstated in their old benefices under the Act of Uniformity of 1662, whilst certain Puritan incumbents were in their turn dismissed for refusing to comply with various requirements of that act.^ At the Restoration all the ejected clergy who survived were reinstated in their old benefices under the Act of Uniformity of 1662, whilst certain Puritan incumbents were in their turn dismissed for refusing to comply with various requirements of that act.

^ Some 330 out of a possible total of 520 incumbents were now ejected in South Wales and Monmouthshire, and there is every reason to suppose that the beneficed clergy of North Wales suffered equally under the new system.

^ In all acts of parliament Wales is invariably included under the term of " England and Wales " and whenever an act, or any section of an act, is intended to apply to the Principality alone, then Wales is always coupled with Monmouthshire.

.Amongst these Stephen Hughes of Carmarthen (1623-1688), a devoted follower of Vicar Prichard and an editor of his works, was ejected from the living of Mydrim in Carmarthenshire, whereby the valuable services of this eminent divine were lost to the Church and gained by the Nonconformists, who had increased considerably in numbers since the Civil Wars.^ Amongst these Stephen Hughes of Carmarthen (1623-1688), a devoted follower of Vicar Prichard and an editor of his works, was ejected from the living of Mydrim in Carmarthenshire, whereby the valuable services of this eminent divine were lost to the Church and gained by the Nonconformists, who had increased considerably in numbers since the Civil Wars.

^ Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.

.The old ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth, which had hitherto borne such good fruit in Wales, was now gradually relaxed under the later Stuarts and definitely abandoned under Anne, during whose reign only Englishmen were appointed to the vacant Welsh sees.^ The old ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth, which had hitherto borne such good fruit in Wales, was now gradually relaxed under the later Stuarts and definitely abandoned under Anne, during whose reign only Englishmen were appointed to the vacant Welsh sees.

^ Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible.

^ As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of York , but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside control during Saxon times.

.From 1702 to 1870, a period of nearly 170 years, no Welsh-speaking native bishop was nominated (with the solitary exception of John Wynne, consecrated to St Asaph in 1715), and it is needless to point out that this selfish and unjust policy was largely responsible for the neglect and misrule which distinguished the latter half of the 18th and the early part of the 19th centuries.^ From 1702 to 1870, a period of nearly 170 years, no Welsh-speaking native bishop was nominated (with the solitary exception of John Wynne, consecrated to St Asaph in 1715), and it is needless to point out that this selfish and unjust policy was largely responsible for the neglect and misrule which distinguished the latter half of the 18th and the early part of the 19th centuries.

^ The growth of Puritanism in Wales was neither strong nor speedy, although the year 1588, which witnessed the appearance of Bishop Morgan's Bible, also gave birth to two fierce appeals to the parliament, urging a drastic Puritanical policy in Wales, from the pen of the celebrated John Penry , a native of Brecknockshire (1559-1593).

^ The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 1870 that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years.

The Church, which had so long played a prominent and valuable part in the moral and literary education of the Welsh people, was now gradually forced out of touch with the nation through the action of alien and unsympathetic Whig prelates in Wales itself, which still remained mainly High Church and Jacobite in feeling.
.All writers agree in stating that the mass of the Welsh people at the close of the 17th century were illiterate, and many divines of Cymric nationality charge their countrymen also with immorality and religious apathy.^ All writers agree in stating that the mass of the Welsh people at the close of the 17th century were illiterate, and many divines of Cymric nationality charge their countrymen also with immorality and religious apathy.

^ During the earlier half of the 17th century the number of Welsh Bibles distributed throughout the Principality could hardly have exceeded 8000 in all, and except the Bible there was scarcely any Welsh work of importance in circulation.

.English was little spoken or understood amongst the peasant population, and there was a great dearth of Welsh educational works.^ English was little spoken or understood amongst the peasant population, and there was a great dearth of Welsh educational works.

^ In 1841 the Welsh-speaking population was computed at 67% of the total, and in 1893 Welsh was understood or spoken by over 60% of the inhabitants in the twelve Welsh counties with the exception of the following districts, wherein English is the prevailing or the sole language employed: - viz.

.Some efforts to remedy this dark condition of things had already been made by Thomas Gouge, with the assistance of Stephen Hughes, and also by the newly founded " Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge "; but it was Griffith Jones (1683-1761), rector of Llanddowror in south Carmarthenshire, who was destined to become the true pioneer of Welsh education, religious and secular.^ Some efforts to remedy this dark condition of things had already been made by Thomas Gouge , with the assistance of Stephen Hughes, and also by the newly founded " Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge "; but it was Griffith Jones (1683-1761), rector of Llanddowror in south Carmarthenshire, who was destined to become the true pioneer of Welsh education, religious and secular.

^ In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools.

^ The system of the Welsh circulating charity schools, set up by Griffith Jones, rector of Llanddowror, in the 18th century, undoubtedly gave an immense impetus to the spread of popular education in Wales, for it has been stated on good authority that about one-third of the total population was taught to read and write Welsh by means of this system.

.Early in the reign of George I. this excellent man, whose name and memory will ever be treasured so long as the Welsh tongue survives, began a system of catechizing in the vernacular amongst the children and adults of his own parish.^ Early in the reign of George I. this excellent man, whose name and memory will ever be treasured so long as the Welsh tongue survives, began a system of catechizing in the vernacular amongst the children and adults of his own parish.

With the cordial help of Sir John Philipps (d. .1736) of Picton Castle, the head of an ancient family in Dyfed, and of Mrs Bridget Bevan of Laugharne (d.^ Picton Castle, the head of an ancient family in Dyfed, and of Mrs Bridget Bevan of Laugharne (d.

.1779), who is still affectionately remembered in Wales as the donor of " Madam Bevan's Charity," Griffith Jones was enabled to extend his scheme of educating the people throughout South Wales, where numerous " circulating charity schools," as they were called, were set up in many parishes with the approval of their incumbents.^ Wales as the donor of " Madam Bevan's Charity ," Griffith Jones was enabled to extend his scheme of educating the people throughout South Wales, where numerous " circulating charity schools," as they were called, were set up in many parishes with the approval of their incumbents.

^ In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools.

^ In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed.

.The results obtained by the growth of these schools were speedy and successful beyond the wildest hopes of their founder.^ The results obtained by the growth of these schools were speedy and successful beyond the wildest hopes of their founder.

This educational system, invented by Griffith Jones and supported by the purse of Mrs Bevan, in 1760 numbered 215 schools, with a total number of 8687 contemporary scholars; and by the date of Jones's death in 1761 it has been proved that over 150,oco Welsh persons of every age and of either sex, nearly a third of the whole population of Wales at that time, were taught to read the Scriptures in their own language by means of these schools. .With this newly acquired ability to read the Bible in their own tongue, the many persons so taught were not slow to express a general demand for Cymric literature, which was met by a supply from local presses in the small country towns; the marvellous success of the Welsh circulating charity schools caused in fact the birth of the Welsh vernacular press.^ With this newly acquired ability to read the Bible in their own tongue, the many persons so taught were not slow to express a general demand for Cymric literature, which was met by a supply from local presses in the small country towns; the marvellous success of the Welsh circulating charity schools caused in fact the birth of the Welsh vernacular press.

^ Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country.

^ Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.

In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools. .Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being Howell Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales.^ Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being Howell Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales.

^ The enthusiastic course of the Methodist movement under Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland and William Williams; the establishment of Welsh Sunday Schools; the founding of the Bible Society under Thomas Charles of Bala; and the revival early in the 19th century of the Eisteddfodau (the ancient bardic contests of music , poetry and learning), have all contributed to extend the use of the Welsh language and to strengthen its hold as a popular medium of education throughout the Principality.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

.Two other clergymen, who figure prominently in the Methodist movement, and whose influence has proved lasting, were Peter Williams of Carmarthen (1722-1796), the Welsh Bible commentator, and William Williams of I j antycelyn (1717-1791), the celebrated Welsh hymn-writer.^ Two other clergymen, who figure prominently in the Methodist movement, and whose influence has proved lasting, were Peter Williams of Carmarthen (1722-1796), the Welsh Bible commentator, and William Williams of I j antycelyn (1717-1791), the celebrated Welsh hymn-writer.

^ The honour of presenting his countrymen with a complete Welsh version of the Bible was reserved for William Morgan ( c.

.Incidentally, it will be noticed that this important Methodist revival had its origin and found its chief supporters and exponents in a restricted corner of South Wales, of which Carmarthen was the centre, in curious contrast with the literary movement in Elizabeth's reign, which was largely confined to the district round St Asaph.^ Incidentally, it will be noticed that this important Methodist revival had its origin and found its chief supporters and exponents in a restricted corner of South Wales, of which Carmarthen was the centre, in curious contrast with the literary movement in Elizabeth's reign, which was largely confined to the district round St Asaph.

^ Nor were the effects of the great literary revival in Elizabeth's reign by any means exhausted, for at this time Wales undoubtedly possessed a large number of native divines that were at once active parish priests and excellent scholars, many of whom had been educated at Jesus College, Oxford , the Welsh college endowed by Dr Hugh Price (d.

^ Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: - (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of necessity in London, owing to the absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself.

.During the lifetime of Griffith Jones the course of Welsh Methodism had run in orthodox channels and had been generally supported by the Welsh clergy and gentry; but after his death the tendency to exceed the bounds of conventional Church discipline grew so marked as to excite the alarm of the English bishops in Wales.^ During the lifetime of Griffith Jones the course of Welsh Methodism had run in orthodox channels and had been generally supported by the Welsh clergy and gentry; but after his death the tendency to exceed the bounds of conventional Church discipline grew so marked as to excite the alarm of the English bishops in Wales.

^ In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools.

^ So strained had the relations between the English rulers of the Church and the Methodists themselves now grown, that in 1811 the longexpected schism took place, much to the regret of Charles of Bala himself, who had ever been a devoted disciple of Griffith Jones.

.Nevertheless, the bulk of the Methodists continued to attend the services of the Church, and to receive the sacraments from regularly ordained parish priests, although a schism was becoming inevitable.^ Nevertheless, the bulk of the Methodists continued to attend the services of the Church, and to receive the sacraments from regularly ordained parish priests, although a schism was becoming inevitable.

.Towards the close of the ,8th century the Methodist revival spread to North Wales under the influence of the celebrated Thomas Charles, commonly called Charles of Bala (1755-1814), formerly curate of Llanymowddwy and the founder of Welsh Sunday schools.^ Finally after the Witchcraft Laws were repealed, a North Wales Coven was established in the late fifties from the remnants of what was called the Wynne tradition or Dynion Mwyn.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.So strained had the relations between the English rulers of the Church and the Methodists themselves now grown, that in 1811 the longexpected schism took place, much to the regret of Charles of Bala himself, who had ever been a devoted disciple of Griffith Jones.^ So strained had the relations between the English rulers of the Church and the Methodists themselves now grown, that in 1811 the longexpected schism took place, much to the regret of Charles of Bala himself, who had ever been a devoted disciple of Griffith Jones.

^ We will not have to devote much needed resources to attempt to train those basic seekers who find it difficult to retain new knowledge.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, the bulk of the Methodists continued to attend the services of the Church, and to receive the sacraments from regularly ordained parish priests, although a schism was becoming inevitable.

.The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.^ The Church is organized around an Inner and Outer Circle, with the Outer Circle representing those members who are studying for initiation and the Inner Circle which is composed of Initiated Gwyddon (Welsh Witches).
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.The Great Schism of 1811 marks in fact the lowest point to which the fortunes of the once powerful and popular Church in Wales had sunk; - in 1811 there were only English-speaking prelates to be found, whilst the abuses of non-residence, pluralities and even nepotism were rampant everywhere.^ The Great Schism of 1811 marks in fact the lowest point to which the fortunes of the once powerful and popular Church in Wales had sunk; - in 1811 there were only English-speaking prelates to be found, whilst the abuses of non-residence, pluralities and even nepotism were rampant everywhere.

^ According to the above Report, the three most powerful dissenting bodies in Wales are the Congregationalists or Independents , whose members number 175,147 throughout Wales and Monmouthshire; the Calvinistic Methodists - a direct offshoot of the Church since the schism of 1811 - with a membership of 170,617; and the Baptists , 143,835.

^ So strained had the relations between the English rulers of the Church and the Methodists themselves now grown, that in 1811 the longexpected schism took place, much to the regret of Charles of Bala himself, who had ever been a devoted disciple of Griffith Jones.

As instances of this clerical corruption then prevailing in Wales, mention may be made of the cases of Richard Watson (d. 1816), the non-resident bishop of Llandaff, who rarely visited his diocese during an episcopate of thirty years; and of another English divine who held the deanery, the chancellorship and nine livings in a North Welsh see, his curates-in-charge being paid out of Queen Anne's Bounty, a fund expressly intended for the benefit of impoverished livings. .An honourable exception to the indolent and rapacious divines of this stamp was Thomas Burgess (bishop of St Davids), to whose exertions is mainly due the foundation of St David's College at Lampeter in 1822, an institution erected to provide a better and cheaper education for intending Welsh clergymen.^ An honourable exception to the indolent and rapacious divines of this stamp was Thomas Burgess (bishop of St Davids), to whose exertions is mainly due the foundation of St David's College at Lampeter in 1822, an institution erected to provide a better and cheaper education for intending Welsh clergymen.

^ St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical annals.

^ St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence.

The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 1870 that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years. .After 1870 Welsh ecclesiastical appointments were made in a more truly national spirit, and this official acknowledgment of the peculiar duties and claims of the Church in Wales largely helped to win back no small amount of the strength and popularity that had been lost during Georgian times.^ After 1870 Welsh ecclesiastical appointments were made in a more truly national spirit, and this official acknowledgment of the peculiar duties and claims of the Church in Wales largely helped to win back no small amount of the strength and popularity that had been lost during Georgian times.

^ In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train , whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.

^ The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 1870 that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years.

.With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid.^ With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid.

^ With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII. (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.

^ Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.

.Although primary education was largely supplied by the many Church schools in all parts of Wales, yet it was in the three most important denominations - the Congregationalists, the Baptists and the Calvinistic Methodists (that new-born sect of which the Church herself was the unwilling parent) - that almost all Welsh spiritual development was to be found during the first half of the 19th century.^ The only Welsh primary source so far consulted is the Annales Cambri , numerous extracts from which have been incorporated into the document, although it has proved difficult to identify all Welsh persons who are named in that work.
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two words are part of the Twenty-Three Tenets (or Virtues) which you will taught in your first year.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ If you are primarily interested in the Welsh craft as found on the Web at this web site then read on and you may become part of us.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.Thus between the year 1811 (the date of the Methodist secession) and 1832 (the year of the great Reform Bill), the number of dissenting chapels had risen from 945 to 1428: a truly marvellous increase even allowing for the speedy growth of population, since every chapel so built had of necessity to be well attended in order to render it self-supporting.^ Register for the Original Pagan Gathering of the Tribes held in Georgia every year since 1970s.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

.From this religious guidance of the people by the well-organized forces of dissent, it was but a step to political ascendancy, and as the various constitutional changes from the Reform Bill onward began to lower the elective franchise, and thus to throw more and more power into the hands of the working classes, that spirit of radicalism, which is peculiarly associated with political dissent, began to assert itself powerfully throughout the country.^ From this religious guidance of the people by the well-organized forces of dissent, it was but a step to political ascendancy, and as the various constitutional changes from the Reform Bill onward began to lower the elective franchise , and thus to throw more and more power into the hands of the working classes, that spirit of radicalism, which is peculiarly associated with political dissent, began to assert itself powerfully throughout the country.

^ With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid.

^ The influence of the Renaissance seems to have been tardy in penetrating into Wales itself, nor did the numerous ecclesiastical changes during the period of the Reformation cause any marked signs either of resentment or approval amongst the mass of the Welsh people, although some of the ancient Catholic customs lingered on obstinately.

.As early as the reign of William IV.^ As early as the reign of William IV .

there appeared the weekly .Times of Wales (Amserau Cymry), founded and edited by the able William Rees, who may be styled the father of the Welsh political press; and the success of Rees's venture was so marked that other journals, arranged to suit the special tenets of each sect, speedily sprang into existence.^ Times of Wales (Amserau Cymry), founded and edited by the able William Rees, who may be styled the father of the Welsh political press; and the success of Rees's venture was so marked that other journals, arranged to suit the special tenets of each sect, speedily sprang into existence.

^ She allegedly had an affair with William de Briouze, Lord of Abergavenny, who was hanged by her husband 2 May 1230 [43] .
  • WALES 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule.

.In the year 1870 - a date that for many reasons marks the opening of an important era in modern Welsh history - the dissenting bodies of Wales were supporting two quarterly, sixteen monthly and ten weekly papers, all published in the vernacular and all read largely by peasants, colliers and artisans.^ In the year 1870 - a date that for many reasons marks the opening of an important era in modern Welsh history - the dissenting bodies of Wales were supporting two quarterly, sixteen monthly and ten weekly papers, all published in the vernacular and all read largely by peasants, colliers and artisans.

^ Our tradition has a Welsh Lineage and History which goes back hundreds and thousands of years.  It didn't just appear.  We came to the United States from Wales in the 60s, and have grown quite a bit since then.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 20 September 2009 23:32 UTC www.dynionmwyn.net [Source type: General]

^ After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a tale of romance than a piece of sane history.

.With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality - as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear to the strong temperance party in Wales, and in the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, granted by Lord Salisbury's government in 1889. It was certainly owing to the pressure of Welsh political dissent that Lord Rosebery's cabinet issued the Welsh Land Tenure Commission in 1893 - an inquiry which did much to exonerate the Welsh squirearchy from a number of vague charges of extortion and sectarian oppression; and that Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet appointed the Welsh Church Commission (21st June 1906).^ Royal commissions dealing with questions peculiar to Wales have been issued from time to time, notably of recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see History).

^ With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality - as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear t